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Encyclopedia > United Nations
Flag of
Location of
Map of UN member states
and their UN-recognized dependencies.
Headquarters International territory in Manhattan, New York City
Official languages Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish
Membership 192 member states
Leaders
 -  Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon
Establishment
 -  United Nations Charter June 26, 1945 
Website
http://www.un.org/
United Nations Portal

The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. The UN was founded in 1945 to replace the League of Nations, to stop wars between nations and to provide a platform for dialogue. UN or Un may stand for or refer to: Look up un in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... A map of UN member states and their dependent territories as recognized by the UN. Regions excluded: Antarctica (regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System), Vatican City (the Holy See is a UN observer), the Palestinian territories (Palestine, represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization, is a UN observer), and Western Sahara... This article is about the physical offices of the United Nations in New York. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A map of UN member states and their dependent territories as recognized by the UN. Regions excluded: Antarctica (regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System), Vatican City (the Holy See is a UN observer), the Palestinian territories (Palestine, represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization, is a UN observer), and Western Sahara... The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. ... IPA pronunciation: This is a Korean name; the family name is Ban Ban Ki-moon (born June 13, 1944)[1] is a South Korean diplomat and the current Secretary-General of the United Nations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... For the political science journal, see International Organization. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Global Security redirects here. ... Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants. ... Social change (or Social development) is a general term which refers to: change in the nature, the social institutions, the social behaviour or the social relations of a society, community of people, or other social structures. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical...


There are now 192 member states, including almost every recognized independent state. From its headquarters on international territory within New York City, the UN and its specialized agencies decide on substantive and administrative issues in regular meetings held throughout the year. The organization is divided into administrative bodies, primarily: A map of UN member states and their dependent territories as recognized by the UN. Regions excluded: Antarctica (regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System), Vatican City (the Holy See is a UN observer), the Palestinian territories (Palestine, represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization, is a UN observer), and Western Sahara... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... This article is about the physical offices of the United Nations in New York. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Organization (disambiguation). ...

Additional bodies deal with the governance of all other UN System agencies, such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). The UN's most visible public figure is the Secretary-General, currently Ban Ki-moon of South Korea. The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. ... A deliberative assembly is an organization, comprised of members, that uses a parliamentary procedure for making decisions. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. ... The United Nations Secretariat is one of the principal organs of the United Nations and it is headed by the United Nations Secretary General, assisted by a staff of international civil servants worldwide. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... While the United Nations is an international organization, the United Nations System is the whole network of international organizations, treaties and conventions that were created by the United Nations. ... WHO redirects here. ... UNICEF Flag The United Nations Childrens Fund (or UNICEF) was created by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946 to provide emergency food and healthcare to children in countries that had been devastated by World War II. In 1953, UNICEF became a permanent part of the United... The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. ... IPA pronunciation: This is a Korean name; the family name is Ban Ban Ki-moon (born June 13, 1944)[1] is a South Korean diplomat and the current Secretary-General of the United Nations. ...


The UN is financed from assessed and voluntary contributions from member states, and has six official languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, and Spanish. Arabic redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of the United Nations
For more details on the United Nation's predecessor organization, see League of Nations.
East German stamp from 1985 commemorating the UN.
East German stamp from 1985 commemorating the UN.

The United Nations was founded as a successor to the League of Nations, which was widely considered to have been ineffective in its role as an international governing body, in that it had been unable to prevent World War II. New countries joined the United Nations during the twentieth century The United Nations as an international organization has its origins in World War II. Since then its aims and activities have expanded to make it the archetypal international body in the early 21st century. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1443x1455, 247 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1443x1455, 247 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical...


The term "United Nations" (which appears in stanza 35 of Canto III of Byron's Childe Harold's Pilgrimage) was decided by Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill[1] during World War II, to refer to the Allies. Its first formal use was in the 1 January 1942 Declaration by the United Nations, which committed the Allies to the principles of the Atlantic Charter and pledged them not to seek a separate peace with the Axis powers. Thereafter, the Allies used the term "United Nations Fighting Forces" to refer to their alliance. Byron redirects here. ... Childe Harolds Pilgrimage by J.M.W. Turner, 1823. ... FDR redirects here. ... Churchill redirects here. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Declaration by United Nations was a World War II document agreed to on January 1, 1942 during the Arcadia Conference by 26 governments, several of them governments-in-exile. ... Winston Churchills edited copy of the final draft of the Atlantic Charter. ... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Look up Alliance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The idea for the UN was espoused in declarations signed at the wartime Allied conferences in Moscow, Cairo, and Tehran in 1943. From August to October 1944, representatives of France, the Republic of China, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union met to elaborate the plans at the Dumbarton Oaks Estate in Washington, D.C. Those and later talks produced proposals outlining the purposes of the organization, its membership and organs, and arrangements to maintain international peace and security and international economic and social cooperation. For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Dumbarton Oaks is a nineteenth-century mansion located in the Georgetown section of Washington, DC. It houses the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, a leading center for scholarship in Byzantine studies, Pre-Columbian studies and the history of landscape architecture. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


On 25 April 1945, the UN Conference on International Organization began in San Francisco. In addition to the governments, a number of non-governmental organizations were invited to assist in drafting the charter. The 50 nations represented at the conference signed the Charter of the United Nations two months later on 26 June. Poland had not been represented at the conference, but a place had been reserved for it among the original signatories, and it added its name later. The UN came into existence on 24 October 1945, after the Charter had been ratified by the five permanent members of the UN Security Council — the Republic of China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States — and by a majority of the other 46 signatories. That these countries are the permanent members of the Security Council, and have veto power on any Security Council resolution, reflects that they are the main victors of World War II or their successor states: the People's Republic of China replaced the Republic of China in 1971 and Russia replaced the Soviet Union in 1991.[2] is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... San Francisco redirects here. ... NGO redirects here. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... The United Nations Security Council veto power is a veto power wielded solely by the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, enabling them to void any Security Council substantive resolution regardless of the level of general support. ... It has been suggested that Successor state be merged into this article or section. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...


Initially, the body was known as the United Nations Organization, or UNO. However, by the 1950s, English speakers were referring to it as the United Nations, or the UN.


Membership

With the addition of Montenegro on 28 June 2006, there are 192 United Nations member states, including virtually all internationally-recognized independent states.[3] A map of UN member states and their dependent territories as recognized by the UN. Regions excluded: Antarctica (regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System), Vatican City (the Holy See is a UN observer), the Palestinian territories (Palestine, represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization, is a UN observer), and Western Sahara... This article is about the country in Europe. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A map of UN member states and their dependent territories as recognized by the UN. Regions excluded: Antarctica (regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System), Vatican City (the Holy See is a UN observer), the Palestinian territories (Palestine, represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization, is a UN observer), and Western Sahara... This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ...


The United Nations Charter outlines the rules for membership: This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

  1. Membership in the United Nations is open to all other peace-loving states which accept the obligations contained in the present Charter and, in the judgment of the Organization, are able and willing to carry out these obligations.
  2. The admission of any such state to membership in the United Nations will be effected by a decision of the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council.
United Nations Charter, Chapter 2, Article 4, http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/
A world map showing the members of the UN, according to the UN. Note that Antarctica has no government; political control of Western Sahara is in dispute; and the territories administered by the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Kosovo are considered by the UN to be provinces of the People's Republic of China and Republic of Serbia, respectively.
A world map showing the members of the UN, according to the UN. Note that Antarctica has no government; political control of Western Sahara is in dispute; and the territories administered by the Republic of China (Taiwan) and Kosovo are considered by the UN to be provinces of the People's Republic of China and Republic of Serbia, respectively.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1427x742, 52 KB) Summary New made image for Wikipedia, made out of several blank world maps. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1427x742, 52 KB) Summary New made image for Wikipedia, made out of several blank world maps. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Serbia and Montenegro  -Serbia    -Kosovo and Metohia    -Vojvodina  -Montenegro Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Area  - Total  - % water 88,361 km² n/a Population  - Total (1998)  - Density 11,206,847 126. ...

Group of 77 (G77)

Current member states of G77 in dark and medium green. Former member states in light green.
Current member states of G77 in dark and medium green. Former member states in light green.

The Group of 77 at the UN is a loose coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations. There were 77 founding members of the organization, but the organization has since expanded to 130 member countries. The group was founded on 15 June 1964 by the "Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries" issued at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The first major meeting was in Algiers in 1967, where the Charter of Algiers was adopted and the basis for permanent institutional structures was begun.[4] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 45 KB)G77 Countries (does not include small island countries for practical purposes) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 45 KB)G77 Countries (does not include small island countries for practical purposes) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... link titlelink titlelink titlelink titlelink title--210. ...  Newly industrialized countries  Other emerging markets  Other developing economies  High income  Upper-middle income  Lower-middle income  Low income A developing country is that country which has a relatively low standard of living, an undeveloped industrial base, and a moderate to low Human Development Index (HDI) score and per capita... This article is about the human activity. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body, UNCTAD is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment and development issues. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ...


Headquarters

The United Nations headquarters is a golden rectangled building in New York City. It is located in the Turtle Bay neighborhood, on the east side of Midtown Manhattan, on spacious grounds overlooking the East River. Though the building is in New York City, the land occupied by the United Nations Headquarters is considered international territory. FDR Drive passes underneath the Conference Building of the complex. Other major UN agencies are located in Geneva, Vienna and Nairobi as well as in Rome, The Hague, Addis Ababa, Montreal, Copenhagen, Bonn, and elsewhere. Image File history File linksMetadata United_Nations_HQ_-_New_York_City. ... Image File history File linksMetadata United_Nations_HQ_-_New_York_City. ... This article is about the physical offices of the United Nations in New York. ... This article is about the physical offices of the United Nations in New York. ... The large rectangle BA is a golden rectangle; that is, the proportion b:a is 1:. If we remove square B, what is left, A, is another golden rectangle. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Midtown Manhattan viewed from the World Trade Center. ... New York City waterways: 1. ... This New York State route article needs to be cleaned up to conform to both a higher standard of article quality and accepted design standards outlined in the WikiProject New York State routes. ... Palace of Nations. ... The Vienna International Centre (VIC), colloquially also known as UNO City in Vienna, is the campus and building complex hosting United Nations organizations in Vienna, Austria. ... The United Nations Office at Nairobi (UNON) is one of the four major UN office sites where several different UN agencies have a joint presence. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Hague redirects here. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. ...


Financing

Major contributors to the regular
UN budget for 2006[5]
Member Nation (the list is not complete) Contribution (% of total UN budget)
United States 22.00%
Japan 19.47%
Germany 8.66%
United Kingdom 6.13%
France 6.03%
Italy 4.89%
Canada 2.81%
Spain 2.52%
China 2.05%
Mexico 1.88%
Australia 1.59%
Brazil 1.52%

The UN is financed from assessed and voluntary contributions from member states. The regular two-year budgets of the UN and its specialized agencies are funded by assessments. The General Assembly approves the regular budget and determines the assessment for each member. This is broadly based on the relative capacity of each country to pay, as measured by their Gross National Income (GNI), with adjustments for external debt and low per capita income.[6]


The Assembly has established the principle that the UN should not be overly dependent on any one member to finance its operations. Thus, there is a 'ceiling' rate, setting the maximum amount any member is assessed for the regular budget. In December 2000, the Assembly revised the scale of assessments to reflect current global circumstances. As part of that revision, the regular budget ceiling was reduced from 25% to 22%. The U.S. is the only member that has met the ceiling.In addition to a ceiling rate, the minimum amount assessed to any member nation (or 'floor' rate) is set at 0.001% of the UN budget. Also, for the least developed countries (LDC), a ceiling rate of 0.01% is applied.[6]


The current operating budget is estimated at $4.19 billion[6] (refer to table for major contributors).


A large share of UN expenditures addresses the core UN mission of peace and security. The peacekeeping budget for the 2005-2006 fiscal year is approximately $5 billion (compared to approximately $1.5 billion for the UN core budget over the same period), with some 70,000 troops deployed in 17 missions around the world.[7] UN peace operations are funded by assessments, using a formula derived from the regular funding scale, but including a weighted surcharge for the five permanent Security Council members, who must approve all peacekeeping operations. This surcharge serves to offset discounted peacekeeping assessment rates for less developed countries. As of 1 January 2008, the top 10 providers of assessed financial contributions to United Nations peacekeeping operations were: the United States, Japan, Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, China, Canada, Spain and the Republic of Korea.[8]


Special UN programmes not included in the regular budget (such as UNICEF and UNDP) are financed by voluntary contributions from member governments. Most of this is financial contributions, but some is in the form of agricultural commodities donated for afflicted populations. UNICEF Flag The United Nations Childrens Fund (or UNICEF) was created by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946 to provide emergency food and healthcare to children in countries that had been devastated by World War II. In 1953, UNICEF became a permanent part of the United... The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Languages

The six official languages of the United Nations, used in intergovernmental meetings and documents, are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.[9][10] The Secretariat uses two working languages, British English and French. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Five of the official languages were chosen when the UN was founded (the languages of the permanent members of the Security Council, plus Spanish, which was the official language of the largest number of nations at the time). Arabic was added in 1973; the number of Arabic-speaking member states had increased substantially since 1945, and the 1973 oil crisis provided the catalyst for the addition. A "documentary language" status was granted for use of the German language in 1974, allowing for translation of important documents (funded, however, by the German-speaking member countries).[11] The 1973 oil crisis began in earnest on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship petroleum... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ...


The UN standard for English language documents (United Nations Editorial Manual) follows British usage and Oxford spelling (en-gb-oed). The UN standard for Chinese (Standard Mandarin) changed when the Republic of China (Taiwan) was succeeded by the People's Republic of China in 1971. From 1945 until 1971 traditional characters were used, and since 1972 simplified characters have been used. British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... Oxford spelling is the spelling used in the editorial practice of the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) and other English language dictionaries based on the OED, for example the Concise Oxford English Dictionary. ... Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ...


Organizational structure

Main article: United Nations System

The United Nations system is based on five principal organs (formerly six - the Trusteeship Council suspended operations in 1994);[12] the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), the Secretariat, and the International Court of Justice. While the United Nations is an international organization, the United Nations System is the whole network of international organizations, treaties and conventions that were created by the United Nations. ... The United Nations Trusteeship Council, one of the principal organs of the United Nations, was established to help ensure that non-self-governing territories were administered in the best interests of the inhabitants and of international peace and security. ...


General Assembly

UN General Assembly.
UN General Assembly.

The General Assembly is the main deliberative assembly of the United Nations. Composed of all United Nations member states, the assembly meets in regular yearly sessions under a president elected from among the member states. Over a two-week period at the start of each session, all members have the opportunity to address the assembly. Traditionally, the Secretary-General makes the first statement, followed by the president of the assembly. The first session was convened on 10 January 1946 in the Westminster Central Hall in London and included representatives of 51 nations. Image File history File links Unpicture. ... Image File history File links Unpicture. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. ... A deliberative assembly is an organization, comprised of members, that uses a parliamentary procedure for making decisions. ... A map of UN member states and their dependent territories as recognized by the UN. Regions excluded: Antarctica (regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System), Vatican City (the Holy See is a UN observer), the Palestinian territories (Palestine, represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization, is a UN observer), and Western Sahara... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


When the General Assembly votes on important questions, a two-thirds majority of those present and voting is required. Examples of important questions include: recommendations on peace and security; election of members to organs; admission, suspension, and expulsion of members; and, budgetary matters. All other questions are decided by majority vote. Each member country has one vote. Apart from approval of budgetary matters, resolutions are not binding on the members. The Assembly may make recommendations on any matters within the scope of the UN, except matters of peace and security that are under Security Council consideration.


Conceivably, the one state, one vote power structure could enable states comprising just eight percent of the world population to pass a resolution by a two-thirds vote.[citation needed] However, as no more than recommendations, it is difficult to imagine a situation in which a recommendation by member states constituting just eight percent of the world's population, would be adhered to by the remaining ninety-two percent of the population, should they object. In politics, representation describes how residents of a country are empowered in the government. ...


Security Council

Interior of the Security Council chambers.
Interior of the Security Council chambers.
Further information: Reform of the United Nations Security Council

The Security Council is charged with maintaining peace and security among countries. While other organs of the United Nations can only make 'recommendations' to member governments, the Security Council has the power to make binding decisions that member governments have agreed to carry out, under the terms of Charter Article 25.[13] The decisions of the Council are known as United Nations Security Council resolutions. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x749, 154 KB) UN security council Author: Bernd Untiedt, Germany January 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: United Nations Security Council ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x749, 154 KB) UN security council Author: Bernd Untiedt, Germany January 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: United Nations Security Council ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... Reform of the United Nations Security Council encompasses a variety of proposals, including procedural reforms, such as eliminating the veto held by the five permanent members, and expansion of the Council. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A United Nations Security Council Resolution is voted on by the fifteen members of the United Nations Security Council, the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...


The Security Council is made up of 15 member states, consisting of five permanent seats and ten temporary seats. The permanent five are China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States. These members hold veto power over substantive but not procedural resolutions allowing a permanent member to block adoption but not to block the debate of a resolution unacceptable to it. The ten temporary seats are held for two-year terms with member states voted in by the General Assembly on a regional basis. The presidency of the Security Council is rotated alphabetically each month.[14] The United Nations Security Council veto power is a veto power wielded solely by the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, enabling them to void any Security Council substantive resolution regardless of the level of general support. ... A resolution is a written motion adopted by a deliberative body. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. ...


The Security Council has been criticised for being unable to act in a clear and decisive way when confronted with a crisis. “Security Council” redirects here. ...


Economic and Social Council

The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. ECOSOC has 54 members, all of whom are elected by the General Assembly for a three-year term. The president is elected for a one-year term and chosen amongst the small or middle powers represented on ECOSOC. ECOSOC meets once a year in July for a four-week session. Since 1998, it has held another meeting each April with finance ministers heading key committees of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). Viewed separate from the specialized bodies it coordinates, ECOSOC's functions include information gathering, advising member nations, and making recommendations. In addition, ECOSOC is well-positioned to provide policy coherence and coordinate the overlapping functions of the UN’s subsidiary bodies and it is in these roles that it is most active. The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. ... World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ... IMF redirects here. ... Look up coherence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Secretariat

The United Nations Secretariat is headed by the Secretary-General, assisted by a staff of international civil servants worldwide. It provides studies, information, and facilities needed by United Nations bodies for their meetings. It also carries out tasks as directed by the UN Security Council, the UN General Assembly, the UN Economic and Social Council, and other UN bodies. The United Nations Charter provides that the staff be chosen by application of the "highest standards of efficiency, competence, and integrity," with due regard for the importance of recruiting on a wide geographical basis. The United Nations Secretariat is one of the principal organs of the United Nations and it is headed by the United Nations Secretary General, assisted by a staff of international civil servants worldwide. ... The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. ...


The Charter provides that the staff shall not seek or receive instructions from any authority other than the UN. Each UN member country is enjoined to respect the international character of the Secretariat and not seek to influence its staff. The Secretary-General alone is responsible for staff selection.


The Secretary-General's duties include helping resolve international disputes, administering peacekeeping operations, organizing international conferences, gathering information on the implementation of Security Council decisions, and consulting with member governments regarding various initiatives. Key Secretariat offices in this area include the Office of the Coordinator of Humanitarian Affairs and the Department of Peacekeeping Operations. The Secretary-General may bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter that, in his or her opinion, may threaten international peace and security.


International Court of Justice

Peace Palace, seat of the ICJ. The Hague, Netherlands.

The International Court of Justice (ICJ), located in The Hague, Netherlands, is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. Established in 1945 by the United Nations Charter, the Court began work in 1946 as the successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice. The Statute of the International Court of Justice, similar to that of its predecessor, is the main constitutional document constituting and regulating the Court.[15] Image File history File linksMetadata International_Court_of_Justice. ... Image File history File linksMetadata International_Court_of_Justice. ... The Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands The Peace Palace (Vredespaleis in Dutch), situated in The Hague, Netherlands, is often called the seat of international law because it houses the International Court of Justice (which is the principal judicial body of the United Nations), the Permanent Court of Arbitration, the... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... Hague redirects here. ... The Permanent Court of International Justice, sometimes called World Court, was the international court of the League of Nations established in 1922. ...


It is based in the Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands, sharing the building with the Hague Academy of International Law, a private centre for the study of international law. Several of the Court's current judges are either alumni or former faculty members of the Academy. Its purpose is to adjudicate disputes among states. The court has heard cases related to war crimes, illegal state interference and ethnic cleansing, among others, and continues to hear cases.[16] The Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands The Peace Palace (Vredespaleis in Dutch), situated in The Hague, Netherlands, is often called the seat of international law because it houses the International Court of Justice (which is the principal judicial body of the United Nations), the Permanent Court of Arbitration, the... Hague redirects here. ... The Hague Academy of International Law is a center for high-level education in international law housed in the Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands. ...


A related court, the International Criminal Court (ICC), began operating in 2002 through international discussions initiated by the General Assembly. It is the first permanent international court charged with trying those who commit the most serious crimes under international law, including war crimes and genocide. The ICC is functionally independent of the UN in terms of personnel and financing, but some meetings of the ICC governing body, the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute, are held at the UN. There is a "relationship agreement" between the ICC and the UN that governs how the two institutions regard each other legally.[17] The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ...


Secretary-General

Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon.
Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon.

The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations, and acts as the de facto spokesman and leader of the United Nations. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1080x1350, 1305 KB) ファイルの概要 Ban Ki Moon, South Korean Foreign Minister and candidate for UN Secretary General. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1080x1350, 1305 KB) ファイルの概要 Ban Ki Moon, South Korean Foreign Minister and candidate for UN Secretary General. ... IPA pronunciation: This is a Korean name; the family name is Ban Ban Ki-moon (born June 13, 1944)[1] is a South Korean diplomat and the current Secretary-General of the United Nations. ... The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. ... The United Nations Secretariat is one of the principal organs of the United Nations and it is headed by the United Nations Secretary General, assisted by a staff of international civil servants worldwide. ...


Selection

The UN Charter provides little guidance for the selection of the Secretary General. The Charter states that "the Secretary-General shall be appointed by the General Assembly upon the recommendation of the Security Council". Over the years the process has changed, but always requires bartering and negotiation on the part of the five veto holding members of the Security Council.[18]


In practice, a few details have remained consistent:[18]

  • the Secretary-General is appointed for a renewable five year term;
  • no Secretary-General has served more than two terms;
  • candidates are selected using geographic rotation;
  • no candidate has been elected from the country of a permanent member of the Security Council; and
  • the General Assembly has never rejected a candidate recommended by the Security Council.

List of Secretaries-General

No. Name Country of Origin Length of Service Note
1 Trygve Lie Flag of Norway Norway February 1946-November 1952 Resigned
2 Dag Hammarskjöld Flag of Sweden Sweden April 1953-September 1961 Died in a plane crash while over Africa
3 U Thant Flag of Burma Burma November 1961-December 1971 First non-European leader of UN
4 Kurt Waldheim Flag of Austria Austria January 1972-December 1981
5 Javier Pérez de Cuéllar Flag of Peru Peru January 1982-December 1991 First Secretary General from South America
6 Boutros Boutros-Ghali Flag of Egypt Egypt January 1992-December 1996 First Secretary General from Africa
7 Kofi Annan Flag of Ghana Ghana January 1997-December 2006
8 Ban Ki-moon Flag of South Korea South Korea January 2007-Present

Trygve Halvdan Lie (July 16, 1896 – December 30, 1968) was a Norwegian politician. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... For other uses, see February (disambiguation). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see November (disambiguation). ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld ( ) (July 29, 1905 – September 18, 1961) was a Swedish diplomat and the second Secretary-General of the United Nations. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see September (disambiguation). ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... U Thant (Burmese: ; 22 January 1909 – 25 November 1974) was a Burmese diplomat and the third Secretary-General of the United Nations, from 1961 to 1971. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Myanmar. ... For other uses, see November (disambiguation). ... Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Kurt Josef Waldheim (21 December 1918 – 14 June 2007) was an Austrian diplomat and politician. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... For other uses, see January (disambiguation). ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Javier Pérez de Cuéllar de la Guerra (born January 19, 1920 in Lima) is a Peruvian diplomat who served as the fifth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1982 to December 31, 1991. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... For other uses, see January (disambiguation). ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Arabic: بطرس بطرس غالي, Coptic: Î’OΥΤΡΟC BOYTPOC ΓΑΛΗ) (born November 14, 1922) is an Egyptian diplomat who was the sixth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1992 to December 1996. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... For other uses, see January (disambiguation). ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Kofi Atta Annan GCMG (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ghana. ... For other uses, see January (disambiguation). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... IPA pronunciation: This is a Korean name; the family name is Ban Ban Ki-moon (born June 13, 1944)[1] is a South Korean diplomat and the current Secretary-General of the United Nations. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... For other uses, see January (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

Peace and security

UN peacekeeping missions. Dark blue indicates current missions, while light blue represents former missions.
UN peacekeeping missions. Dark blue indicates current missions, while light blue represents former missions.

The 1945 UN Charter envisaged a system of regulation that would ensure "the least diversion for armaments of the world's human and economic resources". The advent of nuclear weapons came only weeks after the signing of the Charter and provided immediate impetus to concepts of arms limitation and disarmament. In fact, the first resolution of the first meeting of the General Assembly (24 January 1946) was entitled "The Establishment of a Commission to Deal with the Problems Raised by the Discovery of Atomic Energy" and called upon the commission to make specific proposals for "the elimination from national armaments of atomic weapons and of all other major weapons adaptable to mass destruction."[19] The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Disarmament means the act of reducing or depriving arms i. ... In policy debate, a resolution or topic is a normative statement which the affirmative team affirms and the negative team negates. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Disarmament

Main article: General Assembly First Committee

The UN has established several forums to address multilateral disarmament issues. The principal ones are the First Committee of the General Assembly, the UN Disarmament Commission, and the Conference on Disarmament. Items on the agenda include consideration of the possible merits of a nuclear test ban, outer-space arms control, efforts to ban chemical weapons and land mines, nuclear and conventional disarmament, nuclear-weapon-free zones, reduction of military budgets, and measures to strengthen international security. The First Committee is one of six main committees at the General Assembly of the United Nations which deals with matters concerning world peace. ... Conference on Disarmament (CD) is a multilateral disarmament negotiating forum. ... Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Opened for signature September 10, 1996[1] in New York Entered into force Not yet in force Conditions for entry into force The treaty will enter into force 180 days after it is ratified by all of the following 44 (Annex 2) countries: Algeria, Argentina... // The Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies also known as the Outer Space Treaty (the Treaty), was opened for signature in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union (the three... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... For the 1932 tariff treaty of British colonies and dominions, see British Empire Economic Conference. ... A Nuclear-Weapons-Free Zone, or NWFZ is defined [1] by the United Nations as an agreement, generally by internationally recognized treaty, to ban the use, development, or deployment of nuclear weapons in a given area. ... Military expenditure by country using CIA World Factbook figures Military spending as a percentage of GDP using CIA World Factbook figures This is a list of countries by military expenditures using the latest information available. ... Global Security redirects here. ...


Peacekeeping

UN peacekeepers are sent to regions where armed conflict has recently ceased (or paused) to enforce the terms of peace agreements and to discourage combatants from resuming hostilities. Since the UN does not maintain its own military, peacekeeping forces are voluntarily provided by member states of the UN. All UN peacekeeping operations must be approved by the Security Council. It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... UN refugee camp in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. ... Image File history File links Pictures of peacekeepers for the UN mission to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ... Image File history File links Pictures of peacekeepers for the UN mission to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. ...


The founders of the UN had envisaged that the UN would act to prevent conflicts between nations and make future wars impossible. Those hopes have not been fully realized. During the Cold War (from about 1945 until 1991), the division of the world into hostile camps made peacekeeping agreement extremely difficult. Following the end of the Cold War, there were renewed calls for the UN to become the agency for achieving world peace, as there are several dozen ongoing conflicts that continue to rage around the globe. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Current wars redirects here. ...


The UN Peace-Keeping Forces (called the Blue Helmets) received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1988. In 2001, the UN and Secretary General Kofi Annan won the Nobel Peace Prize "for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world."[20] Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... Kofi Atta Annan GCMG (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ...


The UN maintains a series of United Nations Medals awarded to military service members who enforce UN accords. The first such decoration issued was the United Nations Service Medal, awarded to UN forces who participated in the Korean War. The NATO Medal is designed on a similar concept and both are considered international decorations instead of military decorations. U.N. Medal (Standard Design) The term United Nations Medal refers to one of several international decorations which are issued by the United Nations (U.N.) to the various militaries of the world for participation in joint international military operations such as peacekeeping, humanitarian efforts, and disaster relief. ... The United Nations Service Medal is an international military decoration which was established by the United Nations on December 12, 1950. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... NATO Medals for Yugoslavia and Kosovo The NATO Medal is an international military decoration which is awarded to various militaries of the world under the authority of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. ... An international decoration is an april woolgar creation which is not bestowed by a particular country, but rather by an international organization such as the United Nations or NATO. Such awards are normally issued as service medals, for participation in various international military operations, and not for specific acts of... A military decoration is a decoration given to military personnel or units for heroism in battle or distinguished service. ...


Successes in security issues

UN peacekeeping light armed mechanised vehicle in Bovington Tank Museum, Dorset.
UN peacekeeping light armed mechanised vehicle in Bovington Tank Museum, Dorset.

The Human Security Report 2005,[21] produced by the Human Security Centre at the University of British Columbia with support from several governments and foundations, documented a dramatic, but largely unrecognized, decline in the number of wars, genocides and human rights abuses since the end of the Cold War. Statistics include: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 3072 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 3072 pixel, file size: 2. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... British Mark V; one of the few WWI tanks still in working order. ... Dorset (pronounced DOR-sit or [dɔ.sət], and sometimes in the past called Dorsetshire) is a county in the south-west of England, on the English Channel coast. ... The Human Security Report 2005 is a report outlining declining world trends of global violence from the early 1990s to 2005. ... The University of British Columbia (UBC) is a Canadian public research university with campuses in Vancouver and Kelowna. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...

  • a 40% drop in violent conflict;
  • an 80% drop in the most deadly conflicts; and
  • an 80% drop in genocide and policide.

The report argued that international activism — mostly spearheaded by the UN — has been the main cause of the post–Cold War decline in armed conflict, though the report indicated the evidence for this contention is mostly circumstantial. For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Policide is a neologism used in political science to describe the intentional destruction of a city or nation. ...


In the area of Peacekeeping, successes include:

  • A 2005 RAND Corp study found the UN to be successful in two out of three peacekeeping efforts. It also compared UN nation-building efforts to those of the U.S., and found that of eight UN cases, seven are at peace, whereas of eight U.S. cases, four are at peace.[22]

Failures in security issues

In many cases UN members have shown reluctance to achieve or enforce Security Council resolutions. Such failures stem from the UN's intergovernmental nature — in many respects it is an association of 192 member states who must reach consensus, not an independent organization.


Other serious security failures include:

  • Failure to prevent the 1994 Rwandan Genocide, which resulted in the killings of nearly a million people, due to the refusal of Security Council members to approve any military action.[23]
  • Failure by MONUC (UNSC Resolution 1291) to effectively intervene during the Second Congo War, which claimed nearly five million people in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), 1998-2002, and in carrying out and distributing humanitarian aid.[citation needed]
  • Failure to intervene in the 1995 Srebrenica massacre: despite the fact that the UN designated Srebrenica a "safe haven" for refugees and assigned 600 Dutch peacekeepers to protect it, the peacekeeping force was not authorised to use force.[citation needed]
  • Failure to successfully deliver food to starving people in Somalia; the food was instead usually seized by local warlords. A U.S./UN attempt to apprehend the warlords seizing these shipments resulted in the 1993 Battle of Mogadishu.[citation needed]
  • Failure to implement provisions of United Nations Security Council Resolutions related to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.[citation needed]
  • Failed to prevent or help sufficiently in the area of Darfur genocide: a crisis still exists in that area.

The Rwandan Genocide was the systematic murder of the countrys Tutsi minority and the moderates of its Hutu majority, in 1994. ... The Mission of the United Nations in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), abbreviated MONUC (a French acronym for Mission de l Organisation des Nations Unies en République démocratique du Congo) is a United Nations peacekeeping force established on February 24, 2000, by Resolution 1291 of the United... “Security Council” redirects here. ... Combatants Democratic Republic of the Congo, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Chad, Mai-Mai, Hutu-aligned forces Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Movement for the Liberation of Congo Congolese Rally for Democracy Tutsi-aligned forces Commanders Laurent-Désiré Kabila (Congo), Joseph Kabila (Congo), Sam Nujoma Robert Mugabe José Eduardo dos Santos Idriss D... Humanitarian aid arriving by plane at Rinas Airport in Albania in the summer of 1999. ... Burial of 465 identified Bosniak civilians (July 11, 2007) Gravestone of a thirteen year old boy (July 11, 2007) A memorial to the victims of Srebrenica and other towns in Eastern Bosnia The Srebrenica Massacre, also known as Srebrenica Genocide,[1] was the July 1995 killing of an estimated 8... Combatants USSOF, UNOSOM II, Frontier Force Regiment Somali National Alliance-affiliated militias Commanders William F. Garrison Mohamed Farrah Aidid Strength 160 2,000-4,000 Casualties U.S. 18 killed 73 wounded 1 captured Malaysia 1 killed 7 wounded Pakistan 2 wounded SNA Militia and civilians At least 500[1... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ...

Peace enforcement

Main article: Peace enforcement

The UN has not only acted to keep the peace but also occasionally intervened in armed conflicts, the first of which was the Korean War (1950-1953). More recently, the UN authorized the intervention in Iraq after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in 1990. Peace enforcement is a practice of ensuring peace in an area or region. ... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


Human rights and Humanitarian Assistance

Further information: United Nations 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery and Convention on the Rights of the Child

The pursuit of human rights was a central reason for creating the UN. World War II atrocities and genocide led to a ready consensus that the new organization must work to prevent any similar tragedies in the future. An early objective was creating a legal framework for considering and acting on complaints about human rights violations. ... Convention on the Rights of the Child Opened for signature 20 November 1989 in - Entered into force September 2, 1990 Conditions for entry into force 20 ratifications or accessions (Article 49) Parties 193 (only 2 non-parties: USA and Somalia) The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ...


The UN Charter obliges all member nations to promote "universal respect for, and observance of, human rights" and to take "joint and separate action" to that end. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, though not legally binding, was adopted by the General Assembly in 1948 as a common standard of achievement for all. The Assembly regularly takes up human rights issues. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ...


The UN and its agencies are central in upholding and implementing the principles enshrined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. A case in point is support by the UN for countries in transition to democracy. Technical assistance in providing free and fair elections, improving judicial structures, drafting constitutions, training human rights officials, and transforming armed movements into political parties have contributed significantly to democratization worldwide. The UN has helped run elections in countries with little democratic history, including recently in Afghanistan and East Timor. A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ...


The UN is also a forum to support the right of women to participate fully in the political, economic, and social life of their countries. The UN contributes to raising consciousness of the concept of human rights through its covenants and its attention to specific abuses through its General Assembly, Security Council resolutions, or International Court of Justice rulings. The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ...


Human Rights Council

United Nations Human Rights Council Logo.
United Nations Human Rights Council Logo.

The purpose of the Human Rights Council is to address human rights violations. The Council is the successor to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, which was often criticised for the high-profile positions it gave to member states that did not guarantee the human rights of their own citizens[24] The United Nations Human Rights Council is an international body within the United Nations System. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... United Nations Commission on Human Rights - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


The United Nations General Assembly established the Human Rights Council on 15 March 2006.[25] The council has 47 members distributed by region, which each serve three year terms, and may not serve three consecutive terms.[26] A candidate to the body must be approved by a majority of the General Assembly. In addition, the council has strict rules for membership, including a universal human rights review. While some members with questionable human rights records have been elected, it is fewer than before with the increased focus on each member state's human rights record.[27] The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Indigenous rights issues

On 17 September 2007 the United Nations General Assembly adopted a declaration outlining the rights of some 370 million indigenous peoples around the world.[28] The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. ... The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ...


Following two decades of debate, the "United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples" was approved. The Declaration outlines the individual and collective rights to culture, language, education, identity, employment and health, thereby addressing post-colonial issues which had confronted Indigenous peoples for centuries. The Declaration aims to maintain, strengthen and encourage the growth of Indigenous institutions, cultures and traditions. It also prohibits discrimination against Indigenous peoples and promotes their active participation in matters which concern their past, present and future.[28]


The declaration was approved when 143 member states voted in its favour. Eleven member states abstained and four voted against the text: Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the United States. A map of UN member states and their dependent territories as recognized by the UN. Regions excluded: Antarctica (regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System), Vatican City (the Holy See is a UN observer), the Palestinian territories (Palestine, represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization, is a UN observer), and Western Sahara...


Treaty bodies

The United Nations linked human rights treaty bodies are committees of independent experts that monitor implementation of the core international human rights treaties. There are now seven UN-linked human rights treaty bodies, including the Human Rights Committee and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Secretariat services are provided regarding all of those by the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. International human rights instruments can be classified into two categories: declarations, adopted by bodies such as the United Nations General Assembly, which are not legally binding although they may be politically so; and conventions, which are legally binding instruments concluded under international law. ... The Human Rights Committee is a group of 18 experts who meet three times a year to consider the five-yearly reports submitted by United Nations member states on their compliance with the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. ... Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women Opened for signature 18 December 1979 in New York City Entered into force 3 September 1981 Conditions for entry into force 20 ratifications Parties 185[1] The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW... The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. ...


Humanitarian assistance

In conjunction with other organizations such as the Red Cross, the UN provides food, drinking water, shelter and other humanitarian services to populaces suffering from famine, displaced by war, or afflicted by other disasters. Major humanitarian branches of the UN are the World Food Programme (which helps feed more than 100 million people a year in 80 countries), the office of the High Commissioner for Refugees with projects in over 116 countries, as well as peacekeeping projects in over 24 countries. Red Cross redirects here. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... WFP redirects here. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ...


At times, UN relief workers have been subject to attacks. Humanitarian aid workers belonging to UN organisations, PVOs / NGOs or the Red Cross / Red Crescent have traditionally enjoyed both international legal protection, and de facto immunity from attack by belligerent parties. ...


Social and Economic Development

The UN is involved in supporting development, e.g. by the formulation of the Millennium Development Goals. The UN Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world. Organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO), UNAIDS, and The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria are leading institutions in the battle against diseases around the world, especially in poor countries. The UN Population Fund is a major provider of reproductive services. It has helped reduce infant and maternal mortality in 100 countries.[citation needed] Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants. ... The Millenium Development Goals The Millennium Development Goals are eight goals that 192 United Nations member states have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015. ... The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ... WHO redirects here. ... The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS, or UNAIDS, is the main advocate for accelerated, comprehensive and coordinated global action on the HIV epidemic. ... The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (often commonly called The Global Fund) was established in January 2002 to dramatically increase global financing for interventions against the two pandemics (Malaria is actually Endemic). ... This article is about the medical term. ...


The UN also promotes human development through various related agencies. The World Bank Group and International Monetary Fund (IMF), for example, are independent, specialized agencies and observers within the UN framework, according to a 1947 agreement. They were initially formed as separate from the UN through the Bretton Woods Agreement in 1944.[29] World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ... IMF redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


The UN annually publishes the Human Development Index (HDI), a comparative measure ranking countries by poverty, literacy, education, life expectancy, and other factors. This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ... Children reading. ... This article is about the measure of remaining life. ...


Millennium Development Goals

The Millennium Development Goals are eight goals that all 192 United Nations member states have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015.[30] The United Nations Millennium Declaration, signed in September 2000, commits the states to: The Millenium Development Goals The Millennium Development Goals are eight goals that 192 United Nations member states have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015. ... The Millennium Declaration is a United Nations resolution, adopted at the 8th plenary meeting on September 8, 2000, with nine major development goals. ...

  1. eradicate extreme poverty and hunger;
  2. achieve universal primary education;
  3. promote gender equality and empower women;
  4. reduce child mortality;
  5. improve maternal health;
  6. combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases;
  7. ensure environmental sustainability; and
  8. develop a global partnership for development.

Hunger is a feeling experienced when the glycogen level of the liver falls below a threshold, usually followed by a desire to eat. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... A primary school in Český Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... Graffiti in Madrid promoting equality, reads todos somos iguales, or we are all equal. Equalism is a name often given to forms of egalitarianism (advocacy of equality) concerned with issues of gender or race. ... Child mortality is the death of children in their first 5 years of life. ... Maternal health care is a concept that encompasses preconception, prenatal, and postnatal care. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... This article is about the medical term. ... The Earth Day flag includes a NASA photo. ... Look up Development in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Reform

Since its founding, there have been many calls for reform of the United Nations. But there is little clarity, let alone consensus, about how to reform it. Some want the UN to play a greater or more effective role in world affairs, others want its role reduced to humanitarian work. There have also been numerous calls for the UN Security Council's membership to be increased to reflect the current geo-political state, for different ways of electing the UN's Secretary-General, and for a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly. In recent years, there have been many calls for reform of the United Nations. ... A United Nations Parliamentary Assembly, or United Nations Peoples Assembly (UNPA), is a proposed addition to the United Nations System that eventually would allow for direct election of UN delegates by citizens of member states. ... Reform of the United Nations Security Council encompasses a variety of proposals, including procedural reforms, such as eliminating the veto held by the five permanent members, and expansion of the Council. ... The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. ...


Reform program

An official reform programme was begun by former United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan soon after starting his first term in 1997. Reforms mentioned include changing the permanent membership of the Security Council (which currently reflects the power relations of 1945); making the bureaucracy more transparent, accountable and efficient; making the UN more democratic; and imposing an international tariff on arms manufacturers worldwide.[citation needed] The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. ... Kofi Atta Annan GCMG (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ... Reform of the United Nations Security Council encompasses a variety of proposals, including procedural reforms, such as eliminating the veto held by the five permanent members, and expansion of the Council. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ... The following list of modern armament manufacturers presents major companies producing modern weapons and munitions. ...


In September 2005, the UN convened a World Summit that brought together the heads of most member states, calling the summit "a once-in-a-generation opportunity to take bold decisions in the areas of development, security, human rights and reform of the United Nations."[31] Kofi Annan had proposed that the summit agree on a global "grand bargain" to reform the UN, revamping international systems for peace and security, human rights and development, to make them capable of addressing the extraordinary challenges facing the UN in the 21st century. UN headquarters in New York City The 2005 World Summit, 14–16 September 2005, was a follow-up summit meeting to the United Nations 2000 Millennium Summit, which led to the Millennium Declaration of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). ...


World leaders agreed on a compromise text,[32] including the following notable items:

  • the creation of a Peacebuilding Commission to provide a central mechanism to help countries emerging from conflict;
  • an agreement that the international community has the right to step in when national governments fail to fulfill their responsibility to protect their citizens from atrocious crimes;
  • a Human Rights Council (established in 2006);
  • an agreement to devote more resources to UN's Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS);
  • several agreements to spend billions more on achieving the Millennium Development Goals;
  • a clear and unambiguous condemnation of terrorism "in all its forms and manifestations";
  • a democracy fund;
  • an agreement to wind up the Trusteeship Council due to the completion of its mission.

The Peacebuilding Commission was established in December 2005 by the United Nations General Assembly and the Security Council acting concurrently. ... The United Nations Human Rights Council is an international body within the United Nations System. ... The United Nations Office of Internal Oversight Services, or OIOS, is a United Nations organ whose primary purpose is to perform world-wide audit, investigation, inspection, programme monitoring, evaluation and consulting services to the United Nations Secretariat and the rest of the United Nations System[1]. The agency was established... The Millenium Development Goals The Millennium Development Goals are eight goals that 192 United Nations member states have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... The United Nations Trusteeship Council, one of the principal organs of the United Nations, was established to help ensure that non-self-governing territories were administered in the best interests of the inhabitants and of international peace and security. ...

Management Reform

The UN has been accused of bureaucratic inefficiency and waste. During the 1990s the United States, currently the largest contributor to the UN, gave this inefficiency as a reason for withholding their dues. The repayment of the dues was made conditional on a major reforms initiative. In 1994 the Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS) was established by the General Assembly to serve as an efficiency watchdog.[33] Further management reforms have been proposed through the World Summit, including changes to the OIOS, the establishment of an ethics office, and a review of UN mandates that are older than five years.


The Office of Internal Oversight Services is being restructured to more clearly define its scope and mandate. It will receive more resources. In addition, to improve the oversight and auditing capabilities of the General Assembly, an Independent Audit Advisory Committee (IAAC) is being created. In June 2007, the Fifth Committee created a draft resolution for the terms of reference of this committee.[34][35] A Terms Of Reference is a document which describes the purpose and structure of a project. ...


An ethics office was established in 2006, responsible for administering new financial disclosure and whistleblower protection policies. Working with the OIOS, the ethics office also plans to implement a policy to avoid fraud and corruption.[36] Poster in support of whistleblower legislation A whistleblower is an employee, former employee, or member of an organization, especially a business or government agency, who reports misconduct to people or entities that have the power and presumed willingness to take corrective action. ...


The Secretariat is in the process of reviewing all UN mandate that are more than five years old. The review is intended to determine which duplicative or unnecessary programmes should be eliminated. Not all member states are in agreement as to which of the over 7000 mandates should be reviewed. The dispute centres on whether mandates that have been renewed should be examined. As of September 2007, the process is ongoing.[37]


Personnel policy

The UN and its agencies are immune to the laws of the countries where they operate, safeguarding UN's impartiality with regard to the host and member countries. This independence allows agencies to implement human resources policies that may even be contrary to the laws of a host - or a member country.[citation needed] For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... This article is about human resources as it applies to business, labor, and economies. ...


Despite their independence in matters of human resources policy, the UN and its agencies voluntarily apply the laws of member states regarding same-sex marriages, allowing decisions about the status of employees in a same-sex partnership to be based on nationality. The UN and its agencies recognize same-sex marriages only if the employees are citizens of countries that recognize the marriage. This practice is not specific to the recognition of same-sex marriage but reflects a common practice of the UN for a number of human resources matters. It has to be noted though that some agencies provide limited benefits to domestic partners of their staff and that some agencies do not recognise same-sex marriage or domestic partnership of their staff. For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... One of four newly wedded same-sex couples in a public wedding at Taiwan Pride 2006. ... International recognition Civil unions and Domestic partnerships Recognized in some regions Unregistered co-habitation Recognition debated See also Same-sex marriage Civil union Registered partnership Domestic partnership Timeline of same-sex marriage Listings by country This box:      A domestic partnership is a legal or personal relationship between individuals who live...


Specialized Organizations

There are many UN organizations and agencies that function to work on particular issues. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


International Atomic Energy Agency

IAEA flag.
IAEA flag.

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an intergovernmental forum for scientific and technical cooperation in the field of nuclear technology. It seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. The IAEA was set up as an autonomous organization in 29 July 1957. Prior to this, in 1953, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower envisioned the creation of this international body to control and develop the use of atomic energy, in his "Atoms for Peace" speech before the UN General Assembly.[38] The organization and its Director General, Mohamed ElBaradei, were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize announced on 7 October 2005. Its current membership is 144 countries.[39] Image File history File links Flag_of_IAEA.svg en: Description: Flag of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an organization of the United Nations. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_IAEA.svg en: Description: Flag of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an organization of the United Nations. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... This article concerns the energy stored in the nuclei of atoms; for the use of nuclear fission as a power source, see Nuclear power. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Atoms for Peace was the title of a speech delivered by Dwight D. Eisenhower to the UN General Assembly in New York City on December 8, 1953. ... Mohamed ElBaradei (Arabic: محمد البرادعي) (born June 17, 1942) is an Egyptian diplomat and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), an inter-governmental organization under the auspices of the United Nations. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


International Civil Aviation Organization

ICAO flag.
ICAO flag.

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) was founded in 1947. It codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. Its headquarters are located in the Quartier international de Montréal of Montreal, Canada. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. ... An Airbus A380 of Emirates Airline An airline provides air transport services for passengers or freight. ... The Quartier international de Montréal (QIM) or Montreals International District is an area of the Ville-Marie borough of downtown Montreal that underwent a major urban renewal as a central business district in 2000–2003. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ...


The ICAO Council adopts standards and recommended practices concerning air navigation, prevention of unlawful interference, and facilitation of border-crossing procedures for international civil aviation. In addition, the ICAO defines the protocols for air accident investigation followed by transport safety authorities in countries signatory to the Convention on International Civil Aviation, commonly known as the Chicago Convention. Civil airliner - Air India Boeing 747-400 Civil aviation is one of two major categories of flying, representing all non-Military aviation, both private and commercial. ... The Convention on International Civil Aviation, also known as the Chicago Convention, established the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a specialized agency of the United Nations charged with coordinating and regulating international air travel. ... The Convention on International Civil Aviation, also known as the Chicago Convention, established the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a specialized agency of the United Nations charged with coordinating and regulating international air travel. ...


International Fund for Agricultural Development

The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) was established as an international financial institution in 1977, as one of the major outcomes of the 1974 World Food Conference and a response to the situation in the Sahel. IFAD is dedicated to eradicating rural poverty in developing countries. Its headquarters are in Rome, Italy. The International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), a specialized agency of the United Nations, was established as an international financial institution in 1977 as one of the major outcomes of the 1974 World Food Conference. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


International Labour Organization

The International Labour Organization (ILO) deals with labour issues. Its headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland. Founded in 1919, it was formed through the negotiations of the Treaty of Versailles, and was initially an agency of the League of Nations. It became a member of the UN system after the demise of the League and the formation of the UN at the end of World War II. Its Constitution, as amended to date, includes the Declaration of Philadelphia on the aims and purposes of the Organization. Its secretariat is known as the International Labour Office. The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that deals with labour issues. ... In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Treaty of Versailles of June 28, 1919, which ended World War I. For other uses, see Treaty of Versailles (disambiguation) . The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was a peace treaty that officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... The Declaration of Philadelphia, adopted in 1944, is the current charter of the International Labour Organization. ...


International Maritime Organization

The International Maritime Organization (IMO), formerly known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO), was established in 1948 through the United Nations to coordinate international maritime safety and related practices. However the IMO did not enter into full force until 1958. Headquarters of the International Maritime Organisation in Lambeth, adjacent to the east end of Lambeth Bridge Headquarters building taken from the west side of the Thames Headquartered in London, U.K., the International Maritime Organization (IMO) promotes cooperation among governments and the shipping industry to improve maritime safety and to...


Headquartered in London, the IMO promotes cooperation among governments and the shipping industry to improve maritime safety and to prevent marine pollution. IMO is governed by an Assembly of members and is financially administered by a Council of members elected from the Assembly. The work of IMO is conducted through five committees and these are supported by technical sub-committees. Member organizations of the UN organizational family may observe the proceedings of the IMO. Observer status may be granted to qualified non-governmental organizations. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


The IMO is supported by a permanent secretariat of employees who are representative of its members. The secretariat is composed of a Secretary-General who is periodically elected by the Assembly, and various divisions including, inter alia, marine safety, environmental protection, and a conference section.


International Telecommunication Union

ITU flag.
ITU flag.

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) was established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. It was founded as the International Telegraph Union in Paris on 17 May 1865. Its main tasks include standardization, allocation of the radio spectrum, and organizing interconnection arrangements between different countries to allow international phone calls — in which regard it performs for telecommunications a similar function to what the UPU performs for postal services. It has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, next to the main United Nations campus. Image File history File links Flag_of_ITU.svg Flag of the International Telecommunication Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_ITU.svg Flag of the International Telecommunication Union. ... The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; French: Union internationale des télécommunications, Spanish: Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ... Copy of the original phone of Alexander Graham Bell at the Musée des Arts et Métiers in Paris Telecommunication is the assisted transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... “Standard” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Geneva (disambiguation). ...


Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations leads international efforts to defeat hunger. Serving both developed and developing countries, FAO acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as equals to negotiate agreements and debate policy. FAO's mandate is to raise levels of nutrition, improve agricultural productivity, better the lives of rural populations and contribute to the growth of the world economy. FAO is the largest of UN agencies and its headquarters are in Rome, Italy. FAO redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

UNESCO flag.
UNESCO flag.
Main article: UNESCO

UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. Its stated purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education, science, and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and the human rights and fundamental freedoms proclaimed in the UN Charter. Image File history File links Flag_of_UNESCO.svg This image shows a flag, a coat of arms, a seal or some other official insignia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_UNESCO.svg This image shows a flag, a coat of arms, a seal or some other official insignia. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...


United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)

The United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO), French/Spanish acronym ONUDI, is a specialized agency in the United Nations system, headquartered in Vienna, Austria. The Organization's primary objective is the promotion and acceleration of industrial development in developing countries and countries with economies in transition. United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) is an agency of the United Nations with the mission of helping countries pursue sustainable industrial development, it is a specialist in industrial affairs. ...


Universal Postal Union (UPU)

The Universal Postal Union, headquartered in Berne, Switzerland, coordinates postal policies between member nations, and hence the world-wide postal system. Each member country agrees to the same set of terms for conducting international postal duties. The Universal Postal Union (UPU, French: Union postale universelle) is an international organization that coordinates postal policies between member nations, and hence the world-wide postal system. ... For other uses, see Berne (disambiguation). ...


World Bank

Main article: World Bank Group

The World Bank, a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), makes loans to developing countries for development programmes with the stated goal of reducing poverty. The World Bank differs from the World Bank Group in that the former only comprises the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Development Association, while the latter incorporates these entities in addition to three others. World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ...


World Health Organization (WHO)

WHO flag.
WHO flag.

The World Health Organization (WHO) acts as a coordinating authority on international public health. Established on 7 April 1948, and headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the agency inherited the mandate and resources of its predecessor, the Health Organization, which had been an agency of the League of Nations. Image File history File links Flag_of_WHO.svg Flag of WHO from the Open Clip Art website. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_WHO.svg Flag of WHO from the Open Clip Art website. ... WHO redirects here. ...


World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)

The World Intellectual Property Organisation (WIPO) (French: Organisation mondiale de la propriété intellectuelle or OMPI) is a specialized agency of the United Nations created in 1967 and headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. Its purpose is to encourage creative activity and to promote the protection of intellectual property throughout the world. The organisation administers several treaties concerning the protection of intellectual property rights. The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) (French: Organisation mondiale de la propriété intellectuelle or OMPI) is one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ...


World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

WMO flag.
WMO flag.

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) originated from the International Meteorological Organization (IMO), which was founded in 1873. Established in 1950, WMO became the specialized agency of the United Nations for meteorology (weather and climate), operational hydrology and related geophysical sciences. It has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_World_Meteorological_Organization. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_World_Meteorological_Organization. ... WMO flag The World Meteorological Organization (WMO, French: , OMM) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 188 Member States and Territories. ...


Other activities

Decolonization

Conferences and International Observances are other activities of the United Nations. Over the lifetime of the UN, over 80 colonies have attained independence. The General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples in 1960 with no votes against but abstentions from all major colonial powers. Through the UN Committee on Decolonization,[40] created in 1962, the UN has focused considerable attention on decolonization. It has also supported the new states that have arisen as a result self-determination initiatives. The committee has overseen the decolonization of every country larger than 20,000 km² and removed them from the United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories, besides Western Sahara, a country larger than the UK only relinquished by Spain in 1975. The Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples was a milestone in the process of decolonization. ... Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the undoing of colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction. ... Map of the countries in the UN list:  current  former The United Nations maintains a list of territories that do not govern themselves. ...


Conferences

The Berlin born polar bear Knut will be the official mascot animal for the Conference on biodiversity to be held in Bonn 2008. He is the symbol figure of global climate change.
The Berlin born polar bear Knut will be the official mascot animal for the Conference on biodiversity to be held in Bonn 2008. He is the symbol figure of global climate change.

When an issue is considered particularly important, the General Assembly may convene an international conference to focus global attention and build a consensus for consolidated action. Examples include: Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Knut during his first public appearance at the Berlin Zoo on 23 March 2007. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ...

ICARA 2 or ICARA II: International Conference on Assistance to Refugees in Africa established in 1984. ... The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, also known as the Earth Summit (or, in Portuguese, Eco 92) was a major conference held in Rio de Janeiro from June 3 to June 14, 1992. ... This article is about the Brazilian city. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Sustainable development is a socio-ecological process characterized by the fulfilment of human needs while maintaining the quality of the natural environment indefinitely. ... Contents // Categories: Stub | United Nations specialized agencies | Sustainability | Development ... The United Nations coordinated an International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, Egypt from 5-13 September 1994. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... The United Nations convened the Fourth World Conference on Women on September 4-15, 1995 in Beijing, China. ... Peking redirects here. ... Habitat II - the Second United Nations Conference on Human Settlements - was held in Istanbul, Turkey from June 3-14, 1996, twenty years after the 1976 Habitat conference in Vancouver [1] that had led to the establishment of the Nairobi-based United Nations Centre on Human Settlements - UN-Habitat. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ... Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Opened for signature June 17, 1998[1] at Rome Entered into force July 1, 2002 Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 99[2] The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (or Rome Statute) is the treaty which established the International...

UN International Observances

The UN declares and coordinates international observances, periods of time to observe some issue of international interest or concern. Using the symbolism of the UN, a specially designed logo for the year, and the infrastructure of the United Nations System, various days and years have become catalysts to advancing key issues of concern on a global scale. For example, World Tuberculosis Day, Earth Day and International Year of Deserts and Desertification.[42] International observance (also known as international dedication or international anniversary) denotes a period of time to observe some issue of international interest or concern. ... While the United Nations is an international organization, the United Nations System is the whole network of international organizations, treaties and conventions that were created by the United Nations. ... World Tuberculosis Day, falling on 24 March each year, is designed to build public awareness that tuberculosis today remains an epidemic in much of the world, causing the deaths of several million people each year, mostly in the third world. ... Unofficial Earth Day flag, by John McConnell, including a NASA photo. ... The International Year of Deserts and Desertification is a 2006 international observance, declared by the 58/211 resolution of theUnited Nations General Assembly. ...


Controversy and criticism

There has been controversy and criticism of the UN organization and its activities since at least the 1950s. In the United States, an early opponent of the UN was the John Birch Society, which began a "get US out of the UN" campaign in 1959, charging that the UN's aim was to establish a "One World Government." In 1967, Richard Nixon, while running for President of the United States, criticized the UN as "obsolete and inadequate" for dealing with then-present crises like the Cold War.[43] Jeane Kirkpatrick, who was appointed by Ronald Reagan to be United States Ambassador to the United Nations, wrote in a 1983 opinion piece in The New York Times that the process of discussions at the Security Council "more closely resembles a mugging" of the United States "than either a political debate or an effort at problem solving."[44] In a February 2003 speech, soon before the United States invasion of Iraq (for which he had been unable to get UN approval), George W. Bush said, "free nations will not allow the United Nations to fade into history as an ineffective, irrelevant debating society."[45] In 2005, Bush appointed John R. Bolton to the position of Acting U.S. Ambassador to the UN; Bolton had made several statements critical of the UN, including saying, in 1994, "There is no such thing as the United Nations. There is only the international community, which can only be led by the only remaining superpower, which is the United States."[46] Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The John Birch Society is a conservative American exceptionalist organization founded in 1958 to fight what it saw as growing threats to the Constitution of the United States, especially a suspected communist infiltration of the United States government, and to support free enterprise. ... Nixon redirects here. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Jeane Kirkpatrick Jeane Jordan Kirkpatrick (November 19, 1926 â€“ December 7, 2006) was an American ambassador and an ardent anticommunist. ... Reagan redirects here. ... United States Ambassador to the United Nations, full title, Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations, with the rank and status of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, and Representative of the United States of America in the Security Council of the United Nations (also known as the... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... John Robert Bolton (born November 20, 1948), is an jewish American diplomat in several Republican administrations, who served as the Permanent US Representative to the UN from August 2005 until December 2006, on a recess appointment. ...


Security Council criticism

The Security Council has been criticized for being unable to act in a clear and decisive way when confronted with a crisis. The veto power of the five permanent members has often been cited as the cause of this problem.[47] However, according to UN Charter interpretations that were made law by the General Assembly's 'Uniting for Peace' resolution, adopted 3 November 1950, the Assembly may make any recommendations necessary to restore international peace and security, in cases where the Security Council, because of lack of unanimity between its permanent members, fails to act in situations where there appears to be a threat to international peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression. Given this, the position that reform of the Security Council veto power is a necessary prerequisite to ensuring the effectiveness of the UN Organization, has been questioned.[48] Reform of the United Nations Security Council encompasses a variety of proposals, including procedural reforms, such as eliminating the veto held by the five permanent members, and expansion of the Council. ... The United Nations Security Council veto power is a veto power wielded solely by the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, enabling them to void any Security Council substantive resolution regardless of the level of general support. ... United Nations General Assembly Resolution 377[1], also known as the Uniting for Peace Resolution, states that, in the event that the UN Security Council cannot maintain international peace, a matter can be taken up by the General Assembly. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The makeup of the Security Council dates back to the end of World War II, and this division of powers is often said to no longer represent the current power realities in the world. Critics question the effectiveness and relevance of the Security Council, because responsibility for the enforcement of its resolutions lies primarily with the Council members themselves, and there are often no consequences for violating a Security Council resolution.[citation needed]


Inaction on genocide and human rights

See also: United Nations Commission on Human Rights#Criticism

The United Nations Commission on Human Rights, which existed from 1946 to 2006, was criticized for producing a disproportionate number of resolutions blaming Israel for its treatment of the Palestinian people while ignoring other human rights violators.[49] It was also criticized for letting countries accused of violating human rights, such as Cuba and Sudan, become members of the commission. The commission was dissolved in 2006, as part of a reform of the United Nations. United Nations Commission on Human Rights - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... United Nations Commission on Human Rights - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For the term Palestinian as applied to Jews, see Palestinian Jew. ... In recent years, there have been many calls for reform of the United Nations. ...


The commission's successor, the United Nations Human Rights Council was soon accused of perpetuating the UNCHR's anti-Israel bias[50][51][52] while ignoring the plight of other oppressed people, for example in Darfur.[53] Similar criticism has been echoed by Secretaries-General Kofi Annan[54] and Ban Ki-moon[55] and U.S. President George W. Bush.[56] Doru Costea, the current UNHRC President admitted an anti-Israel bias and hoped for reform of the Council.[57] This "mea culpa" was contradicted by accusations from the Canadian delegation of personal interference by Costea.[58] The United Nations Human Rights Council is an international body within the United Nations System. ... The United Nations Human Rights Council is an international body within the United Nations System. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


Accusations of bias in the Arab-Israeli conflict

Issues relating to the state of Israel, the Palestinian people and other aspects of the Arab-Israeli conflict occupy a large amount of debate time, resolutions and resources at the United Nations. Issues relating to the state of Israel, the Palestinian people, the proposed State of Palestine and the region of the Levant (called the Middle East at the UN) occupy a large amount of debate, resolutions and resources at the United Nations. ... For the term Palestinian as applied to Jews, see Palestinian Jew. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the...


The partition of Palestine by the UNSCOP in 1947 was one of the earliest decision of the UN. Since then, it maintained a central role in this region, especially by providing support for Palestinian refugees via the UNRWA and by promoting peace conferences. A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... UNSCOP stands for the United Nations Special Committee on Palestine. ... In the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, a Palestinian refugee is a refugee from Palestine created by the Palestinian Exodus, which Palestinians call the Nakba (نكبة, meaning disaster). History Most of the refugees had already fled by the time the neighboring Arab states intervened on the side of Palestinians and continued after... The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) was established to provide assistance to Palestinian refugees. ...


In recent years, the Middle East, which represents 2% of the 192 member states and 0.5% of the world's population, was the subject of 76% of country-specific GA resolutions, 100% of the Human Rights Council resolutions, 100% of the Commission on the Status of Women resolutions, 50% of reports from the World Food Program, 6% of Security Council resolutions and 6 of the 10 Emergency sessions. These decisions, passed with the support of the OIC countries, invariably criticize Israel for her treatment of Palestinians. Resolution 3379(1975) stated that "zionism is racism"; it was rescinded in 1991. Many have qualified this degree of criticism as excessive. In particular, there has be widespread criticism of the UNHRC for failing to condemn other human rights abusers besides Israel. The United Nations Human Rights Council is an international body within the United Nations System. ... The Commission on the Status of Women (CSW or UNCSW) is a functional commission of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC), one of main UN organs within the United Nations. ... The World Food Programme (WFP) is an agency of the United Nations which distributes food commodities to support development projects, to long-term refugees and displaced persons and as emergency food assistance in situations of natural and man-made disasters. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... An emergency special session is an unscheduled meeting of the United Nations General Assembly to make urgent decisions over a particular issue. ... The flag of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) The Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC) is an inter-governmental organization with a Permanent Delegation to the United Nations. ... United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379, adopted on November 10, 1975 by a vote of 72 to 35 (with 32 abstentions), equated Zionism with racism. ... The United Nations Human Rights Council is an international body within the United Nations System. ...


The United States has been criticized for vetoing most UNSC decisions critical of Israel on the basis of their biased language, the so-called Negroponte doctrine. United Nations Space Corps Defense Force Emblem. ... On July 26th 2002, John Negroponte, the United States ambassador to the United Nations, stated (during a closed meeting of the UN Security Council) that the United States will oppose Security Council resolutions which condemn Israel without also condemning terrorist groups (and so are one-sided and biased from the...


Israel has been barred from the Asia regional group. Since 2000, she was accepted within the WEOG group. The UNRWA has been accused of perpetuating the plight of Palestinian refugees. Although the UN condemns antisemitism, it has be accused of tolerating antisemitic remarks within its walls. Some argued that disproportional criticism of Israel constitutes a new form of antisemitism. UN personnel have been accused of participating directly in the armed conflict on several occasions. The United Nations is unofficially divided into five geopolitical regional groupings. ... WEOG Member States The Western European and Others Group (WEOG) is one of several unofficial regional voting blocs within the United Nations. ... The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) was established to provide assistance to Palestinian refugees. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... New antisemitism is the concept of a new 21st-century form of antisemitism emanating simultaneously from the left, the far right, and radical Islam, and tending to manifest itself as opposition to Zionism and the State of Israel. ...


Oil-for-Food Programme

See also: Oil-for-Food Programme

The Oil-for-Food Programme was established by the UN in 1996 to allow Iraq to sell oil on the world market in exchange for food, medicine, and other humanitarian needs of ordinary Iraqi citizens who were affected by international economic sanctions, without allowing the Iraqi government to rebuild its military in the wake of the first Gulf War. Over $65 billion worth of Iraqi oil was sold on the world market. Officially, about $46 billion was used for humanitarian needs. Additional revenue paid for Gulf War reparations through a Compensation Fund, UN administrative and operational costs for the Programme (2.2%), and the weapons inspection programme (0.8%).[citation needed] The Oil-for-Food Programme, established by the United Nations in 1995 (under UN Security Council Resolution 986) and terminated in late 2003, was intended to allow Iraq to sell oil on the world market in exchange for food, medicine, and other humanitarian needs for ordinary Iraqi citizens without allowing... Petro redirects here. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... There are a number of meanings for humanitarianism: humanitarianism, humanism, the doctrine that peoples duty is to promote human welfare. ... Economic sanctions are economic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons. ... The federal government of Iraq is defined under the current Constitution as an Islamic[1] democratic federal parliamentary republican form of government. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... War reparations refer to the monetary compensation provided to a triumphant nation or coalition from a defeated nation or coalition. ... United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) was a United Nations organisation performing arms inspections in Iraq after the Gulf War. ...


The programme was discontinued in late 2003 amidst allegations of widespread abuse and corruption. Benon Sevan, the former director, was suspended and then resigned from the UN, as an interim progress report of a UN-sponsored investigation concluded that Sevan had accepted bribes from the Iraqi regime, and recommended that his UN immunity be lifted to allow for a criminal investigation.[59] Beyond Sevan, Kojo Annan was alleged to have illegally procured Oil-for-Food contracts on behalf of the Swiss company Cotecna. India's foreign minister, K. Natwar Singh, was removed from office because of his role in the scandal. And the Cole Inquiry investigated whether the Australian Wheat Board breached any laws with its contracts with Iraq.[60] Benon V. Sevan (born December 18, 1937 Nicosia, Cyprus) was the head of the United Nations Oil for Food program established in 1996, charged with preventing Iraqs government from using the proceeds from oil exports for anything but food, medicine and other items to benefit the civilian population. ... Kojo Annan (born July 1973 in Geneva, Switzerland) is the son of ex-UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan. ... K. Natwar Singh Kunwar Natwar Singh, popularly known as K. Natwar Singh (born May 16, 1931, Bharatpur, Rajastan, India) is an Indian politician and has been a cabinet minister. ... The Cole Inquiry, formally the Inquiry into certain Australian companies in relation to the UN Oil-For-Food Programme was a Royal Commission set up by the Government of Australia in November 2005. ...


Other controversies

There have been other controversies involving the United Nations. Examples include:

  • The UN has been accused of tolerating antisemitism: UN officials have been accused of ignoring Holocaust denial by Iranian officials, and some critics have viewed what they call the UN's singling-out of Israel as itself indicative of antisemitism.[61][62][63][64][65][66]
  • UN ambulance caught on tape transporting armed Palestinian forces in 2004.[67][68]
  • Allegations of sexual abuse by UN peacekeepers during UN peacekeeping missions in Congo,[69] Haiti,[70][71] Liberia[72] and Sudan.[73]

Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ... Richard Harwoods Did Six Million Really Die? Holocaust denial is the claim that the mainstream historical version of the Holocaust is either highly exaggerated or completely falsified. ...

See also

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Mundialization is the name of one of the movements aiming at democratic globalization. ... On 16 February 2006, the Secretary-General announced the formation of a new, high-level panel to explore how the United Nations system could work more coherently and effectively across the world in the areas of development, humanitarian assistance and the environment. ... Foreign affairs redirects here. ... Issues relating to the state of Israel, the Palestinian people, the proposed State of Palestine and the region of the Levant (called the Middle East at the UN) occupy a large amount of debate, resolutions and resources at the United Nations. ... The below is a list of the current Permanent Representatives to the United Nations, together with their country, and when their position was last confirmed. ... A Model United Nations Conference in Stuttgart, Germany in action. ... Popular culture references to the United Nations have been made in several media, including film, books, video games, and others. ... The United Nations Association is an international charitable trust which styles itself as an independent authority on the United Nations. ... United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea Opened for signature December 10, 1982 in Montego Bay (Jamaica) Entered into force November 16, 1994[1] Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 149[2] For maritime law in general see Admiralty law. ... United Nations International School (UNIS) is a private international school in New York City which was founded in 1947 by families whose work related to the United Nations. ... Headquartered in Costa Rica, the United Nations-mandated University for Peace (UPEACE) was established in 1980 as a Treaty Organization by the UN General Assembly. ... United Nations Peace Messenger Cities are cities around the world that have volunteered for an initiative sponsored by the United Nations to promote peace and understanding between nations. ... A United Nations stamp issued to commemorate the UN headquarters in Vienna The United Nations Postal Administration (UNPA) is the postal agency of the United Nations. ... United Nations University (UNU) is a university established on December 6, 1973 by adoption of resolution 3081 by the United Nations General Assembly, upon the suggestion of U Thant, UN Secretary-General at the time. ... UNESCO Goodwill Ambassadors are celebrity advocates of UNESCO and utilize their talent or fame to spread the UNESCO ideals. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...

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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 ( 2001 census). ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations General Assembly (GA, UNGA) is one of the five principal organs of the United Nations and the only one in which all member nations have equal representation. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 214th day of the year (215th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • "Think Again: The United Nations", Madeleine K. Albright, Foreign Policy, September/October, 2004
  • Hans Köchler, Quo Vadis, United Nations?, in: Law Review, Polytechnic University of the Philippines, College of Law, May 2005 Online version
  • An Insider's Guide to the UN, Linda Fasulo, Yale University Press (November 1, 2003), hardcover, 272 pages, ISBN 0-300-10155-4
  • United Nations: The First Fifty Years, Stanley Mesler, Atlantic Monthly Press (March 1, 1997), hardcover, 416 pages, ISBN 0-87113-656-2
  • United Nations, Divided World: The UN's Roles in International Relations edited by Adam Roberts and Benedict Kingsbury, Oxford University Press; 2nd edition (January 1, 1994), hardcover, 589 pages, ISBN 0-19-827926-4
  • A Guide to Delegate Preparation: A Model United Nations Handbook, edited by Scott A. Leslie, The United Nations Association of the United States of America, 2004 edition (October 2004), softcover, 296 pages, ISBN 1-880632-71-3
  • "U.S. At War - International." Time Magazine XLV.19 May 7, 1945: 25-28.
  • The Oxford Handbook on the United Nations, edited by Thomas G. Weiss and Sam Daws, Oxford University Press, July 2007, hardcover, 896 pages, ISBN 9780199279517, ISBN 0199279519

Madeleine Korbel Albright (born May 15, 1937 in Prague, Czechoslovakia), American diplomat, served as the 64th United States Secretary of State. ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...

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  • Documents and Resources on UN, War, War Crimes and Genocide
  • GetUsOut.org
  • Website of the Global Policy Forum, an independent think-tank on the UN
  • International Progress Organization: Web Site on United Nations reform
  • Hans Köchler, The United Nations and International Democracy. The Quest for UN Reform (1997)
  • Outcomes of the 2005 World SummitPDF (82.9 KB)
  • Permanent Missions To The United Nations
  • ReformtheUN.org - Tracking Developments on UN Reform
  • United Nations eLearning Unit created by ISRG - University of Innsbruck
  • Task Force on United Nations - U.S. Institute of Peace
  • United Nations Association of the UK: independent policy authority on the UN
  • History of the United Nations - UK Government site
  • Website of the Committee for a Democratic UN (German and English versions)
  • United Nations: Change at the Helm - Change for the Whole Ship? - Independent news reports by the news agency Inter Press Service
  • United Nations Research Guide from the Mississippi State University Libraries
  • Searchable archive of UN discussions and votes
  • Eye on the U.N. - A Project of the Hudson Institute New York and the Touro Law Center Institute for Human Rights
  • U.N. watch - non-governmental organization based in Geneva whose mandate is to monitor the performance of the United Nations by the yardstick of its own Charter.
  • Inner City Press - UN related news.


 
 

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