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Encyclopedia > United Malays National Organisation
Sang Saka Bangsa
Malaysia

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Malaysia
Image File history File links UMNO Flag File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links UMNO Flag File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links MalaysianParliament. ... Politics of Malaysia takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister of Malaysia is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...



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The United Malays National Organisation, or UMNO, (Malay: Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu), is the right-Wing and the largest political party in Malaysia and a founding member of the Barisan Nasional coalition, which has ruled the country uninterruptedly since its independence. It is known for being a major proponent of Malay nationalism or the ketuanan Melayu and some Islamic ideology, which holds that the Malay people and other Muslims are the "definitive" people of Malaysia and thus deserve special privileges as their birthright. The social contract in Malaysia refers to the agreement made by the countrys founding fathers in the Constitution. ... Flag of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong, a Malay title usually translated as Supreme Ruler or Paramount Ruler, is the official title of the constitutional head of state of the federation of Malaysia. ... Duli Yang Maha Mulia Al Wathiqu Billah, Al-Sultan Ibni Almarhum Al-Sultan Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah Al-Haj is the 17th sultan of the state of Terengganu, Malaysia, and the 13th Yang di-Pertuan Agong, or King of Malaysia. ... The Cabinet of Malaysia is the executive branch of Malaysias government. ... The Prime Minister of Malaysia (in Malay Perdana Menteri) is the indirectly elected head of government of Malaysia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia (Timbalan Perdana Menteri in Malay) is the second highest political post in Malaysia. ... Dato Sri Mohd Najib Bin Tun Haji Abdul Razak (born July 23, 1953, in Kuala Lipis, Pahang) is a Malaysian politician and has been the countrys Deputy Prime Minister since January 7, 2004. ... The Malaysian Houses of Parliament in Kuala Lumpur. ... The Dewan Negara is the Malaysian Senate. ... The Parliament of Malaysia consists of the lower house (Dewan Rakyat or literally Peoples Hall, in Malay) and upper house (Dewan Negara or Nations Hall in Malay). ... The Sultan Abdul Samad Building, as were surrounding colonial buildings near the Merdeka Square, had formerly housed all of the countrys judicial branches for decades. ... The Opposition in Malaysia is a term used to describe political parties represented in the Parliament of Malaysia that is not in government either on its own or as part of a governing coalition. ... Elections in Malaysia gives information on election and election results in Malaysia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Political parties in Malaysia lists political parties in Malaysia. ... Malaysia is a federation of 13 states. ... This article concerns the Foreign relations of Malaysia. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... The Malay language (Malay: Bahasa Melayu; Jawi script: بهاس ملايو), is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people who reside in the Malay Peninsula, southern Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore, central eastern Sumatra, the Riau islands, parts of the coast of Borneo and even in the Netherlands[1]. It is an official... In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... Barisan Nasional (National Front or BN) is a political coalition in Malaysia. ... Early Malay nationalism before Malaysian independence did not exist as a united and organised political movement did not exist prior to World War II. The concept of ketuanan Melayu (Malay supremacy) was largely irrelevant at the time, as the Chinese and Indians, who formed almost half of the population, did... United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) Youth Chief Hishammuddin Hussein brandishing the kris (dagger), an action seen by some as a defence of ketuanan Melayu. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...

Contents

Early history

UMNO Logo

After the British returned to Malaya in the aftermath of World War II, the Malayan Union was formed. However, the Union was met with much opposition due to its constitutional framework, which allegedly threatened Malay sovereignty over Malaya. A series of Malay congresses were held, culminating in the formation of UMNO on May 11, 1946 at the Third Malay Congress in Johor Bahru, with Datuk Onn Jaafar as its head. UMNO strongly opposed the Malayan Union, but originally did not seek political power. In 1949, after the Malayan Union had been replaced by the semi-autonomous Federation of Malaya, UMNO shifted its focus to politics and governance. [1] Image File history File links UMNO logo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links UMNO logo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Malayan Union was formed on April 1, 1946 by the British. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Motto: Berkhidmat, Berbudaya, Berwawasan (English: Servicing, cultured, visionary) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: Country Malaysia State Johor Establishment 1855 Granted city status 1994 Government  - Mayor Latiff Yusof Area  - City 185 km²  (72. ... Dato Sir Onn Bin Jaafar (1895-January 19, 1962) was a Malay politician and a Menteri Besar (Chief Minister) of Johor in Malaysia, then Malaya. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ...


In 1951, Onn Jaafar left UMNO after failing to open its membership to non-Malay Malayans to form the Independence of Malaya Party (IMP). Tunku Abdul Rahman replaced Dato' Onn as UMNO President. That same year, the Radical Party won the first election in Malaya — the George Town municipal council election — claiming six out of the nine seats available. However, the following year, UMNO formed an agreement with the Malayan Chinese Association (MCA) to avoid contesting the same seats in the Kuala Lumpur municipal council elections. UMNO and MCA eventually carried nine out of the twelve seats, dealing a crushing blow to the IMP. After several other successes in local council elections, the coalition was formalised as an "Alliance" in 1954. [2] The Independence of Malaya Party was a political party in British-ruled Malaysia that stood for political independence. ... Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Hamid Shah (February 8, 1903–December 6, 1990) usually known as the Tunku (a princely title in Malaysia), and also called Bapa Kemerdekaan (Father of Independence) or Bapa Malaysia (Father of Malaysia), was Chief Minister of the Federation of Malaya... George Town is the capital city of the state of Penang in Malaysia. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (Malay: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country Malaysia State Federal Territory Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - City 243. ...


In 1954, state elections were held. In these elections, the Alliance won 226 of the 268 seats nationwide. In the same year, a Federal Legislative Council was formed, comprising 100 seats. 52 would be elected, and the rest would be appointed by the British High Commissioner. The Alliance demanded that 60 of the seats be elected, but despite the Tunku flying out to London to negotiate, the British held firm. Elections for the council were held in 1955, and the Alliance, which had now expanded to include the Malayan Indian Congress (MIC), issued a manifesto stating its goals of achieving independence by 1959, requiring a minimum of primary school education for all children, protecting the rights of the Malay rulers as constitutional monarchs, ending the Communist emergency, and reforming the civil service through the hiring of more Malayans as opposed to foreigners. [3] [4] This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... MIC Logo The Malaysian Indian Congress (Kongres India Se-Malaysia, MIC) was established in August 1946 at the end of World War II. It was established in the cause of the communitys struggle during the inter-war years, to end British colonial rule, as well as in the need...


When the results were released, it emerged that the Alliance had won 51 of the 52 seats contested, with the other seat going to PAS (the Pan-Malayan Islamic Party, a group of Islamists that split from UMNO). The Tunku became the first Chief Minister of Malaya. [5] The Islamic Party of Malaysia (commonly known as PAS or Pas, from the Malay Parti Islam SeMalaysia) is an Islamist political party in Malaysia and is currently headed by Datuk Seri Abdul Hadi Awang. ...


Throughout this period, the Malayan Emergency had been on-going. The Malayan Races Liberation Army (MRLA), supported by the Malayan Communist Party (MCP), committed acts of terror such as tearing down farms, disrupting transportation and communication networks, attacking police stations, and so forth. Their stated goal was the end of colonialism in Malaya. The British declared the MCP, along with several left-wing political groups, illegal in 1948. In 1955, the Alliance government together with the British High Commissioner declared an amnesty for the communist insurgents who surrendered. Representatives from the Alliance government also met with leaders of the MCP in an attempt to resolve the conflict peacefully, as their manifesto in the election stated. Chin Peng, the MCP Secretary-General, insisted that the MCP be allowed to contest elections and be declared a legal political party as a pre-condition to laying down arms. However, the Tunku rejected this, leading to an impasse. [6] The Malayan Emergency was an insurrection and guerrilla war of the Malay Races Liberation Army against the British and Malayan administration from 1948-1960 in what is now Malaysia. ... The Malayan Races Liberation Army (MRLA) was a combatant in the Malayan Emergency, an insurrection and guerrilla war against the British and Malayan administration from 1948-1960 in what is now Malaysia. ... Communist Party of Malaya (CnoPM), also known as the Malayan Communist Party (MCP) until the 1960s was founded in Singapore in 1930 with a predominantly Chinese membership, carrying out armed resistance to the Japanese during World War II. From 1948 to 1960, its military arm, the Malayan Peoples Liberation Army... Chin Peng (Traditional Chinese: 陳平, Simplified Chinese: 陈平, Mandarin Chén Píng) (born 1924), was born Ong Boon Hua (Mandarin: Wang Yonghua or Wang Wenhua Chinese: 王文華) in Sitiawan, and was a long-time leader of the Malayan Communist Party (MCP). ...


In 1956, the Tunku led a group of negotiators, comprising Alliance politicians and representatives of the Malay rulers, to London. There, they brokered a deal with the British for independence. The date of independence was set as August 31, 1957, on the condition that an independent commission be set up to draft a constitution for the country. The Alliance government was also required to avoid seizing British and other foreign assets in Malaya. A defence treaty would also be signed. [7] is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Reid Commission, led by Lord William Reid, was formed to draft the constitution. Although enshrining concepts such as federalism and a constitutional monarchy, the proposed constitution also contained controversial statements protecting special rights for the Malays, such as quotas in admission to higher education and the civil service, and making Islam the official religion of the federation. It also made Malay the official language of the nation, although the right to vernacular education in Chinese and Tamil would be protected. Although the Tunku and the Malay rulers had asked the Reid Commission to ensure that "in an independent Malaya all nationals should be accorded equal rights, privileges and opportunities and there must not be discrimination on grounds of race and creed," the Malay privileges, which many in UMNO backed, were cited as necessary by the Reid Commission as a form of affirmative action that would eventually be phased out. These controversial measures were included as Articles 3, 152 and 153 of the Constitution. [8] [9] This article needs cleanup. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political federalism is a political philosophy in which a group of members are bound together (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head. ... Look up quota in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Malay language (Malay: Bahasa Melayu; Jawi script: بهاس ملايو), is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people who reside in the Malay Peninsula, southern Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore, central eastern Sumatra, the Riau islands, parts of the coast of Borneo and even in the Netherlands[1]. It is an official... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Affirmative action refers to policies intended to discriminate against white males and promote access to education or employment aimed at a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically, minorities or women). ... In 2005, UMNO Youth Chief Hishamuddin Hussein brandished the keris (traditional Malay dagger) in defense of ketuanan Melayu, the social contract and Article 153. ...


As expected, independence was declared by the Tunku in Merdeka Stadium on August 31, 1957, marking a transition into a new era of Malayan and Malaysian politics. Merdeka Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ...


Independence, Malaysia and May 13

In the 1959 general elections, Malaya's first, the Alliance coalition led by UMNO won 51.8% of the votes, resulting in 74 out of 104 seats, enough for an absolute two-thirds majority in Parliament, which would not only allow them to form the government again but amend the constitution at will. However, for the Alliance, the election was marred by internal strife when MCA leader Lim Chong Eu demanded his party be allowed to contest 40 of the 104 seats available. When the Tunku rejected this, Lim and his supporters resigned, many of them running in the election as independents, which cost the Alliance some seats. [10] The Malaysian Houses of Parliament in Kuala Lumpur. ... Tun Dato Seri Dr. Lim Chong Eu (Chinese :林蒼祐) was born in 1919 in Penang. ...


In 1961, the Tunku mooted the idea of forming "Malaysia", which would consist of Singapore, Sabah, Sarawak and Brunei, all of which were then British colonies. The reasoning behind this was that this would allow the central government to control and combat communist activities, especially in Singapore. It was also feared that if Singapore achieved independence, it would become a base for Chinese chauvinists to threaten Malayan sovereignty. To balance out the ethnic composition of the new nation, the other states, whose Malay and indigenous populations would balance out the Singaporean Chinese majority, were also included. [11] State motto: Sabah Maju Jaya State anthem: Sabah Tanah Airku Capital Kota Kinabalu Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Ahmadshah Abdullah  - Ketua Menteri Musa Aman History    - Brunei Sultanate 16th century   - Sulu Sultanate 1658   - British North Borneo 1882   - Japanese occupation 1941-1945   - British control 1946   - Accession into Malaysia 1963... State motto: Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti State anthem: Ibu Pertiwiku Capital Kuching Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Abang Muhammad Salahuddin  - Ketua Menteri Abdul Taib Mahmud History    - Brunei Sultanate 19th century   - Brooke dynasty 1841   - Japanese occupation 1941-1945   - British control 1946   - Accession into Malaysia 1963  Area  - Total 124,450...


After much negotiation, a constitution was hammered out. Some minor changes had been made — for instance, the Malay privileges were now made available to all "Bumiputra", a group comprising the Malays and other indigenous peoples of Malaysia. However, the new states were also granted some autonomy unavailable to the original nine states of Malaya. After negotiations in July 1963, it was agreed that Malaysia would come into being on August 31, 1963, consisting of Singapore, Sabah and Sarawak. Brunei pulled out after Parti Rakyat Brunei staged an armed revolt, which, though it was put down, was viewed as potentially destabilising to the new nation. [12] Bumiputra or Bumiputera (Malay, from Sanskrit Bhumiputra; translated literally, it means son of the soil), is an official definition widely used in Malaysia, embracing ethnic Malays as well as other indigenous ethnic groups such as the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia and the tribal peoples in Sabah and Sarawak. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Philippines and Indonesia strenuously objected to this development, with Indonesia claiming Malaysia represented a form of neocolonialism and the Philippines claiming Sabah as its territory. The United Nations sent a commission to the region which approved the merger after having delayed the date of Malaysia's formation to investigate. Despite further protests from the Indonesian President, Sukarno, the formation of Malaysia was proclaimed on September 16, 1963. Indonesia then declared a "confrontation" with Malaysia, sending commandos to perform guerilla attacks in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak). The confrontation was ended when a military coup replaced Sukarno with Suharto. The Philippines, which had withdrawn diplomatic recognition from Malaysia, also recognised Malaysia around the same time. [13] Neocolonialism is a term used by some intellectuals to describe international economic arrangements by which former colonial powers maintained control of their former colonies and new dependencies following World War II. The term itself can obfuscate current colonialism, as some governments continue to administer foreign territories and populations in violation... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Sukarno (June 6, 1901 – June 21, 1970) was the first President of Indonesia. ... // 1400 - Owain Glyndŵr declared Prince of Wales by his followers. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962–1966. ... For other uses, see Commando (disambiguation). ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Suharto GCB (born June 8, 1921) is a former Indonesian military and political leader. ...


To reflect the change of name to Malaysia, UMNO's coalition partners promptly altered their names to the Malaysian Chinese Association and the Malaysian Indian Congress. Several political parties in East Malaysia, especially Sarawak, also joined the Alliance to allow it to contest elections there. MCA Flag The Malaysian Chinese Association (Persatuan Cina Malaysia, MCA) (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: Mǎ Huá Gōng Huì; Cantonese: Ma Wah Koong Wui) is a political party in Malaysia, made up of Chinese Malaysian and one of the three major parties that make up the ruling Barisan Nasional, or National... The Malaysian Indian Congress (Kongres India Se-Malaysia, MIC) is a Malaysian political party and is one of the founding members of the ruling coalition, Barisan Nasional, previously known as the Alliance, that has been in power since the country achieved independence in 1957. ...


In the 1963 Singapore state elections, the Alliance decided to challenge Lee Kuan Yew's governing People's Action Party (PAP) through the Singapore Alliance Party. UMNO politicians actively campaigned in Singapore for the Singapore Alliance, contending that the Singapore Malays were being treated as second-class citizens under the Chinese-dominated but multiracial PAP government. However, all of the UMNO-backed Malay candidates lost to PAP candidates. Angered, UMNO Secretary-General Syed Jaafar Albar travelled to Singapore to address the Malay populace. At one rally, he called the PAP Malay politicians un-Islamic and traitors to the Malay race, greatly straining PAP-UMNO relations. The PAP politicians, who saw this as a betrayal of an earlier agreement with the Alliance not to contest elections in Malaysia and Singapore respectively, decided on running on the mainland in the 1964 general election. Although the PAP contested nine Parliamentary seats and attracted large crowds at its rallies, it won only one seat. Nevertheless, UMNO leaders were furious. [14] [15] The Singapore legislative assembly general election of 1963 were elections that took place in Singapore on 21 September 1963 following five days after the merger with Malaysia and therefore as an autonomous state of Malaysia. ... Party logo with a symbol of red lightning that signifies action. ... The Singapore Alliance Party, or sometimes known as just Singapore Alliance was a coalition of political parties that contested several elections in Singapore, notably the 1955 Elections of Singapore and the 1963 Elections of Singapore that was heavily backed by the local chapter of the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO... Tan Sri Syed Jaafar Albar (?–1977) was a Malaysian politician. ... The sometimes tumultous relationship between the Peoples Action Party (PAP) and United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), which were, and still are, the ruling parties respectively of Singapore and Malaysia, has impacted the recent history of both states. ... The Malaysian general election of 1964 was an important step towards the eventual independence of Singapore from Malaysia. ...


The strain in race relations caused by the communal lines along which the political factions had been drawn led to the 1964 Race Riots in Singapore. [15] PAP Malay politician Othman Wok later insinuated that the riot had been planned beforehand by Malay "ultras". [16] The start of the July riot on Prophet Muhammads birthday, that would later injure hundreds and kill 23 people. ... Othman Wok (born 1924) was a former Cabinet Minister in Singapore for 14 years. ... During the 1960s in Malaysia and Singapore, some racial extremists were referred to as ultras. The phrase was most commonly used by the first Prime Minister of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew, and other leaders of his political party, the Peoples Action Party (PAP), to refer to Malay extremists. ...


Alliance leaders were also alarmed at Lee's behaviour, which they considered unseemly for the Chief Minister of a state; to them, he was acting as if he was the Prime Minister of a sovereign nation. Finance Minister Tan Siew Sin of the MCA labelled Lee as the "greatest, disruptive force in the entire history of Malaysia and Malaya." Lee now seemed determined to press forward politically and continue contesting elections nationwide, with the formation of the Malaysian Solidarity Convention — a coalition of political parties which called for a "Malaysian Malaysia" as opposed to one with Bumiputra privileges. The spirit of this argument was stated by Lee in Parliament: "Malaysia — to whom does it belong? To Malaysians. But who are Malaysians? I hope I am, Mr Speaker, Sir. But sometimes, sitting in this chamber, I doubt whether I am allowed to be a Malaysian." [17] [18] [19] Tun Tan Siew Sin (21 May 1916–17 March 1988)) was Malaysias first Minister of Commerce and Industry, Finance Minister for 15 years, and president of the Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA). ... The sometimes tumultous relationship between the Peoples Action Party and United Malays National Organisation, which were, and still are, the ruling parties respectively of Singapore and Malaysia, has impacted the recent history of both States. ...


Fed up, the Tunku decided to ask Singapore to secede. After much persuasion in the Singapore cabinet, it was agreed, with Singapore declaring independence on August 9, 1965. Lee broke down in tears at a press conference announcing secession, and the Tunku opened his speech in Parliament with the words, "In all the 10 years of my leadership of this House I have never had a duty so unpleasant as this to perform. The announcement which I am making concerns the separation of Singapore from the rest of the Federation." [18] [17] After the separation and independence of Singapore in 1965, the Singapore branch of UMNO was renamed the Singapore Malay National Organisation (Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Singapura). is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... The Singapore Malay National Organisation (PKMS, short for Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Singapura in Malay) is a political party in Singapore. ...


After Singapore's expulsion from the Federation, UMNO focused on continuing its policies which would benefit the Malays. One such contentious one involved the Malay language, which was the official language of Malaysia. UMNO sought to more strongly enforce this, and reduce the reliance on English in government affairs. In this, it was aided by PAS, the Pan-Malaysian Islamic Party, which backed special rights for the Bumiputra, and the strengthening of Islam's position in public affairs. However, the PAP's Malaysian branch, which had now become a full-fledged party in its own right as the Democratic Action Party (DAP), took a strong stance against this, and continued calls for a "Malaysian Malaysia", arguing that Bumiputra "special rights" had only benefited the Malay elite while ignoring the rural poor. In 1968, Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia or plain Gerakan, led by Lim Chong Eu, joined the DAP in protesting the Bumiputra rights as well. [20] Democratic Action Party (DAP) logo The Democratic Action Party (DAP, Parti Tindakan Demokratik in Malay) is Malaysias largest secular and Socialist opposition party. ... Parti Gerakan Logo The Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia (Malaysian Peoples Movement Party in English) formed on 24th March 1968, is a liberal party in Malaysia. ...


Matters came to a head in the 1969 general election. When polling closed on the mainland peninsula (West Malaysia) on May 10, it emerged the Alliance had won less than half of the popular vote, although it was assured of 66 out of 104 Parliamentary seats available. Much of the losses came from the MCA, straining relations between the two parties. However, the Alliance was dealt an even larger blow on the state level, losing control of Kelantan, Perak, and Penang. [21] The Malaysian general election of 1969 was the third general election since independence, held in West Malaysia (Malaya) on May 10, 1969, and in East Malaysia later in the month. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... State motto: Berserah kepada Tuhan Kerajaan Kelantan State anthem: Selamat Sultan Capital (and royal capital) Kota Bharu Ruling party PAS  - Sultan Tuanku Ismail Petra  - Menteri Besar Nik Aziz Nik Mat History    - Siamese control 1603   - British control 1909   - Japanese occupation 1942-1946   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 14... State anthem: Allah Lanjutkan Usia Sultan Capital Ipoh Royal capital Kuala Kangsar Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Azlan Shah  - Menteri Besar Tajol Rosli Mohd Ghazali History    - Pangkor treaty 1874   - Federated into FMS 1895   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 21,006 km² Population  - 2005... State motto: Bersatu dan Setia (United and Loyal) State anthem: Untuk Negeri Kita (For Our State) Capital George Town Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang Di-Pertua Negeri Abdul Rahman bin Haji Abbas  - Ketua Menteri Dr Koh Tsu Koon History    - Ceded by Kedah to British 11 August 1786   - Japanese occupation 1942...


Selangor — whose Chief Minister, Harun Idris, was perceived as among the most radical Malay extremists in calling for special rights — also saw its State Assembly evenly divided between the government and opposition. To celebrate, the DAP and Gerakan staged a march throughout the federal capital of Kuala Lumpur in Selangor. Harun organised a counter-rally on May 13 which saw Malays gathered from all over the state, armed with parangs (machetes) and other weapons. Harun and other UMNO politicians lambasted the opposition for their "insults" and challenging Malay supremacy in government, and stated the counter-rally would "teach the Chinese a lesson". The rally erupted into a full-fledged riot, with armed Malays looting and burning Chinese shops and homes. The Chinese soon fought back, raising the tension. When the police arrived, they were outnumbered by the rioters, and were forced to call in army units for aid. The predominantly Malay soldiers reportedly concentrated on controlling the Chinese rioters. The riot lasted for two days, despite the imposition of a nationwide curfew. At least 178 were killed in the riot, although some sources have placed the figure in the proximity of 1,000 dead. [22] State motto: Dipelihara Allah State anthem: Duli Yang Maha Mulia Capital Shah Alam Royal capital Klang Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Sultan Sultan Sharafuddin  - Menteri Besar Dr Mohd Khir Toyo History    - Federated into FMS 1895   - Japanese occupation 1942   - Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948  Area  - Total 7,956 km² Population  - 2005... Dato Seri Harun bin Haji Idris (22 December 1925 – 19 October 2003) was a Malaysian politician. ... Nickname: Motto: Maju dan makmur (Malay: Progress and Prosper) Location in Malaysia Coordinates: , Country Malaysia State Federal Territory Establishment 1857 Granted city status 1974 Government  - Mayor (Datuk Bandar) Datuk Abdul Hakim Borhan From 14 December 2006 Area  - City 243. ... Parang is a musical style which fuses together Venezuelan and Calypso influences to create up beat tempos with a Spanish style and is popular in Trinidad & Tobago and various areas of Venezuela. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The May 13 Incident saw numerous cases of arson in the Malaysian capital city of Kuala Lumpur. ... A curfew can be one of the following: An order by the government or by the childs parents for certain persons to return home daily before a certain time. ...


The Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King) declared a national emergency after being advised by the national government. Parliament was suspended, with a National Operations Council (NOC) led by Deputy Prime Minister Tun Abdul Razak of UMNO, taking over the government. Further polling in East Malaysia as a continuation of the general election was also postponed indefinitely. Although the Cabinet still met under the Tunku as Prime Minister, his role was largely symbolic, with Tun Razak taking over the role of chief executive. [23] Flag of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia Yang di-Pertuan Agong, a Malay title usually translated as Supreme Ruler or Paramount Ruler, is the official title of the constitutional head of state of the federation of Malaysia. ... The National Operations Council was an emergency administrative body which attempted to restore law and order in Malaysia during the race riots in 1967. ... Tun Abdul Razak bin Dato Hussein (1922-1976) was the second Prime Minister of Malaysia, ruling from 1970 to 1976. ...


UMNO backbencher Mahathir bin Mohamad, who had lost his Parliamentary seat in the election, wrote a scathing letter to the Tunku, criticising his leadership. Mahathir stated Tunku had given "the Chinese what they demand...you have given them too much face. The responsibility for the deaths of this people, Muslims and infidels, must be shouldered by [you]." Mahathir organised a campaign with University of Malaya lecturer Raja Muktaruddin Daim to oust the Tunku, circulating his letter among the student body of local universities. Mass demonstrations broke out, with Malay students calling for a restoration of "Malay sovereignty" and the Tunku's oustre. Mahathir also demanded a one-party autocracy under UMNO, without an elected Parliament. The non-Malay community responded by boycotting Malay Political parties established in business. [24] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The University of Malaya (or Universiti Malaya in Malay; commonly abbreviated as UM) is the oldest university in Malaysia, and is situated on a 750 acre (3. ... Raja Muktaruddin Daim was a Malaysian politician and leader of the UMNO who promoted the idea of an autocracy in Malaysia controlled by the UMNO and the Malay ethnic group. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An autocracy is a form of government in which the political power is held by a single person. ...


After rioting broke out in June, Home Affairs Minister Ismail Abdul Rahman and Tun Razak agreed to expel Mahathir and former Executive Secretary of UMNO Musa Hitam from the party for breaching party discipline. Ismail issued a statement saying "These ultras believe in the wild and fantastic theory of absolute dominion by one race over the other communities, regardless of the Constitution... Polarization has taken place in Malaysian politics and the extreme racialists among the ruling party are making a desperate bid to topple the present leadership." Nevertheless, the Tunku appeared to devote less time to domestic affairs and began making frequent diplomatic excursions. [25] Tun Dr Ismail Abdul Rahman (November 4, 1915 - August 2, 1973) was a Malaysian politician. ... Tan Sri Musa bin Hitam aka Moses Black received his Bachelors degree from the University of Malaya and his Masters degree from the University of Sussex. ... During the 1960s in Malaysia and Singapore, some racial extremists were referred to as ultras. The phrase was most commonly used by the first Prime Minister of Singapore, Lee Kuan Yew, and other leaders of his political party, the Peoples Action Party (PAP), to refer to Malay extremists. ... Hitlers Nazi Germany: the epitome of 20th-century racialism Racialism is a term used to describe racial policy, in what is generally perceived to be a negative sense, as promoting stratification and inequality between racial categories (in themselves, often disputed). ...


The question of whether to restore Parliamentary democracy was considered by the NOC; some radical members of UMNO such as Mahathir demanded the NOC govern on its own permanently, without Parliament. Sources indicate the Tunku and Ismail favoured restoring Parliament as soon as possible, while Tun Razak vacillated, eventually agreeing with them, provided that more aggressive affirmative action policies be implemented. The suspended elections in East Malaysia were held in 1970, and gave the Alliance government a solid two-thirds majority in Parliament again. On August 31 that year, the Tunku announced the national ideology — Rukunegara — and his planned retirement as Prime Minister in favour of Tun Razak. He also stated Parliament would be restored the following year. [26] is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Rukunegara or sometimes Rukun Negara is a philosophy - de facto Malaysian pledge of allegiance - introduced by the Malaysian government 1970 in reaction to a serious race riot known as the May 13 Incident which occurred in 1969. ...


Before Parliament was restored, the UMNO-led NOC illegalised discussion on the topic of abolishing the portions of the Constitution dealing with Malay rights. The immunity granted to Members of Parliament (MPs) that effectively allowed them to speak on any topic without fear of arrest was also denied, with the amended Sedition Act covering all public discussions. When Parliament reconvened in 1971, Tun Razak justified these amendments (which had to be passed by Parliament) by stating: "Shall we return to...when, in the name of democracy and freedom of speech, irresponsible elements were at liberty to foment and exploit racial emotions until we were brought to the very brink of national disintegration?" UMNO MPs strongly backed the amendments, and they were eventually passed by a vote of 125 to 17, with the DAP and People's Progressive Party (PPP) MPs dissenting. [27] There are several parties named Peoples Progressive Party: Peoples Progressive Party (The Gambia) Peoples Progressive Party (Guyana) Peoples Progressive Party (Malaysia) Peoples Progressive Party (Papua New Guinea) Peoples Progressive Party (Solomon Islands) Categories: Disambiguation ...


The New Economic Policy

After Tun Razak succeeded the Tunku in 1970, he began asserting UMNO's leadership in the Alliance more strongly. When the Tunku led the coalition, he had always consulted Alliance leaders regarding policy — if an Alliance leader objected, the policy was not passed. Under Tun Razak, UMNO was the base of the Alliance and thus the government. The NOC which he led until Parliament reconvened consisted of 7 Malays, one Chinese and one Indian; likewise, the only major post in his Cabinet held by a non-Malay was that of the MCA's Tan Siew Sin, who was Finance Minister. Most non-Malay leaders in the Alliance under Tun Razak were appointed to Deputy Ministerial posts, which are not Cabinet-level. [28] Tun Tan Siew Sin (21 May 1916–17 March 1988)) was Malaysias first Minister of Commerce and Industry, Finance Minister for 15 years, and president of the Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA). ...


In Tun Razak's cabinet, the two most powerful men other than him were Ismail Abdul Rahman and Ghazali Shafie, who had declared the Westminster-style Parliamentary system inappropriate for Malaysia. Tun Razak also readmitted to the party "ultras" who had been expelled, like Mahathir and Musa Hitam. Mahathir gained notoriety after his expulsion from UMNO by authoring The Malay Dilemma, a book promptly banned from Malaysia, which posited that the Malays are the definitive people of Malaysia, and thus deserved special rights as the sovereign people of the nation. It also controversially argued that the Malays needed affirmative action to overcome deficiencies in their genetic stock. [29] The Malay Dilemma is a controversial book written by Mahathir bin Mohamad in 1970. ...


Hussein Onn, son of UMNO founder Dato' Onn Ja'afar, soon became a rising star in UMNO. After Ismail died suddenly of a heart attack in 1973, Hussein Onn succeeded him as Deputy Prime Minister. In the Cabinet reshuffle that promoted Hussein Onn, Mahathir was given the key post of Education Minister. [30] Acute myocardial infarction (AMI or MI), more commonly known as a heart attack, is a disease state that occurs when the blood supply to a part of the heart is interrupted. ... In the parliamentary system a cabinet shuffle is an informal term for an event that occurs when a Head of Government rotates or changes the composition of ministers in his or her cabinet. ...


The Tun Razak government announced the New Economic Policy (NEP) in 1971. Its stated goal was to "eventually eradicate poverty...irrespective of race" through a "rapidly expanding economy" which would reduce the non-Malay share of the economy in relative terms, while increasing it in absolute terms; the net "losses" of the non-Malays would go to the Malays, who held only 1.5% of the economy at the time of the May 13 riots. The NEP targeted a 30 per cent Malay share of the economy by 1990. The government contended that this would lead to a "just society" ("Masyarakat Adil"), the latter slogan being used to promote acceptance of the policy. Quotas in education and the civil service that the Constitution had explicitly provided for were expanded by the NEP, which also mandated government interference in the private sector. For instance, 30% of all shares in initial public offerings (IPOs) would be disbursed by the government to selected Bumiputra (most of which are Malay). The old civil service hiring quota of 4 Malays for every non-Malay was effectively disregarded in practice; between 1969 and 1973, 98% of all new government employees were Malay. Five new universities were opened under the NEP, two of which were explicitly targeted at the Malays and Muslims; at least one (Universiti Teknologi Mara) remains open only to Bumiputra as of 2006. 90% of government scholarships for studying abroad were awarded to Malays. Hiring quotas in the private sector were also enforced. [31] Under the Malaysian New Economic Policy, Bumiputras are given discounts on real estate. ... An initial public offering (IPO) is the first sale of a corporations common shares to investors on a public stock exchange. ... Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) commitment is to produce a significant number of Bumiputera (ethnic Malay) professionals, so all the students are Bumiputeras, although the faculty includes other races. ...


Tun Razak also began shoring up the government by bringing in several former opposition parties into the fold of the Alliance. Gerakan, PPP, PAS, and several former opposition parties in East Malaysia joined the coalition, which was renamed as the Barisan Nasional (National Front, abbreviated as BN). BN was formally registered as an organisation in 1974, the same year in which a general election was held. [32] Barisan Nasional (National Front or BN) is a political coalition in Malaysia. ...


There had been much internal conflict in BN regarding the election; in 1973, Lim Keng Yaik and several supporters of his aggressive pro-Chinese stance, left the MCA for Gerakan. This contributed to internal strife, as the MCA was no longer the sole representative of Chinese interests in BN. [33] Yang Berbahagia Dato Seri Dr Lim Keng Yaik (Chinese : 林敬益) is the National President of Parti Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia since 1980. ...


The 1974 election was the first under which the national capital, Kuala Lumpur, was represented as a Federal Territory instead of as a part of Selangor. Critics argued this was effectively a gerrymander giving BN an advantage over the DAP, which had strong support from the urban population. The DAP and a Gerakan offshoot (Pekemas) which had opposed merger with BN were the government's principal opposition, and leaders from both parties called on voters to deny BN a 2/3rds Parliamentary majority. However, their campaigning was stifled due to restrictions prohibiting them from discussing abolition of Malay privileges. The eventual results gave the government 135 out of 154 seats in Parliament. [34] Redrawing electoral districts in this example creates a guaranteed 3-to-1 advantage for Party 1. ...


Discontent among student organisations in Malaysian universities soon posed a new problem for the UMNO-led government, however. Mahathir in his capacity as Education Minister issued a stern warning to university students and faculty not to become involved in politics. However, amidst allegations that farmers in rural states were starving due to government policies, massive student demonstrations were held in December 1974. Most of the demonstrators were Malays, and their ringleaders, which included Anwar Ibrahim — founder of Angkatan Belia Islam Malaysia (the Islamic Youth Movement of Malaysia, or ABIM) — were detained under the Internal Security Act, which effectively allows the government to detain anyone it sees as a threat to national security for an indefinite period. In 1975, Parliament passed amendments to the Universities and University Colleges Act (UUCA) which banned students from expressing support of or holding positions in any political party or trade union without written consent from the university's Vice Chancellor. The act also banned political demonstrations from being held on university campuses. In 1976, however, mass demonstrations were held at the MARA Institute of Technology, protesting the UUCA. Mahathir then threatened to revoke the scholarships of the students, most of whom relied on public support to pay their way through university. [35] Anwar Ibrahim has been touring the lecture circuit around the world since his release in 2004. ... In the wake of World War II, a number of countries around the world introduced legislation that severely curtailed the rights of known or suspected communists. ...


BN was also challenged in Sarawak after the 1974 election, which saw the Sarawak National Party (SNAP) led by James Wong become tied with the DAP as the most important opposition party in Parliament, both of them holding nine seats each. SNAP had campaigned against BN on a platform of opposing Chief Minister Abdul Rahman Ya'akub's pro-Malay policies, charging them with alienating the rural indigenous natives of Sarawak, such as the Iban. SNAP had been expelled from the Alliance in 1965 for supporting increased autonomy for Sarawak. After the election results were released, Abdul Rahman ordered the detention of James Wong under the Sedition Act. SNAP elected a new leader, Leo Moggie, who secured the release of Wong and the entry of SNAP into BN in 1976. However, SNAP's role in the Sarawak government was markedly reduced; whereas it had once held the post of Chief Minister, its leaders were now allocated minor government posts. [36] James Wong may refer to: James Wong Jim - a Hong Kong Cantopop lyricist and writer. ... The Ibans are a branch of the Dayak peoples of Borneo. ...


In Sabah, the Alliance and then BN controlled the state government through the United Sabah National Organization (USNO), which strongly backed UMNO's pro-Malay and pro-Islam policies. In 1973, Islam was made the official Sabah state religion (the official religion of Sabah was originally Christianity, as permitted by the agreement signed before the merger), and usage of indigenous languages such as those of the Kadazan people was discontinued in favour of the Malay language. The USNO Chief Minister, Mustapha Harun, was also known for favouring political patronage as a means of allocating valuable timber contracts, and living an extravagant lifestyle, being ferried to his A$1 million Queensland home by jets provided with Sabahan public funds. [37] Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... The Kadazan is the largest ethnic group in Sabah (a state in Malaysia) making up about one third of the population. ... Generally, patronage is the act of supporting or favoring some person, group, or institution. ... Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Peter Beattie (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd)  - Product per capita  $40,170/person (6th) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  4,164,590 (3rd)  - Density  2. ...


In the 1974 election, Pekemas attempted to contest, eventually winning almost 40% of the vote. However, it failed to win any Parliamentary or State Assembly seats, with USNO holding onto the state government. [38]


UMNO's share of votes has steadily declined since the Islamic party's (PAS) emergence onto the political scene in the 1990 general elections. Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...


In the 1999 general election, rocked by the arrest and trial of former UMNO deputy Anwar Ibrahim and the subsequent formation of the Barisan Alternatif opposition coalition, UMNO's share dipped to 54% of the vote and 102 out of 144 seats despite allegations of vote-rigging. But in 2004 general election, UMNO had a landslide victory and almost recaptured Kelantan which has been ruled by the Opposition since 1990. This win is the biggest since Independence in 1957. The 1999 Malaysian General Election was held on 29 November 1999 as stipulated by the laws of Malaysia for general elections. ... Anwar Ibrahim has been touring the lecture circuit around the world since his release in 2004. ... Barisan Alternatif (BA, Alternative Front in Malay) is a coalition of Malaysian opposition parties, formed as a counterweight to the ruling Barisan Nasional. ...


The Alliance (now known as the Barisan Nasional) has constantly maintained its 2/3rds majority in Parliament since 1969. Barisan Nasional (National Front or BN) is a political coalition in Malaysia. ...


UMNO Baru (New UMNO)

Further information: 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis

On 24 April 1987, UMNO held its Annual General Assembly and triennial Party election. The then Prime Minister and party President, Mahathir Mohamad, faced his first party election in 12 years, having been elected unopposed every time since the 1975 UMNO election. The Sultan Abdul Samad Building housed the Supreme Court at the time of the 1988 Malaysian constitutional crisis. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...


The politics of the Malays, particularly UMNO politics, had undergone a sea change in the first few years of the Mahathir stewardship, and the incumbent party president was challenged for the second time in 41 years. The first challenge had been a dull affair in which Hussein Onn had been opposed by a minor party official named Sulaiman Palestin. (Another President, Tunku Abdul Rahman had also been challenged by one C. M. Yusof, later Speaker of the Lower House of Parliament, in the early 1950s, but the Tunku was then only the care-taker President and not properly the incumbent.)


The 1987 contest was a vastly different matter. Mahathir was opposed by his very popular former Finance Minister, Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah. The press took to referring to Mahathir and his supporters as Team A, and Razaleigh's camp as Team B. Team B included then Deputy Prime Minister Tun Musa Hitam, who was also the incumbent Deputy President of UMNO seeking re-election, as well as Datuk Suhaimi Kamaruddin, the former head of UMNO Youth and president of the Belia 4B youth organisation. [39] Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah (born 1937) is a major Malaysian political figure from the state of Kelantan. ... Tan Sri Musa bin Hitam aka Moses Black received his Bachelors degree from the University of Malaya and his Masters degree from the University of Sussex. ...


Team B was critical of Mahathir's policies, arguing that the Malaysian New Economic Policy (NEP) had failed to benefit the poor Malays. It also criticised Mahathir's leadership style, alleging he acted unilaterally without consulting other leaders in UMNO and the Barisan Nasional. Team B was also perceived as less Islamist than Mahathir's faction. [40] Under the Malaysian New Economic Policy, Bumiputras are given discounts on real estate. ...


Mahathir claimed that the charges against him were groundless, and suggested that his opponents were fracturing Malay unity and were only motivated by greed. [40]


Eventually, Mahathir was returned to office. However, he was elected with such a small majority of 43 (761 against 718 votes) that questions were immediately raised about his mandate. Team B supporters, many of whom had been anticipating a victory of similar margins, suspected that the election had been fixed. The Team B candidate for Deputy President, Musa Hitam, had also been defeated by Ghafar Baba of Team A, while two of the three Vice-Presidents were Team A candidates. The Supreme Council comprised 16 Team A candidates and 9 Team B candidates. [41] Tun Ghafar Baba (February 18, 1925–April 23, 2006) was a Malaysian politician from Melaka and a former Deputy Prime Minister. ...


Allegations were made that several delegates who had voted were drawn from UMNO branches not properly registered. There were also several unproved allegations being bandied about that the balloting process had not been above board. [42]


Nevertheless, Razaleigh pledged to support Mahathir, provided that a "witch hunt" was not launched. However, Mahathir promptly purged the government cabinet of all Team B members, and launched similar reshuffles in state and local governments. [43]


On 25 June 1987, an appeal was filed by 12 of the UMNO delegates (one of whom, Hussain bin Manap, withdrew unexpectedly in August) to have the assembly and the election of April 1987 declared null. The remaining litigants have since become famous as the "UMNO 11." Although Razaleigh and Musa Hitam were not among the plaintiffs, it was widely believed that Razaleigh was funding the appeal. [42] is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...


After a series of interlocutory hearings over the discovery of documents that took more than seven months, the matter finally came before Justice Harun Hashim in the Kuala Lumpur High Court on 4 February 1988. The judge ruled that under the existing law he had no option but to find the party, UMNO, to be an unlawful society due to the existence of several unregistered branches — an illegal act under the Societies Act of 1966. The question of the Assembly itself being illegal therefore became academic. [44] is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...


"'It is a very hard decision to declare UMNO unlawful,' said Justice Datuk Harun Hashim in his 4 February judgement. 'But the law was made by our Parliament and certainly UMNO was aware [of the Societies Act] because they were in the majority [in Parliament] at all times [when the law was made].' Under the 1966 Act, amended five times over the years, and most recently by Mahathir's government, each of the society's branches has to register separately with the Registrar...." [44] is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Tunku and former UMNO President Hussein Onn set up a new party called UMNO Malaysia, which claimed to be the successor to the old UMNO. UMNO Malaysia was supported mainly by members of the Team B faction from UMNO, but Mahathir was also invited to join the party leadership. However, the party collapsed after the Registrar of Societies refused to register it as a society (without providing an explanation). [45] Tun Hussein bin Dato Onn (February 12, 1922-May 29, 1990)who is of 3/4 Malay & 1/4 Turkish(of Circassian extraction) ancestry was the third Prime Minister of Malaysia, ruling from 1976 to 1981. ...


Mahathir showed no interest in reviving UMNO, and instead he set in motion the machinery to form a new surrogate party, and in due course, registered a party formally called Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu (Baru) or UMNO (New) a week after UMNO Malaysia's registration was rejected. Eventually the suffix "(New)" was dropped, and UMNO (Baru) became both the de facto and de jure successor of UMNO (with the old UMNO's assets handed over). Most of its leaders, however, were selected from Team A of the old UMNO, with Team B ignored. [46]


Post-Mahathir

After Mahathir stepped down as President of UMNO in 2003, he was replaced by his designated successor, Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, who by virtue of his new position also became Prime Minister of Malaysia. The new Deputy President, Najib Tun Razak — the son of Tun Abdul Razak — was selected by Abdullah. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Prime Minister of Malaysia (in Malay Perdana Menteri) is the indirectly elected head of government of Malaysia. ... Dato Sri Mohd Najib Bin Tun Haji Abdul Razak (born July 23, 1953, in Kuala Lipis, Pahang) is a Malaysian politician and has been the countrys Deputy Prime Minister since January 7, 2004. ...


Under Abdullah, UMNO has undergone a number of crises, most notably in 2006 when Mahathir began actively confronting Abdullah about his policies, and campaigned for a position as a delegate to the national UMNO assembly so he could earn the right to speak at the floor of the assembly.


UMNO remains a strong influence on Malaysian politics; a number have charged that "it is UMNO which wields real power" in Malaysia, instead of the Barisan Nasional coalition government.[47] Because allegations of corruption have tainted the government, some commentators have suggested that "reckless Umno members who have become poster boys of excess, insensitivity and the faux pas are seen as the manifestation of what is wrong and has gone wrong in a Malay-dominated government."[48] Barisan Nasional (National Front or BN) is a political coalition in Malaysia. ...


The 2006 UMNO Annual General Assembly was widely remarked upon by analysts, who saw it as "return to the atmosphere of the 1980s, when there was a 'strong anti-Chinese sentiment'".[49] Several controversial statements were made at the assembly, such as "Umno is willing to risk lives and bathe in blood to defend the race and religion. Don't play with fire. If they (non-Malays) messed with our rights, we will mess with theirs."[50] The controversy was aggravated by the fact that that assembly was the first ever to be telecast live; in addition, analysts suggested that it created problems for the Malaysian Chinese Association, one of UMNO's partners in BN, which was accused by the opposition Democratic Action Party (DAP) of failing to stand up to the heated racial rhetoric of UMNO delegates. One Chinese political insider was quoted as saying that "We were told the sensitive remarks were not an orchestrated or a coordinated attack against the Chinese. Well, that’s even worse. It means the speakers individually had those feelings".[51] MCA Flag The Malaysian Chinese Association (Persatuan Cina Malaysia, MCA) (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: MÇŽ Huá Gōng Huì; Cantonese: Ma Wah Koong Wui) is a political party in Malaysia, made up of Chinese Malaysian and one of the three major parties that make up the ruling Barisan Nasional, or National... Democratic Action Party (DAP) logo The Democratic Action Party (DAP, Parti Tindakan Demokratik in Malay) is Malaysias largest secular and Socialist opposition party. ...


Ideology

UMNO sees itself as representing the Malays of Malaysia, although any Bumiputra (indigenous Malaysian, a category which includes people such as the non-Malay and usually non-Muslim Kadazan, Iban, Dayak, etc. of East Malaysia) may join the party. UMNO is generally regarded as the "protector and champion of ketuanan Melayu" (Malay supremacy), which states that Malays are the rulers of Malaysia or "masters of this land", as stated by former UMNO Youth Information Chief Azimi Daim in 2003.[52][53] Bumiputra or Bumiputera (Malay, from Sanskrit Bhumiputra; translated literally, it means son of the soil), is an official definition widely used in Malaysia, embracing ethnic Malays as well as other indigenous ethnic groups such as the Orang Asli in Peninsular Malaysia and the tribal peoples in Sabah and Sarawak. ... The Kadazan is the largest ethnic group in Sabah (a state in Malaysia) making up about one third of the population. ... The Ibans are a branch of the Dayak peoples of Borneo. ... The Dayak (or Dyak) are indigenous natives of Borneo. ... United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) Youth Chief Hishammuddin Hussein brandishing the kris (dagger), an action seen by some as a defence of ketuanan Melayu. ... Azimi Daim is a Malaysian politician and senior leader of the UMNO. He is a major advocate of Ketuanan Melayu. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 2004, Tengku Razaleigh Hamzah suggested the now ignored " one member, one vote " method to select UMNO highest post from the President to the rest of the High Council. With " one member, one vote " ; vote buying would be reduced as who could buy the vote of UMNO's 3.2 million members as compared to only 3000 delegates during UMNO's internal election according to Tengku Razaleigh.


In 2004, some delegates at the UMNO Youth assembly went as far as to propose a resolution that anyone who left UMNO would be a "traitor to UMNO and a traitor to the Malay race". Although targeted at people like former Deputy Prime Minister Anwar Ibrahim, the resolution was eventually withdrawn because it would have declared party personages such as its founder, Dato' Onn Jaafar, and the first Malaysian Prime Minister, Tunku Abdul Rahman, as traitors to the party and the Malay race. [54] When the Tunku became UMNO President, he expressed worry about potential lack of loyalty among non-Malays to Malaya, and insisted this be clarified before they given citizenship. He also insisted that the British return sovereignty of Malaya to the Malays. However, parts of his speech would also have clashed with ketuanan Melayu, as he stated that "For those who love and feel they owe undivided loyalty to this country, we will welcome them as Malayans. They must truly be Malayans, and they will have the same rights and privileges as the Malays." [55] Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anwar Ibrahim has been touring the lecture circuit around the world since his release in 2004. ... Dato Sir Onn Bin Jaafar (1895-January 19, 1962) was a Malay politician and a Menteri Besar (Chief Minister) of Johor in Malaysia, then Malaya. ... The Prime Minister of Malaysia (in Malay Perdana Menteri) is the indirectly elected head of government of Malaysia. ... Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj ibni Almarhum Sultan Abdul Hamid Shah (February 8, 1903–December 6, 1990) usually known as the Tunku (a princely title in Malaysia), and also called Bapa Kemerdekaan (Father of Independence) or Bapa Malaysia (Father of Malaysia), was Chief Minister of the Federation of Malaya...


The Youth wing in particular is known for what some call radical and extremist defense of ketuanan Melayu; one opposition journalist has contended that all UMNO Youth leaders were "perceived as pro-Malay, anti-Chinese in their days". One oft-cited instance of this is a rally held by UMNO Youth shortly before Ops Lallang in 1987, where future Deputy Prime Minister and then UMNO Youth Chief Najib Razak threatened to bathe a keris (dagger) with Chinese blood. [56] At the same rally, banners were hoisted carrying phrases such as "revoke the citizenship of those who opposed the Malay rulers", "May 13 has begun" (referring to the May 13 racial riots in 1969), and "soak it (the keris) with Chinese blood". [57] Operation Lalang (or in English, Weeding Operation; also referred to as Ops Lallang) was carried out on 27 October 1987 by the Malaysian police to crackdown on opposition leaders and social activists. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Dato Sri Najib Bin Tun Haji Abdul Razak (born July 23, 1953 in Kuala Lipis, Pahang) is the Deputy Prime Minister of Malaysia since January 7, 2004. ... A keris or spelled as kris in English is a symbolic weapon that is mainly used in Southeast Asian countries. ... The May 13 Incident saw numerous cases of arson in the Malaysian capital city of Kuala Lumpur. ...


In 2005, UMNO Youth Chief Hishammuddin Hussein brandished the keris at the UMNO Annual General Meeting (AGM) while decrying critics of Article 153 of the Constitution of Malaysia and the social contract. [58] Both Article 153 and the social contract preserve special privileges for the Malays. Dato Seri Hishammuddin Bin Tun Hussein is a Malaysian politician and member of United Malays National Organization (UMNO). ... In 2005, UMNO Youth Chief Hishamuddin Hussein brandished the keris (traditional Malay dagger) in defense of ketuanan Melayu, the social contract and Article 153. ... The Constitution of Malaysia, comprising more than 180 articles, is the supreme law of Malaysia. ... The social contract in Malaysia refers to the agreement made by the countrys founding fathers in the Constitution. ...


However, more mature politicians occasionally make controversial statements as well; at the 2004 AGM, party Deputy Permanent Chairman Badruddin Amiruldin waved a book on the May 13 riots while warning non-Malays not to stir a "hornets' nest" and cautioning, "Let no one from the other races ever question the rights of Malays on this land." [53] Badruddin bin Amiruldin is a Member of Parliament in Malaysia who has had police reports filed against him for uttering racial slurs. ...


The 2006 UMNO Annual General Assembly was noted for controversial statements made by several delegates, such as Hashim Suboh, who asked Hishammuddin when he would "use" the keris; Hishammuddin had again brandished the keris at the assembly that year. The assembly was the first to have its entire proceedings televised in full. Several delegates raised the issue of the Malay Agenda, and called for greater enforcement of the NEP.[59] In response to concerns over the racial rhetoric, Vice President Muhyiddin Yassin said that "Although some sides were a bit extreme [this year], it is quite normal to voice feelings during the assembly."[60] The Deputy Chief of the Youth wing, Khairy Jamaluddin, insisted that "while there is nothing extraordinary about this year’s congress and that similar sentiments have been raised in the past, these feelings have never compromised the ultimate manifestation of governance in this country through BN’s power-sharing formula."[61] Hishammuddin also defended the delegates' actions, saying that events earlier in the year related to the status of Islam in Malaysia and the NEP had "played on the Malay psyche. If they had not been allowed to release their feelings in a controlled channel, it could have been even worse." He defended his usage of the keris, saying it was meant "to motivate the Malays" and that it "is here to stay", denying that it was a symbol of Malay supremacy (ketuanan Melayu).[62] Datuk Hashim Suboh is a Malaysian politician from the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), the leading party of the ruling Barisan Nasional coalition. ... In 2005, UMNO Youth Chief Hishamuddin Hussein brandished the Malay dagger (kris) in support of the Malay Agenda. ... Tan Sri Muhyidin Yassin was born in 1947. ... BN Deputy Youth Chief Khairy Jamaluddin on nomination day at Ijok. ... Islam is the official religion of Malaysia. ... Under the Malaysian New Economic Policy, Bumiputras are given discounts on real estate. ... United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) Youth Chief Hishammuddin Hussein brandishing the kris (dagger), an action seen by some as a defence of ketuanan Melayu. ...


See also

Political parties in Malaysia lists political parties in Malaysia. ... Politics of Malaysia takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister of Malaysia is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... The Singapore Malay National Organisation (PKMS, short for Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Singapura in Malay) is a political party in Singapore. ... Kesatuan Melayu Muda (KMM; roughly Young Malays Union in Malay) was the first national political establishment in British Malaya. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Adam, Ramlah binti, Samuri, Abdul Hakim bin & Fadzil, Muslimin bin (2004). Sejarah Tingkatan 3, pp. 60–65, 75. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. ISBN 983-62-8285-8.
  2. ^ Adam, Samuri & Fadzil, p. 124, 135.
  3. ^ Adam, Samuri & Fadzil, pp. 137–140.
  4. ^ "About MIC: History". Retrieved Jan. 28, 2006.
  5. ^ Adam, Samuri & Fadzil, p. 140.
  6. ^ Adam, Samuri & Fadzil, p. 103–107.
  7. ^ Adam, Samuri & Fadzil, pp. 148, 151.
  8. ^ Adam, Samuri & Fadzil, p. 153–155.
  9. ^ Ooi, Jeff (2005). "Social Contract: 'Utusan got the context wrong'". Retrieved 11 November 2005.
  10. ^ Goh, Cheng Teik (1994). Malaysia: Beyond Communal Politics, p. 18. Pelanduk Publications. ISBN 967-978-475-4.
  11. ^ Shuid, Mahdi & Yunus, Mohd. Fauzi (2001). Malaysian Studies, p. 29. Longman. ISBN 983-74-2024-3.
  12. ^ Shuid & Yunus, p. 31.
  13. ^ Adam, Samuri & Fadzil, pp. 214, 217, 220, 222, 223.
  14. ^ Goh, p. 37.
  15. ^ a b Goh, Jenny (July 23, 1997). "Small spark can create big mess". Straits Times.
  16. ^ Veloo, Ravi (Jan. 25, 1997). "Othman Wok on race relations". Straits Times.
  17. ^ a b Ooi, Jeff (2005). "Perils of the sitting duck". Retrieved 11 November 2005.
  18. ^ a b Rahman, Tunku Abdul (1965). "A dream shattered". Retrieved February 5, 2006.
  19. ^ "'Impossible to co-operate with Singapore while Lee is Premier'". (June 2, 1965). Straits Times.
  20. ^ Means, Gordon P. (1991). Malaysian Politics: The Second Generation, pp. 3, 5, 29. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-588988-6.
  21. ^ Means, p. 6, 7.
  22. ^ Means, pp. 7, 8.
  23. ^ Means, p. 8.
  24. ^ Means, p. 9.
  25. ^ Means, pp. 9, 10.
  26. ^ Means, pp. 11, 12.
  27. ^ Means, pp. 14, 15.
  28. ^ Means, pp. 20, 21.
  29. ^ Means, pp. 20–22.
  30. ^ Means, pp. 22, 23.
  31. ^ Means, pp. 23–27.
  32. ^ Means, pp. 29, 30.
  33. ^ Means, p. 31.
  34. ^ Means, pp. 32, 33.
  35. ^ Means, pp. 36, 37.
  36. ^ Means, pp. 39, 40.
  37. ^ Means, pp. 41, 42.
  38. ^ Means, p. 48.
  39. ^ Means, p. 201.
  40. ^ a b Means, p. 202.
  41. ^ Means, p. 204.
  42. ^ a b Means, p. 206.
  43. ^ Means, p. 205.
  44. ^ a b Means, pp. 218, 219.
  45. ^ Means, pp. 224, 225.
  46. ^ Means, pp. 224, 225, 230.
  47. ^ Quek, Kim (Nov. 4, 2006). Zakaria scandal: fiasco to UMNO?. Malaysia Today.
  48. ^ Arifin, Zainul (Nov. 15, 2006). Umno could look out for others, too. New Straits Times.
  49. ^ Lau, Leslie (Nov. 28, 2006). Non-Malays still troubled by Umno keris waving act. Malaysia Today.
  50. ^ Lopez, Leslie (Nov. 17, 2006). Race rhetoric is part of Umno politics. Malaysia Today.
  51. ^ Nadzri, Syed (Nov. 28, 2006). Overcoming the Chinese unease. Malaysia Today.
  52. ^ Lee, Hock Guan (2002). "Malay Dominance and Opposition Politics in Malaysia". In Southeast Asian Affairs 2002: An Annual Review, p. 180. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies.
  53. ^ a b Gatsiounis, Ioannis (Oct. 2, 2004). "Abdullah stirs a hornets' nest". Asia Times.
  54. ^ Pillai, M.G.G. (Dec. 10, 2005). "More postal votes were cast than allowed in Pengkalan Pasir". Malaysia Today.
  55. ^ Putra, Tunku Abdul Rahman (1986). Political Awakening, p. 31. Pelanduk Publications. ISBN 967-978-136-4.
  56. ^ Kamarudin, Raja Petra (Aug. 1, 2005). "Umno's relevance lies in Ketuanan Melayu". Malaysia Today.
  57. ^ Lim, Kit Siang (2000). "GPMS' extremist demands - a prelude to escalation of ethnic tensions to justify another Operation Lalang mass crackdown to shore up Mahathir and UMNO’s tottering position?". Retrieved Dec. 21, 2005.
  58. ^ Ooi, Jeff (2005). "The 30% solution". Retrieved Dec. 21, 2005.
  59. ^ Ahmad, Abdul Razak & Chow, Kum Hor (Nov. 26, 2006). Finding the way out of the extreme edge. Malaysia Today.
  60. ^ Gatsiounis, Ioannis (Nov. 26, 2006). The racial divide widens in Malaysia. Malaysia Today.
  61. ^ Jamaluddin, Khairy (Nov. 26, 2006). Out of the cage: Umno unplugged aside, what matters most is Malaysia, p. 22. New Sunday Times.
  62. ^ Tan, Joceline (Nov. 26, 2006). Hisham: The keris is here to stay. Malaysia Today.

November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... The Straits Times is an English-language broadsheet newspaper based in Singapore. ... Malaysia Today is a Malaysian news website. ...

Other references

  • Chin, James. "Going East: UMNO's entry into Sabah Politics". Asian Journal of Political Science, Vol 7, No 1 (June) 1999, pp. 20-40.
  • Goh, Jenny (July 23, 1997). "Small spark can create big mess". Straits Times.
  • Kamarudin, Raja Petra (Nov. 7, 2005). "The stuff politicians are made of". Malaysia Today.
  • Pillai, M.G.G. (Nov. 3, 2005). "National Front parties were not formed to fight for Malaysian independence". Malaysia Today.

The Straits Times is an English-language broadsheet newspaper based in Singapore. ...

External links

  • Malaysian Malay
  • UMNO website
  • UMNO-BN Blogsite

 
 

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