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Encyclopedia > United Kingdom of the Netherlands
History of the Low Countries

Bishopric of Liège
9851790

Burgundian
Netherlands

Duchy of Luxembourg
integrated 1441
1384/14731482
Habsburg Netherlands
14821556
Spanish Netherlands
Dutch Republic
15811795
15811713
Austrian Netherlands 17131790
United States of Belgium 1790
Bishopric of Liège
17901795
Austrian Netherlands 17901794

French Republic

Batavian Republic
17951806
17951804

French Empire
Kingdom of Holland
18061810
18041815


United Kingdom of the Netherlands
18151830

Grand Duchy of Luxembourg

Kingdom of Belgium
since 1830
Kingdom of the Netherlands
since 1830
(in personal union with the Netherlands until 1890)
The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Limburg in 18391, 2 and 3 United Kingdom of the Netherlands (until 1830)1 and 2 Kingdom of the Netherlands (after 1830)2 Duchy of Limburg (In the German Confederacy after 1839 as compensation for Waals-Luxemburg)3 and 4 Kingdom of Belgium (after 1830)4 and 5 Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (borders until 1830) 4 Province of Luxembourg (Waals-Luxemburg, to Belgium in 1839)5 Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (German Luxemburg; borders after 1839)In blue, the borders of the German Confederacy.
The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Limburg in 1839
1, 2 and 3 United Kingdom of the Netherlands (until 1830)
1 and 2 Kingdom of the Netherlands (after 1830)
2 Duchy of Limburg (In the German Confederacy after 1839 as compensation for Waals-Luxemburg)
3 and 4 Kingdom of Belgium (after 1830)
4 and 5 Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (borders until 1830)
4 Province of Luxembourg (Waals-Luxemburg, to Belgium in 1839)
5 Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (German Luxemburg; borders after 1839)
In blue, the borders of the German Confederacy.

United Kingdom of the Netherlands (or Kingdom of the United Netherlands) (1815 - 1830) (1839) (Dutch: Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, French: Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas and German: Vereinigtes Königreich der Niederlande) was the unofficial name used to refer to a new unified European state created from part of the First French Empire during the Congress of Vienna in 1815. This state, officially called the "Kingdom of the Netherlands", was made up of the former Dutch republic (Republic of the Seven United Netherlands) to the north, the former Austrian Netherlands to the south, and the former Prince-Bishopric of Liège. The House of Orange-Nassau came to be the monarchs of this new state. The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries (see Country) on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt, and Meuse (Maas) rivers. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Bishopric of Liège in 1477. ... Events Barcelona sacked by Al-Mansur Greenland colonized by Icelandic Viking Erik the Red (the date is according to legend but has been established as at least approximately correct – see History of Greenland) Lady Wulfruna founded the town that later became the city of Wolverhampton Births Al-Hakim bi... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Armoiries_Bourgogne_Moderne. ... In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands refers to the period when the dukes of Burgundy ruled the area, as well as Luxembourg and northern France from 1384 to 1477. ... Image File history File links Luxembourg_coa_after_1348. ... // Counts of Luxemburg Counts of Ardennes Siegfried I, 963–998, Count in Moselgau from House of Dukes of Lorraine. ... This page is about the year 1441. ... Year 1384 was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events Ottoman sultan Mehmed II defeats the White Sheep Turkmens lead by Uzun Hasan at Otlukbeli Axayacatl, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan invades the territory of neighboring Aztec city of Tlatelolco. ... Events Portuguese fortify Fort Elmina on the Gold Coast Tizoc rules the Aztecs Diogo Cão, a Portuguese navigator, becomes the first European to sail up the Congo. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Flag of the Seventeen Provinces The Seventeen Provinces were a personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 15th century and 16th century, roughly covering the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France (Artois, Nord) and a small part of the West of... Events Portuguese fortify Fort Elmina on the Gold Coast Tizoc rules the Aztecs Diogo Cão, a Portuguese navigator, becomes the first European to sail up the Congo. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ... Image File history File links Prinsenvlag. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Events January 16 - English Parliament outlaws Roman Catholicism April 4 - Francis Drake completes a circumnavigation of the world and is knighted by Elizabeth I. July 26 - The Northern Netherlands proclaim their independence from Spain in the Oath of Abjuration. ... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Originally the term Netherlands referred to a much larger entity than the current Kingdom of the Netherlands. ... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The United States of Belgium or more rarely the United States of the Netherlands, (French États-Unis de Belgique, Dutch Verenigde Nederlandse Staten), was a confederation of the Southern Netherlands, that existed during the year 1790. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Bishopric of Liège in 1477. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Originally the term Netherlands referred to a much larger entity than the current Kingdom of the Netherlands. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... From 1795 to 1806, the Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek in Dutch) designated the Netherlands as a republic modeled after the French Republic, to which it was a vassal state. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... The Kingdom of Holland 1806 - 1810 (Koninkrijk Holland in Dutch, Royaume dHollande in French) was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, in order to better control the Netherlands. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Vereinigteskoenigreich. ... Image File history File links Vereinigteskoenigreich. ... The Duchy of Limburg was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, located between the river Meuse and the city of Aachen. ... Luxembourg is the southernmost province of Wallonia and of Belgium. ... The German Confederation (German Deutscher Bund) was a loose association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... This article is about the Dutch United Provinces. ... Originally the term Netherlands referred to a much larger entity than the current Kingdom of the Netherlands. ... The Bishopric of Liège in 1477. ... The House of Orange-Nassau (in Dutch: Huis van Oranje-Nassau), a branch of the German House of Nassau, has played a central role in the political life of the Netherlands - and at times in Europe - since William I of Orange (also known as William the Silent and Father of...

Contents

Prince William of Orange-Nassau, the new sovereign of the Netherlands

After the liberation of the Netherlands in 1813 by Prussian and Russian troops, William Frederik Of Orange-Nassau, the son of the last stadtholder William V of Orange-Nassau and Princess Wilhelmina of Prussia, returned to The Hague to be granted the title Sovereign of The Netherlands on 2 december 1813.


The Unification under King William I

During the Congress of Vienna in 1815 France had to give up its rule of the Southern Netherlands. These negotiations were not made easy, because William tried to get as much out of it as he could. His ideas of a United Netherlands were based upon the actions of Hendrik van der Noot, a lawyer and politician and one of the main players in the Revolution of the Southern Netherlands against the Austrian Emperor (1789-1790). In 1789, after the Southern Netherlands declared themselves independant, Hendrik knew this was a fragile state and he tried to be reunited with the Republic of Seven United Netherlands. Since then William had never forgotten this and after the fall of Napoleon he saw a change. The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ...


Three different scenario's were made:


1. The Northern Netherlands restored within its old borders and the Southern Netherlands would become a barrier state under the rule of Great Power, like Austria.


2. If the Southern Netherlands would stay (partially) French, the Northern Netherlands should be extended to the Nete River or probably the whole of Flanders. In this scenario also portions of Germany would become Dutch. Then the border would be the line Mechelen-Maastricht-Jülich-Cologne-Düsseldorf where it ends at the river Rhine.


3. France within its old borders, the Northern Netherlands unified with the Southern Netherlands and all of German territories on the left bank of the Rhine and north of the Moselle and the old Duchy of Berg and the old Lands of Nassau on the right bank of the Rhine.


The first two scenario's came from "Memorandum of Holland" made in 1813 after the Battle at Leipzig. The last scenario came from William himself. The first scenario never made it because the Great Powers (Great-Brittain, Prussia, Austria and Russia) thought an independant Southern Netherlands/ Belgium under an Austrian Prince was to weak and Austria was not interested in getting it back.


The Dutch question became a problem. The great powers of Europe chose the last scenario, but didn't want to go as far in enlarging the Netherlands as William. At the end William was granted the following lands:


- The Republic of the Seven United Netherlands - The Austrian Netherlands within its borders of 1789 (so without French-Flanders) - The Prince-Bishopric of Liège, but on Prussian behalf small changes to its borders were made


The Duchy of Luxembourg was not fully granted to William, because it was a member of the German Confederation. William however demanded that Luxembourg became a part of the Netherlands, a unified Netherlands was stronger as a buffer for France. Hisorically it had been a part of the Netherlands (Seventeen Provinces or Burgundian Netherlands), up to 1648. But Luxembourg was still a part of the discussions.


On 1 march 1815, while the Congress of Vienna was still going on, Napoleon escaped from Elba and he created an large army against the great powers of Europe. He was defeated at Waterloo by Prussian, English, Belgian, Dutch and Nassau (under the prince of Orange) troops. William no longer hesitated and with permission of the great powers of Europa on 16 march 1815 he made himself King William I of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Luxembourg became a Grand-Duchy in personal union with the Netherlands and stayed a member of the German Confederation.


With the unification William completed the dream of his ancestor William of Orange (als known as William the Silent), who started it in 1579.


Power of the King

The newly formed kingdom was not like the Netherlands or Belgium today. By constitution King William was granted a lot more power than a King or Queen of the 20th century.


The second chamber (House of Commens of Lower House) of States-General of the Netherlands was formed by 110 members, 55 were chosen by the north and 55 were chosen by the south. The first chamber (House of Lords) excisted of noblemen, old and new nobles, who were granted the position by King William.


The Netherlands had eight ministers who didn't had to answer for the second chamber, but only to the King himself. In fact they were following his demands. The King also could rule by "Royal Order".


Economic and social development

Economically the new state prospered, although many people in the north were unemployed and lived in poverty because a lot of English goods had destabelised the Dutch trade market.


Although finacially stable south also had the burden of the nations debt, but gained via the new trade markets of the Dutch colonies. Still a lot of people in the south lived in poverty aswell, because the profits of trade were being used for big projects.


William tried to divide the nations wealth more equal by the following: - He instated the Metric System - New import and export taxes were made - Digging new canals or excisting canals were widened or deepened (North-Holland canal, Canal from Gent to Terneuzen, canal from Brussels to Charleroi, Moselle canal, canal of Liege) - construction of new roads - Opening the harbour of Antwerp. - Extention of the steel industry in the south


By these actions the export of cotton, sheets, weapons and steel products increased. The fleet of Antwerp grew to 117 ships. A lot of these projects were financed by a fund of King William himself. Also the educational system was extended. Under Williams rule the number of school going children was doubled from 150.000 to 300.000 by opening 1500 new public schools. Especially the south needed school because a lot of people couldn't write or read. In 1825 William founded the Dutch Trading Company (Dutch: Nederlandse Handels Maatschappij), to boost the trade with the colonies.


The way to separation

Social differences


Socially the unification created a lot of problems. The Burgundian and Calvinistic mentalities didn't tolerate each other very well. The French speaking elite acted in their personal interest by using the differences in religion, mentality, life style and communication. Both the north and the south had a different historical background and the Dutch and French speaking people both were afraid of being overruled by eachother. France played a role in this by the "Legion belge et parisienne", financed with private funds, but with permission of the Frennch government to mak it possible for an unification with France.


Religious and political differences


See also

This box: view  talk  edit
History of the Netherlands
Ancient times
Germanic tribes
Roman Era
Migration Period
The Medieval Low Countries
Frankish Realm / The Franks
Holy Roman Empire
Burgundian Netherlands
Seventeen Provinces
Spanish Netherlands
Rise and Fall of the Dutch Republic
Eighty Years' War
United Provinces
The Golden Age
The Batavian revolution
From Republic to Monarchy
Batavian Republic
Kingdom of Holland
First French Empire
United Kingdom of the Netherlands
The Netherlands in Modern Times
Modern History of the Netherlands
Netherlands in World War II
Luctor et Emergo
The Dutch Fight against Water
The Miscellaneous Netherlands
Military history of the Netherlands
History of the Dutch language
Dutch literature
Dutch influence on naval terms
Dutch inventions and discoveries

The Low Countries, the historical region of de Nederlanden, are the countries (see Country) on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine, Scheldt, and Meuse (Maas) rivers. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Thor/Donar, Germanic thunder god. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... The Frankish Empire was the territory of the Franks, from the 5th to the 10th centuries, from 481 ruled by Clovis I of the Merovingian Dynasty, the first king of all the Franks. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands refers to the period when the dukes of Burgundy ruled the area, as well as Luxembourg and northern France from 1384 to 1477. ... Flag of the Seventeen Provinces The Seventeen Provinces were a personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 15th century and 16th century, roughly covering the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France (Artois, Nord) and a small part of the West of... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Rembrandt The Nightwatch (1642) The Golden Age (1584-1702) was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. ... The term Batavian revolution refers to the political, social and cultural turmoil that marked the end of the Dutch Republic at the end of the 18th century. ... From 1795 to 1806, the Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek in Dutch) designated the Netherlands as a republic modeled after the French Republic, to which it was a vassal state. ... The Kingdom of Holland 1806 - 1810 (Koninkrijk Holland in Dutch, Royaume dHollande in French) was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, in order to better control the Netherlands. ... Map of the First French Empire in 1811, with the Empire in dark blue and satellite states in light blue Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1804 - 1814/1815 Napoleon I  - 1814/1815 Napoleon II Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif Historical era Napoleonic... Preamble to the War During the period between the first and second World Wars the Netherlands, like other countries, suffered from the effects of the Great Depression after the Stock market crash of 1929. ... Blue:Areas below sealevel or vunerable to flooding, either by sea or by rivers. ... The Dutch- speaking people have a long history, the Netherlands as a nation-state dates from 1568. ... The history of the Dutch language as separate from common West Germanic begins in the 6th century AD with the High German consonant shift and growing social and political power of the Franks. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Historically, many Dutch military terms have been influential and adopted as loanwords by many other languages all over the world. ... The Dutch people have a history and tradition in inventing and discovery, Dutch scientists and engineers have made a remarkable contribute to human progress as a whole. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
United Kingdom of the Netherlands - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (285 words)
United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815 - 1830) (1839) (Dutch: Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, French: Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas and German: Vereinigte Königreich der Niederlande) were the unofficial names used to refer to a new unified European state created during the Congress of Vienna in 1815.
This state, officially called the "Kingdom of the Netherlands", was made up of the former United Provinces (better: Republic of the Seven United Netherlands) to the north, the former Austrian Netherlands to the south, and the former prince-bishopric of Lüttich.
As females were not allowed to succeed in Luxemburg due to the Salic law, the Grand Duchy passed to the House of Nassau-Weilburg, a collateral line; this in accordance with the Nassau Family Treaty of 1783.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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