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Encyclopedia > United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent parts. Three of these — the ancient nations of England, Wales and Scotland — are located on the island of Great Britain. The fourth part is Northern Ireland, which is located on the island of Ireland and is often described as a province of the United Kingdom. The border between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland forms the United Kingdom's only international land border. The UK also has overseas territories throughout the world, and relationships with several Crown dependencies. This article describes a type of political entity. ... Western Europe is distinguished from Eastern Europe by differences of history and culture rather than by geography. ... Flag of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary association of independent sovereign states, most of which were once governed by the United Kingdom and are its former colonies. ... G8 (disambiguation). ... The European Union or EU is an intergovernmental organisation of European countries, which currently has 25 member states. ... For the National Association of Theatre Owners, please see National Association of Theatre Owners. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Official language None; English is de facto Capital London Capitals coordinates 51° 30 N, 0° 10 W Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831... For alternate meanings, see Wales (disambiguation) National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Official languages: English and Welsh Capital: Cardiff First Minister: Rhodri Morgan AM Area  - Total:  - % water: Ranked 3rd UK 20,779 km² xx% Population  - Total (2001):  - Density: Ranked 3rd UK 2,903,085 140/km² NUTS... Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Alba) is a country or nation and former independent kingdom of northwest Europe, and one of the four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. ... Great Britain lies between Ireland and continental Europe. ... Northern Ireland is an administrative region and one of four parts of the United Kingdom. ... A true colour image of Ireland, captured by a NASA satellite on January 4, 2003. ... Northern Ireland is an administrative region and one of four parts of the United Kingdom. ... The Republic of Ireland (Irish: Poblacht na hÉireann) is the official description of an independent state which covers approximately five-sixths of the island of Ireland, off the coast of north-west Europe. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... Crown dependencies are possessions of the British Crown, as opposed to overseas territories or colonies. ...

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland1
(Flag) (Coat of Arms)
National motto: Dieu et mon droit (Royal motto)
(French: God and my right)2
National anthem: God Save the Queen3
Location of the United Kingdom
Capital London
51° 30′ 40″ N 0° 7′ 41″ W
Largest city London
Official languages None; English de facto 4
Government Constitutional monarchy
Elizabeth II
Tony Blair
Establishment
18015
Area
 - Total
 - Water (%)
 
244,820 km² (78th)
1.3%
Population
 - July 2003 est.
 - 2001 census
 - Density
 
59,553,800 6 (22nd)
58,789,194
246.5/km² (49th)
GDP (PPP)
 - Total
 - Per capita
2005 estimate
$1,739,572 million (7th)
$28,877 (18th)
Currency British pound (£) (GBP)
Time zone
 - Summer (DST)
GMT (UTC+0)
BST (UTC+1)
Internet TLD .uk7
Calling code +44
1In the UK, some other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous (regional) languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, the UK's official name is as follows:
  • Welsh: Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon
  • Scottish Gaelic: An Rìoghachd Aonaichte na Breatainn Mhòr agus Eirinn a Tuath
  • Irish Gaelic: Ríocht Aontaithe na Breataine Móire agus Tuaisceart na hÉireann
  • Cornish: An Rywvaneth Unys a Vreten Veur hag Iwerdhon Glédh
  • Lowland Scots: Unitit Kinrick o Great Breetain an Northren Ireland

2Unofficial.
3 The Royal motto in Scotland is Nemo Me Impune Lacessit (Latin: "No-one harms me with impunity").
4 Officially recognised regional languages:
in Wales: Welsh; and in Scotland: Scottish Gaelic since 2004 Act.
5 Formed as United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Name changed to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in 1927.
6 Official estimate provided by the UK Office for National Statistics. As of April 2005, the July 2004 estimates were not yet available.
7 ISO 3166-1 is GB.
Union Flag / Union Jack: Flag of the United Kingdom For more information, see Court of the Lord Lyon, Flags. ... UK Royal Coat of Arms This work is copyrighted. ... Flag Ratio: 1:2 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland uses as its national flag the Royal Banner commonly known as the Union Jack, or more properly Union Flag as it only becomes a Jack when flown at sea. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom The Royal Arms of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II are her arms of dominion in right of the United Kingdom. ... Here is a list of state mottos for countries and their subdivisions around the world. ... Dieu et mon droit (French for God and my [birth] right) has generally been used as the motto of the British monarch since it was first adopted by Henry VI in the early 15th century. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... This is a list of national anthems. ... This article is on the British patriotic anthem. ... File links The following pages link to this file: United Kingdom User:DanielZm/test User talk:Jdforrester/Archive 3 Template:United Kingdom Infobox Template:United Kingdom infobox ... In politics a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... At the April 2001 census, the United Kingdoms population was 58,789,194-- the third-largest in the European Union (behind Germany and metropolitan France) and the 21st-largest in the world. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... An official language is something that is given a unique status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The United Kingdom has no official language. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... This is a list of countries categorized by system of government currently in use. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen-in-Parliament) legislative power. ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges a hereditary or elected monarch as head of state. ... Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... The Right Honourable Anthony Charles Lynton Blair, commonly called Tony Blair (born 6 May 1953) has served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom since 1997, when he brought the Labour Party into power after 18 consecutive years of Conservative government. ... The 1800 Act of Union merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself a merger of England and Scotland under the Act of Union 1707) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801. ... Events January 1 - Legislative union of Ireland completed under the Act of Union 1800, bringing about the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Here is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Here is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population. ... 2003 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for July, 2003. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of the Volunteer The United Nations Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations Events January January 1 - A black monolith measuring approximately nine feet tall appears in Seattles Magnuson Park, placed by an anonymous... Population density can be used as a measurement of any tangible item. ... This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population. ... List of countries/dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The figures in this table are based on areas including inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers. ... This is a list of the worlds economies sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP) at market or government official exchange rates. ... In economics, purchasing power parity (PPP) is a method used to calculate an alternative exchange rate between the currencies of two countries. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Here is a list of countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... Here is a list of countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year, divided by population as of 1 July for the same year. ... The pound sterling, which strictly speaking refers to basic currency unit of sterling, now the pound, can generally refer to the currency of the United Kingdom (UK). ... ISO 4217 is an international standard describing three letter codes to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization or ISO. The first two letters of the code are the two letters of ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codes (which are similar to those used... -1... Daylight saving time (also called DST, or Summer Time) is the portion of the year in which a regions local time is advanced by (usually) one hour from its standard official time. ... For alternate meanings of GMT, see GMT (disambiguation). ... UTC also stands for the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Coordinated Universal Time or UTC, also sometimes referred to as Zulu time, is an atomic realization of Universal Time or Greenwich mean time, the astronomical basis for civil time. ... British Summer Time (BST), known in Ireland as Irish Summer Time (IST), is the daylight saving time in effect in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland between the last Sunday in March and the last Sunday in October each year. ... UTC also stands for the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Coordinated Universal Time or UTC, also sometimes referred to as Zulu time, is an atomic realization of Universal Time or Greenwich mean time, the astronomical basis for civil time. ... The following is a list of currently existing Internet Top-level domains (TLDs). ... .uk is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for the United Kingdom. ... The United Kingdom has no official language. ... An autochthonous language is an indigenous language, one resident for a considerable length of time in a territory or region spoken by an autochthonous group. ... A regional language is a language spoken in a part of a country - it may be a small area, a federal state or province, or a wider area. ... The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages is a European convention (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... The Cornish language (in Cornish: Kernowek, Kernewek, Curnoack) is one of the Brythonic group of Celtic languages that includes Welsh, Breton and, originally, Cumbrian. ... Scots (or Lallans, meaning Lowlands), properly Lowland Scots, is used in Lowland Scotland, as well as parts of Northern Ireland and border areas of the Republic of Ireland, where it is known in official circles as Ulster Scots or Ullans but by speakers simply as Scotch or Scots. On the... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... For alternate meanings, see Wales (disambiguation) National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Official languages: English and Welsh Capital: Cardiff First Minister: Rhodri Morgan AM Area  - Total:  - % water: Ranked 3rd UK 20,779 km² xx% Population  - Total (2001):  - Density: Ranked 3rd UK 2,903,085 140/km² NUTS... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Alba) is a country or nation and former independent kingdom of northwest Europe, and one of the four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Events January 7 - First transatlantic telephone call - New York City to London January 9 - Military rebellion crushed in Lisbon January 14 - Paul Doumer elected president of France January 19 - Britain sends troops to China February 12 - First British troops lad on Shanghai February 14 - Earthquake in Yugoslavia - 700 dead February... The Office for National Statistics is the UK government agency charged with the collection and publication of government statistics. ... ISO 3166-1 as part of the ISO 3166 standard provides codes for the names of countries and dependent areas. ... Great Britain lies between Ireland and continental Europe. ...

The UK was formed by a series of Acts of Union which united the Kingdom of England (which included Wales as a principality) with those of, first, Scotland and then Ireland under a single government in London. The greater part of Ireland left the United Kingdom (then called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland) in 1922 to form an independent state (in which, until 1949, the King of the United Kingdom was also King of Ireland). This state later became the Republic of Ireland. Six counties in the north-eastern portion of the island, meanwhile, remained a part of the United Kingdom, forming Northern Ireland. Act of Union can mean: United Kingdom The Act of Union is a name given to several acts passed by the English, Scottish and British Parliaments from 1536 onwards. ... England and Wales (red), with the rest of the United Kingdom (pink) England and Wales are two individual nations within the United Kingdom. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... The Union Flag, in its modern form, was first adopted in 1801. ... The Republic of Ireland (Irish: Poblacht na hÉireann) is the official description of an independent state which covers approximately five-sixths of the island of Ireland, off the coast of north-west Europe. ... Northern Ireland is an administrative region and one of four parts of the United Kingdom. ...


The UK is situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe, and has a land border with the Republic of Ireland, but is otherwise surrounded by the North Sea, the English Channel, the Celtic Sea, the Irish Sea, and the Atlantic Ocean. World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... The English Channel ( French:La Manche) is the part of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France, and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Celtic Sea is the sea bounded by Wales, Ireland, and southwest England; the name is commonly used by workers in the oil industry to avoid nationalist significance. ... bmnbvnbvhjvhjvhvgjgkjnrgsklvnkjnsfegnlerjklh kljrthvnjkbijbvjklb wfkjbgfkjbdvjkdvqkjfdbmnbvnbvhjvhjvhvgjgkjnrgsklvnkjnsfegnlerjklh kljrthvnjkbijbvjklb wfkjbgfkjbdvjkdvqkjfdbmnbvnbvhjvhjvhvgjgkjnrgsklvnkjnsfegnlerjklh kljrthvnjkbijbvjklb wfkjbgfkjbdvjkdvqkjfdbmnbvnbvhjvhjvhvgjgkjnrgsklvnkjnsfegnlerjklh kljrthvnjkbijbvjklb wfkjbgfkjbdvjkdvqkjfdbmnbvnbvhjvhjvhvgjgkjnrgsklvnkjnsfegnlerjklh kljrthvnjkbijbvjklb wfkjbgfkjbdvjkdvqkjfdbmnbvnbvhjvhjvhvgjgkjnrgsklvnkjnsfegnlerjklh kljrthvnjkbijbvjklb wfkjbgfkjbdvjkdvqkjfdbmnbvnbvhjvhjvhvgjgkjnrgsklvnkjnsfegnlerjklh kljrthvnjkbijbvjklb wfkjbgfkjbdvjkdvqkjfdbmnbvnbvhjvhjvhvgjgkjnrgsklvnkjnsfegnlerjklh kljrthvnjkbijbvjklb wfkjbgfkjbdvjkdvqkjfdbmnbvnbvhjvhjvhvgjgkjnrgsklvnkjnsfegnlerjklh kljrthvnjkbijbvjklb wfkjbgfkjbdvjkdvqkjfdbmnbvnbvhjvhjvhvgjgkjnrgsklvnkjnsfegnlerjklh kljrthvnjkbijbvjklb wfkjbgfkjbdvjkdvqkjfdbmnbvnbvhjvhjvhvgjgkjnrgsklvnkjnsfegnlerjklh kljrthvnjkbijbvjklb wfkjbgfkjbdvjkdvqkjfdbmnbvnbvhjvhjvhvgjgkjnrgsklvnkjnsfegnlerjklh kljrthvnjkbijbvjklb wfkjbgfkjbdvjkdvqkjfdbmnbvnbvhjvhjvhvgjgkjnrgsklvnkjnsfegnlerjklh kljrthvnjkbijbvjklb wfkjbgfkjbdvjkdvqkjfdbmnbvnbvhjvhjvhvgjgkjnrgsklvnkjnsfegnlerjklh kljrthvnjkbijbvjklb wfkjbgfkjbdvjkdvqkjfdbmnbvnbvhjvhjvhvgjgkjnrgsklvnkjnsfegnlerjklh kljrthvnjkbijbvjklb wfkjbgfkjbdvjkdvqkjfdbmnbvnbvhjvhjvhvgjgkjnrgsklvnkjnsfegnlerjklh kljrthvnjkbijbvjklb wfkjbgfkjbdvjkdvqkjfdbmnbvnbvhjvhjvhvgjgkjnrgsklvnkjnsfegnlerjklh kljrthvnjkbijbvjklb wfkjbgfkjbdvjkdvqkjfdbmnbvnbvhjvhjvhvgjgkjnrgsklvnkjnsfegnlerjklh kljrthvnjkbijbvjklb wfkjbgfkjbdvjkdvqkjfdbmnbvnbvhjvhjvhvgjgkjnrgsklvnkjnsfegnlerjklh kljrthvnjkbijbvjklb wfkjbgfkjbdvjkdvqkjfdbmnbvnbvhjvhjvhvgjgkjnrgsklvnkjnsfegnlerjklh kljrthvnjkbijbvjklb wfkjbgfkjbdvjkdvqkjfdbmnbvnbvhjvhjvhvgjgkjnrgsklvnkjnsfegnlerjklh kljrthvnjkbijbvjklb wfkjbgfkjbdvjkdvqkjfdbmnbvnbvhjvhjvhvgjgkjnrgsklvnkjnsfegnlerjklh kljrthvnjkbijbvjklb wfkjbgfkjbdvjkdvqkjfdbmnbvnbvhjvhjvhvgjgkjnrgsklvnkjnsfegnlerjklh kljrthvnjkbijbvjklb wfkjbgfkjbdvjkdvqkjfdbmnbvnbvhjvhjvhvgjgkjnrgsklvnkjnsfegnlerjklh kljrthvnjkbijbvjklb wfkjbgfkjbdvjkdvqkjfdbmnbvnbvhjvhjvhvgjgkjnrgsklvnkjnsfegnlerjklh kljrthvnjkbijbvjklb... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ...


Great Britain, or just Britain, is the geographical name of the largest of the British Isles (often also including its smaller neighbouring islands, though never Ireland). Politically, the term Great Britain refers collectively to the nations of England, Wales and Scotland (i.e., the United Kingdom except for Northern Ireland). This political usage of "Great Britain" dates from the personal union of the Crowns of Scotland and England (including Wales) in 1603, with the term being used in the sense "all of Britain". In the early years of the "United Kingdom of Great Britain", formed by the Act of Union of 1707, it was customary to refer officially to Scotland and to England and Wales as, respectively, "North Britain" and "South Britain", though the usage never really caught on. It should be noted that the practice by some, the informal media in particular, of using "(Great) Britain" as shorthand for the United Kingdom is an inaccuracy which can cause offence. Great Britain lies between Ireland and continental Europe. ... The word Britain is used to refer to the United Kingdom (UK) the island of Great Britain, which consists of the countries of England, Scotland, and Wales sometimes the Roman province called Britain or Britannia The word British generally means belonging to or associated with Britain in either of the... British Isles is also an old name for the Great Britain, Great Britain Ireland The Isle of Man The Isle of Wight The Northern Isles, including Orkney, Shetland and Fair Isle The Hebrides, including the Inner Hebrides, Outer Hebrides and Small Isles Rockall The islands of the lower Firth of... Events March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England April 28 – Funeral of Elizabeth I of England in Westminster Abbey July 17 or July 19 - Sir Walter Raleigh arrested for treason. ... The Acts of Union were twin Acts of Parliament passed in 1707 (going into effect on 26 March) in the Scottish and the English Parliaments. ...


The British Isles is a term frequently used to refer to the archipelago which includes the mainland of Great Britain, the mainland of Ireland, and the smaller islands associated with these two, such as the Channel Islands, the Hebrides, the Isle of Man, the Isle of Wight, Orkney, the Shetland Islands, etc. The term is, however, often avoided, especially in Ireland, by those who are conscious that it is sometimes misunderstood internationally to mean "the islands belonging to Britain (i.e. the United Kingdom)", a description out of date in the Irish case since 1922. An alternative, the Islands of the North Atlantic (IONA) has been proposed, but is little used outside diplomatic circles. British Isles is also an old name for the Great Britain, Great Britain Ireland The Isle of Man The Isle of Wight The Northern Isles, including Orkney, Shetland and Fair Isle The Hebrides, including the Inner Hebrides, Outer Hebrides and Small Isles Rockall The islands of the lower Firth of... An archipelago is a landform which consists of a chain or cluster of islands. ... A true colour image of Ireland, captured by a NASA satellite on January 4, 2003. ... Alternative meaning: Channel Islands of California The Channel Islands are a group of islands off the coast of Normandy, France, in the English Channel. ... This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ... The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin in Manx), a British crown dependency, lies in the Irish Sea almost equidistant from England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales. ... The Isle of Wight is an island county off the south coast of England, opposite Southampton. ... The Orkney Islands form one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, and are a Lieutenancy Area. ... See Shetland (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... A true colour image of Ireland, captured by a NASA satellite on January 4, 2003. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom is the realm or kingdom that covers England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland and which for over one hundred years included Ireland. ...


Scotland and England have existed as separate unified entities since the 10th century. Wales, under English control since the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284, became part of the Kingdom of England by the Act of Union 1536. With the Act of Union 1707, the separate kingdoms of England and Scotland, having shared the same monarch since 1603, agreed to a permanent union as the Kingdom of Great Britain. This occurred at a time when Scotland was on the brink of economic ruin and was deeply unpopular with the broader Scottish population. The Act of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland, which had been gradually brought under English control between 1169 and 1691, to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. This was also an unpopular decision, taking place just after the unsuccessful United Irishmen Rebellion of 1798 (see also Society of the United Irishmen). The timing, when further Napoleonic intervention or an invasion was feared, was predominantly due to security concerns. In 1922, after bitter fighting which echoes down to the current political strife, the Anglo-Irish Treaty partitioned Ireland into the Irish Free State and Northern Ireland, with the latter remaining part of the United Kingdom. As provided for in the treaty, Northern Ireland, which consists of six of the nine counties of the Irish province of Ulster, immediately opted out of the Free State and to remain in the UK. About 40% of the population wish to reunite Northern Ireland with the rest of the country. The nomenclature of the UK was changed in 1927 to recognise the departure of most of Ireland, with the name United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland being adopted. ( 9th century - 10th century - 11th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... The Statute of Rhuddlan was created in 1284 after the conquest of Wales by the English king Edward I. After the defeat of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd in 1282, Wales was incorporated into England and Edward set about pacifying the new territory. ... Events June 26 - According to the Brothers Grimm and older sources, in this date the Pied Piper of Hamelin visits the town of Hamelin, resulting in ca. ... The Kingdom of England was a state on the island of Great Britain, covering roughly the southern two-thirds. ... The Acts of Union 1536-1543 were a series of parliamentary measures by which Wales was annexed to England and the norms of English administration introduced in order to create a single state. ... The Acts of Union were twin Acts of Parliament passed in 1707 (going into effect on 26 March) in the Scottish and the English Parliaments. ... Events March 24 - Elizabeth I of England dies and is succeeded by her cousin King James VI of Scotland, uniting the crowns of Scotland and England April 28 – Funeral of Elizabeth I of England in Westminster Abbey July 17 or July 19 - Sir Walter Raleigh arrested for treason. ... The united Kingdom of Great Britain was created by the merger of the Kingdoms of Scotland and England in 1707 (see Act of Union 1707). ... The 1800 Act of Union merged the Kingdom of Ireland and the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself a merger of England and Scotland under the Act of Union 1707) to create the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 1 January 1801. ... National motto: None Capital Dublin head of state King of Ireland Kings representative: variously called Judiciar, Lord Deputy or Lord Lieutenant of Ireland head of government: Chief Secretary for Ireland Parliament: Irish House of Commons and Irish House of Lords The Kingdom of Ireland was the name given to... Events Prince Andrey Bogolyubskiy sacks the Kievan Rus capital Kiev. ... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender Treaty of Limerick penalizes public worship of catholics and Presbyterians Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Suleiman II (1687... The Union Flag, in its modern form, was first adopted in 1801. ... The Society of the United Irishmen was a political organisation in eighteenth century Ireland that sought independence from Great Britain. ... Signature page of the Anglo_Irish Treaty The Anglo_Irish Treaty was a treaty between the British government and the Irish Republic which brought the Anglo-Irish War to an end and established the Irish Free State. ... The Irish Free State (Irish: Saorstát Éireann) was (1922–1937) the name of the state comprising the 26 of Irelands 32 counties which were separated from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Irish Free State Agreement (or Anglo-Irish Treaty) signed by British and Irish... Northern Ireland is an administrative region and one of four parts of the United Kingdom. ... For other places and things named Ulster, see Ulster (disambiguation). ... Events January 7 - First transatlantic telephone call - New York City to London January 9 - Military rebellion crushed in Lisbon January 14 - Paul Doumer elected president of France January 19 - Britain sends troops to China February 12 - First British troops lad on Shanghai February 14 - Earthquake in Yugoslavia - 700 dead February...

The British Empire in 1897.

The United Kingdom, the dominant industrial and maritime power of the 19th century, played a leading role in developing Western ideas of property, liberty, capitalism and parliamentary democracy - to say nothing of its part in advancing world literature and science. At its zenith, the British Empire stretched over one quarter of the earth's surface. The first half of the 20th century saw the UK's strength seriously depleted in two World Wars. The second half witnessed the dismantling of the Empire and the UK rebuilding itself into a modern and prosperous nation. Download high resolution version (1116x849, 158 KB)The World in 1897. ... Download high resolution version (1116x849, 158 KB)The World in 1897. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ...


The UK is currently weighing the degree of its integration with continental Europe. A member of the European Union, it has not yet chosen to adopt the euro, owing to internal political considerations and the government's judgement of the prevailing economic conditions. There is considerable internal opposition to European Integration within the UK, and some British economists demand that the European Central Bank be reformed to mirror the Bank of England before the UK joins the Euro, a demand which, given the German economic difficulties following adoption of the Euro, would seem to be possible in the future. World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... The European Union or EU is an intergovernmental organisation of European countries, which currently has 25 member states. ... Euro (disambiguation). ... The European Central Bank (ECB) in Frankfurt am Main, Germany is the central bank of the eurozone, in charge of monetary policy for the 12 countries that use the new euro currency. ... The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom, sometimes known as The Old Lady of Threadneedle Street or The Old Lady. The Bank of England Functions of the bank It performs all the recognized functions of a central bank -- to maintain price stability, and subject to...


Constitutional reform is also a current issue in the UK. The House of Lords has been subjected to ongoing reforms, Scotland elected its own parliament in 1999 and in the same year, devolved assemblies were created in Wales and Northern Ireland. According to opinion polls, the monarchy remains generally popular in spite of recent controversies. Support for a British Republic usually fluctuates between 15% and 25% of the population, with roughly 10% undecided or indifferent.[1]  (http://www.mori.com/mrr/2000/c000616.shtml). Despite the country's liberal heritage, the Government's Information Commissioner stated in 2004 that the country is currently in danger of becoming a surveillance society. This article is about the British House of Lords. ... Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Alba) is a country or nation and former independent kingdom of northwest Europe, and one of the four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. ... The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba in Gaelic, Scots Pairlament in Scots) is the national legislature of Scotland. ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... For alternate meanings, see Wales (disambiguation) National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Official languages: English and Welsh Capital: Cardiff First Minister: Rhodri Morgan AM Area  - Total:  - % water: Ranked 3rd UK 20,779 km² xx% Population  - Total (2001):  - Density: Ranked 3rd UK 2,903,085 140/km² NUTS... Northern Ireland is an administrative region and one of four parts of the United Kingdom. ... The British republican movement is a movement in the United Kingdom which seeks to remove the British monarchy and replace it with a republic with an elected head of state. ... The Office of the Information Commissioner (OIC) in the United Kingdom, is an independent government authority and reports directly to Parliament. ... Mass surveillance is the surveillance of all or a substantial fraction of the entire population. ...


The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations (successor organisation to the former British Empire) and NATO. It is also a permanent member of the UN Security Council and holds a veto power. It is one of the few (no more than ten) nuclear powers on the planet. Flag of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary association of independent sovereign states, most of which were once governed by the United Kingdom and are its former colonies. ... For the National Association of Theatre Owners, please see National Association of Theatre Owners. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... The word veto comes from Latin and literally means I forbid. ... There are currently five nations considered to be nuclear weapons nations, an internationally recognized status conferred by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). ...


See also: Monarchs; History of Britain; History of England; History of Ireland; History of Scotland; History of Wales, UK local history terms This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... Britain may be understood in a number of ways (See Britain). ... England is the largest and most populous of the four main divisions of the United Kingdom. ... Ireland is an island in the north-western Europe. ... Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ... The earliest inhabitants of Wales were from continental Europe, who migrated in several waves and who were later subsumed into the culture and race of the Celts. ... Note: although these are UK terms, those marked * are also used in the US. For instance there is a Shambles in Chicago. ...


Politics

Main article: Politics of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ...

Queen Elizabeth II

The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy, with executive power exercised by a government headed by the Prime Minister and the other Ministers of State who form the Cabinet. The cabinet is theoretically a subcommittee of the Privy Council, the ancient council that officially advises the monarch. Executive power is vested in the monarch, who serves as Head of State, but in reality Her Majesty's Government is answerable and accountable to the House of Commons, the lower and only directly elected house in Britain's bicameral Parliament. By constitutional convention, Ministers of State are chosen largely from among Members of Parliament (members of the Commons) with a small number chosen from the mainly appointed upper house, the House of Lords. Ministers of State are automatically appointed to the Privy Council and have the ability to exercise to both prerogative and legislative powers. The Prime Minister is usually the leader of the largest party in the House of Commons and is commissioned by the monarch to form a government based on his or her ability to command the support of the Commons. The current Prime Minister is Tony Blair of the Labour Party, who has been in office since 1997. Queen Elizabeth II - Pictured here in Canadian honours, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit. ... Queen Elizabeth II - Pictured here in Canadian honours, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit. ... A constitutional monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges a hereditary or elected monarch as head of state. ... The Government of the United Kingdom contains a number of Ministries, known in the United Kingdom as Government Departments. ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... In British politics, the Cabinet is comprised of the most senior government ministers, most of them heads of government departments with the title Secretary of State. In the British system of government, the Cabinet is the key formal decision making body of the executive. ... This article concerns the British Sovereigns Privy Council. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen-in-Parliament) legislative power. ... A head of state or chief of state is the chief public representative of a nation-state, federation or commonwealth, whose role generally includes personifying the continuity and legitimacy of the state and exercising the political powers, functions and duties granted to the head of state in the countrys... The House of Commons is a component of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also includes the Sovereign and the House of Lords. ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The Right Honourable Anthony Charles Lynton Blair, commonly called Tony Blair (born 6 May 1953) has served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom since 1997, when he brought the Labour Party into power after 18 consecutive years of Conservative government. ... The Labour Party is a centre-left or social democratic political party in Britain (see British politics), and one of the United Kingdoms three main political parties. ...


The British system of government has been emulated around the world because of the United Kingdom's colonial legacy. Nations that follow British-style parliamentarism, with an executive chosen from, and (theoretically) answerable to the legislature, are said to operate under the Westminster system of governance. The Westminster System is a democratic system of government modelled after that of the United Kingdom system of government and used in Westminster, the seat of government, hence its name. ...


The current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II who acceded to the throne in 1952 and was crowned in 1953. In the modern United Kingdom, the monarch's role is mainly, though not exclusively, ceremonial. Her Majesty has access to all Cabinet papers and is briefed weekly by the Prime Minister. Constitutional writer Walter Bagehot asserted that the monarch had three rights: to be consulted, to advise and to warn. These rights are exercised rarely but have proved important at key times—such as when there is a "hung parliament". Each year, normally in November, on the occasion of the State Opening of Parliament, Her Majesty the Queen officially opens Parliament, and makes a speech announcing what the government plans to do during the next year. Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Walter Bagehot (February 3, 1826 – March 24, 1877), pronounced “Badge-utt” [1], was a nineteenth century British writer. ... In Parliamentary systems, a hung parliament is one in which no one political party has an outright majority. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ...


The monarch is an integral part of Parliament (as the "Crown-in-Parliament") and theoretically gives Parliament the power to meet and create legislation. An Act of Parliament does not become law until it has been signed by the Queen (been given royal assent), although no monarch has refused to give royal assent to a bill that has been approved by Parliament since Queen Anne did so in 1708. The Queen also confers titles and honours to people who have rendered outstanding services to the country, as the Fount of Honour. In Westminster System parliaments, an Act of Parliament is a part of the law passed by the Parliament. ... Anne Queen of Great Britain and Ireland Anne (6 February 1665–1 August 1714), became Queen of England and Scotland on 8 March 1702. ... Events March 23 - James Francis Edward Stuart lands at the Firth of Forth Kandahar conquered by Mir Wais In Masuria one third of the population die during the plague September 28: Peter the Great defeats the Swedes at the Battle of Lesnaya J.S. Bach appointed as chamber musician and...


The monarch is the head of the executive, as well as being Head of State, and the British government is officially known as Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom. The Prime Minister, who is technically appointed by the Queen, is the head of the government. All foreign policy, such as the signing of treaties and the declaration of war, is done in Her Majesty's name. The monarch is the Fount of Justice in the UK and all criminal cases are brought forward in the monarch's name ("Rex versus" if a King, "Regina versus" if a Queen). The monarch is also the Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces, known as Her Majesty's Armed Forces. In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... The armed forces of the United Kingdom are known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majestys Armed Forces, officially the Armed Forces of the Crown. ...


The monarchy's popularity remains strong in the UK, despite a number of recent scandals and debates. It is felt by many in the UK that having a non-political person, despite achieving the position on hereditary principles, as Head of State is a better alternative to a political Presidential system. Currently, support for a republic is 23% (according to a recent poll by the Daily Telegraph). In a broad definition a republic is a state or country that is led by people that dont found their power status on any principle beyond the control of the people living in that state or country. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ...


The British monarch also reigns in 15 other sovereign countries that are known as the Commonwealth Realms. Although the UK has no political or executive power over these independent nations, it retains influence, through long-standing close relations. In some Commonwealth Realms the Privy Council is the highest Court of Appeal. A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states that recognize Queen Elizabeth II as their Queen and head of state. ... A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states that recognize Queen Elizabeth II as their Queen and head of state. ... This article concerns the British Sovereigns Privy Council. ... Court of Appeals is the title of certain appellate courts in various jurisdictions. ...


The monarch is forbidden to become or to marry a Roman Catholic by the Act of Settlement. Catholic is a term generally used in relation to the members, beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ...

The Palace of Westminster, on the banks of the River Thames in Westminster, London, is the home of the House of Commons and the House of Lords

Parliament is bicameral, composed of the 646-member elected House of Commons and the mainly appointed House of Lords. The House of Commons is more powerful than the House of Lords. Its 646 members are directly elected from single member constituencies, based on population, from the four parts of the United Kingdom. The House of Lords, also known as the Lords, has currently 706 members. None of these have been elected, and they are all either hereditary peers, life peers, or bishops of the Church of England. Historically, the House of Lords has featured members of nobility who were granted seats by nature of birthright, although this feature has been abolished. Furthermore, the House of Lords Act 1999 severely curtailed the number of the hereditary peers who could sit in the upper chamber - only 92 out of several hundred retain the right, by either being elected by their fellow peers or by holding either of the royal offices of Earl Marshal or Lord Great Chamberlain. Reforms of the House of Lords originally called for all of the hereditary peers to lose their voting rights, however a compromise was reached which will allow them to be gradually phased out. The Palace of Westminster, seen from the London Eye observation wheel on a very dull November day. ... The Palace of Westminster, seen from the London Eye observation wheel on a very dull November day. ... Clock Tower and New Palace Yard from the west The Palace of Westminster, on the banks of the River Thames in Westminster, London, is the home of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which form the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Length 346 km Elevation of the source 110 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 12935 km² Origin Kemble Mouth North Sea Basin countries England This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... Westminster is the name of a city that covers much of central London, located to the west of the ancient City of London, and which has been the principal seat of government in England for more than nine hundred years. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... The House of Commons is a component of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also includes the Sovereign and the House of Lords. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... The Peerage in the United Kingdom includes several hereditary peers, as well as life peers. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church in England and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the Windows of the Lodge of the Heralds. ... The House of Lords Act 1999, an Act of Parliament passed by the British Parliament, was a major constitutional enactment as it completely reformed one of the chambers of Parliament, the House of Lords. ... The Peerage in the United Kingdom includes several hereditary peers, as well as life peers. ... Earl Marschal (or Marischal) is an ancient chivalric title used separately in England, Scotland and Ireland. ... The Lord Great Chamberlain of England is the sixth of the Great Officers of State, ranking beneath the Lord Privy Seal and above the Lord High Constable. ...


The United Kingdom is described as being traditionally a centralised, or unitary, state, with Parliament at Westminster holding responsibility for most of the UK's political power. Throughout the late nineteenth century the UK debated giving Ireland home rule. Home rule was given to Northern Ireland in 1920: it was eventually abolished by London in 1972, after much civil strife. Home rule came back on the political agenda in the 1990s, with the creation of three home rule parliaments for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. In 1999, the Scottish Parliament and the National Assembly for Wales were established, the former having primary legislative power. There is some debate, both popular and academic, as to whether the Cornish could be considered a constituent peoples of the UK and possibly a Nation. A movement to obtain some degree of home rule exists in Cornwall, a petition of over 50000 signatures was collected endorsing the call for a Cornish Assembly however the UK government is not known to be considering any form of devolution to Cornwall. Regional Assemblies were attempted in the North, but after a referendum in the 'North East' region where 78% voted against the scheme, the plans for regional governments were abandoned. The Office of the Deputy Prime Minister stated, however, that "the Government continues to have a clear policy to decentralise power and improve performance through reform in local government and strengthening all the English regions." Northern Ireland's most recent attempt at home rule, with a directly elected power-sharing Assembly emerged from the Good Friday Agreement, but it is currently suspended. Unlike federalism, however, home rule parliaments have no constitutional status or rights to exist. They are created by Parliament and, as Northern Ireland experienced in 1972, can be abolished by Parliament. Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... Northern Ireland is an administrative region and one of four parts of the United Kingdom. ... 1972 was a leap year that started on a Saturday. ... Events and trends Technology Explosive growth of the Internet; decrease in the cost of computers and other technology Reduction in size and cost of mobile phones leads to a massive surge in their popularity Year 2000 problem (commonly known as Y2K) Microsoft Windows operating system becomes virtually ubiquitous on IBM... The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba in Gaelic, Scots Pairlament in Scots) is the national legislature of Scotland. ... The National Assembly for Wales (or NAW) (Welsh: Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) was established in 1998, following a 1997 referendum in which a small majority of voters (but not the electorate) voted in favour of the Labour Governments plans for devolution. ... Cornwall ( Cornish: Kernow or occasionally Curnow) is the part of Great Britains south-west peninsula that is west of the River Tamar, often known as the Cornish peninsula or plateau. ... Cornish nationalism is a movement which seeks greater autonomy for the area of Cornwall which advocates assert is not a county of England as is generally regarded, but a separate nation which has never been formally incorporated into England. ... Regional Assembly is a title which has universally been adopted by the English bodies established as regional chambers under the Regional Development Agencies Act 1998. ... Northern Ireland is an administrative region and one of four parts of the United Kingdom. ... The Northern Ireland Assembly is a 108-member legislative body for Northern Ireland that sits at Stormont with powers devolved to it from the Westminster parliament. ... The Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement and, more rarely, as the Stormont Agreement) was signed in Belfast on April 10, 1998 by the British and Irish Governments and endorsed by most Northern Ireland political parties. ...


See also:

The law of the United Kingdom consists of several independent legal systems which use common law principles, civil law principles, or both. ... Overview Scotland is one of the four constituent nations of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ...

Subdivisions

Main article: Subdivisions of the United Kingdom The subdivisions of the United Kingdom: Countries The United Kingdom is divided into four entities — England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. ...


The United Kingdom is divided into four constituent parts:

 
The constituent parts of the United Kingdom (UK)
England | Scotland | Northern Ireland | Wales

The constituent parts of the United Kingdom have subdivisions as follows: Union Flag / Union Jack: Flag of the United Kingdom For more information, see Court of the Lord Lyon, Flags. ... Large sized flag of England/St Georges Cross/State flag of Gurnsey, 1936-1985 File links The following pages link to this file: The Ashes Arsenal F.C. Cambridgeshire Charlton Athletic F.C. City of London London Borough of Croydon Cheshire Chelsea F.C. Devon England Essex Exeter England... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Official language None; English is de facto Capital London Capitals coordinates 51° 30 N, 0° 10 W Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831... Flag of Scotland (Historical) Ratio 3:5 430 × 260 pixels 2041 bytes There is an alternate flag with a lighter blue coloring: File links The following pages link to this file: Aberdeenshire (unitary) Angus Act of Union 1707 Cross Chelsea F.C. England England national football team Fulham F.C... Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Alba) is a country or nation and former independent kingdom of northwest Europe, and one of the four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. ... flag of Northern Ireland, from [1]. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Northern Ireland is an administrative region and one of four parts of the United Kingdom. ... A lovely image of the Welsh flag, derived from an SVG file by Tobias Jakobs in the sodipodi flags collection. ... For alternate meanings, see Wales (disambiguation) National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Official languages: English and Welsh Capital: Cardiff First Minister: Rhodri Morgan AM Area  - Total:  - % water: Ranked 3rd UK 20,779 km² xx% Population  - Total (2001):  - Density: Ranked 3rd UK 2,903,085 140/km² NUTS... Subnational entity is a generic term for an administrative region within a country — on an arbitrary level below that of the sovereign state — typically with a local government encompassing multiple municipalities, counties, or provinces with a certain degree of autonomy in a varying number of matters. ...

The Act of Union 1536 incorporated Wales and England into England and Wales for legal purposes. The region (sometimes known as Government Office Region) is currently the highest level of local government in England. ... For local government purposes, England is divided into three types of areas - non-unitary authorities, unitary authorities, and London boroughs. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Official language None; English is de facto Capital London Capitals coordinates 51° 30 N, 0° 10 W Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831... The council areas of Scotland form the local government areas of Scotland, all of them unitary authorities. ... Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Alba) is a country or nation and former independent kingdom of northwest Europe, and one of the four constituent parts of the United Kingdom. ... For local government purposes, Wales is divided into 22 unitary authorities. ... For alternate meanings, see Wales (disambiguation) National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Official languages: English and Welsh Capital: Cardiff First Minister: Rhodri Morgan AM Area  - Total:  - % water: Ranked 3rd UK 20,779 km² xx% Population  - Total (2001):  - Density: Ranked 3rd UK 2,903,085 140/km² NUTS... Northern Ireland is divided into 26 Local Council areas. ... Northern Ireland is an administrative region and one of four parts of the United Kingdom. ... The Acts of Union 1536-1543 were a series of parliamentary measures by which Wales was annexed to England and the norms of English administration introduced in order to create a single state. ... England and Wales (red), with the rest of the United Kingdom (pink) England and Wales are two individual nations within the United Kingdom. ...


Although all four have historically been divided into counties, England's population is an order of magnitude larger than the others; so in recent years it has for some purposes been divided into nine intermediate-level Government Office Regions - North East, North West, Yorkshire and the Humber, East Midlands, West Midlands, Eastern, London, South East, South West. Each region is made up of counties and unitary authorities, apart from London, which consists of London boroughs. Although at one point it was intended that each or some of these regions would be given its own regional assembly, the plans' future is uncertain, as of 2004, after the first-scheduled North East region rejected its proposed assembly in a referendum. The British Isles are divided into the following traditional counties (also vice counties or historic counties). ... The region (sometimes known as Government Office Region) is currently the highest level of local government in England. ... North East England is one of the regions of England. ... North West England is one of the regions of England. ... Yorkshire and The Humber is one of the regions of England. ... The East Midlands is one of the regions of England and consists of most of the eastern half of the tradional region of the Midlands. ... The West Midlands is a geographical term describing the western half of central England, known as the Midlands. ... East of England is one of the official regions of England. ... The administrative area of Greater London combines the City of London, the City of Westminster and 31 other London boroughs, and encompasses what is commonly known simply as London, capital of the United Kingdom. ... South East England is one of the official regions of England. ... South West England is one of the regions of England. ... A unitary authority is a term used in a two-tier local government system to describe a unit of local government that operates as a single tier. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... The administrative area of Greater London contains 32 London Boroughs, of which twelve (plus the City of London) make up Inner London and twenty Outer London. ...


Scotland consists of 32 Council Areas. Wales consists of 22 Unitary Authorities, styled as 10 County Boroughs, 9 Counties, and 3 Cities. Northern Ireland is divided into 26 Districts.


Also sometimes associated with the United Kingdom, though not constitutionally part of the United Kingdom itself, are the Crown dependencies (the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey, and the Isle of Man) as self-governing possessions of the Crown, and a number of overseas territories under the sovereignty of the United Kingdom. Crown dependencies are possessions of the British Crown, as opposed to overseas territories or colonies. ... A bailiwick is the area of jurisdiction of a bailiff. ... The Bailiwick of Jersey is a British crown dependency off the coast of Normandy, France. ... The Bailiwick of Guernsey is a British crown dependency in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy. ... The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin in Manx), a British crown dependency, lies in the Irish Sea almost equidistant from England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales. ... For usages of The Crown in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, see Crown of the Polish Kingdom. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ...


See also: City status in the United Kingdom, Towns of the United Kingdom, and Local government in the United Kingdom Historically, city status was associated with the presence of a cathedral, such as York Minster. ... In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, a town is any settlement which has received a charter of incorporation, more commonly known as a town charter, approved by the monarch. ... The United Kingdom is divided into four parts, England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. ...


Military

Main article: Military of the United Kingdom The armed forces of the United Kingdom are known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majestys Armed Forces, officially the Armed Forces of the Crown. ...

Enlarge
The Tri-service badge of Her Majestry's Armed Forces. The anchor representing the Royal Navy, the crossed swords the Army, and the Eagle the Royal Air Force

The armed forces of the United Kingdom are known as the British Armed Forces or Her Majesty's Armed Forces, officially the Armed Forces of the Crown. Their Commander-in-Chief is the Queen and they are managed by the Ministry of Defence. Tri service logo This image is Crown copyright protected. ... Tri service logo This image is Crown copyright protected. ... Armed forces are the military forces of a state. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen-in-Parliament) legislative power. ... The Ministry of Defence building, Whitehall, Westminster, London The Ministry of Defence (MoD) is the United Kingdom government department responsible for implementation of government defence policy and the headquarters of the UK military. ...


The British Armed Forces are charged with protecting the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, promoting Britain's wider security interests, and supporting international peacekeeping efforts. They are active and regular participants in NATO and other coalition operations. For the National Association of Theatre Owners, please see National Association of Theatre Owners. ...


The British Army had a reported strength of 112,700 in 2004, including 7,600 women, and the Royal Air Force a strength of 53,400. The 40,900-member Royal Navy is in charge of the United Kingdom's independent strategic nuclear arm, which consists of four Trident missile submarines, while the Royal Marines provide commando units for amphibious assault and for specialist reinforcement forces in and beyond the NATO area. This puts total active duty military troops in the 210,000 range. The British Army is the land armed forces of the United Kingdom. ... The Royal Air Force (often abbreviated to RAF) is the air force of the United Kingdom. ... Royal Navy Ensign The Royal Navy is the navy of the United Kingdom. ... The Royal Navys Vanguard class of nuclear ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs), each armed with 16 Trident SLBMs, includes four boats: Vanguard (S28), Victorious (S29), Vigilant (S30), and Vengeance (S31), all built by Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering Ltd. ... The Corps of Royal Marines, usually just known as the Royal Marines (RM), are the United Kingdoms amphibious forces and a core component of the countrys Rapid Reaction Force. ...


Along with France and Russia, Britain fields one of the most powerful and comprehensive military forces in Europe. Despite Britain's wide ranging capabilities, recent defence policy has a stated assumption that any large operation would be undertaken as part of a coalition. Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq (Granby, No-Fly-Zones, Desert Fox and Telic) may all be taken as precedent - indeed the last true war in which the British military fought alone was the Falklands War of 1982. The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... The Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. ... The British named their particaption in the 1991 defense of Saudi Arabia (know to the Americans as Operation Desert Shield) Operation Granby. ... A Tomahawk cruise missile (TLAM) is fired from an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer during the fourth wave of attacks on Iraq. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The Falklands War or the Malvinas War (Spanish: Guerra de las Malvinas), was an armed conflict between Argentina and the United Kingdom over the Falkland Islands, also known in Spanish as the Islas Malvinas, between March and June of 1982. ...


The British army has been actively involved in the Troubles in Northern Ireland. However a programme of demilitarisation is being gradually implemented. The Troubles is a generic term used to describe a period of sporadic communal violence involving paramilitary organisations, the police, the British Army and others in Northern Ireland from the late 1960s until the mid-1990s. ...


Geography

Map of the United Kingdom

Main article: Geography of the United Kingdom Download high resolution version (312x676, 34 KB)Map of the United Kingdom. ... Download high resolution version (312x676, 34 KB)Map of the United Kingdom. ... The United Kingdom occupies a substantial part of the British Isles. ...


Most of England consists of rolling lowland terrain, divided east from west by more mountainous terrain in the northwest (Cumbrian Mountains of the Lake District) and north (the upland moors of the Pennines) and limestone hills of the Peak District by the Tees-Exe line. The lower limestone hills of the Isle of Purbeck, Cotswolds, Lincolnshire and chalk downs of the North Downs, South Downs and Chilterns of southern England. The main rivers and estuaries are the Thames, Severn and the Trent & Ouse feeding the Humber Estuary; major cities include London, Birmingham, Manchester, Leeds, Sheffield, Liverpool, Bristol, Nottingham, Leicester, and Newcastle upon Tyne. Near Dover, the Channel Tunnel links the United Kingdom with France. There is no peak in England that is 1000m or greater. Crinkle Crags as seen from the adjoining fell of Cold Pike. ... Crinkle Crags as seen from the adjoining fell of Cold Pike. ... Typical Pennine scenery. ... Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... The Peak District National Park is a national park in the north of England. ... The Tees-Exe line is an imaginary line that can be draw on a map of the British mainland which roughly divides the lowland and upland regions of the country. ... Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... The Isle of Purbeck, not a true island but a peninsula, is in the county of Dorset, England. ... The Cotswolds are a range of hills in central England, sometimes called the heart of England, a hilly area reaching nearly 300 m or 1000 feet. ... This article is about the English administrative county. ... The Needles, part of the extensive Southern England Chalk Formation Chalk is a soft, white, porous form of limestone composed of the mineral calcium carbonate. ... The Chiltern Hills are a chalk escarpment that stretches in a south_west to north_east diagonal across several counties of southern England, but is most prominent in Buckinghamshire. ... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames... The Severn is the name of a river in the United Kingdom. ... Trent is the name of several places: Trento in Italy Trent, Texas, USA Trent, South Dakota, USA Also: River Trent in the UK Trent jet engine family manufactured by Rolls-Royce plc Trent University, a liberal arts university located in Peterborough, Ontario. ... Humber is also the name of one of the ranges of cars manufactured by the Rootes Group Humber is also the name of a river in Newfoundland, Canada, as well as a river and a college, both in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... This article is about the city in England. ... Leeds is a city in the county of West Yorkshire, in the north of England. ... This article is about the city in England. ... This article is about the city in England. ... Bristol is a port city in south-western England, on the River Avon. ... This article is about the English city. ... This article discusses Leicester in England. ... This article is about a city in the United Kingdom. ... Arms of Dover Borough Council This article is about the English port. ... Channel Tunnel in cross section The English terminal at Cheriton, from the Pilgrims Way The Channel Tunnel, (French: le tunnel sous la Manche; once popularly nicknamed the Chunnel in English) is a 50km long rail tunnel beneath the English Channel at the Straits of Dover, connecting Cheriton in Kent, England...


Wales is mostly mountainous, the highest peak being Snowdon, at 1,085 m above sea level. North of the mainland is the island of Anglesey. The largest and capital city is Cardiff, located in the south of Wales. The other metroplitan areas include Swansea, Newport, and Wrexham. This article is about the mountain. ... [The Isle of] Anglesey or Anglesea ( Welsh: [Ynys] Môn, pronounced as Uh-niss Mawn, in IPA), is an island and county at the Western extremity of North Wales. ... Cardiff ( Welsh: Caerdydd, from caer, fort, and dydd, Aulus Didius) is the capital and largest city of Wales. ... This page is about Swansea in Wales. ... This article is about the Welsh city of Newport. ... Wrexham (pronounced Recsam, and in Welsh spelt Wrecsam) is a town in north Wales. ...


Scotland's geography is varied, with lowlands in the south and east and highlands in the north and west, including Ben Nevis, the UK's highest mountain (1343 m). There are many long and deep-sea arms, firths, and lochs. A multitude of islands west and north of Scotland are also included, notably the Hebrides, Orkney Islands and Shetland Islands, as is the uninhabited islet of Rockall, although this claim is disputed. Main cities are Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen, and Dundee. The Scottish Lowlands, although not officially a geographical area of the country, in normal usage is generally meant to include those parts of Scotland not referred to as the Highlands, that is, everywhere due south and east of a line roughly drawn between the Moray Firth and the Clyde estuary. ... The Scottish Highlands are considered to be the mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... Ben Nevis is the highest mountain in the British Isles. ... Firth is the Scots word often used to denote a large sea bay in Scotland, which may be part of an estuary, or just an inlet, or even a strait (as in the case of the Pentland Firth). ... A loch is the name given to a body of water in Scotland or Ireland. ... This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ... The Orkney Islands form one of 32 unitary council regions in Scotland, and are a Lieutenancy Area. ... See Shetland (disambiguation) for other meanings. ... Waveland and the Greenpeace occupation In 1997 the environmentalist organisation Greenpeace occupied the islet for a short time, calling it Waveland, to protest against oil exploration under the authority of the British. ... Edinburgh viewed from Arthurs Seat. ... For other uses, see Glasgow (disambiguation) George Square and Glasgows City Chambers Glasgow is Scotlands largest city, located on the River Clyde in West Central Scotland. ... This article is about the Scottish city. ... Location within the British Isles. ...


Northern Ireland, making up the north-eastern part of Ireland, is mostly hilly. The main cities are Belfast and Londonderry. This article is about the city of Belfast in Northern Ireland. ... For other places with similar names, see Derry (disambiguation) and Londonderry (disambiguation). ...


In total it is estimated that the UK is made up of around 1098 small islands, some being natural and some being crannogs, a type of artificial island which was built in past times using stone and wood, gradually enlarged by natural waste building up over time. A crannog is the name given in Scotland and Ireland to an artificial island or natural island, used for a settlement and usually linked to shore with a timber gangway or stone causeway. ... Before Mexico City, Tenochtitlan was an artificial island of 250,000 (Dr Atl) Dejima, not allowed direct contact with nearby island that has been formed by human, rather than natural means. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom, a leading trading power and financial centre, has the fourth largest economy in the world, the second largest in Europe, and is a member of the European Union. ...

One-pound coin
One-pound coin

The United Kingdom, a leading trading power and financial centre, has an essentially capitalist economy, the fourth largest in the world. Over the past two decades, the government has greatly reduced public ownership by means of privatisation programmes, and has contained the growth of the Welfare State. 1 pound 2000 front File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or — especially in India — disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership. ... There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ...


Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanised, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs with only 1% of the labour force. The UK has large coal, natural gas, and oil reserves; primary energy production accounts for 10% of GDP, one of the highest shares of any industrial state. Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals ( livestock). ... Coal Coal is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground either by underground mining, open-pit mining or strip mining. ... Natural gas rig Natural gas is a gas produced by the anaerobic decay of organic material. ... Oil is a generic term for organic liquids that are not miscible with water. ... In economics, the gross domestic product (GDP) is a measure of the amount of the economic production of a particular territory in financial capital terms during a specific time period. ...


Services, particularly banking, insurance and business services, account for by far the largest proportion of GDP. Industry continues to decline in importance, although the UK is still Europe's largest manufacturer of cars, armaments, petroleum products, personal computers, televisions, and mobile telephones. Tourism is also important: with over 23.9 million tourists a year, between China (36.8) and Canada (20), the United Kingdom is ranked as the sixth major tourist destination in the world. For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... Insurance is the business of providing protection against financial aspects of risk, such as those to property, life, health and legal liability. ... The United Kingdom is the worlds 6th biggest tourist destination, with 24. ... The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) comprises most of the cultural, historic, and geographic area known as China. ... Canada is a sovereign state in northern North America, the northern-most country in the world, and the second largest in total area. ... The World Tourism Organization compiles the World Tourism Rankings. ...


The Blair government has put off the question of participation in the Euro system, citing five economic tests that would need to be met before they recommend that the UK adopts the Euro, and hold a referendum. The Right Honourable Anthony Charles Lynton Blair, commonly called Tony Blair (born 6 May 1953) has served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom since 1997, when he brought the Labour Party into power after 18 consecutive years of Conservative government. ... Euro (disambiguation). ... The five key tests for the UK to Join the Euro The economic tests specified by the current UK Labour government that must be satisfied before a decision on entry to the Euro can be made. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


Demographics

Main article: Demographics of the United Kingdom At the April 2001 census, the United Kingdoms population was 58,789,194-- the third-largest in the European Union (behind Germany and metropolitan France) and the 21st-largest in the world. ...


The primary language spoken is English. Other indigenous languages include the Celtic languages; Welsh, Scottish Gaelic, which is closely related to Irish Gaelic, Cornish and Irish Gaelic; as well as Lowland Scots, which is closely related to English; Romany; and British Sign Language (Irish Sign Language is also used in Northern Ireland). Celtic dialectal influences from Cumbric persisted in Northern England for many centuries, mostly famously in a unique set of numbers used for counting sheep. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... The Cornish language (in Cornish: Kernowek, Kernewek, Curnoack) is one of the Brythonic group of Celtic languages that includes Welsh, Breton and, originally, Cumbrian. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Scots (or Lallans, meaning Lowlands), properly Lowland Scots, is used in Lowland Scotland, as well as parts of Northern Ireland and border areas of the Republic of Ireland, where it is known in official circles as Ulster Scots or Ullans but by speakers simply as Scotch or Scots. On the... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Romany (or Romani) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, travelling peoples often referred to in English as gypsies and in the East and Central Europe known as tsigane. ... BSL is also an abbreviation for Breed-specific legislation. ... Irish Sign Language (ISL) is the sign language of Ireland. ... Evolution and Extinction Cumbric was the Brythonic Celtic language spoken in much of Cumbria, Northern Northumbria, and parts of lowland Scotland until about the 11th century. ...


Recent immigrants, especially from the Commonwealth, speak many other languages, including Cantonese-Chinese, Punjabi, Gujarati, Hindi, Urdu and Jamaican Creole. Flag of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary association of independent sovereign states, most of which were once governed by the United Kingdom and are its former colonies. ... Cantonese can refer to: Of, or pertaining to, the people of, or things from, Guangdong Province, Hong Kong or Macau in China. ... Punjabi (sometimes spelled Panjabi) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... Gujarati can mean two distinct things: The Gujarati language is a language spoken in India,and pakistan [1] mostly in and around the Gujarat state. ... Hindi (हिन्दी) is a language spoken in most states in northern and central India. ... Urdu(اردو) is an Indo-European language which originated in India, most likely in the vicinity of Delhi, from whence it spread to the rest of the subcontinent. ... Jamaican Creole, also known as Patois or simply Jamaican, is an English/African-based language --not to be confused with Jamaican English or with the Rastafarian use of English-- used primarily on the island of Jamaica. ...


Also see: Languages in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom has no official language. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom contains two of the world's most famous universities, the University of Cambridge, and the University of Oxford, and has produced many great scientists and engineers including Sir Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, Michael Faraday, Paul Dirac and Isambard Kingdom Brunel amongst others; the nation is credited with the invention of the steam engine, locomotive, 3-piece suit, vaccination, lead crystal, television, radio, the telephone, submarine, hovercraft, and both the internal combustion and jet engines (alongside Germany). The famous Chandos portrait, the subject of which, although commonly assumed to be William Shakespeare, has never been definitely identified. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Events March 8 - Naples bans kissing in public in the penalty of death June 22 - Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 - The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in Philippines Births February 6 - Christopher Marlowe, English poet and... Events Dirk Hartog lands on an island off the Western Australian coast Pocahontas arrives in England War between Venice and Austria Collegium Musicum founded in Prague Nicolaus Copernicus De revolutionibus is placed on the Index of Forbidden Books by the Roman Catholic Church Births May 24 - John Maitland, Duke of... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world (after Oxford). ... The University of Oxford, situated in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Sir Isaac Newton in Knellers portrait of 1689. ... For other possible meanings see Darwin (disambiguation) Charles Darwin, about the same time as the publication of The Origin of Species. ... Michael Faraday Michael Faraday (September 22, 1791 - August 25, 1867) was a British scientist (a physicist and chemist) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, (August 8, 1902 - October 20, 1984) was a British theoretical physicist and a founder of the field of quantum physics. ... Brunel before the launching of the Great Eastern Isambard Kingdom Brunel (April 9, 1806–September 15, 1859) was a British engineer, noted for the creation of the Great Western Railway and a series of famous steamships. ... A steam engine is a heat engine that makes use of the potential energy that exists as pressure in steam, converting it to mechanical work. ... Great Western Railway No. ... Vaccination is a term coined by Edward Jenner for the process of administering a weakened form of a disease to patients as a means of giving them immunity to a more serious form of the disease. ... Radio transmission diagram and electromagnetic waves Radio is a technology that allows the transmission of signals by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of light. ... A telephone handset A touch-tone telephone dial Telephone The telephone or phone (Greek: tele = far away and phone = voice) is a telecommunications device that transmits speech by means of electric signals. ... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... A U.S. Navy hovercraft attached to the Amphibious assault ship Kearsarge (LHD-3) A hovercraft is a vehicle that is supported on a cushion of air. ... An internal combustion engine is an engine that is powered by the expansion of hot combustion products of fuel directly acting within an engine. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ...


A great number of major sports originated in the United Kingdom, including football, golf, cricket, boxing, rugby billiards, and rounders, the forerunner of baseball. England won the 1966 FIFA World Cup and the 2003 Rugby World Cup. The Wimbledon Championships are an international tennis event held in Wimbledon in south London every summer and are seen as the most prestigious of the tennis calendar. The striker (wearing red jersey) has run past the defender (in white jersey) and is about to take a shot at the goal, while the goalkeeper positions himself to stop the ball. ... This article is about the sport of golf. ... Cricket (disambiguation). ... Boxer redirects here; for other meanings of boxer, see Boxer (disambiguation). ... This article discusses the sport Rugby. For other uses see Rugby. ... Pool table with cue ball, object balls, cue stick, and rack Billiards is a game played on a table with low rubber boundary around the edges, small balls, and a stick or cue used to push the white ball into other balls. ... For the movie of the same name, see Rounders (movie) Diagram of a rounders pitch. ... A view of the playing field at Busch Stadium in Saint Louis, Missouri. ... 1966 was the year that the Football World Cup went back to the country that first conceived football: England. ... The 2003 Rugby Union World Cup was the fifth world cup in rugby history. ... Wimbledon logo Wimbledon is the oldest and most prestigious event in the sport of tennis. ... Tennis is a racquet sport played between either two players (singles) or two teams of two players (doubles). It is officially called lawn tennis to distinguish it from real tennis (also known as royal tennis or court tennis), an older form of the game that is played indoors on a... For other uses see Wimbledon (disambiguation) Wimbledon is an area in the London Borough of Merton, south-west London. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ...


Playwright William Shakespeare is arguably the most famous writer in world history; other well-known writers include the Brontë sisters (Charlotte, Emily, and Anne), Jane Austen, J. K. Rowling, Agatha Christie, J. R. R. Tolkien and Charles Dickens. Important poets include Lord Byron, Robert Burns, Lord Tennyson, Thomas Hardy, William Blake and Dylan Thomas. (see main article: British literature). Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Charlotte Brontë - idealized portrait, 1873 (based on a drawing by George Richmond, 1850) Charlotte Brontë ( April 21, 1816 – March 31, 1855) was an English writer. ... Portrait by her brother Emily Brontë ( July 30, 1818 – December 19, 1848) was a British novelist and poet, best remembered for her one novel Wuthering Heights, an acknowledged classic of English literature. ... Anne Brontë (January 17, 1820 – May 28, 1849) was a British author, one of a trio of famous Brontë sisters who wrote acclaimed Victorian romantic novels of manners and society. ... Jane Austen Jane Austen (December 16, 1775 - July 18, 1817) was a prominent English novelist whose work is considered part of the Western canon. ... Dame Agatha Mary Clarissa Christie, DBE ( September 15, 1890– January 12, 1976), was a British crime fiction writer. ... J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916. ... Charles Dickens used his rich imagination, sense of humour and detailed memories, particularly of his childhood, to enliven his fiction. ... Lord Byron, English poet Lord Byron (1803), as painted by Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, (January 22, 1788 – April 19, 1824) was the most widely read English language poet of his day. ... Robert Burns, preeminent Scottish poet Robert Burns (January 25, 1759 – July 21, 1796) is the best known of the poets who have written in Lowland Scots. ... Lord Tennyson, Poet Laureate Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (August 6, 1809 - October 6, 1892) is generally regarded as one of the greatest English poets. ... This article is about the British novelist. ... William Blake (November 28, 1757- August 12, 1827) was an English poet, painter and printmaker, or Author & Printer, as he signed many of his books. ... Dylan Marlais Thomas, ( Swansea, October 27, 1914 – November 9, 1953 in New York City) was a Welsh poet and writer. ... British literature is literature from the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. ...


Notable composers from the United Kingdom have included William Byrd, John Taverner, Thomas Tallis, and Henry Purcell from the 16th and early 17th centuries, and, more recently, Sir Edward Elgar, Sir Arthur Sullivan (most famous for working with librettist Sir W. S. Gilbert), Ralph Vaughan Williams, Benjamin Britten(Baron Britten), and John Tavener in the 19th and 20th. William Byrd (1540? – July 4, 1623) was the most celebrated of early English composers. ... John Taverner should not be confused with the 20th-21st century British composer John Tavener. ... Thomas Tallis Thomas Tallis (ca. ... Henry Purcell (September 10 (?), 1659 (?)–November 21, 1695), a Baroque composer, is generally considered to be one of Englands greatest composers — indeed, he has often been called Englands finest native composer. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Edward Elgar Sir Edward William Elgar, Bt OM GCVO (June 2, 1857 – February 23, 1934) was a British composer, born in the small Worcestershire village of Broadheath to William Elgar, a piano tuner and music dealer, and his wife Ann. ... Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan (May 13, 1842–November 22, 1900) was a British composer best known for his operatic collaborations with librettist William S. Gilbert. ... Sir William Schwenck Gilbert (November 18, 1836 - May 29, 1911) was a British dramatist and librettist best known for his operatic collaborations with the composer Arthur Sullivan. ... Ralph Vaughan Williams (October 12, 1872 – August 26, 1958) was an influential British composer. ... Edward Benjamin Britten, Baron Britten (November 22, 1913 – December 4, 1976) was a British composer and pianist. ... John Tavener (born 28 January 1944) is an English composer. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...


The UK was, with the US, one of the two main contributors in the development of rock and roll, and the UK has provided some of the most famous bands, including the Beatles, Queen, the Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin, Black Sabbath, Pink Floyd, Deep Purple and many others. The UK was at the forefront of punk rock music in the 1970s with bands such as the Sex Pistols and The Clash, and the subsequent rebirth of heavy metal with bands such as Motörhead and Iron Maiden. In more recent years, the Britpop phenomenon has seen bands such as Oasis, Blur, and Supergrass gain international fame. The UK is also at the forefront of electronica, with British artists such as Aphex Twin, Talvin Singh, Nitin Sawhney and Lamb at the cutting edge. (see main article: Music of the United Kingdom). Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... The Beatles appeared on The Ed Sullivan Show in 1964 as part of their first tour of the United States, promoting their first hit single there, I Want To Hold Your Hand. ... Queen is a British rock band which was popular in the 1970s and 1980s. ... This article is about the rock band. ... Led Zeppelin (clockwise from left: Robert Plant, Jimmy Page, John Bonham, John Paul Jones) Led Zeppelin was a British band noted for their innovative, influential approach to heavy blues-rock and as one of the most popular and influential bands of all time. ... From left to right, Bill Ward, Toni Iommi, Ozzy Osbourne, Geezer Butler This article is about the British heavy metal band. ... Ummagumma album cover Pink Floyd is a British progressive band famous for its songwriting, harmonic classical rock compositions, bombastic style and elaborate live shows. ... Deep Purple was the biggest hit written by pianist Peter De Rose (1900—1953), who broadcast, 1923 to 1939, with May Singhi as The Sweethearts of the Air on the NBC radio network. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Despite their short existence, the Sex Pistols were perhaps the quintessential British punk rock band. ... The Clash was a British punk rock group that existed from 1976 to 1985. ... Heavy metal is a form of rock music characterized by aggressive, driving rhythms and highly amplified distorted guitars, generally with grandiose lyrics and virtuosic instrumentation. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... For information about the heavy metal band, see Iron Maiden (band) Categories: Stub | Torture ... Britpop is a British alternative rock movement from the middle 90s, characterised with the appearance of bands who borrowed many influences from 60s and 70s while creating big and catchy hooks, as well as the glamour of earlier pop stardom and the sense that they were creating the soundtrack to... Theres also a simpergroup called Oasis, consisting of Peter Skellern, Julian Lloyd Webber, Mary Hopkin, Bill Lovelady and Mitch Dalton. ... Cover of Blur: The Best Of - Clockwise from top left: Coxon, James, Rowntree, Albarn Blur is the name of a British rock band. ... Supergrass is a Britpop band consisting of Gaz Coombes, Rob Coombes, Danny Goffey, and Mickey Quinn. ... Electronica is a rather ambiguous term that covers a wide range of electronic or electronic-influenced music. ... Richard D. James, aka Aphex Twin Aphex Twin (born Richard David James, August 18, 1971, Ireland) is a UK-based electronic music artist, credited with pushing forward the genres of techno, ambient, IDM, acid, drum and bass (specifically drill n bass). ... Talvin Singh is a British DJ and tabla player, known for creating an innovative fusion of bhangra and drum n bass. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Lamb are a duo comprising of Andy Barlow and Louise Rhodes. ... Music from the United Kingdom has achieved great international popularity since the 1960s, when the British Invasion peaked. ...


Miscellaneous topics

Main article: list of United Kingdom-related topics Shortcut: UK topics This is a list of topics related to the United Kingdom. ...

Rankings: Telephones - main lines in use: 29. ... Education in the United Kingdom is covered in the following articles: Education in England Education in Northern Ireland Education in Scotland Education in Wales Grammar schools in the United Kingdom Achievement in British Education List of schools in the United Kingdom British universities School inspection organisations: Office for Standards in... Railways: total: 16,878 km Great Britain: 16,536 km 1435 mm gauge (standard gauge) (4,928 km electrified; 12,591 km double or multiple track) (1996). ... Categories: Stub | Religion in the United Kingdom | Religion by country ... British Prime Minister Tony Blair (left) conducting diplomacy, hosted by the President of the United States, George W. Bush at Camp David in March 2003. ... The United Kingdom has a nuclear arsenal but is generally believed not to have any chemical or biological weapons. ... The constitutional status of Cornwall, in the southwest of Great Britain, is the subject of ongoing debate. ...

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world. ... Transparency International (TI) is an international organization devoted to fighting political corruption. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, or RSF) is an international non-governmental organization devoted to freedom of the press. ...

External links


Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...

Countries in Europe
Albania | Andorra | Armenia1 | Austria | Azerbaijan1 | Belarus | Belgium | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Bulgaria | Croatia | Cyprus2 | Czech Republic | Denmark | Estonia | Finland | France | Germany | Greece | Hungary | Iceland | Ireland | Italy | Latvia | Liechtenstein | Lithuania | Luxembourg | Republic of Macedonia | Malta | Moldova | Monaco | The Netherlands | Norway | Poland | Portugal | Romania | Russia1 | San Marino | Serbia and Montenegro | Slovakia | Slovenia | Spain | Sweden | Switzerland | Turkey1 | Ukraine | United Kingdom | Vatican City (Holy See)
Dependencies: Akrotiri and Dhekelia2 | Faroe Islands | Gibraltar | Guernsey | Jan Mayen | Jersey | Isle of Man | Svalbard
1. Country partly in Asia. 2. Usually assigned to Asia geographically, but nonetheless often thought of as European for cultural and historical reasons.


This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... Albania is a Mediterranean country in southeastern Europe. ... National motto: Virtus Unita Fortior (Latin: Virtue united is stronger) Official language: Catalan. ... Armenia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. ... Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan) is a country in the Caucasus, in the crossroads of Europe and Southwest Asia, with an east coast on the Caspian Sea. ... Belarus (Belarusian: Белару́сь or Biełaruś, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия), Polish: Białoruś) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. ... The Kingdom of Belgium (Dutch: Koninkrijk België, French: Royaume de Belgique, German: Königreich Belgien) is a country in Western Europe, bordered by the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, France, and the North Sea. ... Bosnia and Herzegovina (officially Bosna i Hercegovina, shortened to BiH, also in English variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... The Republic of Bulgaria is a republic in the southeast of Europe. ... The Republic of Croatia is a crescent-shaped country in Europe bordering the Mediterranean, Central Europe and the Balkans. ... Cyprus (in Greek Kypros Κύπρος and in Turkish Kıbrıs) is an island in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, 113 kilometres (70 miles) south of Turkey and around 120 km west of the Syrian coast. ... National motto: Truth prevails (Czech: Pravda vítězí) Official language Czech Capital Praha (Prague) President Václav Klaus Prime Minister Jiří Paroubek Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 114th 78,866 km² 2% Population  - Total (2003)  - Density Ranked 76th 10. ... The Kingdom of Denmark is geographically the smallest Nordic country and is part of the European Union. ... The Republic of Estonia is a country in Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea to the west and the Gulf of Finland to the north. ... The Republic of Finland (Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland) is a Nordic country in northeastern Europe, bordered by the Baltic Sea to the southwest, the Gulf of Finland to the southeast and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west. ... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... Greece, officaly called the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), is a country in the southeast of Europe on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula. ... The Republic of Hungary (Magyar Köztársaság) or Hungary (Magyarország) is a landlocked country in Central Europe, bordered by Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia. ... Iceland - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Republic of Ireland (Irish: Poblacht na hÉireann) is the official description of an independent state which covers approximately five-sixths of the island of Ireland, off the coast of north-west Europe. ... The Italian Republic or Italy (Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. ... The Republic of Latvia (Latvian: Latvijas Republika), or Latvia (Latvian: Latvija), is a country in Northern Europe. ... The Principality of Liechtenstein (German: Fürstentum Liechtenstein) is a tiny, doubly landlocked country (one of two such countries, the other being Uzbekistan) in Central Europe, bordered by Switzerland to its west and by Austria to its east. ... The Republic of Lithuania (in Lithuanian, Lietuva) is a republic in Northeastern Europe. ... The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a small landlocked state in the north-west of the continental European Union, bordered by France, Germany and Belgium. ... National motto: None Official languages Macedonian2 Capital Skopje President Branko Crvenkovski Prime Minister Vlado Buckovski Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 145th 25,713 km² 1. ... Official languages Maltese and English Capital Valletta Largest City Birkirkara President Edward (Eddie) Fenech Adami Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi Religion Catholicism Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 184th 316 km² Negligible Population  - Total (2003)  - Density Ranked 211th 399,867 1262/km² Independence  - Date From the UK September 21, 1964 Currency lira Time... The Republic of Moldova is a landlocked country in eastern Europe, located between Romania to the west and Ukraine to the east. ... The Principality of Monaco or Monaco (French: Principauté de Monaco or Monaco; Monegasque: Munegu or Principatu de Munegu) is a city state and the second-smallest country in the world, wedged in between the Mediterranean Sea and France along the French Riviera or Côte dAzur (The Blue Coast). ... Norway - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and... Romania (formerly spelled Rumania or Roumania; Romanian: România) is a country in southeastern Europe. ... The Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches over a vast expanse of eastern Europe and northern Asia. ... The Most Serene Republic of San Marino or San Marino (Italian: Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino or San Marino) is one of the smallest nations in the world. ... Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian: Србија и Црна Гора, often abbreviated as SCG) is the name of the union of Serbia and Montenegro, two former Yugoslav republics united since 2003 in a loose confederation. ... National motto: None Official language Slovak Capital Bratislava President Ivan Gašparovič Prime Minister Mikuláš Dzurinda Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 126th 49,035 km² Negligible Population  - Total (2004)  - Density Ranked 103rd 5,379,455 109/km² Independence January 1, 1993 (division of Czechoslovakia) Currency Slovak koruna Time zone  - in summer CET... Slovenia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Kingdom of Spain or Spain (Spanish and Galician: Reino de España or España; Catalan: Regne dEspanya; Basque: Espainiako Erresuma) is a country located in the southwest of Europe. ... The Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish: Konungariket Sverige  listen) is a Nordic country in Scandinavia, in Northern Europe. ... The Swiss Confederation or Switzerland is a landlocked federal state in Europe, with neighbours Germany, France, Italy, Austria and Liechtenstein. ... The Republic of Turkey is a country located in Southwest Asia with a small part of its territory (3%) in southeastern Europe. ... Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and the Black Sea to the south. ... The State of the Vatican City ( Latin: Status Civitatis Vaticanæ), is a landlocked enclave surrounded by the city of Rome in Italy, and the smallest independent state in the world (both in area and in population). ... The coat of arms of the Holy See The term Holy See (Latin: Sancta Sedes, lit. ... Dependency has a number of meanings: In project management, a dependency is a link amongst a projects terminal elements. ... Map of Akrotiri (Western) SBA Akrotiri (also known as the Western Sovereign Base Area or WSBA) and Dhekelia (also known as the Eastern Sovereign Base Area or ESBA) are UK Sovereign Base Areas (SBAs) in Cyprus, a former British Crown Colony. ... Motto: None Official language Faroese Capital Tórshavn Monarch Margrethe II Prime Minister Jóannes Eidesgaard Area  - Total  - % water World ranking: 189th 1,399 km² — Population  - Total (2004)  - Density World ranking: 211th 48,228 33. ... Motto: Nulli Expugnabilis Hosti (Latin: Conquered By No Enemy) Languages English (official), an English-influenced Spanish dialect called Llanito is also spoken Capital (Gibraltar) Coordinates 36°07′ N 5°21′ W Governor and Commander-in-Chief Sir Francis Richards Chief Minister Peter Caruana Area  - Total  - % water not ranked (192 if... The Bailiwick of Guernsey is a British crown dependency in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy. ... Jan Mayen Jan Mayen Island, a part of the Kingdom of Norway, is a 373-square-kilometer arctic volcanic island partly covered by glaciers and divided into two parts by a narrow isthmus. ... The Bailiwick of Jersey is a British crown dependency off the coast of Normandy, France. ... The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin in Manx), a British crown dependency, lies in the Irish Sea almost equidistant from England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales. ... Svalbard, part of the Kingdom of Norway, lies in the Arctic Ocean north of mainland Europe. ... A bicontinental country is a country whose contiguous continental territory (or in case an island state - its different islands) lie in two different continents. ... World map showing location of Asia A satellite composite image of Asia Asia is the central and eastern part of the continent of Eurasia, defined by subtracting the European peninsula from Eurasia. ... World map showing location of Asia A satellite composite image of Asia Asia is the central and eastern part of the continent of Eurasia, defined by subtracting the European peninsula from Eurasia. ... World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ...

Commonwealth Realms
Antigua and Barbuda | Australia | Bahamas | Barbados | Belize | Canada | Grenada | Jamaica | New Zealand | Papua New Guinea | Saint Kitts and Nevis | Saint Lucia | Saint Vincent and the Grenadines | Solomon Islands | Tuvalu | United Kingdom


A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states that recognize Queen Elizabeth II as their Queen and head of state. ... Personal Flag of Queen Elizabeth II File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... National motto: Each Endeavouring, All Achieving Official language English Capital  - Population: Saint Johns 24,226 (2000) Head of State Elizabeth II, Queen represented by Sir James Carlisle, Governor General Head of Government Baldwin Spencer, Prime Minister Area  - Total:  - % water: Ranked 180th 442 km² Negligible Population  - Total:  - Density Ranked 185th... Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only country to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in the region of Australasia/Oceania. ... National motto    Forward Upward Onward Together Location of Bahamas Official language English Capital Nassau Queen Elizabeth II Governor General Dame Ivy Dumont Prime Minister Perry Christie Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 155th 13,940 km² 28% Population  - Total  - Density Ranked 168th 303,611 22/km² Independence  - Date From the United Kingdom... Barbados is an island nation located towards the east of the Caribbean Sea and the west of the Atlantic Ocean, part of the eastern islands of the Lesser Antilles, with the nations of Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines being its closest neighbors. ... Belize is a small nation on the eastern coast of Central America, on the Caribbean Sea bordering Mexico to the northwest and Guatemala to the west and south. ... Canada is a sovereign state in northern North America, the northern-most country in the world, and the second largest in total area. ... Grenada is an island nation in the southeastern Caribbean Sea including the southern Grenadines. ... Jamaica is a country in the Caribbean Sea, located south of Cuba and to the west of Hispaniola, on which Haiti and the Dominican Republic are situated. ... New Zealand is an independent sovereign state in the south-western Pacific Ocean. ... The Independent State of Papua New Guinea, often referred to by just the initials, PNG, is a country in Oceania, occupying the eastern half of the island of New Guinea (the other half is the Papua province of Indonesia). ... The Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis is an island nation in the Caribbean. ... Saint Lucia is an island nation in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is an independent sovereign state of the Caribbean, part of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... The Solomon Islands is a nation in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Papua New Guinea and is part of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... National anthem Tuvalu mo te Atua (Tuvaluan: Eight Standing Together for the Almighty) Languages Tuvaluan, English Capitals Funafuti (atoll), Vaiaku (village; Gov. ...

Commonwealth of Nations
Antigua and Barbuda | Australia | Bahamas | Bangladesh | Barbados | Belize | Botswana | Brunei | Cameroon | Canada | Cyprus | Dominica | Fiji | The Gambia | Ghana | Grenada | Guyana | India | Jamaica | Kenya | Kiribati | Lesotho | Malawi | Malaysia | Maldives | Malta | Mauritius | Mozambique | Namibia | Nauru | New Zealand | Nigeria | Pakistan | Papua New Guinea | Saint Kitts and Nevis | Saint Lucia | Saint Vincent and the Grenadines | Samoa | Seychelles | Sierra Leone | Singapore | Solomon Islands | South Africa | Sri Lanka | Swaziland | Tanzania | Tonga | Trinidad and Tobago | Tuvalu | Uganda | United Kingdom | Vanuatu | Zambia


Flag of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary association of independent sovereign states, most of which were once governed by the United Kingdom and are its former colonies. ... General info: Large flag of the Commonwealth of Nations Dimensions: 604x302 pixels Source: [1] License: Re-posting on commercial sites requires written permission from the Commonwealth Secretariat © Copyright Commonwealth Secretariat Re-posting on commercial sites requires written permission from the Commonwealth Secretariat. ... National motto: Each Endeavouring, All Achieving Official language English Capital  - Population: Saint Johns 24,226 (2000) Head of State Elizabeth II, Queen represented by Sir James Carlisle, Governor General Head of Government Baldwin Spencer, Prime Minister Area  - Total:  - % water: Ranked 180th 442 km² Negligible Population  - Total:  - Density Ranked 185th... Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only country to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in the region of Australasia/Oceania. ... National motto    Forward Upward Onward Together Location of Bahamas Official language English Capital Nassau Queen Elizabeth II Governor General Dame Ivy Dumont Prime Minister Perry Christie Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 155th 13,940 km² 28% Population  - Total  - Density Ranked 168th 303,611 22/km² Independence  - Date From the United Kingdom... The Peoples Republic of Bangladesh (Bangla: গনপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলােদশ) is a country in South Asia that forms the eastern part of the ancient region of Bengal. ... Barbados is an island nation located towards the east of the Caribbean Sea and the west of the Atlantic Ocean, part of the eastern islands of the Lesser Antilles, with the nations of Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines being its closest neighbors. ... Belize is a small nation on the eastern coast of Central America, on the Caribbean Sea bordering Mexico to the northwest and Guatemala to the west and south. ... The Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana) is a landlocked nation of southern Africa. ... The Sultanate of Brunei, more commonly referred to as Brunei Darussalam or simply Brunei, is an oil-rich country located on the island of Borneo, in southeast Asia. ... The Republic of Cameroon is a unitary republic of central Africa. ... Canada is a sovereign state in northern North America, the northern-most country in the world, and the second largest in total area. ... Cyprus (in Greek Kypros Κύπρος and in Turkish Kıbrıs) is an island in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, 113 kilometres (70 miles) south of Turkey and around 120 km west of the Syrian coast. ... The Commonwealth of Dominica is an island nation and borderless country in the Caribbean. ... Fiji - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Republic of The Gambia is a country in West Africa. ... The Republic of Ghana is a nation in West Africa. ... Grenada is an island nation in the southeastern Caribbean Sea including the southern Grenadines. ... The Co-operative Republic of Guyana is a nation along the northern coastline of South America. ... The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. ... Jamaica is a country in the Caribbean Sea, located south of Cuba and to the west of Hispaniola, on which Haiti and the Dominican Republic are situated. ... Kenya (pronounced as KEN-ya) is a country of East Africa, bordering Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and the Indian Ocean. ... The Republic of Kiribati is an island nation located in the central tropical Pacific Ocean. ... The Kingdom of Lesotho (Muso oa Lesotho) is a country in southern Africa. ... The Republic of Malawi is a land-locked nation in east Africa. ... The Federation of Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. ... The Republic of Maldives is a country consisting territorially of a group of atolls in the Indian Ocean, south-southwest of India. ... Official languages Maltese and English Capital Valletta Largest City Birkirkara President Edward (Eddie) Fenech Adami Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi Religion Catholicism Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 184th 316 km² Negligible Population  - Total (2003)  - Density Ranked 211th 399,867 1262/km² Independence  - Date From the UK September 21, 1964 Currency lira Time... The Republic of Mauritius is an island country in the southwest Indian Ocean, about 900 km east of Madagascar. ... Mozambique is also the name given to a style of music from the 1960s, an advanced rumba by Peyo el AfroCán Mozambique is a country in Southern Africa, bordering South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe. ... The Republic of Namibia is a country in southwestern Africa, on the Atlantic coast. ... The Republic of Nauru (pronounced nah-OO-roo), formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island republic in the South Pacific Ocean. ... New Zealand is an independent sovereign state in the south-western Pacific Ocean. ... The Federal Republic of Nigeria is a country in West Africa and, by far, the most populated nation in Africa. ... The Islamic Republic of Pakistan (, or Islami Jamhooriya-e-Pakistan, in Urdu), or Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia and is part of the Greater Middle East. ... The Independent State of Papua New Guinea, often referred to by just the initials, PNG, is a country in Oceania, occupying the eastern half of the island of New Guinea (the other half is the Papua province of Indonesia). ... The Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis is an island nation in the Caribbean. ... Saint Lucia is an island nation in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean. ... Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is an independent sovereign state of the Caribbean, part of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... The Independent State of Samoa (conventional long form) or Samoa (conventional short form) is a country comprising a group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean. ... The Republic of Seychelles (say-SHELLS or say-SHELL) (Creole: Repiblik Sesel) is a nation of islands in the Indian Ocean, some 1,600 km east of mainland Africa, northeast of the island of Madagascar. ... The Republic of Sierra Leone is a country in West Africa, on the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. ... National motto: Majulah Singapura (English: Onward, Singapore) National anthem: Majulah Singapura Capital Singapore1 Largest city Singapore1 Official languages English, Mandarin Chinese, Malay, Tamil Government President Prime minister Westminster system (de jure) Dominant-party system (de facto) Sellapan Rama Nathan Lee Hsien Loong Independence - From Malaysia August 9, 1965 Area  - Total... The Solomon Islands is a nation in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Papua New Guinea and is part of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... The Republic of South Africa is a large republic located at the southern tip of the continent. ... The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා in Sinhala / இலங்கை in Tamil) (known as Ceylon before 1972) is a tropical island nation off the southeast coast of the Indian subcontinent. ... The Kingdom of Swaziland (Ngwana) is a small country in southern Africa (one of the smallest on the continent), situated on the eastern slope of the Drakensberg mountains, embedded between South Africa in the west and Mozambique in the east. ... The United Republic of (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania in Swahili) is a country on the east coast of central Africa. ... In Polynesian mythology, Tonga refers to several different ideas. ... The Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is a nation located in the southern Caribbean Sea, off the coast of Venezuela. ... National anthem Tuvalu mo te Atua (Tuvaluan: Eight Standing Together for the Almighty) Languages Tuvaluan, English Capitals Funafuti (atoll), Vaiaku (village; Gov. ... The Republic of Uganda is a country in east central Africa. ... The Republic of Vanuatu is a country located in the South Pacific Ocean. ... Zambia is a republic in south central Africa. ...


For the National Association of Theatre Owners, please see National Association of Theatre Owners. ... Image:Flag of NATO.jpg - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Kingdom of Belgium (Dutch: Koninkrijk België, French: Royaume de Belgique, German: Königreich Belgien) is a country in Western Europe, bordered by the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, France, and the North Sea. ... The Republic of Bulgaria is a republic in the southeast of Europe. ... Canada is a sovereign state in northern North America, the northern-most country in the world, and the second largest in total area. ... National motto: Truth prevails (Czech: Pravda vítězí) Official language Czech Capital Praha (Prague) President Václav Klaus Prime Minister Jiří Paroubek Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 114th 78,866 km² 2% Population  - Total (2003)  - Density Ranked 76th 10. ... The Kingdom of Denmark is geographically the smallest Nordic country and is part of the European Union. ... The Republic of Estonia is a country in Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea to the west and the Gulf of Finland to the north. ... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... Greece, officaly called the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), is a country in the southeast of Europe on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula. ... The Republic of Hungary (Magyar Köztársaság) or Hungary (Magyarország) is a landlocked country in Central Europe, bordered by Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia. ... Iceland - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Italian Republic or Italy (Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. ... The Republic of Latvia (Latvian: Latvijas Republika), or Latvia (Latvian: Latvija), is a country in Northern Europe. ... The Republic of Lithuania (in Lithuanian, Lietuva) is a republic in Northeastern Europe. ... The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a small landlocked state in the north-west of the continental European Union, bordered by France, Germany and Belgium. ... Norway - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and... Romania (formerly spelled Rumania or Roumania; Romanian: România) is a country in southeastern Europe. ... National motto: None Official language Slovak Capital Bratislava President Ivan Gašparovič Prime Minister Mikuláš Dzurinda Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 126th 49,035 km² Negligible Population  - Total (2004)  - Density Ranked 103rd 5,379,455 109/km² Independence January 1, 1993 (division of Czechoslovakia) Currency Slovak koruna Time zone  - in summer CET... Slovenia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... The Kingdom of Spain or Spain (Spanish and Galician: Reino de España or España; Catalan: Regne dEspanya; Basque: Espainiako Erresuma) is a country located in the southwest of Europe. ... The Republic of Turkey is a country located in Southwest Asia with a small part of its territory (3%) in southeastern Europe. ...

 
European Union (EU)

Austria | Belgium | Cyprus |  Czech Republic | Denmark | Estonia | Finland | France | Germany | Greece | Hungary | Ireland | Italy | Latvia | Lithuania |  Luxembourg | Malta | Netherlands | Poland | Portugal | Slovakia | Slovenia | Spain | Sweden | United Kingdom The European Union or EU is an intergovernmental organisation of European countries, which currently has 25 member states. ... Download high resolution version (1200x800, 13 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Austria Belgium Bulgaria Czech Republic Croatia Cyprus Economy of Cyprus Economy of the Czech Republic Council of Europe Economy of Denmark Drachma European Union Estonia Euro European Parliament Talk:European Union European Free Alliance... Fixed size, hues based on World Flag Database. ... The Republic of Austria (German: Republik Österreich) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. ... General info: Large flag of Belgium Dimensions: 348x302 pixels Source: Image originally derived from the public domain flags of the CIA World Factbook License: originally public domain, modifications under GFDL Most of the flags have had their colours improved and many have been resized to the proper ratios. ... The Kingdom of Belgium (Dutch: Koninkrijk België, French: Royaume de Belgique, German: Königreich Belgien) is a country in Western Europe, bordered by the Netherlands, Germany, Luxembourg, France, and the North Sea. ... General info: Large flag of Cyprus Dimensions: 503x302 pixels Source: Image originally derived from the public domain flags of the CIA World Factbook License: Originally public domain, modifications under GFDL Most of the flags have had their colours improved and many have been resized to the proper ratios. ... Cyprus (in Greek Kypros Κύπρος and in Turkish Kıbrıs) is an island in the eastern Mediterranean Sea, 113 kilometres (70 miles) south of Turkey and around 120 km west of the Syrian coast. ... General info: Large flag of the Czech Republic Dimensions: 453x302 pixels Source: Image originally derived from the public domain License: Originally public domain, modifications under GFDL Most of the flags have had their colours improved and many have been resized to the proper ratios. ... National motto: Truth prevails (Czech: Pravda vítězí) Official language Czech Capital Praha (Prague) President Václav Klaus Prime Minister Jiří Paroubek Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 114th 78,866 km² 2% Population  - Total (2003)  - Density Ranked 76th 10. ... General info: Large civil flag of Denmark Dimensions: 399x302 pixels Source: Image originally derived from the public domain flags of the CIA World Factbook License: Originally public domain, modifications under GFDL Most of the flags have had their colours improved and many have been resized to the proper ratios. ... The Kingdom of Denmark is geographically the smallest Nordic country and is part of the European Union. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Austria Belgium Czech Republic Cyprus Economy of the Czech Republic European Union Estonia Foreign relations of Estonia European Parliament Talk:European Union European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party European Peoples Party (Christian Democrats) and European Democrats Finland France Germany Economy... The Republic of Estonia is a country in Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea to the west and the Gulf of Finland to the north. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Austria AZ Alkmaar Belgium Czech Republic Cyprus Economy of the Czech Republic Charlton Athletic F.C. Chelsea F.C. European Union Estonia European Parliament Talk:European Union European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party European Peoples Party (Christian Democrats) and European... The Republic of Finland (Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland) is a Nordic country in northeastern Europe, bordered by the Baltic Sea to the southwest, the Gulf of Finland to the southeast and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west. ... Tricolore of France Created by User:Anthony S. Tsoumbris French Tricolore flag File links The following pages link to this file: Austria Arsenal F.C. Ajax Amsterdam A.S. Roma A.C. Milan Belgium Czech Republic Cyprus Economy of the Czech Republic Corsica Chelsea F.C. European Union Estonia European... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Large flag of Greece Image originally derived from the public domain flags of the CIA World Factbook. ... Greece, officaly called the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), is a country in the southeast of Europe on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula. ... Large flag of Hungary Image originally derived from the public domain flags of the CIA World Factbook. ... The Republic of Hungary (Magyar Köztársaság) or Hungary (Magyarország) is a landlocked country in Central Europe, bordered by Austria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Romania, Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Austria Arsenal F.C. Belgium Czech Republic Cyprus Economy of the Czech Republic Charlton Athletic F.C. Chelsea F.C. European Union Estonia European Parliament Talk:European Union European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party European Peoples Party (Christian Democrats) and... The Republic of Ireland (Irish: Poblacht na hÉireann) is the official description of an independent state which covers approximately five-sixths of the island of Ireland, off the coast of north-west Europe. ... Download high resolution version (1200x800, 1 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Austria Arsenal F.C. A.S. Roma A.C. Milan ACF Fiorentina Belgium Czech Republic Cyprus Economy of the Czech Republic Chievo Verona Chelsea F.C. European Union Estonia European Parliament Talk:European Union... The Italian Republic or Italy (Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. ... File links The following pages link to this file: Austria Belgium Czech Republic Cyprus Economy of the Czech Republic European Union Estonia European Parliament Talk:European Union European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party European Peoples Party (Christian Democrats) and European Democrats Finland France Germany Economy of Germany Greece Hungary... The Republic of Latvia (Latvian: Latvijas Republika), or Latvia (Latvian: Latvija), is a country in Northern Europe. ... Large flag of Lithuania Image originally derived from the public domain flags of the CIA World Factbook. ... The Republic of Lithuania (in Lithuanian, Lietuva) is a republic in Northeastern Europe. ... Headline text File links The following pages link to this file: Austria Belgium Czech Republic Cyprus Economy of the Czech Republic European Union Estonia European Parliament Talk:European Union European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party European Peoples Party (Christian Democrats) and European Democrats Finland France Germany Economy of Germany... The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a small landlocked state in the north-west of the continental European Union, bordered by France, Germany and Belgium. ... Flag of Malta. ... Official languages Maltese and English Capital Valletta Largest City Birkirkara President Edward (Eddie) Fenech Adami Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi Religion Catholicism Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 184th 316 km² Negligible Population  - Total (2003)  - Density Ranked 211th 399,867 1262/km² Independence  - Date From the UK September 21, 1964 Currency lira Time... Large flag of the Netherlands. ... The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland) is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Dutch: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden). ... Large flag of Poland Image originally derived from the public domain flags of the CIA World Factbook. ... The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania and... File links The following pages link to this file: Austria A.C. Milan Belgium Czech Republic Cyprus Economy of the Czech Republic Chelsea F.C. European Union Estonia European Parliament Talk:European Union European Peoples Party (Christian Democrats) and European Democrats Finland France Fulham F.C. Football World Cup... File links The following pages link to this file: Austria Belgium Czech Republic Cyprus Economy of the Czech Republic European Union Estonia European Parliament Talk:European Union European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party European Peoples Party (Christian Democrats) and European Democrats Finland France Germany Economy of Germany Greece Hungary... National motto: None Official language Slovak Capital Bratislava President Ivan Gašparovič Prime Minister Mikuláš Dzurinda Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 126th 49,035 km² Negligible Population  - Total (2004)  - Density Ranked 103rd 5,379,455 109/km² Independence January 1, 1993 (division of Czechoslovakia) Currency Slovak koruna Time zone  - in summer CET... Large Flag of Slovenia, originally from flags of the CIA World Factbook, 2004. ... Slovenia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Source: Sodipodis Clipart Gallery. ... The Kingdom of Spain or Spain (Spanish and Galician: Reino de España or España; Catalan: Regne dEspanya; Basque: Espainiako Erresuma) is a country located in the southwest of Europe. ... Large flag of Sweden Image originally derived from the public domain flags of the CIA World Factbook. ... The Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish: Konungariket Sverige  listen) is a Nordic country in Scandinavia, in Northern Europe. ... Union Flag / Union Jack: Flag of the United Kingdom For more information, see Court of the Lord Lyon, Flags. ...


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United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1078 words)
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was created on 1 January 1801 by the merger of the Kingdom of Great Britain (itself a merger of the former Kingdoms of Scotland and England in 1707) and the Kingdom of Ireland.
Under the terms of the merger, the Irish Parliament was abolished, and Ireland was to be represented in the united parliament, meeting in the Palace of Westminster.
Thereafter, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland continued in name until 1927 when it was renamed as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in accordance with the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act 1927.
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (2483 words)
Besides the largest islands Great Britain (divided into England, Scotland and Wales) and Ireland we should mention the Isle of Wight off the southern coast of England, the Isles of Scilly off the extreme south-west, Anglesey off North Wales, the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea.
King Alfred the Great (849-901) was successful in stopping their influence in the southern parts of the country, nevertheless the Danish wars wiped out many villages and the peasants suffered most.
Britain was not able to prevent this because of its weak land forces.
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