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Encyclopedia > United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan
Flag flown by the UIF (Northern Alliance).
Flag flown by the UIF (Northern Alliance).

The United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan (UIF, Jabha-yi Muttahid-i Islami-yi Milli bara-yi Nijat-i Afghanistan), also known as the Northern Alliance (term used by the Western media), was a military-political umbrella organization created by the Islamic State of Afghanistan in 1996. Image File history File links Flag_of_Afghanistan_1992_free. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Afghanistan_1992_free. ... The term Western world, the West or the Occident (Latin occidens -sunset, -west, as distinct from the Orient) [1] can have multiple meanings dependent on its context (e. ... An umbrella organization is an association of (often related, industry-specific) institutions, who work together formally to coordinate activities or pool resources. ... The Islamic State of Afghanistan was the name given to the nation of Afghanistan by the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan (so-called Northern Alliance) government. ...


The organization united various Afghan groups fighting against each other to fight the Taliban instead. In late 2001, with extensive assistance from U.S. air support and United States Special Forces, the UIF succeeded in retaking most of Afghanistan from the Taliban. The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim Pashtun movement that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1995 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the United States, United Kingdom and the Northern Alliance. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... Close air support (often abbreviated CAS) is the use of military aircraft in a ground attack role against targets in close proximity to friendly troops, in support of ground combat operations. ... The United States Special Operations Forces is the official category where the U.S. Department of Defense lists the U.S. military units that have a training specialization in unconventional warfare and special operations. ...


Despite fears of a return to the chaos similar to that of the Afghan Civil War (1992-1996), the UIF largely accepted the new order. Combatants Islamic State of Afghanistan Hezbi Islami Taliban Commanders Burhanuddin Rabbani Ahmed Shah Massoud Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Abdul Rashid Dostum Mohammed Omar Abdul Rashid Dostum joined forces with Gulbuddin Hekmatyar in 1994. ...

Northern Alliance troops line a runway at Bagram Airbase.
Northern Alliance troops line a runway at Bagram Airbase.

Contents

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 306 pixelsFull resolution (2100 × 802 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 306 pixelsFull resolution (2100 × 802 pixel, file size: 1. ...

Organization and history

The Mujahedin who had formerly defeated the Communist government and had formed the Islamic State of Afghanistan came under attack from Taliban and in 1996 lost the capital to the Taliban. It was at this junction that the Mujahideen resorted to the creation of UIF because Rashid Dostum as well as other warlords who belonged to various tribes but to no specific political party did not want to recognize the Islamic State of Afghanistan as a legal entity, so the defeated government devised a military strategy to utilize these forces while not offending their political views. Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ... General Abdul Rashid Dostum (also Abdurrashid Dostum, born 1954) is the Deputy Defense Minister of Afghanistan and an Uzbek warlord. ...


Although recognised by most foreign nations as the legal Government, it only controlled around 30% of Afghanistan. President Burhanuddin Rabbani was the national head of the United Islamic Front, however the central government had little power and personnel changes were frequent. The exception to this was the post of Defence Minister, which was held by Ahmed Shah Massoud and Mohammed Fahim. Before the 9/11 attacks; Russia, the Central Asian nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States, India, Turkey and Iran were giving aid to UIF. However Pakistan, the People's Republic of China, Saudi Arabia and UAE were supporting the Taliban. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ahmed Shah Massoud (احمد شاه مسعود) (c. ... Mohammad Qasim Fahim (محمد قسيم فهيم) was the defense minister of the Afghan Transitional Administration, beginning in 2002. ... The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Viktor Yanukovych Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... UAE redirects here; for other uses of that term, see UAE (disambiguation) The United Arab Emirates is an oil-rich country situated in the south-east of the Arabian Peninsula in Southwest Asia, comprising seven emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm al-Quwain. ...


Three ethnic groups dominated the UIF, the Tajiks, who make up 27% of Afghanistan's population and are the second largest ethnic group, and the Hazara and the Uzbeks, who each make up about 9% of the population. From the Taliban conquest 1996 until November 2001 the UIF controlled roughly 30% of Afghanistan's population. UIF controlled provinces like Badakshan, Kapisa, Takhar and parts of Parwan, Kunar, Nuristan, Laghmaan, Samangan, Qunduz, Ghor and Bamiyan, all in the north of the country (hence the name 'Northern Alliance'). Throughout the campaign against the Taliban, the Northern Alliance's fortunes fluctuated, but neither side succeeded in gaining a major advantage. Tajiks are Central Asian Iranians or East-Iranians. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Afghanistan and of Tajikistan. ... Kapisa is one of 34 provinces in Afghanistan. ... Takhar province is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Parwān (Persian: پروان, also spelt Parvān) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Kunar province is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northeastern part of the country and on the border with Pakistan. ... Nurestan Province (also spelled Nuristan) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Samangan Province. ... The Kunduz province is a province around the city of Kunduz in Afghanistan, with an area of 7,827 km square, and a population of about 583,000. ... Ghowr province (sometimes spelled Ghor) is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan. ... Bamiyan province is one of the thirty_four provinces of Afghanistan. ...


The political leader of the alliance was Burhanuddin Rabbani, however he was little more than a figurehead for the military commanders. Ahmed Shah Massoud served as the UIF's Minister of Defence and was by far its most visible and powerful figure. He personally commanded around 10,000 of the UIF's estimated 40,000 troops. Massoud's were also the best trained and best equipped troops the UIF had. Several other important military leaders controlled different factions within the alliance, including Abdul Rashid Dostum, General Mohammed Fahim, and Ismail Khan. General Dostum had the right to nominate the defense, foreign affairs and four other ministers, and was the military commander in northern Afghanistan. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ahmed Shah Massoud (احمد شاه مسعود) (c. ... General Abdul Rashid Dostum (also Abdurrashid Dostum, born 1954), a powerful ethnic Uzbek warlord is the principal leader of Afghanistans Uzbek community. ... Mohammad Qasim Fahim (محمد قسيم فهيم) was the defense minister of the Afghan Transitional Administration, beginning in 2002. ... Ismail Khan Ismail Khan (b. ...


On September 13, 2001 it was confirmed that Ahmed Shah Massoud had died, following an attack by Al-Qaeda assassins posing as journalists four days earlier on September 9. Mohammed Fahim, the second ranking Tajik commander succeeded Massoud a few days later. In November and December of 2001, the UIF was successful in advancing to control much of the country, including the capital Kabul. This was facilitated by extensive bombing of Taliban forces and military infrastructure by the United States during the U.S.-led attack on Afghanistan. is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Combatants Taliban al-Qaeda IMU Hezbi Islami Afghanistan Northern Alliance ISAF Image:Nato 1. ...


Factions

The UIF was composed of roughly five of the factions of Mujahideen fighters. Iran and Turkey considered there to be seven factions in total. These groups were:

  • Islamic Party of Afghanistan - Jamiat-I Islami-yi Afghanistan - Made up of mainly Persian-speaking Tajiks, led by Burhanuddin Rabbani. In later years as the capital was lost and the situation was largely military, Rabbani had little influence compared to Defence Ministers Ahmed Shah Massoud and Mohammed Fahim, who were also members of the Party.
  • Islamic Unity Party of Afghanistan - Hizb-I Wahdat-I Islami-yi Afghanistan - Made up of Shia Hazaras, once led by the martyred Abdul Ali Mazari and later by Mohammed Mohaqiq and Karim Khalili, supported by Iran

Many members, including much of the leadership were ethnic Tajiks, Uzbeks and Hazara - ethnic minorities in Afghanistan. Remnants of the former Soviet-backed communist government also made up a subsantial portion of the Northern Alliance. Jamiat Islami (Jamiat-e-Islami, Jamiat-i Islami - Islamic Society) Mainly Tajhik group opposed to the Taliban. ... “Farsi” redirects here. ... Tajiks are Central Asian Iranians or East-Iranians. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ahmed Shah Massoud (احمد شاه مسعود) (c. ... Mohammad Qasim Fahim (محمد قسيم فهيم) was the defense minister of the Afghan Transitional Administration, beginning in 2002. ... Hizb-e-Wahdat is a political party in Afghanistan (also referred to as the Wahdat, Unity), informally representing the Hazara people of the region. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The National Islamic Movement of Afghanistan (Jumbish-i-Milli Islami Afghanistan ) is a political party in Afghanistan. ... General Abdul Rashid Dostum (also Abdurrashid Dostum, born 1954), a powerful ethnic Uzbek warlord is the principal leader of Afghanistans Uzbek community. ... Islamic Movement of Afghanistan (Harakat-i-Islami-yi Afghanistan) is a political party and former faction of the Northern Alliance (United Front) in Afghanistan. ... Small Shiah, mostly Hazara group from Hazarajat in Kandahar. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Ayatollah redirects here. ... Ayatollah Muhammad Asif Muhsini (Sheik Muhsini) is the founder of the Islamic Movement of Afghanistan (Harakat-I Islami-yi Afghanistan). ... Islamic Union for the Liberation of Afghanistan (Ittihad-I Islami Bara-yi Azadi) is a political party and a former faction of the Northern Alliance (United Front). ... The Pashtuns (also Pushtun, Pakhtun, ethnic Afghan, or Pathan) are an ethno-linguistic group consisting mainly of eastern Iranian stock living primarily in eastern and southern Afghanistan, and the North West Frontier Province, Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Baluchistan provinces of Pakistan. ... Abdul Rasul Sayyaf, aka Abd-i-Rab Rasoul Sayaf, is a Pashtun warlord commander of a Pashtun militia. ... “CCCP” redirects here. ...


Legacy

The United Front was extremely influential in the transitional Afghan Government of Hamid Karzai. Notably, Mohammed Fahim became the Vice President and Minister of Defence, Yunus Qanuni became the Minister of Education and Security Advisor and Dr Abdullah became the Foreign Minister. Most foreign observers expected this dominance to continue and for Fahim or Qanuni to be selected as Karzai's Vice President in the 2004 elections. However, Karzai instead selected Ahmad Zia Massoud, younger brother of the former United Front leader Ahmad Shah Massoud. Karzai easily won the 2004 Presidential election with 55.4% of the vote, followed by three former leaders of the UIF, Quanuni (16.3%), Mohammed Mohaqiq (11.7%) and Abdul Rashid Dostum (10%). The Afghan Transitional Administration was established in June and July of 2002. ... Hamid Karzai (Pashto: حامد کرزي) (b. ... Mohammad Qasim Fahim (محمد قسيم فهيم) was the defense minister of the Afghan Transitional Administration, beginning in 2002. ... Yunus Qanuni (يونس قانوني, also transliterated Qanooni and Qanouni) (born 1957) is an Afghanistani politician. ... Dr. Abdullah (born 1961), an Afghan politician, was the Foreign Minister of Afghanistan. ... Ahmad Zia Massoud is the current vice-president of Afghanistan in the administration of President Hamid Karzai. ... Haji Mohammad Mohaqiq is a high-ranking official of the Hizb-e-Wahdat political party of Afghanistan. ... General Abdul Rashid Dostum (also Abdurrashid Dostum, born 1954), a powerful ethnic Uzbek warlord is the principal leader of Afghanistans Uzbek community. ...


The majority of the alliance is now part of the United National Front (Afghanistan) which is led by Rabbani and includes many former leaders of the UIF such as Parliamentary Speaker Yunus Qanuni, Mohammed Fahim, Dostum, and Vice President Ahmad Zia Massoud. The United National Front has positioned itself as a "loyal" opposition to Karzai. A number of former UIF members are however loyal to Karzai, notably Abdul Sayyaf. The United National Front is a political party in Afghanistan which was founded on 3 April 2007 as a broad coalition of former and current strongmen, commanders from the anti-Soviet resistance, ex-Communist leaders, and various social and ethnic groups. ... Ahmad Zia Massoud is the current vice-president of Afghanistan in the administration of President Hamid Karzai. ...


Much of the military strength of the UIF has now been absorbed into the Afghan National Army or disarmed[citation needed]. The existence and strength of the Afghan National Army has significantly reduced the threat of the former UIF elements attempting to use military action against the new government. However, most of the senior officers are former members of the UIF, including General Bismillah Khan. Afghan National Army (ANA) is the army of Afghanistan that is being trained by the coalition forces to ultimately take the lead in land-based military operations. ... General Bismillah Khan is the chief of staff of the Afghan National Army. ...


Criticism

Much criticism has been leveled against the United Islamic Front for alleged breaches of human rights, by both Afghan and international groups. The influence allied warlords have in their territories where they make their own, often draconian, laws is one factor. Human Rights Watch has released documents alleging internal displacement and executions, widespread rape, arbitrary arrests and "disappearances" targeted against the civilian population.[1] Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


See also

Combatants Northern Alliance Taliban Al-Qaeda Commanders Burhanuddin Rabbani Ahmed Shah Massoud † Mohammed Fahim Abdul Rashid Dostum Mohammed Omar Osama bin Laden The Afghan Civil War continued after the capture of Kabul by the Taliban, with the formation of the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan (more commonly... Afghan National Army (ANA) is the army of Afghanistan that is being trained by the coalition forces to ultimately take the lead in land-based military operations. ...

External links

  • Northern Alliance FAS
  • Who are the Northern Alliance? BBC 13 November, 2001
  • Afghanistan's Northern Alliance BBC 19 September, 2001,
  • Human Rights Watch on the UIF crimes

Fas can mean the following: Fas receptor, an important cell surface receptor protein of the TNF receptor family known also as CD95, that induces apoptosis on binding Fas ligand. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.hrw.org/backgrounder/asia/afghan-bck1005.htm#uf

  Results from FactBites:
 
Afghanistan - MSN Encarta (1689 words)
The alliance took the name United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan, commonly known as the United Front or the Northern Alliance.
United Nations-sponsored negotiations in Bonn, Germany, resulted in agreement on December 5, 2001, among four major Afghan factions to create an interim post-Taliban administration in Afghanistan.
The ISAF was authorized by the United Nations Security Council to act as peacekeepers in the Afghan capital, Kābul, and surrounding areas.
Afghan Northern Alliance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1093 words)
The Northern Alliance was a term used by the Western media, Taliban and Al Qaida to identify the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan, a military-political coalition of various Afghan groups fighting against the Taliban.
Three ethnic groups dominated the UIF, the Tajiks, who make up 27% of Afghanistan's population and are the second largest ethnic group, and the Hazara and the Uzbeks, who both make up about 9% of the population.
This was facilitated by extensive bombing of Taliban forces and military infrastructure by the United States during the U.S.-led attack on Afghanistan.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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