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Encyclopedia > United Arab Republic
United Arab Republic
Flag of the UAR
Flag of the Federation
States of UAR
Created 1958
Dissolved 1961
Capital Cairo
Official Language Arabic
Identity Arab Nationality
President Gamal Abdel Nasser
Area 1,186,630 km²
Currency

The United Arab Republic (UAR) (Arabic: لجمهورية العربية المتحدة - al jumhūrīya al-ʕarabīya al-muttaĥida) was the state formed by the union between the republics of Egypt and Syria in 1958. It existed until Syria's secession in 1961, although Egypt continued to be known as the UAR until 1971. The Unión Argentina de Rugby (UAR) is a member of the International Rugby Board with a seat on that bodys Executive Council. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_United_Arab_Republic. ... File links The following pages link to this file: United Arab Republic Categories: GFDL images ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... Cairo (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is the capital city of Egypt (and previously the United Arab Republic) and has a metropolitan area population of approximately 15. ... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... // Computer programming In object-oriented programming, object identity is a mechanism for distinguishing different objects from each other. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are a large and heterogeneous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... For an article about former Ford Motor Company CEO Jacques The Knife Nasser, see Jacques Nasser Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: جمال عبد الناصر); also transliterated Jamal Abd an-Nasr and other variants) ‎ (January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the second President of Egypt after Muhammad Naguib. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... The Arabic language (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), or simply Arabic (Arabic: ‎ translit: ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ...

Contents


Causes of the union

Established on February 1, 1958, as a first step towards a pan-Arab nation, the UAR was created when a group of political and military leaders in Syria proposed a merger of the two states to Egyptian president Gamal Abdal Nasser. Pan-Arab sentiment was very strong in Syria, and Nasser was a popular hero throughout the Arab east following the Suez Crisis of 1956. There was thus considerable popular support in Syria for union with Nasser's Egypt. February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pan-Arabism is a movement for unification among the Arab peoples and nations of the Middle East. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: جمال عبد الناصر) Gamal Abdel Nasser (January 15, 1918 - September 28, 1970) was the second President of Egypt after Muhammad Naguib and is considered one of the most important Arab leaders in history. ... Combatants Israel, France, United Kingdom Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan (CoS of the IDF) General Sir Charles Keightley (C-in-C), Vice-Admiral Pierre Barjot (Deputy) Gamal Abdel Nasser Strength 45,000 British, 34,000 French, 175,000 Israeli 300,000 Egyptians Casualties 189 Israelis KIA, unknown number WIA, 16 British...


The immediate causes of the union were more specific. The increasing strength of the Syrian Communist Party, under the leadership of Khalid Bakdash, was worrying other political and social groups in Syria, and the Syrian Ba'th Party was also suffering from an internal crisis from which prominent members were anxious to find an escape. Syria had had a democratic government since the overthrow of Adib al-Shishakli's military regime in 1954, and the popular pressure for Arab unity was reflected in the composition of parliament. The strength of this popular sentiment was such that the Communist Party and the Muslim Brotherhood both took a positive stance towards unification, despite Nasser's repression of the two parties' organisations in Egypt. The Syrian elite also hoped to find a market in Egypt. The Syrian Communist Party evolved out of the Syrian-Lebanese Communist Party founded in 1924. ... Khalid Bakdash (born 1912, died 1995; occasionally spelled Khalid Bagdash) was the leader of the Syrian Communist Party (SCP) from 1936 until his death. ... Baath Party flag The Baath Parties (also spelled Baath or Bath; Arabic: اﻟﺒﻌﺚ) comprise political parties representing the political face of the Baath movement. ... Adib Shishakli (1909-1964), Syrian politician and military officer. ... The Muslim Brotherhood or The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimūn, full title جماعة الإخوان المسلمين jamāat al-ikhwān al-muslimīn, The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood) is the name of several Islamist organizations in the Middle East. ...


Formation of the Union

President Nasser of Egypt and President Shukri al-Kuwatli of Syria signed the union pact on 22 February 1958 after a referendum in both countries. President Nasser was elected as the new republic's president, and Cairo was chosen to be the capital. A new federal constitution was adopted. Shukri al Kuwaiti Shukri al-Kuwatli (Born 1891, Damascus, Syria. ... February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Cairo (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is the capital city of Egypt (and previously the United Arab Republic) and has a metropolitan area population of approximately 15. ... Federalism is the idea of a group or body of members that are bound together (latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head. ...


Structure of the Republic

The union bound the two nations together into a united state, and, following his February 1958 nomination to the position, under the presidency of Nasser. The Republic was a unitary state, and the pre-eminence of Nasser together with Egypt's demographic and political dominance meant that it was effectively under Egyptian control. Egyptian military and technical advisors poured into Syria, with the Syrian military, police and bureaucracy coming under Egyptian control, a situation that would lead to considerable resentment. The ban on political parties other than Nasser's Arab Socialist Union was extended to Syria, and the Ba'th Party and Arab Nationalist Movement in Syria both dissolved themselves into the ruling party. Obstreperous political elements were dealt with ruthlessly: after Khalid Bakdash's proposals of December 1958 for a looser federation, the Syrian Communist Party was brutally repressed, as were Islamist tendencies. The Arab Socialist Union (Arabic: , ; French: lUnion Socialiste Arabe) is one of a number of loosely related political parties based on the principles of Nasserist Arab socialism in a number of countries. ... Arab Nationalist Movement (Harakat al-Qaumiyeen al-Arabi), a radical pan-Arab nationalist organization. ...


Ironically, the new nation found itself supported by the very force some of its proponents had feared. The Soviet Union, aiming to garner Cold War allies, quickly began selling weapons to the fledgling republic, a practice it would continue even after the UAR collapsed. The Cold War was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between the global superpowers of the Soviet Union and the United States, supported by their alliance partners. ...


The UAR adopted a flag based on the flag of Egypt but with two stars to represent the two parts. This continues to be the flag of Syria. The flag of Iraq was similar but with three stars, representing the hope that Iraq would join the UAR. The flag of Sudan is also based on horizontal red, white and black. National Flag of Egypt (1984-) Egyptian Naval flag (1984-) United Arab Republic - Egypt and Syria (1958-1961) Kingdom of Egypt (1922-1952) The flag of Egypt in its current form was adopted on October 4, 1984. ... Flag ratio: 2:3 Old flag (1932-58, 1961-63) The flag of Syria was adopted in 1980. ... Flag ratio: 1:2 The flag of Iraq has had four different designs since the estalishment of Iraq in 1921. ... Flag ratio: 1:2 Former flag (1956-1970) The flag of Sudan was adopted on May 20, 1970, and consists of a red-white-black tricolor with a green triangle next to the hoist. ...


Conflict with Jordan

The union was interpreted as a major threat to Jordan. Syria was seen as a source of instigation and as a shelter for Jordanian plotters against King Hussein. Egypt's own status as a radical state added to the pressure. Hussein’s response was to propose to Faisal II of Iraq a Jordanian-Iraqi union to counter the UAR, which was formed on February 14, 1958. The agreement was to form a unified military command between the two states, with a unified military budget; 80% of which was to be provided by Iraq and the remaining 20% by Jordan. Troops from both countries were exchanged in the arrangement. Hussein bin Talal (Arabic: حسين بن طلال) (November 14, 1935 - February 7, 1999) was the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan from 1952 to 1999. ... Faisal II of Iraq Faisal II (May 2, 1935 - July 14, 1958) was the last king of Iraq from April 4, 1939 to 1958. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In early July 1958, plots against the governments of King Hussein in Jordan and King Faisal in Iraq were uncovered. One of the plotters in Jordan revealed the involvement of Egyptian secret agents, and that plot was abandoned. Then, on July 14, King Faisal, the Crown Prince Abdul Illah, and other members of the ruling Hashemite family were shot. Iraqi prime minister Nuri as-Said was also shot as he attempted to escape. It is unlikely that Egypt or the UAR was actively involved in the coup in Iraq. However, upon revelation of the coup, the UAR announced its support of the plotters in Iraq, recognized the new regime, and closed its border with Jordan. Syrian troops along the border were put on alert. July 14 is the 195th day (196th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 170 days remaining. ... Abdul Illah was the cousin of and brother-in-law King Ghazi, and was regent of Iraq for King Faisal II from April 4, 1939 to May 2, 1953, when Faisal came of age. ... Emir Faisals party at Versailles, during the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. ...


These actions put a good deal of pressure on King Hussein in Jordan. In 1962, he said of UAR that it had "ambitions which, I believe, at that time meant nothing less than the domination of the Arab world.” Jordan's trade routes had been cut off. Syria had been his main supplier of oil. Hussein asked for U.S. aid in establishing trade routes through Israel, which the Americans were able to gain permission to do.


The situation continued to deteriorate in Jordan as Damascus Radio issued broadcasts calling upon the Jordanian people to rise against the Hashemite tyranny. Hussein was finally forced to turn to his former ally Great Britain for help. The trio of Israeli, British, and American support of the regime in Jordan played a large role in preventing conflict between Jordan and the UAR.


Dissolution of the union

Ultimately, the Egyptian leadership of the union, and the arrogant attitude many in Damascus perceived among the Egyptian military and administrative personnel sent there, came to be resented by important elements in the Syrian military, political and bureaucratic elite. In addition, the Damascus bourgeoisie did not gain the access to the Egyptian market that they had hoped for. The political leaders of Syria, who were forced to live in Cairo, felt disconnected from their sources of power. Damascus by night, pictured from Jabal Qasioun; the green spots are minarets Damascus (Arabic: ‎ translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. ...


The UAR collapsed in 1961 after a coup d'état in Syria brought a secessionist group to power. The separation was deeply contested in Syria, and a bitter political struggle reflected in popular commotion and street confrontations ensued until the Ba'th Party, Nasserists and other pro-union elements took power in 1963. The union, however, was not re-established. Egypt, now alone in the United Arab Republic, continued to use the name until 1971 after Nasser's death. A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government against the volonté générale formed by the majority of the citizenry, usually done by a smaller supposedly weaker body that just replaces the top power figures. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
United Arab Republic - definition of United Arab Republic in Encyclopedia (371 words)
The United Arab Republic (UAR) was a country that existed as a union between the republics of Egypt and Syria, established on February 1, 1958 as a first step towards a pan-Arab nation.
The UAR collapsed in 1961 after a coup d'état in Syria.
Egypt, now alone in the United Arab Republic, continued to use the name until the death of Nasser in 1970.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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