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Encyclopedia > United Airlines Flight 232
United Airlines Flight 232

N1819U on its final descent. Note damage on the horizontal stabilizer and fuselage tailcone. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x455, 91 KB)[edit] Summary Photo from NTSB report into UA 232 crash [edit] Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Summary
Date  July 19, 1989
Cause  Uncontained engine failure, complete loss of flight controls
Site  Sioux City, Iowa,
United States
Origin  Stapleton International Airport
Destination  O'Hare International Airport
Passengers  285
Crew  11
Injuries  172
Fatalities  111
Survivors  185
Aircraft
 Aircraft type  McDonnell Douglas DC-10-10
Operator  United Airlines
Tail number  N1819U

United Airlines Flight 232 was a scheduled flight operated by United Airlines between Denver and Philadelphia via Chicago. On July 19, 1989, the Douglas DC-10 (Registration N1819U) suffered an uncontained failure of its number 2 engine (mounted in the tail), which destroyed all three of the aircraft's hydraulic systems. With no controls working except the power levers for the two remaining engines, it broke up during an emergency landing on the runway at Sioux City, Iowa, killing 110 of its 285 passengers and one of the 11 crew members. 52 children, including 4 lap children, were on board the flight due to a Children's Day promotion. 11 children, including 1 lap child, died [1]. is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Sioux City is a city located in Western Iowa. ... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Area  Ranked 26th  - Total 56,272 sq mi (145,743 km²)  - Width 310 miles (500 km)  - Length 199 miles (320 km)  - % water 0. ... Stapleton highlighted on this map of Denvers neighborhoods. ... OHare International Airport (IATA: ORD, ICAO: KORD, FAA LID: ORD) is an airport located in Chicago, Illinois, United States, 17 miles (27 km) northwest of the Chicago Loop. ... DC10 redirects here. ... United Airlines, also known as United Air Lines, Inc. ... United Airlines, also known as United Air Lines, Inc. ... This article refers to the state capital of Colorado. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Biman Bangladesh Airlines McDonnell Douglas DC-10 The McDonnell Douglas DC-10 is a three-engined long-range airliner, with two engines mounted on underwing pylons and a third engine at the base of the vertical stabilizer. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... A flight control system consists of the flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkage, and necessary operating mechanisms to control aircraft in flight. ... An emergency landing is a non-planned landing made by an aircraft in response to a crisis. ... Sioux City (IPA: ) is a city located in northwest Iowa in the United States. ... Czechoslovak poster celebrating International Childrens Day Childrens Day is a holiday in many countries around the world. ...


Owing to the skill of the crew and a DC-10 instructor pilot, 175 passengers and 10 crew members survived the crash, which is considered a textbook example of successful Crew Resource Management, due to the effective use of all the resources available aboard the plane for help during the emergency.[2] Crew (or Cockpit) Resource Management (CRM) training originated from a NASA workshop in 1979 that focused on improving air safety. ...

Contents

Chronology of the flight

Radar plot of the plane's last minutes, from the NTSB report.
Radar plot of the plane's last minutes, from the NTSB report.
Damage to the rear of the plane, from the NTSB report.
Damage to the rear of the plane, from the NTSB report.
Locations of passengers indicated by lack of injury, severity of injury, and reason of death from the NTSB report.
Locations of passengers indicated by lack of injury, severity of injury, and reason of death from the NTSB report.

The flight took off at 14:09 (CDT) from Stapleton International Airport, Denver, Colorado, and was due to fly to Philadelphia International Airport in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, via O'Hare International Airport in Chicago, Illinois. At 15:16, while the plane was in a shallow right turn at 37,000 feet, the stage 1 fan disk of its tail-mounted General Electric CF6-6 engine broke in two. The fan cowling was blown off and pieces of the engine penetrated the aircraft tail section in numerous places, including both horizontal stabilizers. Pieces of shrapnel which went through the right horizontal stabilizer severed the lines of all three hydraulic systems, allowing the fluid to drain away.[3] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1005x702, 28 KB)[edit] Summary Radar map from NTSB report into UA 232 crash [edit] Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1005x702, 28 KB)[edit] Summary Radar map from NTSB report into UA 232 crash [edit] Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is a U.S. government organization responsible for investigation of accidents involving aviation, highway, marine, pipelines and railroads in the United States. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1023x699, 33 KB)[edit] Licensing [edit] Source http://amelia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1023x699, 33 KB)[edit] Licensing [edit] Source http://amelia. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 521 pixelsFull resolution (1726 × 1123 pixel, file size: 228 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) An injury and seat map of United Airlines Flight 232 from the NTSB. See: http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 521 pixelsFull resolution (1726 × 1123 pixel, file size: 228 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) An injury and seat map of United Airlines Flight 232 from the NTSB. See: http://www. ... CDT is an abbreviation for carbohydrate deficient transferrin, a transporter protein isoform typically increased in alcoholism Confédération Démocratique du Travail, a trade union in the Democratic Republic of the Congo Continental Divide Trail Central Standard Time Zone Center for Democracy and Technology. ... Stapleton highlighted on this map of Denvers neighborhoods. ... Nickname: Location of Denver in Colorado Location of Colorado in the United States Coordinates: , Country State Founded [1] November 22, 1858 Incorporated November 7, 1861 Government  - Type Strong Mayor/Weak Council  - Mayor John Hickenlooper (D) Area [1]  - City & County  154. ... “PHL” redirects here. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... OHare International Airport (IATA: ORD, ICAO: KORD, FAA LID: ORD) is an airport located in Chicago, Illinois, United States, 17 miles (27 km) northwest of the Chicago Loop. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... Fan disc is the name given to the part of a jet engine that does the actual propulsion. ... GE-Aviation, a subsidiary of General Electric, is headquartered in Evendale, Ohio (a Cincinnati suburb). ... CF6 turbofan at the KLM engine shop The General Electric TF39 and CF6 family of high-bypass turbofan engines are the most popular large aircraft turbines in the world, powering civil and military widebodies from a variety of manufacturers. ...


Captain Alfred C. Haynes and his flight crew (First Officer William Records, who was flying, and Second Officer Dudley Dvorak, flight engineer) felt a jolt going through the aircraft, and warning lights showed that the autopilot had disengaged, and the tail-mounted number two engine was malfunctioning. The co-pilot noticed that the airliner was off course, and moved his control column to correct this, but the plane did not respond. The flight crew discovered that the pressure gauges for each of the three hydraulic systems were registering zero, and they realized that the initial failure had left all control surfaces immovable. The three hydraulic systems were separated such that a single event in one system would not disable the other systems, but beyond that there was no backup system, a fact which the NTSB later recommended be remedied.[4] Alfred C. Al Haynes (born 1932 in Dallas, Texas) is a former airline pilot and a regular guest speaker at social events. ... An autopilot is a mechanical, electrical, or hydraulic system used to guide a vehicle without assistance from a human being. ... The control yoke of a Boeing 737 aircraft. ... An Airplane (US usage), or Aeroplane (ICAO usage), is defined as: a power-driven heavier than air Aircraft, deriving its lift chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on surface which remain fixed under given conditions of flight. ...


The plane had a continual tendency to turn right, and was difficult to maintain on a stable course. It began to slowly oscillate vertically in a phugoid cycle, which is characteristic of planes in which hydraulic power is lost. With each iteration of the cycle the aircraft lost approximately 1500 feet of altitude. Dennis E. Fitch, a DC-10 flight instructor, was deadheading as a passenger on the plane and offered his assistance. After entering the cockpit, Fitch discovered that the only available method of controlling the aircraft was through adjusting the throttles of the remaining two engines; running one engine faster than the other to turn the plane (differential thrust), and accelerating or decelerating in order to gain or lose altitude. Using this method, it was possible to mitigate the phugoid cycle and make rough steering adjustments. At one point Fitch manually lowered the landing gear in flight, hoping that this would force trapped hydraulic fluid back into the lines allowing some movement of control surfaces. Although the gear lowered successfully, there was no improvement in control response as all the fluid had been lost through the punctured lines. A phugoid is an aircraft motion where the vehicle pitches up and climbs, and then pitches down and descends, accompanied by speeding up and slowing down as it goes uphill and downhill. ... Dennis E. Fitch (Denny Fitch) (born 1943) was the off-duty DC-10 training captain who helped captain Al Haynes save United Airlines Flight 232 when all flight controls were lost, on 19 July 1989. ... A person who holds a flight instructor certificate is authorized within the limitations of that persons flight instructor certificate and ratings to give training and endorsements that are required for, and relate to: (a) A student pilot certificate; (b) A pilot certificate; (c) A flight instructor certificate; (d) A... Look up deadhead in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Air traffic control (ATC) was contacted and an emergency landing at nearby Sioux Gateway Airport was organized. For the Canadian musical group, see Air Traffic Control (band). ... Sioux Gateway Airport (IATA: SUX, ICAO: KSUX), also known as Colonel Bud Day Field, serves the Sioux City, Iowa area. ...


Haynes kept his sense of humor during the emergency, as recorded on the plane's CVR: Cockpit Voice Recorder (Exhibit in Deutsches Museum, Munich, Germany). ...

Fitch: I'll tell you what, we'll have a beer when this is all done.
Haynes: Well I don't drink, but I'll sure as hell have one.

and later: For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ...

Sioux City Approach: United Two Thirty-Two Heavy, the wind's currently three six zero at one one; three sixty at eleven. You're cleared to land on any runway.
Haynes: [laughter] Roger. [laughter] You want to be particular and make it a runway, huh?[5]

A more serious remark often quoted from Haynes was made when ATC asked the crew to make a left turn to keep them clear of the city:

Haynes: Whatever you do, keep us away from the city.[6]

Landing was originally planned on the 9,000 foot (2743 m) Runway 31. The difficulties in controlling the aircraft made lining up almost impossible. While dumping excess fuel, the plane executed a series of mostly right-hand turns (it was easier to turn the plane in this direction) with the intention of coming out at the end lined up with runway 31. When they came out they were instead left with an approach on the shorter Runway 22 of 6,600 feet (2012 m), with little capacity to maneuver.[4] A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Fire trucks had been placed on runway 22,[7] anticipating a landing on runway 31, and there was a scramble as the trucks rushed out of the way. Fortunately, all the vehicles parked there got out of the way before the plane touched down. Vehicles are non-living means of transport. ...


Fitch continued to control the aircraft's descent by adjusting engine thrust. With the loss of all hydraulics, the crew were unable to control airspeed independent from sink rate. On final descent, the aircraft was going 240 knots and sinking at 1850 feet per minute, while a safe landing would require 140 knots and 300 feet per minute. The aircraft began to sink faster while on final approach and veer to the right. The tip of the right wing hit the runway first, spilling fuel which ignited immediately. The tail section broke off from the force of the impact and the rest of the aircraft bounced several times, shedding the landing gear and engine nacelles and breaking the fuselage into several main pieces. On the final impact the right wing was sheared off and the main part of the aircraft skidded sideways, rolled over on to its back, and slid to a stop upside down on the right side of runway 22. Witnesses reported that the aircraft cartwheeled but the investigation did not confirm this.[4] News reports that the aircraft cartwheeled were due to misinterpretation of the video of the crash that showed the flaming right wing tumbling end-over-end. This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The term Variometer also refers to a type of tunable electrical transformer // Definition A variometer (also known as a rate-of-climb indicator, a vertical speed indicator (VSI), or a vertical velocity indicator (VVI)) is an instrument in an aircraft used to inform the pilot of the rate of descent...

The plane landed askew, causing the explosion and fire seen in this still from an amateur video.
The plane landed askew, causing the explosion and fire seen in this still from an amateur video.

111 people died in the crash. Most were killed by injuries sustained in the multiple impacts, but many in the middle fuselage section directly above the fuel tanks died from smoke inhalation in the post-crash fire, which burned for longer than it might have due to delays in the firefighting efforts. 185 people survived the accident, the majority of them from the second-class seating ahead of the wings (one of the crash survivors died a month later of his injuries).[6] Many passengers were able to walk out through the ruptures to the structure, and in many cases got lost in the high field of corn adjacent to the runway until rescue workers arrived on the scene and escorted them to safety. Image File history File links Uacrash. ... Image File history File links Uacrash. ... This article is about the maize plant. ...


Of all of the passengers [1]:

  • 35 died due to smoke inhalation (None were in business class)
  • 75 died for reasons other than smoke inhalation (17 were in business class)
  • 42 were seriously injured (8 were in business class)
  • 21 had minor injuries (1 was in business class)
  • 12 had no injuries (None were in business class)

The passengers who died for reasons other than smoke inhalation were seated in rows 1-4, 24-25, and 28-38. Passengers who died due to smoke inhalation were seated in rows 14, 16, and 22-30. A person assigned to 20H moved to an unknown seat and died due to smoke inhalation [2].


Causes

Part of the DC-10's fuselage after the crash.
Part of the DC-10's fuselage after the crash.

Investigation attributed the cause of the fracture of the fan disk to a failure of United Airlines maintenance processes to detect an existing fatigue crack.[4] Post-crash analysis of the crack surfaces showed the presence of the penetrating fluorescent dye used to detect cracks during maintenance, indicating that the crack was present and should have been detected at a prior inspection. The detection failure arose from poor attention to human factors in United Airlines' specification of maintenance processes. Image File history File links UA232postcrash. ... Image File history File links UA232postcrash. ... United Airlines, also known as United Air Lines, Inc. ... In materials science, fatigue is the progressive, localised, and permanent structural damage that occurs when a material is subjected to cyclic or fluctuating strains at nominal stresses that have maximum values less than (often much less than) the static yield strength of the material. ... Human factors is an umbrella term for several areas of research that include human performance, technology, design, and human-computer interaction. ...


The crack in the fan disk was traced back to the Alcoa foundry from which the engine part was sourced. It turned out that there was a defect in elimination of gaseous anomalies during the purifying of the titanium disk ingot. An excess amount of nitrogen was in the material, causing a 'hard alpha inclusion' which cracked during forging and then fell out during final machining, forming a cavity with microscopic cracks at the edges. During the engine's normal running cycle, one of these cracks grew slowly each time the engine was powered up and brought to operating temperature, until it grew large enough for the disk to fail structurally. [4] Newer batches used much higher melting temperatures and a 'triple vacuum' process to eliminate these impurities. This article is about the company. ... A foundry is a factory which produces castings of metal, both ferrous and non-ferrous. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... In mineralogy, an inclusion is any material that is trapped inside a mineral during its formation. ...


The subsequent investigation and airworthiness directive also revealed several other fan disks already in service from the same batch of ingots which had started to exhibit the initial cracking symptoms of part failure.


Some portions of the aircraft that had broken away when the fan disk failed were later found in farm fields along the flight path.


Lessons learned

The National Transportation Safety Board investigation reported that after subsequent reconstructions of the accident in flight simulators, it was deemed that training for such an event involved too many factors to be practical. While some level of control was possible, no precision could be achieved and a landing under these conditions was stated to be "a highly random event". The NTSB further noted that "under the circumstances the UAL flightcrew performance was highly commendable and greatly exceeded reasonable expectations."[4] Seal of the National Transportation Safety Board The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is a U.S. government independent organization responsible for investigation of accidents involving aviation, highway, marine, pipelines and railroads in the United States. ... For flight simulator software from Microsoft, see Microsoft Flight Simulator. ...


Because this type of aircraft control is difficult for humans to achieve, some researchers have attempted to integrate this control ability into the computers of fly-by-wire aircraft. Early attempts to add the ability to real planes were not very successful, the software having been based on experiments conducted in flight simulators where jet engines are usually modeled as "perfect" devices with exactly the same thrust on each engine. Later, programming was updated to compensate for the problem, and planes have been successfully flown with this software installed.[8] However, it remains a rarity on commercial aircraft. This article is about the machine. ... A flight control system consists of the flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkage, and necessary operating mechanisms to control aircraft in flight The basic fundamentals of aircraft controls has been explained in aeronautics. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ...


The odds against all three hydraulic systems failing simultaneously had previously been calculated as high as a billion to one. A similar failure had occurred just four years previously when Japan Airlines flight 123 suffered a structural failure that left it without any hydraulic controls. Japan Airlines Flight 123 was a Japan Airlines domestic flight from Tokyo International Airport to Osaka International Airport. ...


Newer aircraft designs such as the MD-11 have incorporated hydraulic fuses to isolate a punctured section and prevent a total loss of hydraulic fluid; this was also partially implemented on DC-10 models after the accident.[6] In hydraulic systems, a fuse is a component which prevents the sudden loss of hydraulic fluid pressure. ...


Of the four children deemed too young to have seats of their own (so called 'lap children'), one died from smoke inhalation [3]. Despite the survival rate for the lap children being a little higher than that of the passengers (75% versus 62.5%), the NTSB added a safety recommendation to the FAA on its "List of Most Wanted Safety Improvements," the response to which was flagged on NTSB's website as an "acceptable response, progressing slowly." It also sparked a campaign, led by United Flight 232's senior flight attendant, Jan Brown Lohr, for all children to have seats on aircraft.[9] The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) is a U.S. government organization responsible for investigation of accidents involving aviation, highway, marine, pipelines and railroads in the United States. ... FAA may refer to: Federal Aviation Administration in the United States Fleet Air Arm in the UK Royal Navy Fuerza Aérea Argentina in Argentina This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Factors contributing to survival

Of the 296 people aboard, 111 were killed in the crash, while 185 survived. Captain Haynes later told of three contributing factors regarding the actual time of day that allowed for a better chance of survival:

  1. The incident occurred during daylight hours;
  2. The incident occurred as a shift change was occurring at both a regional trauma center and a regional burn center in Sioux City, allowing for more medical personnel to treat the injured; and
  3. The incident occurred when the Iowa Air National Guard was on duty at Sioux Gateway Airport, allowing for 285 trained personnel to assist with triage and evacuation of the wounded.

"Had any of those things not been there," Haynes said later, "I'm sure the fatality rate would have been a lot higher."[10] Typical triage tag used for emergency mass casualty decontamination. ...


As with the Eastern Air Lines Flight 401 crash of a similarly-sized Lockheed L-1011 in 1972, the relatively shallow angle of descent likely played a large part in the relatively high survival rate. The National Transportation Safety Board concluded that under the circumstances, "a safe landing was virtually impossible." Eastern Air Lines Flight 401 was a Lockheed L-1011 jet that crashed into the Florida Everglades on the night of December 29, 1972, causing 101 fatalities (75 initial crash survivors, 2 died shortly afterward). ... The Lockheed L-1011 TriStar, commonly referred to as just L-1011 (pronounced ell-ten-eleven), was the third widebody passenger jet airliner to enter operation, following the Boeing 747 and the McDonnell Douglas DC-10. ...


Notable survivors

Spencer Bailey, a young survivor, being carried to safety by Lt. Colonel Dennis Nielsen after the crash.
Spencer Bailey, a young survivor, being carried to safety by Lt. Colonel Dennis Nielsen after the crash.
  • Spencer Bailey - Subject of a famous photograph showing Lt. Colonel Dennis Nielsen carrying the three-year-old survivor to safety. A statue in part of Sioux City's riverfront development is based on the picture. The 1994 memorial commemorates the rescue efforts by the Sioux City community following the crash, featuring contemplative areas and a tree-lined approach with plaques describing the incident.
  • Jerry Schemmel - Radio announcer for the Denver Nuggets, an NBA basketball team. Also wrote a book about United Airlines Flight 232 titled Chosen to Live, and was credited with saving the life of a child in the crash.
  • Michael R. Matz - Trainer of the 2006 Kentucky Derby favorite and winner, Barbaro. Also credited with saving the lives of four children in the crash, three of whom were in the same family.
  • Dennis E. Fitch - A safety consultant to NASA as a member of the Aerospace Safety Advisory Panel and has been inducted into the Aviation Hall of Fame at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum. Also a DC-10 pilot and instructor, he helped Captain Al Haynes fly United Airlines Flight 232. "For the thirty minutes I was up there," Fitch said later, "I was the most alive I've ever been. That is the only way I can describe it to you."[10]
  • Joseph Trombello - Wrote a book about United Airlines Flight 232 titled Miracle in the Cornfield.
  • Pete Wernick - Prominent banjo player with the Hot Rize group and instructor, was on his way to a festival in the Albany, NY area. Wernick walked away from the crash with his banjo and took the next flight to go to the festival. Gave his personal account of the days events in the song, "A Day in '89 (You Never Know)"; Wernick has yet to release a recording of the song, but has published the lyrics on his website.[11]
  • Jan Brown Lohr - United 232's Senior Flight Attendant. She was forced by regulation to ask parents with "lap babies" (children without seats) aboard flight 232 to place their children on the cabin floor during the flight's final moments before impact. Upon impact one of four children was killed. The deceased child's mother came to her at the crash site and stated "You told me to put my baby on the floor and now he's gone." Since then, Lohr has tirelessly lobbied in Washington D.C. to promote the safety of children on all civilian aircraft and airlines, asking that federal regulations require all children to have a seatbelt on every flight.[9]
  • Ron May - Legal Associate at Winston and Strawn who went on to be an Assistant U.S Attorney for the Northern District of Illinois and then became a Teaching Pastor at Park Community Church. He gave a first person message about this experience and how he and others dealt with the last 20 minutes before the plane crashed.[12]

Image File history File links Spencer_Bailey. ... Image File history File links Spencer_Bailey. ... Sioux City is a city located in Western Iowa. ... Jerry Schemmel is the radio announcer for the NBA basketball team Denver Nuggets. ... For the original defunct Denver Nuggets, see Denver Nuggets (original). ... NBA redirects here. ... Michael Matz (born January 23, 1951 in Collegeville, Pennsylvania) is an American Olympic equestrian rider and horse trainer. ... The Kentucky Derby is a Grade I stakes race for three-year-old thoroughbred horses, held annually in Louisville, Kentucky, on the first Saturday in May, capping the two-week-long Kentucky Derby Festival. ... sdfasdfasdfad Barbaro (April 29, 2003 – January 29, 2007) was an American thoroughbred that decisively won the 2006 Kentucky Derby but shattered his leg two weeks later, in the 2006 Preakness Stakes, ending his racing career and eventually leading to his death. ... Dennis E. Fitch (Denny Fitch) (born 1943) was the off-duty DC-10 training captain who helped captain Al Haynes save United Airlines Flight 232 when all flight controls were lost, on 19 July 1989. ... This article is about the American space agency. ... The National Aviation Hall of Fame is located at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, east Dayton, Ohio. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Peter Wernick, also known by many as “Dr. Banjo”, has been involved in the bluegrass music scene for over three decades. ... Hot Rize is a bluegrass band comprised of Tim OBrien (mandolin, fiddle), Pete Wernick (banjo), Charles Sawtelle (guitar), and Nick Forster (electric bass). ... New York State Capitol Building, completed in 1899 at a cost of $25 million was the most expensive government building of its time. ...

In popular culture

  • In 1992 an album by Leæther Strip titled Solitary Confinement was released, including a track "Crash of Flight 232/93" which was inspired by this accident.
  • While not mentioning the accident with words, a music video featuring a man who was in a plane crash with survivors walking out of corn fields while trying to see his wife back at home was made by Brian McKnight for his song Back at One.

“Telefilm” redirects here. ... Seconds From Disaster was a documentary television series that investigates the worst man-made disasters and several natural disasters in modern history, and analyses the causes and events that led up to each disaster. ... The National Geographic Channel is a subscription television network that features documentaries produced by the National Geographic Society. ... MSNBC Investigates is a documentary program on MSNBC. Hosts include MSNBC special correspondent Rita Cosby, NBC News anchor and correspondent Lester Holt, and NBC News anchor John Seigenthaler. ... For the news website, see MSNBC.com. ... Peter Lindsay Weir (born August 21, 1944) is an Australian film director. ... Fearless is a 1993 film directed by Peter Weir and written by Rafael Yglesias from his novel of the same name. ... Rafael Yglesias (born May 12, 1954) is an American novelist and screenwriter. ... Errol Morris Errol Morris (born February 5, 1948) is an American Academy Award winning documentary film director. ... Errol Morris Errol Morris (born February 5, 1948) is an American Academy Award winning documentary film director. ... Leæther Strip is a Danish musical project founded on January 13, 1988 by Claus Larsen. ... Solitary confinement, colloquially referred to as the hole (or in British English the block), is a punishment in which a prisoner is denied contact with any other persons, excluding guards, chaplains and doctors. ... Dean Ray Koontz (born July 9, 1945 in Everett, Pennsylvania), also known under a number of pseudonyms, including Leigh Nichols, is an American writer. ... Cold Fire is a best-selling novel written by Dean Koontz, released in 1991. ... Brian McKnight on the cover of his 2005 album Gemini Brian McKnight (born June 5, 1969 in Buffalo, New York) is a Grammy nominated American singer, songwriter, arranger, producer and one of the prominent singers of his years, specializing in pop and R&B. He is a multi-instrumentalist and... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR) is a flight recorder used to record the audio environment in the flightdeck of an aircraft for the purpose of investigation of accidents and incidents. ... Charlie Victor Romeo is a 1999 play whose script consists of almost-verbatim transcripts from six real-life air disasters. ...

See also

Japan Airlines Flight 123 was a Japan Airlines domestic flight from Tokyo International Airport to Osaka International Airport. ... The Boeing 747, sometimes nicknamed the Jumbo Jet,[4][5] is long-haul, widebody commercial airliner manufactured by Boeing in the United States. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... For flight simulator software from Microsoft, see Microsoft Flight Simulator. ... The DHL shootdown incident in Baghdad occurred on 22 November 2003, aboard an Airbus A300B4-203F cargo plane, registered OO-DLL, operating on behalf of DHL. At around 10,000 feet, the aircraft was hit by a missile which resulted in the loss of its hydraulic systems. ... American Airlines Flight 96 was a regular DC-10 commuter flight operated by American Airlines, with a scheduled route from Detroit, Michigan to Buffalo, New York. ... There have been aviation incidents in which the control surfaces became unavailable, typically due to loss of hydraulics. ...

References

  1. ^ United Airlines Flight 232 episode, Seconds From Disaster
  2. ^ How Swift Starting Action Teams Get off the Ground: What United Flight 232 and Airline Flight Crews Can Tell Us About Team Communication Management Communication Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 2, November 2005
  3. ^ Special report. Airdisaster.com. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
  4. ^ a b c d e f NTSB Report AAR-90/06 (pdf). NTSB. Retrieved on 2006-08-02.
  5. ^ 30 minutes that changed everything. CBS News. Retrieved on 2006-12-05.
  6. ^ a b c Macarthur Job (1996). Air Disaster Volume 2, Aerospace Publications, ISBN 1-875671-19-6: pp.186-202
  7. ^ Eyewitness Report, United Airlines Flight 232 Airdisaster.com, by Captain Al Haynes
  8. ^ Active Home Page. Past Research Projects. NASA. Retrieved on 2006-06-01.
  9. ^ a b The power of stories over statistics. British Medical Journal. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.
  10. ^ a b Nicholas Faith (1996, 1998). Black Box, Boxtree, ISBN 0-7522-2118-3: pp.158-165
  11. ^ Lyrics to Pete Wernick's "A Day in '89 (You Never Know)" from drbanjo.com (Wernick's official site)
  12. ^ Ron May recording
  13. ^ Crash Landing: The Rescue of Flight 232. IMDB. Retrieved on 2006-09-15.

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External links

Warning: The following links contain strobing pop-up ads: U-shaped Xenon Flash Lamp A xenon flash lamp is a gas discharge lamp designed to produce extremely intense, incoherent, full-spectrum white light for very short durations. ...

Coordinates: 42°24′29″N, 96°23′02″W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
United Airlines Flight 232 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1238 words)
United Airlines flight 232 "UA232", "UAL232" (United 232 Heavy) was a scheduled flight operated by United Airlines.
The flight took off at 14:09 (CDT) from Stapleton International Airport, Denver, Colorado and was due to have flown to Philadelphia International Airport in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania via O'Hare International Airport in Chicago, Illinois.
Eventually the flight crew figured out that the only way to control the plane was by adjusting the thrust on the two remaining wing-mounted engines.
United Airlines - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4156 words)
United Airlines, the primary subsidiary of the UAL Corporation, is a major airline of the United States with its headquarters located in unincorporated Elk Grove Township, Illinois, near its largest hub at Chicago's O'Hare International Airport.
United was the launch customer for a number of aircraft types, including the Douglas DC-10 (with American Airlines) and several Boeing aircraft: the 727 (with Eastern Air Lines), the 737-200, the 767, and the 777.
United adopted a red, white and blue shield logo in 1936, but its use varied widely and was eventually abandoned altogether in the early 1970s.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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