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Encyclopedia > Unitarianism
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Unitarianism is the belief in the single personality of God, in contrast to the doctrine of the Trinity (three persons in one God). It is the philosophy upon which the modern Unitarian movement was based, and, according to its proponents, is the original form of Christianity. Unitarian Christians believe in the teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as found in the New Testament and other early Christian writings, and hold him up as an exemplar. Adhering to strict monotheism, they maintain that Jesus was a great man and a prophet of God, perhaps even a supernatural creature, but not God himself. Unitarians believe in the moral authority, but not necessarily the divinity, of Jesus. They do not "pray to Jesus", but to God directly. Their theology is thus distinguishable from the theology of Catholic, Orthodox, mainline Protestant, and other Christian denominations, who hold the Trinity doctrine as a core belief. This article or section contains too many quotations for an encyclopedic entry. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The term Early Christianity here refers... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... Exemplar, in the sense developed by philosopher of science Thomas Kuhn, is a well known usage of a scientific theory. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness of God. ... For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... Look up Supernatural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Divinity (disambiguation) and Divine (disambiguation). ... The term Orthodox Christianity may refer to: The Oriental Orthodox Churches: the Eastern Christian churches adhering to the teachings of only the first three Ecumenical Councils (plus the Second Council of Ephesus). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A denomination, in the...


Some Evangelicals hold a "unitarian" theology in that they see God as a single person, and are thus antitrinitarian, but because they perceive Jesus to be God himself do not fall into the general theology discussed here, which sees Jesus as subordinate to God and a finite being. Instead see: Sabellianism, Oneness theology, Oneness Pentecostalism, Monarchianism, Binitarianism. In Christianity, Sabellianism (also known as modalism) is the belief that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit are different modes or aspects of one God, rather than three distinct persons. ... The Jesus-Only doctrine is that which is taught by Oneness Pentecostals such as the United Pentecostal Church and other Protestant denominations. ... Oneness Pentecostalism is a movement of Pentecostal Christianity that believes in the atoning death of Jesus Christ, His resurrection, His soon return, and the inerrancy of the Word of God as contained in the Bible. ... Monarchianism, or Monarchism as it is sometimes called, is a set of beliefs that emphasize God as being one, that God is the single and only ruler. ... Binitarianism is a theology of two in one God, as opposed to one (unitarianism) or three (trinitarianism). ...


While there are both religiously liberal and religiously conservative unitarians, the name "Unitarian" is most commonly associated with the liberal branch of this theology.


Conservative (Biblical or Evangelical) unitarians strictly adhere to the principle of sola scriptura and their belief that the Bible is both inspired and inerrant and uphold "fundamentals" of belief. This version of unitarianism is more commonly called Nontrinitarianism, rather than Unitarianism. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about theological concept. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Nontrinitarianism refers to Christian...


Unitarians sum up their faith as "the religion of Jesus, not a religion about Jesus." Historically, they have encouraged non-dogmatic views of God, Jesus, the world and purpose of life as revealed through reason, scholarship, science, philosophy, scripture and other prophets and religions. They believe that reason and belief are complementary and that religion and science can co-exist and guide them in their understanding of nature and God. They also do not enforce belief in creeds or dogmatic formulas. Although there is flexibility in the nuances of belief or basic truths for the individual Unitarian Christian, general principles of faith have been recognized as a way to bind the group in some commonality. Adherents generally accept religious pluralism and find value in all teachings, but remain committed to their core belief in Christ's teachings. Liberal Unitarians value a secular society in which government stays out of religious affairs. Conceptions of God can vary widely, despite the use of the same term for them all. ... Antarctica Oceania Africa Asia Europe North America South America Middle East Caribbean Central Asia East Asia North Asia South Asia Southeast Asia SW. Asia Australasia Melanesia Micronesia Polynesia Central America Latin America Northern America Americas C. Africa E. Africa N. Africa Southern Africa W. Africa C. Europe E. Europe N... When the question What is the meaning of life? is asked, one of a variety of questions may be implied, such as: Why are we here? (or, What is the origin of life?[1]), What is the nature of life (and of the universe in which we live)?,[1][2... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... This article is about scholarship (noun) and scholarship as a form of financial aid. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... // Most religions have religious texts they view as sacred. ... Science and Religion are portrayed to be in harmony in the Tiffany window Education (1890). ... “Natural” redirects here. ... A creed is a statement or confession of belief — usually religious belief — or faith. ... For other senses of this word, see dogma (disambiguation). ... Nuance is a dance music group fronted by vocalist Vikki Love. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A common dictionary definition of truth is agreement with fact or reality.[1] There is no single definition of truth about which the majority of philosophers agree. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Christ is the English term for the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... Secularity (adjective form secular) is the state of being separate from organized religion. ... Constantines Conversion, depicting the conversion of Emperor Constantine the Great to Christianity, by Peter Paul Rubens. ...


Unitarians are not to be confused with members of the Unity Church. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Unity Church or Unity...

Contents

The Distinction between Theological Unitarians and Ecclesiastical Unitarians

The term "Unitarian" has been applied both to those who hold a Unitarian theological belief and to those who belong to a Unitarian church. A hundred years ago, this would not have made much of a difference, but today it is an important distinction to make.


Unitarian theology is distinguishable from the belief system of modern Unitarian and Unitarian Universalist churches and fellowships in several countries. This is because over time, many Unitarians and Unitarian Universalists have moved away from the traditional Christian roots of Unitarianism. For example, in the 1890s the American Unitarian Association began to allow non-Christian and non-theistic churches and individuals to be part of their fellowship. As a result, people who held no Unitarian belief began to be called "Unitarians," simply because they were members of churches that belonged to the American Unitarian Association. After several decades, the non-theistic members outnumbered the theological Unitarians.[1] A similar phenomenon has taken place in the Unitarian churches in the United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, and other countries. The flaming chalice is the universally recognized symbol for Unitarian Universalism. ...


The remainder of this article includes information about Unitarianism as a theology and about the development of theologically Unitarian churches in several countries around the world. For a more specific discussion of Unitarianism as it evolved into a secular liberal philosophy in the United States and elsewhere in more recent times, see Unitarian Universalism, Canadian Unitarian Council, General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches, and International Council of Unitarians and Universalists. The flaming chalice is the universally recognized symbol for Unitarian Universalism. ... The Canadian Unitarian Council (CUC) is the national body for Unitarian Universalists in Canada. ... The General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches is the umbrella organisation for Unitarian, Free Christian and other liberal religious congregations in the United Kingdom. ... The International Council of Unitarians and Universalists (ICUU) is a world council bringing together Unitarians, Universalists and Unitarian Universalists. ...


Forms

Unitarianism can very loosely be divided into two categories. Both maintain that God is one being and one "person"—the one Jesus called "Our Father". Jesus is the (or a) Son of God, but generally not God himself. However, they differ as to particulars. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Son of God is...

  • Psilanthropism (more commonly called Socinianism): Jesus did not preexist his human life, but as a man was chosen by God and filled with the Holy Spirit. This theology ranges from the belief that Jesus was merely a great man and nothing more to the belief that he is God's impersonal Word (Logos) made flesh. It is associated with early church figures like the Ebionites, Theodotus of Byzantium, Artemon, Paul of Samosata, Felix II, Bishop of Rome, Felix, Bishop of Urgel, and other Adoptionists in the early Church, and Michael Servetus and Faustus Socinus in the Protestant Reformation. It is from the latter that we get the word "Socinianism," but the teaching of Socinus is unique in more than just its Christology, and so the name is best not used as merely a Christological term. In modern times we see the psilanthropist view manifested in Rationalist Unitarianism, which emerged from the German Rationalism and the liberal theology of the 19th century. Its proponents took a highly intellectual and humanistic approach to religion, rejecting most of the miraculous events in the Bible (including the virgin birth.) They embraced evolutionary concepts, asserted the "inherent goodness of man" and abandoned the doctrine of biblical infallibility. Rationalist Unitarianism is distinguished from Deism (with which it nevertheless shares many features) by its belief in a personal deity who directly acts on creation, while Deists see God as holding aloof from creation. Notable Rationalist Unitarians include Ralph Waldo Emerson and Theodore Parker in theology and ministry, Joseph Priestley and Linus Pauling in science, Susan B. Anthony and Florence Nightingale in humanitarianism and social justice, Charles Dickens in literature, and Frank Lloyd Wright in arts. Many Hungarian Unitarians embrace the principles of Rationalist Unitarianism—the only Unitarian high school in the world, John Sigismund Unitarian Academy in Cluj Napoca (Kolozsvár, Klausenburg), Romania, teaches Rationalist Unitarianism.

In Christianity, Psilanthropism or Socinianism is a Christological view that denies the divine nature of Jesus. ... Socinianism is a form of Antitrinitarianism, named for Laelius Socinus (died 1562 in Zürich) and of his nephew Faustus Socinus (died 1604 in Poland). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream Christianity, the Holy Spirit... The Ebionites (Greek: Ebionaioi from Hebrew; , , the Poor Ones) were an early Jewish Christian sect that lived in and around the land of Israel in the 1st to the 5th century CE.[1] Without authenticated archaeological evidence for the existence of the Ebionites, their views and practices can only be... Theodotus of Byzantium (also known as Theodotus the Tanner) (fl. ... Artemon (fl. ... Paul of Samosata, patriarch of Antioch (260-269), Life Paul was born at Samosata into a family of humble origin. ... Felix II was bishop of Rome from 355 to 358. ... Felix, Bishop of Urgel (or Urgell), was a religious figure who lived at the monastery Sant Sadureni de Tabernoles in the foothills of the Pyrenees. ... Adoptionism or adoptianism is an attempt to explain how Jesus is related God (that is, it was one option that arose in the Trinitarian controversies of the early church). ... Michael Servetus. ... Fausto Paolo Sozzini (December 5, 1539 - March 4, 1604), theologian, was a founder of the school of Christian thought known as Socinianism, based on the Latinized spelling of his name. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ... Theodore Parker (August 24, 1810 - May 10, 1860) was a reforming American minister of the Unitarian church, and a Transcendentalist. ... Joseph Frederick Priestley is often credited for the discovery of oxygen. ... Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American quantum chemist and biochemist. ... Susan Brownell Anthony (February 15, 1820 – March 13, 1906) was a prominent, independent and well-educated American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the 19th century womens rights movement to secure womens suffrage in the United States. ... Embley Park, now a school, was the family home of Florence Nightingale. ... “Dickens” redirects here. ... Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was one of the worlds most prominent and influential architects. ... County Cluj County Status County capital Mayor Emil Boc, Democratic Party, since 2004 Area 179. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Look up logos in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ... In Greek mythology, Hippolytus was a son of Theseus and either Antiope or Hippolyte. ... Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ... Arius (AD/CE 256 - 336, poss. ... Eusebius of Nicomedia and Constantinople, (d. ... Asterius the Sophist (died c. ... Eunomius (died c. ... Representation of Ulfilas surrounded by the Gothic alphabet Ulfilas or Wulfila (perhaps meaning little wolf) (c. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Bulgarian: ; Serbian: / or / ) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Andrews Norton (December 31, 1786_September 18, 1853) was, along with William Ellery Channing, the leader of mainstream Unitarianism of the early and middle nineteenth century. ... Dr. William Ellery Channing (April 7, 1780 – October 2, 1842) was the foremost Unitarian preacher in the United States in the early nineteenth century and, along with Andrews Norton, one of Unitarianisms leading theologians. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The word evangelicalism often refers to... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Nontrinitarianism refers to Christian... Barton W. Stone (December 24, 1772 - November 9, 1844) was a religious reformer of the early 19th century associated with the Restoration Movement. ... Charles Russell in 1911 Charles Taze Russell (February 16, 1852 – October 31, 1916), known as Pastor Russell, was an American evangelist from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania who founded what is known as the Bible Student movement. ... In Christianity, Sabellianism (also known as modalism) is the belief that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit are different modes or aspects of one God, rather than three distinct persons. ... Christadelphians (From the Greek Brothers in Christ) are a Christian denomination which developed in the United Kingdom and North America in the 19th century. ... Church of God of the Abrahamic Faith may refer to the following two differing Christian groups that had the same origin: Church of God General Conference (Abrahamic Faith) Church of the Blessed Hope. ... The Iglesia ni Cristo (IPA: ) (also known as INC or Iglesya ni Kristo ; literally Tagalog for Church of Christ) is an independent, nontrinitarian[1] Christian church tha is widely known to have originated in the Philippines[2] The INC was incorporated in the Philippines by Felix Y. Manalo on July...

History

Early origins

Unitarians trace their history back to the Apostolic Age and claim for their doctrine a prevalence during the ante-Nicene period. Many believe their Christology most closely reflects that of the "original Christians." The Apostolic Age is, to some church historians, the period in early church history during which some of Christs original apostles were still alive and helping to influence church doctrine, polity, and the like. ... The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first ecumenical[1] conference of bishops of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christology is a field of study...


One of the earliest controversies over the nature of Christ that involved the propagation of "unitarian" ideas broke out at Rome during the episcopate of Victor I (189–199). This was the so-called ‘Monarchian controversy,’ which originated in a revolt against the Logos theology of Justin and the apologists, who had spoken of Jesus as a second god. Such language was disturbing to some. Justin’s language appeared to promote ditheism. The view, however, was defended by Hippolytus, for whom it was essential to say that the Father and the Logos are two distinct ‘persons’ (prosopa). Saint Victor I was pope from 189 to 199 (the Vatican cites 186 or 189 to 197 or 201). ...


Some critics of Justin's theology tried to preserve the unity of God by saying that there is no difference to be discerned between the ‘Son’ and the ‘Father’ (unless ‘Son’ is a name for the physical body or humanity of Christ and ‘Father’ a name for the divine Spirit within). (This sort of thinking, known as Modal Monarchianism or Sabellianism, would one day lead to a compromise doctrine that the Father and the Son are consubstantial (of the same being). In Christianity, Sabellianism (also known as modalism) is the belief that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit are different modes or aspects of one God, rather than three distinct persons. ...


Other critics preserved the unity of God by saying that Jesus was a man, but differentiated in being indwelt by the Spirit of God to an absolute and unique degree. They thus denied that Jesus was God or a god. They became known as "adoptionists," because they suggested that Jesus was adopted by the Father to be his Son. This view was associated with Theodotus of Byzantium (the Shoemaker) and Artemon.


So even at this early stage we find evidence of proto-Arianism (Justin's view) and proto-Socinianism (the Adoptionist view), though they were, as yet, not fully formed. Both of these theologies have similarities to latter day Unitarianism.


The Monarchian controversy came to a head again in the mid-third century. In 259 the help of Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, was invoked in a dispute among the churches in Libya between adherents of Justin's Logos-theology and some modalist Monarchians. Dionysius vehemently attacked the modalist standpoint. He affirmed that the Son and the Father were as different as a boat and a boatman and denied that they were ‘of one substance’ (homoousios). The Libyans appealed to the bishop of Rome, whose rebuke to his Alexandrian namesake stressed the unity of God and condemned ‘those who divide the divine monarchy into three separate hypostases and three deities’. In Christianity, Sabellianism (also known as modalism or modal monarchism) is the nontrinitarian belief that the Heavenly Father, Resurrected Son and Holy Spirit are different modes or aspects of one God (for us only), rather than three distinct persons (in Himself). ...


Another crisis occurred over Paul of Samosata, who became bishop of Antioch in Syria in 260. Paul’s doctrine is akin to the primitive Jewish-Christian idea of the person of Christ and to the Christology of Theodotus of Byzantium (adoptionism). To many his doctrine seemed plain heresy, and a council of local bishops was held to consider his case in 268. The bishops found it easier to condemn Paul than to expel him, and he remained in full possession of the church with his enthusiastic supporters. However, the bishops appealed appealed to the Roman emperor, who decided that the legal right to the church building should be assigned ‘to those to whom the bishops of Italy and Rome should communicate in writing’. It was the first time that an ecclesiastical dispute had to be settled by the secular power. So Paul was put out of his church.


Arius, son of Ammonius, was a popular priest appointed presbyter for the district of Baucalis in Alexandria in 313. His views of the nature of Jesus, although not original, conflicted with the views held by Bishop Alexander of Alexandria. Both Arius and Alexander held that Jesus was the Word (Logos) in human form; however, Arius held that the Word was a creation of God and had a beginning of existence,[2] whereas Alexander held that the Word was co-eternal and consubstantial with God. When disagreement arose between the two men, forces were set in motion that resulted in the formation of the doctrine of the Trinity. Arius (AD/CE 256 - 336, poss. ... Presbyter in the New Testament refers to a leader in local Christian congregations, a synonym of episkopos, which has come to mean bishop. ... St. ...


In the Nicene Creed adopted at the First Council of Nicaea in 325, wherein the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great got involved, the issue was considered settled and the adoption of Alexander's view became the orthodox doctrine and all other views were considered heresy and officially suppressed. At the [[Second Ecumenical[neutrality disputed] Council]] in 381, the position that God was actually the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost was agreed and the formulation of the doctrine of the Trinity was complete. The First Council of Nicaea, held in Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day Iznik in Turkey), convoked by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in 325, was the first ecumenical[1] conference of bishops of the early Christian Church, and most significantly resulted in the first uniform Christian doctrine, called the Nicene... Constantine. ...


The Protestant Reformation of the 16th century saw in many European countries an outbreak, more or less serious, of anti-Trinitarian opinion. Suppressed as a rule in individual cases, this type of doctrine ultimately became the badge of separate religious communities, in Poland (extinct), Hungary and, at a much later date, in England. Compare to Sabellianism. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see Reformation (disambiguation). ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is God Save the Queen. See also Proposed English National Anthems. ... In Christianity, Sabellianism (also known as modalism) is the belief that the Father, Son and Holy Spirit are different modes or aspects of one God, rather than three distinct persons. ...


Along with the fundamental doctrine, certain characteristics have always marked those who profess unitarianism: a large degree of tolerance, a minimizing of essentials, a repugnance to formulated creed and an historical study of scripture. It has been suggested that toleration be merged into this article or section. ... A creed is a statement or confession of belief — usually religious belief — or faith. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ...


Martin Cellarius (14991564), a friend of Luther, usually appears as the first literary pioneer (1527) of the movement; the anti-Trinitarian position of Ludwig Haetzer did not become public until after his execution (1529) for anabaptism. 1499 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 27 — Naples bans kissing in public under the penalty of death June 22 — Fort Caroline, the first French attempt at colonizing the New World September 10 — The Battle of Kawanakajima Ottoman Turks invade Malta Modern pencil becomes common in England Conquistadors crossed the Pacific Spanish founded a colony... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... Ludwig Haetzer (also Ludwig Hetzer, Ludwig Hätzer and sometimes Ludwig Hatzer) was an Anabaptist and associated with the Protestant reformation in Germany. ... Events April 22 - Treaty of Saragossa divides the eastern hemisphere between Spain and Portugal, stipulating that the dividing line should lie 297. ... Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus, re-baptizers[1], German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ...


Michael Servetus (1511?–1553) stimulated thought in this direction and heavily influenced other reformers both by his writings and by his death at the stake. In 1531 he had published his theological treatise De Trinitatis Erroribus (On the Errors About the Trinity), in which he rejected the Nicene dogma of the Trinity and proposed that the Son was the union of the divine Logos with the man Jesus, miraculously born from the Virgin Mary through the intervention of God's spirit. This was generally interpreted as a denial of the Trinitarian dogma (actually Servetus had described the Trinity as a "three-headed Cerberus" and "three ghosts" which only led believers to confusion and error). Servetus expanded his ideas on the nature of God and Christ 20 years later in his major work, Christianismi Restitutio (The Restoration of Christianity), which caused his burning at the stake in Calvin's Geneva (and also in effigy by the Catholic Inquisition in France) in 1553 . Nowadays most Unitarians see Servetus as their pioneer and first martyr, and his thought was a remarkable influence in the beginnings of Polish and Transylvanian Anti-trinitarian churches[3], even though his views on Jesus Christ are quite different from what Unitarians generally believe today. Michael Servetus. ... Year 1511 (MDXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... // Events June 26 - Christs Hospital in London gets a Royal Charter July 6 - Edward VI of England dies July 10 - Lady Jane Grey is proclaimed Queen of England - for the next nine days July 18 - Lord Mayor of London proclaims Queen Mary as the rightful Queen - Lady Jane Grey... This article or section contains too many quotations for an encyclopedic entry. ... Look up logos in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Calvin may refer to: Calvin (Calvin and Hobbes) Calvin College, a college in Grand Rapids, Michigan People with the surname Calvin: John Calvin, theologian Melvin Calvin, American chemist Susan Calvin, fictional robopsychologist People with the given name Calvin: Calvin Coolidge, American President Calvin Cheng, fashion mogul Calvin Klein, fashion designer... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... Inquisition (capitalized I) is broadly used, to refer to things related to judgment of heresy by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Michael Servetus. ...


The Dialogues (1563) of Bernardino Ochino, while defending the Trinity, stated objections and difficulties with a force which captivated many. In his 27th Dialogue Ochino points to Hungary as a possible home of religious liberty. And in Poland and Hungary definitely anti-Trinitarian religious communities first formed and were tolerated. Events February 1 - Sarsa Dengel succeeds his father Menas as Emperor of Ethiopia February 18 - The Duke of Guise is assassinated while besieging Orléans March - Peace of Amboise. ... Bernardino Ochino (1487-1564), was an Italian Reformer, born at Siena in 1487. ...


Poland

Scattered expressions of anti-Trinitarian opinion appear here early. At the age of 80, Catherine, wife of Melchior Vogel or Weygel, was burned at Cracow (1539) for apostasy; whether her views embraced more than deism is not clear. The first synod of the Reformed Church took place in 1555; the second Synod (1556) faced the theological challenges of Gregory Pauli (Grzegorz Paweł z Brzezin) and Peter Gonesius (Piotr z Goniądza), who were aware of the works of Servetus and of Italian antitrinitarians such as Mateo Gribaldi. The arrival of Blandrata in 1558 furnished the party with a temporary leader. Motto: Ex navicula navis (From a boat, a ship) Coordinates: , Country Poland Voivodeship Lesser Poland Powiat city county Gmina Kraków City Rights June 5th, 1257 Government  - Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area  - City 326. ... Apostasy (from Greek αποστασία, meaning a defection or revolt, from απο, apo, away, apart, στασις, stasis, standing) is a term generally employed to describe the formal renunciation of ones religion, especially if the motive is deemed unworthy. ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... Piotr z GoniÄ…dza (Peter of GoniÄ…dz, also known as Gonesius; ca. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Nontrinitarianism refers to Christian... Giorgio Blandrata or Blandrata (c. ...


In 1565, the Diet of Piotrkow excluded anti-Trinitarians from the existing synod; henceforward they held their own synods as the Minor Church. Known by various other names (of which Polish brethren and Arian were the most common), at no time in its history did this body adopt for itself any designation save "Christian". Originally Arian (though excluding any worship of Christ) and Anabaptist, the Minor Church was (by 1588) brought round to the views of Fausto Sozzini, who had settled in Poland in 1579 (see Socinianism). Polish Brethren (also called Antitrinitians, Arians, or Socinians) was the name of a Christian Polish sect from the 16th century. ... Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus, re-baptizers[1], German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... Fausto Paolo Sozzini (December 5, 1539 - March 4, 1604), theologian, was a founder of the school of Christian thought known as Socinianism, based on the Latinized spelling of his name. ... Socinianism is a form of Antitrinitarianism, named for Laelius Socinus (died 1562 in Zürich) and of his nephew Faustus Socinus (died 1604 in Poland). ...


In 1602 James Sienynski (Jakub Sieniński) established at Raków a college and a printing-press, from which the Racovian Catechism was issued in 1605. In 1610 a Catholic reaction began, led by Jesuits. The establishment at Raków was suppressed in 1638, after two boys pelted a crucifix outside the town. The Racovian Catechism is a nontrinitarian statement of faith from the 16th century. ...


When twenty years' public opinion widely considered them as Swedish collaborators during The Deluge, the Polish Diet gave anti-Trinitarians the option of conformity or exile. The Minor Church included many Polish magnates, but their adoption of the views of Sozzini, which precluded Christians from magisterial office, rendered them politically powerless. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ...


The execution of the decree, hastened by a year, took place in 1660. Some conformed; a large number made their way to the Netherlands (where the Remonstrants admitted them to membership on the basis of the Apostles' Creed), while others went to the German frontier. A contingent settled in Transylvania, not joining the Unitarian Church, but maintaining a distinct organization at Cluj until 1793. Remonstrants, the name given to those Dutch Protestants who, after the death of Arminius, maintained the views associated with his name, and in 1610 presented to the states of Holland and Friesland a remonstrance in five articles formulating their points of departure from stricter Calvinism. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Bulgarian: ; Serbian: / or / ) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... Map of Romania showing Cluj-Napoca Cluj-Napoca (Hungarian: Kolozsvár, German: Klausenburg, Latin: Claudiopolis), the seat of Cluj county, is one of the most important academic, cultural and industrial centers in Romania. ...


The refugees who reached Amsterdam published the Bibliotheca fratrum polonorum (1665–1669), embracing the works of Hans Krell (Crellius, Jan Crell), their leading theologian, Jonas Schlichting (Szlichtyng), their chief commentator, Sozzini and Johann Ludwig Wolzogen. The title page of this collection, bearing the words quos Unitarios vocant, introduced this term to Western Europe. Nickname: Motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig (Valiant, Determined, Compassionate) Location of Amsterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Job Cohen (PvdA)  - Aldermen Lodewijk Asscher Hennah Buyne Carolien Gehrels Tjeerd Herrema Maarten van Poelgeest Marijke Vos  - Secretary Erik Gerritsen Area [1][2]  - City 219 km²  (84. ... Johannes Crellius, Hans Krell, Jan Crell 1590-1633, was a Polish-German philosopher, one of the chief theologians of Polish brethren and author of (1623), (1630), De uno Deo Patre libri duo (1631). ...


Transylvania and Hungary

No distinct trace of anti-Trinitarian opinion precedes the appearance of Biandrata at the Transylvanian court in 1563. His influence was exerted on Ferenc Dávid (1510–1579), who was successively Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Calvinist and anti-Trinitarian. Francis David (1510-15 November,1579) was the founder of the Unitarian Church in Transylvania. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ...


In 1564 Dávid was elected by the Calvinists as "bishop of the Hungarian churches in Transylvania," and appointed court preacher to John Sigismund, prince of Transylvania. His discussion of the Trinity began (1565) with doubts of the personality of the Holy Ghost. John Zápolya refers to a father and son who were kings of Hungary in the 16th century. ...

The Unitarian Church in Székelyderzs, Transylvania

His antagonist in public disputations was the Calvinist leader, Péter Juhász (Melius); his supporter was Blandrata. John Sigismund, adopting his court-preacher's views, issued (1568) an edict of religious liberty at the Torda Diet, which allowed Dávid (retaining his existing title) to transfer his episcopate from the Calvinists to the anti-Trinitarians, Kolozsvár being evacuated by all but his followers. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 740 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 740 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... County Status Commune Mayor ErnÅ‘ Pál, Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania, since 2004 Population (2002) 1,177 Geographical coordinates 13th Century UNESCO World Heritage fortified Unitarian Church Dârjiu or Székelyderzs (Romanian: ; Hungarian: ) is a commune in Harghita County, Romania comprising of 2 villages: Dârjiu/Sz... Map of Romania showing Cluj_Napoca Cluj_Napoca (Hungarian: Kolozsvár, German: Klausenburg, Latin: Claudiopolis), the seat of Cluj county, is one of the most important academic, cultural and industrial centers in Romania. ...


In 1571 John Sigismund was succeeded by Stephen Báthory, a Catholic, and trouble began. Under the influence of John Sommer, rector of the Kolozsvár gymnasium, David (about 1572) abandoned the worship of Christ. The attempted accommodation by Sozzini only precipitated matters; tried as an innovator, Dávid died in prison at Déva (1579). The cultus of Christ became an established usage of the Church; it is recognized in the 1837 edition of the official hymnal, but removed in later editions. István) see: István Báthory Reign From December 9, 1575 until December 12, 1586 Elected On December 9, 1575 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On May 1, 1576 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Noble Family Bathory Parents Stephen Bathory Catherine Telegdi Consorts Anna...


On the other hand, in 1621 a new sect arose, the Sabbatarii, with strong Judaic tendencies; though excluded from toleration they maintained an existence till 1848. The term unitarius (said to have been introduced by Melius in discussions of 1569–1571) makes its first documentary appearance in a decree of the Lécfalva Diet (1600); it was not officially adopted by the Church until 1638.


Of the line of twenty-three bishops the most distinguished were György Enyedi (commonly known in English as George Enyedi) (1592–1597), whose Explicationes obtained European vogue, and Mihály Lombard de Szentábrahám (1737–1758), who rallied the forces of his Church, broken by persecution and deprivation of property, and gave them their existing constitution. His Summa universae theologiae secundum Unitarios (1787), Socinian with Arminian modifications, was accepted by Joseph II as the official manifesto of doctrine, and so remains, though no subscription to it has ever been required.


The official title in Hungary is the Hungarian Unitarian Church, with a membership of about 25,000 members, whereas in Romania there is a separate church with the name of Unitarian Church of Transylvania and about 65,000 members, especially among the Székely population. In the past, the Unitarian bishop had a seat in the Hungarian parliament. The principal college of both churches is located at Cluj (Kolozsvár), which is also the seat of the Transylvanian consistory; there were others at Turda (Torda) and at Székelykeresztúr. The Unitarian Church in Cluj-Napoca The Unitarian Church of Transylvania (Hungarian: Erdélyi Unitárius Egyház; Romanian: Biserica Unitariană din Transilvania) is a church of the Unitarian denomination, based in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. ... The Székely or Szeklers (Hungarian: , Romanian: , German: ) ( sék-ei in pronunciation ) are a Hungarian ethnic group mostly living in Transylvania in Romania, with a significant population also living in Vojvodina, Serbia. ... Map of Romania showing Cluj_Napoca Cluj_Napoca (Hungarian: Kolozsvár, German: Klausenburg, Latin: Claudiopolis), the seat of Cluj county, is one of the most important academic, cultural and industrial centers in Romania. ... Turda (Hungarian: Torda, German: Thorenburg) (population: 55,770) is a city and Municipality in Cluj County, Romania, situated on the ArieÅŸ river. ... County Harghita County Status Town Mayor Lajos Benyovszki, Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania, since 2000 Population (2002) 9,672 Geographical coordinates , Cristuru Secuiesc (Hungarian: Székelykeresztúr) is a town in Harghita County, Romania. ...


Until 1818 the continued existence of this body was unknown to English Unitarians; relations subsequently became intimate. After 1860 a succession of students finished their theological education at Manchester College, Oxford; others at the Unitarian Home Missionary College. College name Harris Manchester Named after Lord Harris of Peckham Established 1786 Principal The Revd Dr Ralph Waller JCR President Toby Fell-Holden Undergraduates 110 Graduates 40 Home page The Quad lawn, Harris Manchester College, Oxford Harris Manchester College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford, England. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ...


England

The Unitarian chapel at Newington Green, London, England. Built in 1708, this is the oldest non-conformist church in London still in use as a church. (October 2005)
The Unitarian chapel at Newington Green, London, England. Built in 1708, this is the oldest non-conformist church in London still in use as a church. (October 2005)

Between 1548 (John Assheton) and 1612 we find few anti-Trinitarians, most of whom were either executed or forced to recant. Those burned included George van Parris. (1551), Flemish surgeon; Patrick Pakingham (1555), fellmonger; Matthew Hamont (1579), ploughwright; John Lewes (1583); Peter Cole (1587), tanner; Francis Kett (1589), physician and author; Bartholomew Legate (1612), cloth-dealer, last of the Smithfield victims; and the twice-burned fanatic Edward Wightman (1612). In all these cases the anti-Trinitarian sentiments seem to have come from Holland; the last two executions followed the dedication to James I of the Latin version of the Racovian Catechism (1609). Image File history File links Unitarian_chapel_newington_green. ... Image File history File links Unitarian_chapel_newington_green. ... Newington Green looking northwest from Mildmay Park. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem specific to England — the anthem of the United Kingdom is God Save the Queen. See also Proposed English National Anthems. ... Bartholomew Legate (c. ... Edward Wightman (December 20, 1566 - April 11, 1612), a Baptist, was the last person to be executed for heresy in England by burning at the stake. ... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ... The Racovian Catechism is a nontrinitarian statement of faith from the 16th century. ...


The vogue of Socinian views, typified by men like Falkland and Chillingworth, led to the abortive fourth canon of 1640 against Socinian books. The ordinance of 1648 made denial of the Trinity a capital offence, but it remained a dead letter, Cromwell intervening in the cases of Paul Best (1590–1657) and John Biddle (1616–1662). Socinianism summarises the beliefs of the Socinians, followers of Laelius Socinus (died 1562 in Zürich) and of his nephew Faustus Socinus (died 1604 in Poland). ... Falkland can refer to: Falkland, Fife, a burgh in Fife, Scotland. ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England, Scotland and Ireland into a republican Commonwealth and for the brutal war exercised in his conquest of Ireland. ... John Biddle (January 14, 1615 – September 22, 1662) was an influential nontrinitarian in England and the founder of Unitarianism. ...


In 1650 John Knowles was an Arian lay preacher at Chester. A 1945 graduate of the Phillips Exeter Academy in Exeter, New Hampshire, Knowles graduated from Yale University in 1949. ... For the larger local government district, see Chester (district). ...


In 1652–1654 and 1658–1662 Biddle held a Socinian conventicle in London; in addition to his own writings he reprinted (1651) and translated (1652) the Racovian Catechism, and the Life of Socinus (1653). His disciple Thomas Firmin (1632–1697), mercer and philanthropist, and friend of Tillotson, adopted the more Sabellian views of Stephen Nye (1648–1719), a clergyman. Firmin promoted a remarkable series of controversial tracts (1690–1699). The Racovian Catechism is a nontrinitarian statement of faith from the 16th century. ... The original definition of a Mercer is a merchant or trader, though its current meaning is more specifically a merchant who deals in textiles. ... John Tillotson (October 1630 - November 22, 1694) was an Archbishop of Canterbury (1691 - 1694). ... Languages in Iron Age Italy, 6th century BC The Osco-Umbrian languages or Sabellic languages are a group of languages that belong to the Italic language family of the Indo-European languages. ...


The term "Unitarian" first emerges in 1682, and appears in the title of the Brief History (1687). It was construed in a broad sense to cover all who, with whatever differences, held to the unipersonality of the Divine Being. Firmin later had a project of Unitarian societies "within the Church". The first preacher to describe himself as Unitarian was Thomas Emlyn (1663–1741) who gathered a London congregation in 1705. This was contrary to the Toleration Act of 1689, which excluded all who should preach or write against the Trinity. Thomas Emlyn (1663 - 1741), English nonconformist divine, was born at Stamford, Lincolnshire. ... ...


In England the Socinian controversy, initiated by Biddle, preceded the Arian controversy initiated by Samuel Clarke's Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity (1712). Arian or semi-Arian views had much vogue during the 18th century, both in the Church and among dissenters. John Biddle (January 14, 1615 – September 22, 1662) was an influential nontrinitarian in England and the founder of Unitarianism. ... The Arian controversy describes several controversies which divided the Christian church from before the Council of Nicaea in 325 to after the Council of Constantinople in 383. ... Samuel Clarke. ...


The free atmosphere of dissenting academies (colleges) favoured new ideas. The effect of the Salters' Hall conference (1719), called for by the views of James Peirce (1673–1726) of Exeter, was to leave dissenting congregations to determine their own orthodoxy; the General Baptists had already (1700) condoned defections from the common doctrine. The city of Exeter is the county town of Devon, in the southwest of England, also known as the West Country. ...


Isaac Newton was an anti-Trinitarian, and possibly a Unitarian.[4] Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ...


In 1689 Presbyterians and Independents had coalesced, agreeing to drop both names and to support a common fund. The union in the London fund was ruptured in 1693; in course of time differences in the administration of the two funds led to the attaching of the Presbyterian name to theological liberals, though many of the older Unitarian chapels were Independent foundations, and at least half of the Presbyterian chapels (of 1690–1710) came into the hands of Congregationalists. Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ...


Leaders in the advocacy of a purely humanitarian christology came largely from the Independents, such as Nathaniel Lardner (1684–1768), Caleb Fleming (1698–1779), Joseph Priestley (1733–1804) and Thomas Belsham (1750–1829). Nathaniel Lardner (1684 - July 24, 1768), English theologian, was born at Hawkhurst, Kent. ... Joseph Frederick Priestley is often credited for the discovery of oxygen. ... Thomas Belsham (26 April 1750 - 1829) was an English Unitarian minister born in Bedford. ...


The formation of a distinct Unitarian denomination dates from the secession (1773) of Theophilus Lindsey (1723–1808) from the Anglican Church, on the failure of the Feathers petition to parliament (1772) for relief from subscription. Lindsey's secession had been preceded in Ireland by that of William Robertson D.D. (1705–1783), who has been called "the father of Unitarian nonconformity". Theophilus Lindsey (20 June 1723 O.S. – 1808) was an English theologian born in Middlewich, Cheshire, and was educated at the Leeds Free School and at St Johns College, University of Cambridge, where in 1747 he became a fellow. ... The Anglican Communion uses the compass rose as its symbol, signifying its worldwide reach and decentralized nature. ... For the Victoria Cross recipient see William Robertson (VC) Sir William Robert Robertson (1860-1933) was a British field marshal who served as Chief of the Imperial General Staff from 1916 to 1918 during the First World War. ...


It was followed by other clerical secessions, mostly of men who left the ministry, and Lindsey's hope of a Unitarian movement from the Anglican Church was disappointed. By degrees his type of theology superseded Arianism in a considerable number of dissenting congregations. It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ...


The Toleration Act was amended (1779) by substituting belief in Scripture for belief in the Anglican (doctrinal) articles. In 1813 the penal acts against deniers of the Trinity were repealed. In 1825 the British and Foreign Unitarian Association was formed as an amalgamation of three older societies, for literature (1791), mission work (1806) and civil rights (1818).


Attacks were made on properties held by Unitarians, but created prior to 1813. The Wolverhampton Chapel case began in 1817, the more important Hewley Fund case in 1830; both were decided against the Unitarians in 1842.


Appeal to parliament resulted in the Dissenters' Chapels Act (1844), which secured that, so far as trusts did not specify doctrines, twenty-five years tenure legitimated existing usage. A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ...


The drier Priestley-Belsham type of Unitarianism, bound up with a determinist philosophy, was gradually modified by the influence of Channing (see below), whose works were reprinted in numerous editions and owed a wide circulation to the efforts of Robert Spears (1825–1899). This article is about the general notion of determinism in philosophy. ... Dr. William Ellery Channing (April 7, 1780 – October 2, 1842) was the foremost Unitarian preacher in the United States in the early nineteenth century and, along with Andrews Norton, one of Unitarianisms leading theologians. ...


Another American influence, potent in reducing the rigid though limited supernaturalism of Belsham and his successors, was that of Theodore Parker (1810–1860). At home the teaching of James Martineau (1805–1900), resisted at first, was at length powerfully felt, seconded as it was by the influence of John James Tayler (1797–1869) and of John Hamilton Thom (1808–1894). Theodore Parker (August 24, 1810 - May 10, 1860) was a reforming American minister of the Unitarian church, and a Transcendentalist. ... James Martineau (April 21, 1805 - January 11, 1900) was an English philosopher. ...


English Unitarianism produced some remarkable scholars, e.g. John Kenrick (1788–1877), James Yates (1789–1871), Samuel Sharpe (1799–1881), but few very popular preachers, though George Harris (1794–1859) is an exception. Though severe earthquakes in the north of France and southern England are rare,[1] the Dover Straits earthquake of 6 April 1580 appears to have been the largest in the recorded history of England, Flanders or northern France. ... Samuel Sharp, also called Daddy Sharpe (or Sam Sharp), he was a Deacon at the Burchell Baptist Church in Montego Bay, Jamaica, during the 19th century. ... George Prideaux Robert Harris (1775 - 1810) was a deputy surveyor and naturalist in Tasmania, Australia from 1803. ...


For the education of its ministry it supported Manchester College at Oxford (which deduced its ancestry from the academy of Richard Frankland, begun 1670), the Unitarian Home Missionary College (founded in Manchester in 1854 by John Relly Beard, D.D., and William Gaskell), and the Presbyterian College, Carmarthen. It also produced the notable Chamberlain family of politicians: Joseph Chamberlain, Austen Chamberlain, and Neville Chamberlain, and the Courtauld industrialist dynasty. College name Harris Manchester Named after Lord Harris of Peckham Established 1786 Principal The Revd Dr Ralph Waller JCR President Toby Fell-Holden Undergraduates 110 Graduates 40 Home page The Quad lawn, Harris Manchester College, Oxford Harris Manchester College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford, England. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... The Reverend William Gaskell (24 July 1805; Latchford, Cheshire – 12 June 1884) was an English Unitarian minister, charity worker and pioneer in the education of the working class. ... The Rt. ... The Rt. ... Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940), known as Neville Chamberlain, was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1937 to 1940. ... Samuel Courtauld (1793-21 March 1881) was an American-born industrialist and Unitarian, chiefly remembered as the driving force behind the early 19th century growth of the Courtauld textile business. ...


English Unitarian periodical literature begins with Priestley's Theological Repository (1769–1788), and includes the Monthly Repository (1806–1838), The Christian Reformer (1834–1863), The Christian Teacher (1835–1844), The Prospective Review (1845–1854), The National Review (1855–1864), the Theological Review (1864–1879), and The Hibbert Journal, one of the enterprises of the Hibbert Trust, founded by Robert Hibbert (1770–1849) and originally designated the Anti-Trinitarian Fund. This came into operation in 1853, awarded scholarships and fellowships, supported an annual lectureship (1878–1894), and maintained (from 1894) a chair of ecclesiastical history at Manchester College. The National Review was a quarterly British magazine published between 1855 and 1864. ... The Hibbert Journal is a quarterly magazine issued since 1902 by the Hibbert Trust. ... The Hibbert Trust was founded by Robert Hibbert (1769 - 1849) and originally designated the Anti-Trinitarian Fund. ... Robert Hibbert (1770 - 1849) was the founder of the Hibbert Trust. ... Unitarian College Manchester has been preparing students for ministry and lay leadership positions in the Unitarian and Non-Subscribing Presbyterian Churches since 1854. ...


Scotland

Much has been made of the execution (1697) at Edinburgh of the student Thomas Aikenhead, convicted of blaspheming the Trinity. The works of John Taylor, D.D. (1694–1761) on original sin and atonement had much influence in the east of Scotland, as we learn from Robert Burns; and such men as William Dalrymple, D.D. (1723–1814) and William M'Gill, D.D. (1732–1807), along with other "moderates", were under suspicion of similar heresies. Overt Unitarianism has never had much vogue in Scotland. The only congregation of old foundation is at Edinburgh, founded in 1776 by a secession from one of the "fellowship societies" formed by James Fraser, of Brea (1639–1699). The mission enterprises of Richard Wright (1764–1836) and George Harris (1794–1859) produced results of no great permanence. For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Thomas Aikenhead (c. ... work in progress influenced John Wesley and Joseph Priestley John Taylor (1694-1761) went to Norwich in 1733; where he founded the Octagon Chapel, 1754. ... This article is about the country. ... Robert Burns, foremost Scottish poet Robert Burns (January 25, 1759 – July 21, 1796) was a poet and a lyricist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Scottish Unitarian Association was founded in 1813, mainly by Thomas Southwood Smith, M.D., the sanitary reformer. The McQuaker Trust was founded (1889) for propagandist purposes. Thomas Southwood Smith (December 21, 1788 - December 10, 1861), English physician and sanitary reformer, was born at Martock, Somersetshire. ...


Ireland

Controversy respecting the Trinity was excited in Ireland by the prosecution at Dublin (1703) of Thomas Emlyn (see above), resulting in fine and imprisonment, for rejecting the deity of Christ. In 1705 the Belfast Society was founded for theological discussion by Presbyterian ministers in the north, with the result of creating a body of opinion adverse to subscription to the Westminster standards. Toleration of dissent, withheld in Ireland till 1719, was then granted without the requirement of any doctrinal subscription. Next year a movement against subscription was begun in the General Synod of Ulster, culminating (1725) in the placing of the advocates of non-subscription, headed by John Abernethy, D.D., of Antrim into a presbytery by themselves. This Antrim presbytery was excluded (1726) from jurisdiction, though not from communion. During the next hundred years its members exercised great influence on their brethren of the synod; but the counterinfluence of the mission of the Scottish Seceders (from 1742) produced a reaction. The Antrim Presbytery gradually became Arian; the same type of theology affected more or less the Southern Association, known since 1806 as the Synod of Munster. From 1783 ten of the fourteen presbyteries in the General Synod had made subscription optional; the synod's code of 1824 left "soundness in the faith" to be ascertained by subscription or by examination. Against this compromise Henry Cooke, D.D. (1788–1868), directed all his powers, and was ultimately (1829) successful in defeating his Arian opponent, Henry Montgomery, LL.D. (1788–1865). Montgomery led a secession which formed (1830) the Remonstrant Synod, comprising three presbyteries.


In 1910 the Antrim Presbytery, Remonstrant Synod and Synod of Munster united as the General Synod of the Non-subscribing Presbyterian Church of Ireland, with 38 congregations and some mission stations. Till 1889 they maintained two theological chairs in Belfast, where John Scott Porter (1801–1880) pioneered biblical criticism; they afterwards sent their students to England for their theological education, though in certain respects their views and practices remained more conservative than those of their English brethren. The Non-subscribers derive their name and their liberal and tolerant identity from early eighteenth century Presbyterian ministers refusing to subscribe, or sign, the Westminster Confession, a standard Reformed statement of faith, at their ordination, forming in 1725 their Presbytery of Antrim. ...


Irish Unitarian periodical literature began in 1832 with the Bible Christian, followed by the Irish Unitarian Magazine, the Christian Unitarian, the Disciple and the Non-subscribing Presbyterian.


See generally R. Wallace's Antitrinitarian Biog. (1850); G. BonetMaury's Early Sources of Eng. Unit. Christianity, trans. E. P. Hall (1884); A. Gordon's Heads of Eng. Unit. Hist. (1895).


United States

Unitarianism in the United States followed essentially the same development as in England, and passed through the stages of Arminianism, Arianism, to rationalism and a modernism based on a large-minded acceptance of the results of the comparative study of all religions. For the Armenian nationality, see Armenia or the Armenian language. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... The Major religious groups of the world. ...


In the early 18th century Arminianism presented itself in New England, and sporadically elsewhere. This tendency was largely accelerated by a backlash against the "Great Awakening" under Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield. This article is about the region in the United States of America. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Revivalism. ... Jonathan Edwards (October 5, 1703- March 22, 1758) was a colonial American Congregational preacher and theologian. ... George Whitefield (December 16, 1714 - September 30, 1770), was a minister in the Church of England and one of the leaders of the Methodist movement. ...


Before the War of Independence Arianism showed itself in individual instances, and French influences were widespread in the direction of deism, though they were not organized into any definite utterance by religious bodies. The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ...


As early as the middle of the 18th century Harvard College represented the most advanced thought of the time, and a score or more of clergymen in New England preached what was essentially Unitarianism. The most prominent of these men was Jonathan Mayhew (1720–1766), pastor of the West Church in Boston, Massachusetts from 1747 to 1766. He preached the strict unity of God, the subordinate nature of Christ, and salvation by character. Harvard Yard Harvard College is the undergraduate section and oldest school of Harvard University, founded in 1636. ... Jonathan Mayhew, from Ciprianis London etching of 1767. ... Nickname: Location in Massachusetts, USA Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Suffolk County Settled 1630 Incorporated (city) 1822 Government  - Mayor Thomas M. Menino (D) Area  - City  89. ...


Charles Chauncy (1705–1787), pastor of the First Church from 1727 until his death, the chief opponent of Edwards in the great revival, was both a Unitarian and a Universalist. Other Unitarians included Ebenezer Gay (1698–1787) of Hingham, Samuel West (1730–1807) of New Bedford, Thomas Barnard (1748–1814) of Newbury, John Prince (1751–1836) and William Bentley (1758–1819) of Salem, Aaron Bancroft (1755–1836) of Worcester, and several others. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... In comparative religion, a universalist religion is one that holds itself true for all people; it thus allows all to join, regardless of ethnicity. ... Hingham is a town in Plymouth County on the South Shore of Massachusetts. ... Samuel West, sometimes billed as Sam West, (born June 19, 1966) is a British actor, the son of Prunella Scales and Timothy West. ... Nickname: Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country United States State Massachusetts County Bristol County Settled 1640 Incorporated 1787 Government  - Type Mayor-council  - Mayor Scott W. Lang (Dem)  - City Council President/Ward 6: Leo R. Pimental. ... Seal of Newbury, MA Newbury is a town located in Essex County, Massachusetts. ... William Bentley (1759-06-22, Boston, Massachusetts – 1819-12-29, Salem, Massachusetts) was an American Unitarian minister, scholar, columnist, and diarist. ... Nickname: Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Essex County Settled 1626 Incorporated 1626 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Kimberley Driscoll Area  - City  18. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Nickname: Location in Massachusetts Coordinates: Country United States State Massachusetts County Worcester County Settled 1673 Incorporated 1684 Government  - Type Council-manager also known as Plan E  - City Manager Michael V. OBrien  - Mayor Konstantina B. Lukes  - City Council Dennis L. Irish Michael C. Perotto Joseph M. Petty Gary Rosen Kathleen...


The first official acceptance of the Unitarian faith on the part of a congregation was by King's Chapel in Boston, which settled James Freeman (1759–1853) in 1782, and revised the Prayer Book into a mild Unitarian liturgy in 1785. The Rev. William Hazlitt (father of the essayist and critic), visiting the United States in 1783–1785, published the fact that there were Unitarians in Philadelphia, Boston, Charleston, Pittsburgh, Hallowell, on Cape Cod, and elsewhere. Kings Chapel, Boston, with One Boston Place in the background The original Kings Chapel in Boston, Massachusetts was a wooden church built in 1688. ... James Freeman (b. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... Nickname: Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... “Pittsburgh” redirects here. ... Hallowell is a city located in Kennebec County, Maine. ... Cape Cod (or simply the Cape) is an hook-shaped peninsula nearly coextensive with Barnstable County, Massachusetts and forming the easternmost portion of the state of Massachusetts, in the Northeastern United States. ...


Unitarian congregations were organized at Portland and Saco in 1792 by Thomas Oxnard; in 1800 the First Church in Plymouth—the congregation founded by the Pilgrims in 1620—accepted the more liberal faith. Joseph Priestley immigrated to the United States in 1794, and organized a Unitarian Church at Northumberland, Pennsylvania, the same year and one at Philadelphia in 1796. His writings had a considerable influence. Nickname: Motto: Resurgam (Latin for I will rise again) Country United States State Maine County Cumberland Settled 1632 Incorporated 1786 Government  - Mayor Nicholas M. Mavodones, Jr Area  - City  52. ... Location of city of Saco in Maine Saco is a city in York County, Maine, United States. ... Joseph Frederick Priestley is often credited for the discovery of oxygen. ... Northumberland is a borough located in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania. ... The First Unitarian Church of Philadelphia is a Unitarian church located at 2125 Chestnut Street in Philadelphia, PA. Since the mid-90s, the churchs basement rec room, known colloquially as The Church, has been a popular venue for small-scale independent music concerts in the city. ...


Thus from 1725 to 1825, a more tolerant and rational belief was developing in New England, and to some extent elsewhere. The first distinctive manifestation of the change was the inauguration of Henry Ware (1764–1845) as professor of divinity at Harvard College, in 1805. Henry Ware (April 1, 1764 - July 12, 1845) was a preacher and theologian influential in the formation of Unitarianism in the United States. ...


In the same year appeared Unitarian books by John Sherman (1772–1828) and Hosea Ballou (1771–1852), and another in 1810 by Noah Worcester (1758–1837). At the opening of the 19th century, with one exception, all the churches of Boston were occupied by Unitarian preachers, and various periodicals and organizations expressed their opinions. Churches were established in New York, Baltimore, Washington, Charleston, and elsewhere during this period. John Sherman John Sherman (May 10, 1823–October 22, 1900) was a Senator from Ohio and a member of the United States Cabinet. ... Hosea Ballou (1771—1852), American Universalist clergyman, was born in Richmond, New Hampshire, on the 30th of April 1771. ... “NY” redirects here. ... Baltimore redirects here. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


In 1800, Joseph Stevens Buckminster became minister of the Brattle Street Church in Boston, where his brilliant sermons, literary activities, and academic attention to the German "New Criticism" helped shape the subsequent growth of Unitarianism in New England. Portrait of Joseph Stevens Buckminster by Gilbert Stuart, painted circa 1810. ...


Buckminster's close associate William Ellery Channing (1780–1842) was settled over the Federal Street Congregational Church, Boston, 1803; and in a few years he became the leader of the Unitarian movement. At first mystical rather than rationalistic in his theology, he took part with the "Catholic Christians", as they called themselves, who aimed at bringing Christianity into harmony with the progressive spirit of the time. His essays on The System of Exclusion and Denunciation in Religion (1815), and Objections to Unitarian Christianity Considered (1819), made him a defender of Unitarianism. His sermon on "Unitarian Christianity", preached at First Unitarian Church of Baltimore in 1819, at the ordination of Jared Sparks, and that at New York in 1821, on "Unitarian Christianity most favourable to Piety" made him its interpreter. Dr. William Ellery Channing (April 7, 1780 – October 2, 1842) was the foremost Unitarian preacher in the United States in the early nineteenth century and, along with Andrews Norton, one of Unitarianisms leading theologians. ... Jared Sparks (10 May 1789 - 14 March 1866) was a U.S. historian, educator, Unitarian minister, and president of Harvard University. ...


The result was a growing division in the Congregational churches, which was emphasized in 1825 by the formation of the American Unitarian Association at Boston. It was organized "to diffuse the knowledge and promote the interests of pure Christianity" and it published tracts and books, supported poor churches, sent out missionaries into every part of the country, and established new churches in nearly all the states. Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA), in full the Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations in North America, is a liberal religious denomination formed by the merger in 1961 of the American Unitarian Association and the Universalist Church in America. ...


Essentially non-sectarian, with little missionary zeal, the Unitarian movement has grown slowly; and its influence has chiefly operated through general culture and the literature of the country. Many of its clergymen have been trained in other denominations; but the Harvard Divinity School was distinctly Unitarian from its formation, in 1816, to 1870, when it became a non-sectarian department of the university. The Meadville Lombard Theological School was founded at Meadville, Pennsylvania in 1844 and the Starr King School for the Ministry at Berkeley, California in 1904. Harvard Divinity School is one of the constituent schools of Harvard University, located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in the United States. ... The Meadville Theological School was founded in 1844 in Meadville, Pennsylvania. ... Meadville is the county seat of Crawford County, Pennsylvania, USA. It was the first permanent settlement in northwest Pennsylvania. ... Starr King School for the Ministry is a Unitarian Universalist seminary in Berkeley, California and part of the Graduate Theological Union. ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern California, in the United States. ...


The history of Unitarian thought in the United States can be roughly divided into three periods. The first, from about 1800 to about 1835, can be thought of as formative, mainly influenced by English philosophy, semi-supernatural, imperfectly rationalistic, devoted to philanthropy and practical Christianity. Dr. Channing was its distinguished exponent.


The second (see Transcendentalism), from about 1835 to about 1885, profoundly influenced by German idealism, was increasingly rationalistic, though its theology was largely flavoured by mysticism. As a reaction against this, the National Unitarian Conference was organized in 1865, and adopted a distinctly Christian platform, affirming that its members were "disciples of the Lord Jesus Christ". Transcendentalism was a group of new ideas in literature, religion, culture, and philosophy that emerged in New England in the early-to mid-19th century. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The more rationalistic minority thereupon formed the Free Religious Association, "to encourage the scientific study of theology and to increase fellowship in the spirit." The Western Unitarian Conference later accepted the same position, and based its "fellowship on no dogmatic tests, but affirmed a desire "to establish truth, righteousness and love in the world." In addition, the WUC claimed belief in God was not a necessary component of Unitarian belief.


This period of controversy and of vigorous theological development practically came to an end soon after 1885. Its cessation was assured by the action of the national conference at Saratoga, New York in 1894, when it was affirmed by a nearly unanimous vote that: "These churches accept the religion of Jesus, holding, in accordance with his teaching, that practical religion is summed up in love to God and love to man. The conference recognizes the fact that its constituency is Congregational in tradition and polity. Therefore it declares that nothing in this constitution is to be construed as an authoritative test; and we cordially invite to our working fellowship any who, while differing from us in belief, are in general sympathy with our spirit and our practical aims." The leaders of this period were Ralph Waldo Emerson with his idealism and Theodore Parker with his acceptance of Christianity as absolute religion. Saratoga is a town located in Saratoga County, New York, USA. As of the 2000 census, the town had a total population of 5,141. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ... Theodore Parker (August 24, 1810 - May 10, 1860) was a reforming American minister of the Unitarian church, and a Transcendentalist. ...


The third period, beginning about 1885, has been one of rationalism, recognition of universal religion, large acceptance of the scientific method and ideas and an ethical attempt to realize what was perceived as to be the higher affirmations of Christianity. It has been marked by a general harmony and unity, by steady growth in the number of churches and by a widening fellowship with all other similarly minded movements. In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ...


This phase was shown in the organization of The International Council of Unitarian and other Liberal Religious Thinkers and Workers at Boston on 25 May 1900, "to open communication with those in all lands who are striving to unite pure religion and perfect liberty, and to increase fellowship and co-operation among them." This council has held biennial sessions in London, Amsterdam, Geneva and Boston. During the period after 1885 the influence of Emerson became predominant, modified by the more scientific preaching of Minot J. Savage, who found his guides in Darwin and Spencer. is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... // The name Spencer originated from the English word dispenser. ...


Beyond its own borders the body obtained recognition through the public work of such men as Henry Whitney Bellows and Edward Everett Hale, the remarkable influence of James Freeman Clarke and the popular power of Robert Collyer. The number of Unitarian churches in the United States in 1909 was 461, with 541 ministers. The church membership then, really nominal, may be estimated at 100,000. The periodicals were The Christian Register, weekly, Boston; Unity, weekly, Chicago; The Unitarian, monthly, New York; Old and New, monthly, Des Moines; Pacific Unitarian, San Francisco. Henry Whitney Bellows (June 11, 1814 - January 30, 1882), American clergyman, was born in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Statue of Edward Everett Hale in Boston Public Garden, by Bela Pratt. ... James Freeman Clarke (April 4, 1810 - June 8, 1888), American preacher and author, was born in Hanover, New Hampshire. ... Robert Collyer (1823-1912), American Unitarian clergyman, was born in Keighley, Yorkshire, England, on the 8th of December 1823. ...


In 1961 , the American Unitarian Association merged with the Universalist Church of America, forming the Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations (UUA). Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA), in full the Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations in North America, is a liberal religious denomination formed by the merger in 1961 of the American Unitarian Association and the Universalist Church in America. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA), in full the Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations in North America, is a liberal religious association of Unitarian Universalist congregations formed by the consolidation in 1961 of the American Unitarian Association and the Universalist Church of America. ...


Strictly speaking, modern-day Unitarian Universalism is not Unitarian in theology. Despite its name, this denomination does not necessarily promote either belief in One God or universal salvation. It is merely the inheritor of the Unitarian and Universalist church system in America. Though there are Unitarians within the Unitarian-Universalist Association, there is no creed or doctrine that one must affirm to join a Unitarian Universalist congregation. This makes it very different from many other faith groups. Today, the majority of Unitarian Universalists don't identify themselves as Christians.[5] Jesus and the Bible are generally treated as exceptional sources of inspiration, along with the holy people and traditions around the world. Unitarian Universalists base their community on a set of Principles and Purposes rather than on a prophet or creed. Notable Unitarian Universalists include Tim Berners-Lee (founder of the world wide web), Pete Seeger, congressman Pete Stark, 2008 Presidential candidate Mike Gravel and Christopher Reeve. The flaming chalice is the universally recognized symbol for Unitarian Universalism. ... The flaming chalice is the universally recognized symbol for Unitarian Universalism. ... Sir Tim Berners-Lee Sir Tim (Timothy John) Berners-Lee, KBE (TimBL or TBL) (b. ... Peter Seeger (born May 3, 1919), almost universally known as Pete Seeger, is a folk singer, political activist, and author. ... Stark delivers his response to President George W. Bushs 2005 State of the Union address. ... Maurice Robert Mike Gravel (IPA: ) (born May 13, 1930), is a former Democratic United States Senator from Alaska for two terms, from 1969 to 1981. ... Christopher DOlier Reeve[1] (September 25, 1952 – October 10, 2004) was an American actor, director, producer and writer. ...


The decline of Unitarian theology in the Unitarian churches in the United States has prompted several revival movements. Unitarian Christians within the Unitarian Universalist Association formed, in 1945, a fellowship just for Christians, who were gradually becoming a minority. Thus the the Unitarian Universalist Christian Fellowship was formed. Similarly, the American Unitarian Conference (AUC) was founded in 2000. Its mission is "renewal of the historic Unitarian faith". It promotes a set of God-centered religious principles, but like Unitarian Universalism, it does not impose a creed on its members. The American Unitarian Conference (AUC) was founded in 2000 by several Unitarian Universalists who thought that the Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA) was too liberal, both theologically and politically. ...


Unitarians in America, because of the developments with the Unitarian churches, have generally taken one of three courses of action to find communities in which to worship God. Some have stayed within the Unitarian churches, accepting the non-Christian nature of their congregation, but have found their needs met in the UU Christian Fellowship. Some Unitarians, because they felt that the mainstream UUA churches are not accepting of Christians, or that the larger Unitarian-Universalist organizations are becoming too political and liberal to be considered a religious movement or faith, have decided to affiliate with the American Unitarian Conference. The vast majority of Unitarians have sought out liberal Christian churches in other denominations and have made homes there.[6] Look up liberal on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Liberal may refer to: Politics: Liberalism American liberalism, a political trend in the USA Political progressivism, a political ideology that is for change, often associated with liberal movements Liberty, the condition of being free from control or restrictions Liberal Party, members of... The American Unitarian Conference (AUC) was founded in 2000 by several Unitarian Universalists who thought that the Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA) was too liberal, both theologically and politically. ...


Canada

Unitarianism arrived in Canada from Iceland and Britain. Some Canadian congregations had services in Icelandic into living memory. The first Unitarian service in Canada was held in 1832 by a minister from England, Rev, David Hughes, in a school owned by the Workman family, who were Unitarians from Belfast. The Montreal congregation, founded in 1842, called their first permanent minister, the Rev. John Cordner, of the Remonstrant Synod of Ulster; he arrived in 1843 and served as their minister for thirty-six years. A few years later, a congregation in Toronto was founded whose first minister, William Adam, was a Scottish Baptist missionary who had served in India. Congregations formed in Ottawa and Hamilton in the late 19th century and continued westward. In 1891 the First Icelandic Unitarian Church was formed in Winnipeg. Congregations in Vancouver (1909) and Victoria (1910) followed. Individual Canadian congregations had ties to the British association until they were disrupted by World War II, when relations to Unitarians in the United States became stronger.


Universalism found its way to Canada during the 1800s, for the most part, though not entirely, brought by settlers from the United States. The Universalist concepts of universal salvation, a loving and forgiving God, and the brother/sisterhood of all people, were welcomed by those for whom the partialist view or predestination were no longer acceptable. Universalist congregations formed, with the exception of the congregation in Halifax, mostly in rural towns and villages in lower Quebec and the Maritimes, and in southern Ontario. Universalism in Canada followed a corresponding decline as in the United States, and today the three remaining congregations at Olinda in Ontario, North Hatley in Quebec, and Halifax, Nova Scotia have since the 1960s been part of the Canadian Unitarian Council.


The Canadian Unitarian Council (CUC) was formed in advance (1960) of the Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA) in the United States, but the two functioned in close association until money exchange and other complications led to greater independence, with the CUC assuming the direct delivery of services to Canadian congregations formerly extended by the UUA in Boston, Massachusetts. The two organizations continue collaboration in the credentialling of ministers, and in youth/young adult programs and services.


The Unitarian Service Committee, established during World War II as an overseas emergency relief agency, began under the capable direction of Dr. Lotta Hitschmanova and initially supported largely by Unitarians, now continues as a separate agency, drawing support throughout Canada for its humanitarian work in many parts of the world. Lotta Hitschmanova (November 28, 1909 - August 1, 1990) was a Canadian humanitarian and the founder, in 1945, of the Unitarian Service Committee of Canada, an organization which was involved in the relief and reconstruction activities in war-ravaged Europe. ...


The first ordination of a Canadian Unitarian minister after the organizational separation of the CUC and the UUA was held at the First Unitarian Church of Victoria, British Columbia, in 2002. Rev. Brian Kiely, who was to give the ordination sermon, was told (partly in jest) he must define Canadian Unitarianism, as Rev. Channing had at that New England ordination sermon of 1819. The simile Rev. Kiely chose was that Canadian Unitarianism is like a doughnut, the richness is in the circle of fellowship, not a creedal centre.


Germany

There are currently four unaffiliated groups of Unitarians in Germany:

  • The Unitarische Freie Religionsgemeinde (Unitarian Free Religious Community, then called German Catholics) was founded in 1845 in Frankfurt am Main.[7]
  • The Religionsgemeinschaft Freier Protestanten ("Religious Community of Free Protestants") was formed in 1876 in Germany's Rheinhessen region. in 1911 their newspaper took on the subtitle "deutsch-unitarische Blätter" ("German Unitarian Gazette") as leader Rudolf Walbaum wanted to connect to American Unitarians. In 1950 the Free Protestants changed their name to Deutsche Unitarier Religionsgemeinschaft ("German Unitarian Religious Community"). It is the only Unitarian group in Germany to belong to the ICUU
  • The Unitarische Kirche in Berlin (Unitarian Church in Berlin) was founded by Hansgeorg Remus in 1948.[8]
  • The Unitarian Universalist Fellowship of Frankfurt is an international, English-speaking liberal religious community serving the Rhein-Main area.[9] It is part of the European Unitarian Universalists.

Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hessen and the fifth largest city of Germany. ... Rheinhessen (in English: Rhenish Hesse) refers to the part of the former Grand Duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt located west of the Rhine river and now part of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA), in full the Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations in North America, is a liberal religious denomination formed by the merger in 1961 of the American Unitarian Association and the Universalist Church in America. ... Deutsche Unitarier Religionsgemeinschaft (German Unitarian Religious Community) was founded in was formed in 1876 in Germanys Rheinhessen region under the name Religionsgemeinschaft Freier Protestanten (Religious Community of Free Protestants). In 1911 their newspaper took on the subtitle deutsch-unitarische Blätter (German Unitarian Gazette) because leader Rudolf Walbaum wanted... The International Council of Unitarians and Universalists (ICUU) is a world council bringing together Unitarians, Universalists and Unitarian Universalists. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The European Unitarian Universalists (EUU) is a network of English-speaking Unitarian Universalist fellowships and individuals in Western Continental Europe. ...

Denmark

In 1900 Det fri Kirkesamfund (literally, The Free Congregation) was founded by a group of liberal Christians in Copenhagen. Since 1908, the church is outside the Folkekirke (the Danish Lutheran state church). In Aarhus, another Unitarian congregation was founded at this time by the Norwegian Unitarian pastor and writer Kristofer Janson (18411917); it has since closed. Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Unitarisk Kirkesamfund is the Danish Unitarian Church, founded in 1900 as Det fri Kirkesamfund (literally, The Free Congregation) by a group of liberal Christians. ... Copenhagen (IPA: or ; Danish: IPA: ) is the capital of Denmark and the countrys largest city. ... Church in Holte The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Denmark (the church of Denmark or the peoples church of Denmark) (Danish:Den Danske Folkekirke) is a state church and is the largest Christian church in Denmark. ... For the meteorite Aarhus, see Meteorite falls. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ...


Sweden

Inspired by the writings of Theodore Parker the Swedish writer Klas Pontus Arnoldson founded in Gothenburg in 1871 the Unitarian association Sanningssökarna (“The Truth Seekers”) – later also found in Stockholm. This association also published the periodical Sanningsökaren (“The Truth Seeker”). Two other Unitarian associations were founded in 1882 (one of them in Stockholm). In 1888 Unitarians asked the Swedish King for permission to establish yet another Unitarian association in Gothenburg but was turned down because Unitarianism was not regarded as a Christian religion. Later many Unitarians turned to theosophy. In 1974 members of The Religion and Culture Association in Malmö founded The Free Church of Sweden and Rev. Ragnar Emilsen (ordained 1987 to Unitarian minister for Sweden and Finland) would be its pastor. In 1999 the church changed its name to The Unitarian Church in Sweden. Theodore Parker (August 24, 1810 - May 10, 1860) was a reforming American minister of the Unitarian church, and a Transcendentalist. ... Categories: Stub | 1844 births | 1916 deaths | Nobel Peace Prize winners | Swedish politicians ... Location of Gothenburg in northern Europe Coordinates: Country Sweden County Västra Götaland County Province Västergötland Charter 1621 Government  - Mayor Göran Johansson Area  - City 450 km²  (174 sq mi)  - Water 14. ... Nickname: Location of Stockholm in northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Sweden Municipality Stockholm Municipality County Stockholm Province Södermanland and Uppland Charter 13th century Government  - Mayor Kristina Axén Olin (m) Population (March 2007)  - City 786,509  - Density 4,160/km² (10,774. ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Location of Stockholm in northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Sweden Municipality Stockholm Municipality County Stockholm Province Södermanland and Uppland Charter 13th century Government  - Mayor Kristina Axén Olin (m) Population (March 2007)  - City 786,509  - Density 4,160/km² (10,774. ... Motto: FrÃ¥n arbetarstad till kunskapsstad (eng: From industrial city to knowledge city) Location of Malmö in northern Europe Coordinates: , Country  Sweden Municipality Malmö Municipality County SkÃ¥ne County Province Scania (SkÃ¥ne) Charter 13th century Government  - Mayor Illmar Reepalu Area  - City 335. ...


Norway

In 1892 and 1893 the Norwegian Unitarian ministers Hans Tambs Lyche and Kristofer Janson returned from America and at once started independently of each other to introduce Unitarianism. In 1894 Tambs Lyche failed to organize a Unitarian Church in Oslo (then Kristiania) but managed to publish Norway’s first Unitarian periodical (Free Words). In January 1895 Kristofer Janson founded The Church of Brotherhood in Oslo which was to be the first Unitarian church – where he stayed as the congregation’s pastor only for 3 years. In 1904 Herman Haugerud was to return to Norway from America and to become the last Unitarian pastor to The Unitarian Society (which The Church of Brotherhood now was renamed). Pastor Haugerud died in 1937 and the Unitarian church ceased to exist shortly thereafter. Between 1986 and 2003 different Unitarian groups were active in Oslo. In 2004 these merged into The Unitarian Association which registered as religious society according to Norwegian law on April 20 2005 under the name The Unitarian Association (The Norwegian Unitarian Church). Later “Bét Dávid” has been added to the name: The Bét Dávid Unitarian Association (The Norwegian Unitarian Church).[10] The church is akin to both Transylvanian Unitarianism and Judaism. In 2006 this church was associated with the International Council of Unitarians and Universalists (ICUU). Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... County District Østlandet Municipality NO-0301 Administrative centre Oslo Mayor (2004) Per Ditlev-Simonsen (H) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 224 454 km² 426 km² 0. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Transylvania (Romanian: Transilvania or Ardeal, Hungarian: Erdély, German: Siebenbürgen, Serbian: Transilvanija, Turkish: Erdel, Slovak: Sedmohradsko, Polish: Siedmiogród) is a historic region that forms the western and the central parts of Romania. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The International Council of Unitarians and Universalists (ICUU) is a world council bringing together Unitarians, Universalists and Unitarian Universalists. ...


Spain

See Unitarian Universalist Religious Society of Spain. The Unitarian Universalist Religious Society of Spain (Sociedad religiosa Unitaria Universalista de España, aka known by the acronym SUUE) is the organizing body for Unitarian Universalism in Spain. ...


Principles of faith of Unitarian Christians

Today's conservative (Biblical or evangelical) unitarian Christians generally hold similar beliefs to most other evangelical Christians, apart from their rejection of the Trinity doctrine.


Today's liberal Unitarian Christians, who more commonly go by the name "Unitarian Christian" than conservative unitarians do, generally do not believe in the Virgin Birth, the deity of Christ, or Biblical inerrancy. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Biblical inerrancy is the doctrinal position...


They do not have a creed or formal statements of faith that must be believed in its entirety or used as a test of character in order to be accepted into fellowship with other Unitarian Christians. However, they have set out some basic principles that distinguish their faith from other Christian groups.


Although there is no specific authority on these principles, the following represent the most generally accepted:

  • the belief in One God and the oneness or unity of God.
  • the life and teachings of Jesus Christ is the exemplar model for living ones' own life.
  • that reason, rational thought, science, and philosophy together with religion and faith are not mutually exclusive.
  • that man has the ability to exercise free will in a responsible, constructive and ethical manner with the assistance of religion.
  • the belief that human nature in its present condition is neither inherently corrupt nor depraved, but capable of both good and evil, as God intended.
  • the conviction that no religion can claim an absolute monopoly on the Holy Spirit or theological truth.
  • the belief that the works of the Bible are inspired by God, but were written and edited by humans and therefore subject to human error.
  • the rejection of traditional doctrines that they believe malign God's character or veil the true nature and mission of Jesus Christ, such as the doctrine of predestination, eternal damnation, the Trinity, and the vicarious sacrifice or satisfaction theory of the Atonement.

Most Unitarian Christians would say that Jesus of Nazareth and his followers and disciples would today be defined as Unitarian Christians, and that Unitarian Christianity is the form of Christianity most closely following the direct teachings of Jesus. However, Unitarian Christians respect the beliefs of others and do not believe that the Unitarian Christian way is the only way to follow God's will. Oneness is a spiritual term referring to the experience of the absence of egoic identity boundaries, and, according to some traditions, the realization of the awareness of the absolute interconnectedness of all matter and thought in space-time, or ones ultimate identity with God (see Tat Tvam Asi). ... In logic, two mutually exclusive (or mutual exclusive according to some sources) propositions are propositions that logically cannot both be true. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... For other uses, see Human nature (disambiguation). ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... Doctrine, from Latin doctrina, (compare doctor), means a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system. ... Predestination and foreordination are religious concepts, under which the relationship between the beginning of things and the destiny of things is discussed. ... This article or section contains too many quotations for an encyclopedic entry. ... For other uses, see Atonement (disambiguation). ... In Christianity, the disciples were the students of Jesus during his ministry. ...


Unitarian Christians believe Jesus did not claim to be God nor did his teachings hint at his divinity or the existence of a triune God. Unitarian Christians generally do not believe that Jesus was conceived in the womb of a virgin or performed miracles to the extent reported in the Gospels. Unitarian Christians give the most weight regarding the accounts of Jesus, his character, and his life to the four canonical Gospels (Mark, Mathew, Luke, and John). Most also accept other sources of information about Jesus including newly discovered Gospels that were not included in the original canon of the Bible (e.g. Nag Hammadi Library). An epithet applied to God, most often by Christians, to express the unity of the Christian Godhead in a trinity of persons, literally meaning three-in-one God. ... A miracle, derived from the old Latin word miraculum meaning something wonderful, is a striking interposition of divine intervention by God in the universe by which the ordinary course and operation of Nature is overruled, suspended, or modified. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... Canonical is an adjective derived from canon. ... The Nag Hammadi library is a collection of early Christian Gnostic texts discovered near the Egyptian town of Nag Hammadi in 1945. ...


Unitarian Christians reject the doctrine of some Christian denominations that God chooses to redeem or save only those certain individuals that accept the creeds of, or affiliate with a specific Church or religion, from a common ruin or corruption of the mass of humanity. They generally do not believe that God merely demands belief in certain principles of faith and that no good works in life are required to be morally righteous. For other uses of the word, see Redemption Redemption is a religious concept referring to forgiveness or absolution for past sins and protection from eternal damnation. ...


Most Unitarian Christians believe that the mixing of political activism and religious fellowship is not an acceptable practice. Unitarian Christians believe that one's personal moral convictions will guide their political activities and a secular society is the most viable, just, and fair society. Activism, in a general sense, can be described as involvement in action to bring about change, be it social, political, environmental, or other change. ...


Ecclesiology

When Unitarianism developed in the 1600s during the Protestant era of the evolution of the Christian church with strongholds in Eastern Europe and eventually Britain and the North Eastern parts of the United States, it was firmly in the congregational tradition. Each church governed itself independently of a hierarchical authority. These small congregations did belong, however, to more formal associations of churches. The American Unitarian Association, formed in 1825, was one of these. Later in America, in 1961 the American Unitarian Association and the Universalist Church of America merged to form the Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA), which is the largest organization of Unitarians in the US. The UUA no longer is an explicitly Christian organization and does not focus on the core teachings of Jesus Christ or Christianity. Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... A congregation is the group of members who make up a local Christian church, Jewish synagogue, Mosque or other religious assembly. ... Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA), in full the Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations in North America, is a liberal religious denomination formed by the merger in 1961 of the American Unitarian Association and the Universalist Church in America. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA), in full the Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations in North America, is a liberal religious association of Unitarian Universalist congregations formed by the consolidation in 1961 of the American Unitarian Association and the Universalist Church of America. ...


Several Unitarian organizations still promote Christianity as their central theme including the Unitarian Universalist Christian Fellowship (UUCF, an affiliate of the UUA), the General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches (GAUFCC) of the United Kingdom, and the Unitarian Christian Association (UCA, an affiliate of the GAUFCC). The General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches is the umbrella organisation for Unitarian, Free Christian and other liberal religious congregations in the United Kingdom. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


In the US, the newest organization promoting a return to the theistic roots of Unitarianism is the American Unitarian Conference (AUC), formed in 2000. The AUC's stated goal is to formulate and promote classical Unitarian-based, unifying religious convictions, which balance the needs of members with a practical approach to inclusion and progressive free thought. The American Unitarian Conference (AUC) was founded in 2000 by several Unitarian Universalists who thought that the Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA) was too liberal, both theologically and politically. ...


Impact and opposition

The adoption of unitarian belief almost always entails severance of identification with Christianity as it is understood by the Nicene-Chalcedonian churches (Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and most Protestants). Unitarianism is outside of the fellowship of these traditions; it has a tradition of its own, parallel to trinitarianism. Catholics, Orthodox and Protestants of various stripes insist on trinitarian belief as an essential of Christianity, and basic to a group's continuity of identity with the historical Christian faith.


Occasionally, especially in Protestant history, traditionally trinitarian groups grow friendly to or incorporate unitarianism. Friendliness toward unitarianism has sometimes gone hand-in-hand with anti-Catholicism. In some cases non-trinitarian or unitarian belief has been adopted by some, and tolerated in Christian churches as a "non-essential". This was the case in the English Presbyterian Church, and in the Congregational Church in New England late in the 18th century. The Restoration Movement also attempted to forge a compatible relation between trinitarians and unitarians, as did the Seventh Day Baptists and various Adventists. The unitarian tendency in these last-mentioned groups is probably due to the in-built skepticism about Catholic history as a reliable guide to the Christian tradition of interpretation. Anti-Catholicism is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Catholics or the Catholic Church. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about the Stone... Seventh Day Baptists are Christian Baptists who observe the Sabbath on Saturday, the seventh day of the week. ... The term Adventist generally refers to someone who believes in the Second Advent of Jesus (popularly known as the Second coming) in the tradition of the Millerites. ...


In other cases, this openness to unitarianism within traditionally trinitarian churches has been inspired by a very broad ecumenical motive. Modern liberal Protestant denominations are often accused by trinitarians within their ranks, and critics outside, of being indifferent to the doctrine, and therefore self-isolated from their respective trinitarian pasts and heritage. In some cases, it is charged that these trinitarian denominations are no longer Christian, because of their toleration of unitarian belief among their teachers, and in their seminaries.


See also

The flaming chalice is the universally recognized symbol for Unitarian Universalism. ... The American Unitarian Conference (AUC) was founded in 2000 by several Unitarian Universalists who thought that the Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA) was too liberal, both theologically and politically. ... The International Council of Unitarians and Universalists (ICUU) is a world council bringing together Unitarians, Universalists and Unitarian Universalists. ... The General Assembly of Unitarian and Free Christian Churches is the umbrella organisation for Unitarian, Free Christian and other liberal religious congregations in the United Kingdom. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Nontrinitarianism refers to Christian... Adoptionism is a minority Christian belief that Jesus was born merely human and that he became divine later in his life. ... Arian Catholicism is an ideological and theological tradition in Christianity it teaches to be true Catholic Christianity. ... Arius (AD/CE 256 - 336, poss. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... In 4th century Christianity, the AnomÅ“ans, also known as Anomeans, Heterousians, Aetians, or Eunomians, were a sect of Arians who asserted that Jesus Christ (the Son) was of a different nature and in no way like to that of God (the Father). ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... In theology, the doctrine of divine simplicity says that God is without parts. ... Polish Brethren (also called Antitrinitians, Arians, or Socinians) was the name of a Christian Polish sect from the 16th century. ... The history of philosophy in Poland parallels the evolution of philosophy in Europe generally. ... The phrase non-Trinitarian churches is sometimes used to refer to a number of New religious movements (NRMs) grounded in Christianity, which parallel each other in non-belief in the Trinity and also a certain aloofness from other Christian denominations, due to a degree of mutual distrust. ... For discussion of the messiah in Judaism, see Jewish messianism and Jewish messianic claimants. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ See the results of a recent poll on theological self-identity among UUs in the Engaging Our Theological Diversity report, pp. 70–72.
  2. ^ "‘If,’ said he, ‘the Father begat the Son, he that was begotten had a beginning of existence: and from this it is evident, that there was a time when the Son was not. It therefore necessarily follows, that he had his substance from nothing.’" (Socrates Scholasticus, Ecclesiastical History I:5). Arius later toned down his statements in order to be restored to communion and said that Christ was begotten simply "before the ages" (Socrates Scholasticus, Ecclesiastical History I:26).
  3. ^ See Stanislas Kot, "L'influence de Servet sur le mouvement atitrinitarien en Pologne et en Transylvanie", in B. Becker (Ed.), Autour de Michel Servet et de Sebastien Castellion, Haarlem, 1953.
  4. ^ See James Glick's biography Isaac Newton.
  5. ^ See the results of a recent poll on theological self-identity among UUs in the Engaging Our Theological Diversity report, pp. 70–72.
  6. ^ According to a 2002 survey by the Barna Group (www.barna.org), only 77% of Christians in the United States believe God is one being in three separate and equal persons—God the Father, Jesus Christ the Son and the Holy Spirit. (This section of the survey is unpublished, but will be verified by the Barna Group upon request.)
  7. ^ http://www.unitarier.net/
  8. ^ http://www.unitarische-kirche-berlin.de
  9. ^ http://www.uufrankfurt.de/
  10. ^ http://english.unitarforbundet.org/

Bibliography

  • Joseph Henry Allen, Our Liberal Movement in Theology (Boston, 1882)
  • Joseph Henry Allen, Sequel to our Liberal Movement (Boston, 1897)
  • Anthony F. Buzzard and Charles F. Hunting, The Doctrine of the Trinity: Christianity's Self-Inflicted Wound (Lanham, Maryland, 1998) ISBN 1-57309-309-2.
  • John White Chadwick, Old and New Unitarian Belief (Boston, 1894).
  • William Ellery Channing (1903).
  • Unitarianism: its Origin and history, a course of Sixteen Lectures (Boston, 1895).
  • George Willis Cooke, Unitarianism in America: a History of its Origin and Development (Boston, 1902).
  • Patrick Navas, Divine Truth or Human Tradition: A Reconsideration of the Roman Catholic-Protestant Doctrine of the Trinity in Light of the Hebrew and Christian Scriptures (Bloomington, Indiana 2007). ISBN 1-4259-4832-4.
  • Unitarian Year Book (Boston).
  • Earl Morse Wilbur, A History of Unitarianism: Socinianism and Its Antecedents, Harvard University Press, 1945.
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

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The following religious groups are often confused for one another:


Unification Church | Unity Church | Universal Life Church | Unitarian Universalist Association | Canadian Unitarian Council The Unification Church is a new religious movement started by Sun Myung Moon in Korea in the 1940s. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Unity Church or Unity... The Universal Life Church (or ULC) is a religious organization that offers anyone immediate ordination as a ULC minister free of charge. ... Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA), in full the Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations in North America, is a liberal religious association of Unitarian Universalist congregations formed by the consolidation in 1961 of the American Unitarian Association and the Universalist Church of America. ... The Canadian Unitarian Council (CUC) is the national body for Unitarian Universalists in Canada. ...


United and uniting churches: Churches Uniting in Christ | United Church of Canada |
United Church of Christ | United Methodist Church | United Free Church of Scotland | United Reformed Church | Uniting Church in Australia United and uniting churches are churches that bring together (or unite) different (predominantly) Protestant denominations in one organisation. ... Churches Uniting in Christ (CUIC) brings together nine mainline American denominations (including both predominantly white and predominantly black churches), and was inaugurated on January 20, 2002. ... The United Church of Canada (French: lÉglise Unie du Canada) is Canadas second largest church (after the Roman Catholic Church), and its largest Protestant denomination. ... Disambiguation: This article is about the United States denomination known as United Church of Christ. ... The United Methodist Church is the largest Methodist denomination. ... The United Free Church of Scotland (or ‘U.F. Church’) is a Scottish Presbyterian denomination formed in 1900 by the union of the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland (or U.P.) and the Free Church of Scotland, which in turn united with the Church of Scotland in 1929. ... Logo of The United Reformed Church The United Reformed Church (URC) is a Christian denomination (church) in the United Kingdom. ... Logo of the UCA The Uniting Church in Australia (UCA) was formed on June 22, 1977 when the Methodist Church of Australasia, Presbyterian Church of Australia and Congregational Union of Australia came together under the Basis of Union document. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Unitarianism - Encyclopedia.com (762 words)
Unitarianism in general, the form of Christianity that denies the doctrine of the Trinity, believing that God exists only in one person.
Unitarianism became a religion of reason under the leadership of James Martineau in England and Ralph Waldo Emerson and Theodore Parker in the United States.
The final separation from Congregationalism was hastened by the choice of Henry Ware (1764-1845), a liberal, as Hollis Professor of Divinity at Harvard in 1805 and by the ordination sermon defending the liberals preached (1819) by William Ellery Channing in Baltimore.
Unitarianism - definition of Unitarianism in Encyclopedia (4364 words)
Unitarians can be more generally characterized through the ages as free thinkers and dissenters, evolving their beliefs in the direction of freedom, tolerance, rationalism and humanism.
Unitarians trace their history back to the Apostolic age, claim for their doctrine a prevalence during the ante-Nicene period, and by help of Arian communities and individual thinkers trace a continuity of their views to the present time.
Unitarianism in the United States followed essentially the same development as in England, and passed through the stages of Arminianism, Arianism, anti-tritheism, to rationalism and a modernism based on a large-minded acceptance of the results of the comparative study of all religions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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