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Encyclopedia > Unit 731
Body disposal at Unit 731

Unit 731 was a covert biological warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) and World War II. It was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried out by Japanese personnel. Officially known by the Imperial Japanese Army as the Kempeitai Political Department and Epidemic Prevention Research Laboratory, it was initially set up as a political and ideological section of the Kempeitai military police of pre-Pacific War Japan. It was meant to counter the ideological or political influence of enemies, and to reinforce the ideology of military units. body disposal at Unit 731 This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 50 years. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Imperial Japanese Army units were covert medical experiment units of the Imperial Japanese Army which researched biological warfare through human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937 - 1945) and World War II. Imperial Japanese Army units was responsible for some of the most notorious war crimes carried out by... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... During the Second World War, Japanese soldiers have carried out human exprimentations on the Chinese on different parts of the conquered lands. ... Combatants China United States1 Soviet Union2 Japan Manchukuo3 Mengjiang3 Wang Jingwei Government 3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Albert Wedemeyer, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... The Kempeitai (憲兵隊, Corps of Law Soldiers) was the military police arm of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1881 to 1945. ... The Singapore Armed Forces Military Police Command providing security coverage at the Padang in Singapore during the National Day Parade in 2000. ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Description

The unit was disguised as a water purification unit (according to a recent documentary on 'the History Channel' the unit was disguised as a lumber factory) and was based in the Pingfang district of the northeast Chinese city of Harbin, part of the puppet state of Manchukuo. It worked through Japanese political propaganda and as an ideological representative of the Imperial Japanese Army's Kodoha (Imperial way faction, or war party). In the first phase, this section worked against communist propaganda, but extended its responsibilities in other directions, at home and overseas. Pingfang (Chinese: 平房), today a district in the outskirts of Harbin, China (in the 1930s and 1940s a part of the Japanese puppet state Manchukuo), Pingfang was the headquarters of the Japanese Biological Warfare Unit 731 during the Japanese invasion of China and World War II. It had an airport, railway... Harbin on a map of China For other meanings of Harbin, see Harbin (disambiguation). ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun), or more officially Army of the Greater Japanese Empire was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... The Imperial Way Faction (Kodoha) was a right-wing nationalist Japanese political grouping, active in the 1930s. ...


Unit 731 promoted the belief in Japanese racial superiority, racialist theories, counterespionage, intelligence, political sabotage and infiltration of enemy lines. It also liaised with the Manchukuo military police, the Manchu intelligence service, regular Manchu police, Manchu Residents committees, local Nationalist Manchu Parties, and the Japanese Secret Service detachment in Manchukuo. Its section in Manchukuo used some agents from White Russian, Chinese, Manchu, Mongol and other foreign backgrounds for special services, or covert actions at home and abroad. Supremacism is the belief that ones race or religion is the supreme, and that those of other distinctions are (by various arbitrary criteria) unfit for social or religious interaction, and sexual reproduction. ... Hitlers Nazi Germany: the epitome of 20th-century racialism Racialism is a term used to describe racial policy, in what is generally perceived to be a negative sense, as promoting stratification and inequality between racial categories (in themselves, often disputed). ... Espionage operations intended to identify enemy spies. ... The term White Russian may refer to: Members of the White movement whose military arm is known as the White Army or White Guard comprised some of the Russian forces, both political and military, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution and fought against the Red Army during the...


As many as ten thousand people, both civilian and military, of Chinese, Korean, Mongolian, and Russian origin were subjects of the experimentation conducted by Unit 731.[1] Some American and European Allied prisoners of war also died at the hands of Unit 731.[2] In addition, the use of biological weapons researched in Unit 731's bioweapons program resulted in tens of thousands of deaths in China – possibly as many as 200,000 casualties by some estimates.[3] This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


Unit 731 was one of many units used by the Japanese to research biological warfare; other units included Unit 516 (Qiqihar), Unit 543 (Hailar), Unit 773 (Songo unit), Unit 100 (Changchun), Unit 1644 (Nanjing), Unit 1855 (Beijing), Unit 8604 (Guangzhou), Unit 200 (Manchuria) and Unit 9420 (Singapore). Unit 516 was a top secret Japanese chemical weapons facility, operated by the Kempeitai, in Qiqihar (齊齊哈爾), China. ... Qiqihar ( Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Manchu: Cicigar hoton) is a major city in the Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China and has 895,000 inhabitants. ... Unit 543 was a secret Imperial Japanese Army facility that focused on the development of biological weapons during World War II. It was operated by the Kempeitai, the Japanese military police. ... Hailar (海拉尔; Pinyin: Hǎilāěr) is a city and administrative district in Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia, Peoples Republic of China. ... Unit 773 was a secret Imperial Japanese Army facility that focused on the development of biological weapons during World War II. It was operated by the Kempeitai, the Japanese military police. ... Unit 100 was a secret Imperial Japanese Army facility that focused on the development of chemical weapons during World War II. It was operated by the Kempeitai, the Japanese military police. ... Changchun (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the capital and largest city of Jilin province, located at the northeast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Unit Ei 1644, also known as Unit 1644 was a medical research unit of the Japanese Imperial Army based in Nanjing, China. ... “Nanking” redirects here. ... Unit 1855 was a secret Imperial Japanese Army facility that focused on the development of biological weapons during World War II. It was operated by the Kempeitai, the Japanese military police. ... “Peking” redirects here. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Unit 200 was a secret military medical unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that researched biological warfare and other topics through human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War(1937-1945) and World War II era. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Unit 9420 or Oka Unit was formed in 1942 in Singapore by Naito Ryoichi. ...


Many of the scientists involved in Unit 731 went on to prominent careers in politics, academia, business, and medicine. Some were arrested by Soviet forces and tried at the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials; others, who surrendered to the Americans, were granted amnesty in exchange for access to the data collected by them.[4] The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Academia is a collective term for the scientific and cultural community engaged in higher education and research, taken as a whole. ... In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... Khabarovsk War Crime Trials - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Because of their brutality, Unit 731's actions have now been declared by the United Nations to be war crimes. In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...


Formation

In 1932, General Shiro Ishii was placed in command of the Army Epidemic Prevention Research Laboratory. He and his men built the Zhong Ma Prison Camp (whose main building was known locally as the Zhongma Fortress), a prison/experimentation camp in Beiyinhe, a village 100 kilometers south of Harbin. Manchu railway lines were set up for transport of materials and equipment. Ishii organized the secret research group "Togo Unit" for the conduct of chemical and biological investigations. In 1935, a jailbreak, and later, an explosion (believed to be an attack) forced Ishii to shut down Zhongma Fortress. He later moved to Pingfang, approximately 24 kilometers south of Harbin, to set up a new and much larger facility.[5] Shiro Ishii Microbiologist Shiro Ishii (石井四郎 Ishii Shirō, June 25, 1892-1959) was the Lieutenant General of Unit 731, a biological-warfare unit of the Imperial Japanese Army during the Sino-Japanese War. ... Zhongma fortress was a prison fortress built by Ishii Shiro and his men for experimenting in biological warfare. ... Harbin on a map of China For other meanings of Harbin, see Harbin (disambiguation). ...


This unit later was integrated into the Kwantung Army as the Epidemic Prevention Department, but was divided at the same time into the "Ishii Unit" and "Wakamatsu Unit" with a base in Hsinking. From 1941 on all these units were known collectively as the "Epidemic Prevention and Water Purification Department of the Kwantung Army", or "Unit 731" for short. They had support from the Imperial Young Corps, Japanese university research, and the Kempeitai. Some sources[Who said this?] even link them with the Mitsui zaibatsu monopoly on poppy farming in Manchukuo (for production of heroin). The Kwantung Army or Guandong Army (関東軍 Japanese: Kantōgun) was a unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that originated from a Guandong garrison established in 1906 to defend the Kwantung Leased Territory and the areas adjacent to the South Manchurian Railway. ... Location within China Changchun (Simplified Chinese: 长春; Traditional Chinese: 長春; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chang-chun) is the capital of the Jilin province in northeastern China. ... The Imperial Young Corps was the élite para-military unit of pre-war Japans Imperial Young Federation. ... The Kempeitai (憲兵隊, Corps of Law Soldiers) was the military police arm of the Imperial Japanese Army from 1881 to 1945. ... Mitsui (三井) is one of the largest corporate conglomerates (Keiretsu) in Japan and one of the largest publicly traded companies in the world. ... For other uses, see Heroin (disambiguation). ...


Activities

Weapons of mass destruction
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Biological warfare
Chemical warfare
Nuclear weapons
Radiological weapons For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... Image File history File links WMD_world_map. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... A radiological weapon (or radiological dispersion device, RDD) is any weapon that is designed to spread radioactive material with the intent to kill, and cause disruption upon a city or nation. ...

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A special project code-named 'Maruta' used human beings for experiments. Test subjects were gathered from the surrounding population and were sometimes referred to euphemistically as "logs" (maruta, 丸太).[6] This term originated as a 'joke' on the part of the staff due to the fact that the official cover story for the facility given to the local authorities was that it was a lumber mill. The test subjects included infants, the elderly and pregnant women. Many experiments and vivisection were performed without the use of anesthetics because it was believed that it might affect the results, or that it was unnecessary because the subjects were tied down.[6] Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ...


Vivisection

  • Prisoners of war were subjected to vivisection without anesthesia[7][6]
  • Vivisections were performed on prisoners infected with various diseases. Scientists performed invasive surgery on prisoners, removing organs to study the effects of disease on the human body. These were conducted while the patients were alive because it was felt that the decomposition process would affect the results.[8][6] The infected and vivisected prisoners included men, women, children and infants.[9]
  • Vivisections were also performed on pregnant women, sometimes impregnated by doctors, and the fetus removed.[10]
  • Prisoners had limbs amputated in order to study blood loss.
  • Those limbs that were removed were sometimes re-attached to the opposite sides of the body.
  • Some prisoners' limbs were frozen and amputated, while others had limbs frozen then thawed to study the effects of the resultant untreated gangrene and rotting.
  • Some prisoners had their stomachs surgically removed and the esophagus reattached to the intestines.
  • Parts of the brain, lungs, liver, etc. were removed from some prisoners.[11][7][6]

Etymologically, Vivisection refers to the dissection of, or any cutting or surgery upon, a living organism. ... Etymologically, Vivisection refers to the dissection of, or any cutting or surgery upon, a living organism. ... Partial hand amputation Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma or surgery. ... Look up Limb in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/Å“sophagus, Greek ), or gullet is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... The intestine is the portion of the alimentary canal extending from the stomach to the anus and, in humans and other mammals, consists of two segments, the small intestine and the large intestine. ... For other uses, see Brain (disambiguation). ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ...

Weapons testing

  • Human targets were used to test grenades positioned at various distances and in different positions.[6]
  • Flame throwers were tested on humans.[6]
  • Humans were tied to stakes and used as targets to test germ-releasing bombs, chemical weapons and explosive bombs.[6]

Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ... German troops use a flamethrower on the Eastern Front during the Second World War A flamethrower is a mechanical device designed to throw flames or, more correctly, project an ignited stream of liquid. ... For other uses, see Bomb (disambiguation). ...

Germ warfare attacks

  • Prisoners were injected with inoculations of disease, disguised as vaccinations, to study their effects. [6]
  • To study the effects of untreated venereal diseases, male and female prisoners were deliberately infected with syphilis and gonorrhea via rape, then studied.
  • Prisoners were infested with fleas in order to acquire large quantities of disease-carrying fleas for the purposes of studying the viability of germ warfare.
  • Plague fleas, infected clothing, and infected supplies encased in bombs were dropped on various targets. The resulting cholera, anthrax, and plague were estimated to have killed around 400,000 Chinese.[6]
  • Tularemia tested on Chinese civilians Source: CDC.gov
  • Unit 731 and its affiliated units (Unit 1644, Unit 100 etc.) went beyond the 'testing' phase of biological weapons, and actively committed epidemic-creating germ warfare assaults against the Chinese people (both civilians and soldiers) throughout World War II. Plague-infested fleas, bred in the lab facilities of Unit 731 and Unit 1644, were spread by low-flying airplanes over Chinese populated locations, such as the coastal city of Ningbo in 1940, and the city of Changde, Hunan province in 1941. This military aerial spraying resulted in human epidemics of bubonic plague that killed thousands of Chinese civilians.[12]

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by Treponema pallidum. ... Gonorrhea (gonorrhoea in British English) is amongst the most common sexually transmitted diseases in the world and is caused by Gram-negative bacterium Neisseria gonorrheae. ... Ningbo (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ning-po; literally Tranquil Waves) is a seaport sub-provincial city with a population of 1,219,900 in northeastern Zhejiang province, Peoples Republic of China. ... We dont have an article called Changde Start this article Search for Changde in. ... The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. ...

Other experiments

  • Some prisoners were hung upside down to see how long it would take for them to choke to death.[6]
  • Some prisoners had air injected into their arteries to determine the time until the onset of embolism.[6]
  • Some prisoners had horse urine injected into their kidneys.[6]
  • Some prisoners were deprived of food and water to determine the length of time until death.
  • Some prisoners were placed into high pressure chambers until death.
  • Some prisoners were exposed to extreme temperatures and developed frostbite to determine how long humans could survive with such an affliction, and to determine the effects of rotting and gangrene on human flesh.[6]
  • Some experiments were performed to determine the relationship between temperature, burns and human survival.
  • Some prisoners were placed into centrifuges and spun until death.
  • Animal blood was injected into some prisoners and the effects of this studied.
  • Some prisoners had lethal doses of x-ray radiation administered.
  • Gas chambers tested various chemical weapons on some prisoners.
  • Sea water was injected into some prisoners to determine if it could be substituted for saline.

In medicine, an embolism occurs when an object (the embolus, plural emboli) migrates from one part of the body (through circulation) and cause(s) a blockage (occlusion) of a blood vessel in another part of the body. ... This article is about a medical condition. ... A laboratory centrifuge A centrifuge is used for centrifugation. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... In medicine, saline is a solution of sodium chloride (a substance also commonly known as table salt) in sterile water, used frequently for intravenous infusion, rinsing contact lenses, and nasal irrigation (or the yogic practice called jala neti). ...

Biological warfare

Japanese scientists performed tests on prisoners centering around the plague, cholera, smallpox, botulism and other diseases.[13] The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. ... Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Botulism (Latin, botulus, sausage) is a rare, but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin, botulin, that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ...


This research led to the development of the defoliation bacilli bomb and the flea bomb used to spread the bubonic plague.[14] Some of these bombs were designed with ceramic (porcelain) shells, an idea proposed by Shiro Ishii in 1938. The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. ... Fixed Partial Denture, or Bridge The word ceramic is derived from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos). ... “Fine China” redirects here. ...


These bombs enabled Japanese soldiers to launch biological attacks, infecting agriculture, reservoirs, wells and other areas with anthrax, plague-carrying fleas, typhoid, dysentery, cholera and other deadly pathogens. For other uses, see Flea (disambiguation). ... This is about the disease typhoid fever. ... Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is the term for tenesmus (painful straining to pass stool), cramping, and frequent, small-volume severe diarrhea associated with blood in the feces. ... Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ...


In addition to this, infected food supplies and clothing were dropped by planes into areas of China not occupied by Japanese forces. Clothing protects the vulnerable nude human body from the extremes of weather, other features of our environment, and for safety reasons. ...


Unit members

Shiro Ishii Microbiologist Shiro Ishii (石井四郎 Ishii Shirō, June 25, 1892-1959) was the Lieutenant General of Unit 731, a biological-warfare unit of the Imperial Japanese Army during the Sino-Japanese War. ... Yoshio Shinozuka is a former Imperial Army soldier who served with a top secret Japanese biological warfare group called Unit 731 in World War II. He was involved in conducting experiments and vivisections on Chinese captives near the northern Chinese city of Harbin. ...

Divisions

Unit 731 was divided into eight divisions:

  • Division 1: Research on bubonic plague, cholera, anthrax, typhoid, tuberculosis, using live human subjects. For this purpose a prison was constructed to contain around three to four hundred people.
  • Division 2: Research for biological weapons used in the field, in particular the production of devices to spread germs and parasites.
  • Division 3: Production of shells containing biological agents. Stationed in Harbin.
  • Division 4: Production of other miscellaneous agents.
  • Division 5: Training of personnel.
  • Division 6–8: Equipment, medical, and administrative units.

The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. ... Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... This is about the disease typhoid fever. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or TuBerculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...

Facilities

One of the buildings is open to tourists

The Unit 731 complex covered six square kilometers and consisted of more than 150 buildings. The good design of the facilities made them hard to destroy. Some of Unit 731's satellite facilities still remain and are open to tourists. The complex contained various factories. It had around 4,500 containers to be used to raise fleas, six giant cauldrons to produce various chemicals and around 1,800 containers to produce biological agents. Approximately 30 kg of bubonic plague bacteria could be produced in several days. Download high resolution version (900x398, 92 KB)One of the buildings open to tourists. ... Download high resolution version (900x398, 92 KB)One of the buildings open to tourists. ... “Tourist” redirects here. ... Adam had em. ...


Tons of these biological weapons (and some chemicals) were stored in various places in northeastern China throughout the war.


The Japanese attempted to destroy evidence of the facilities after disbanding. In August 2003, 29 people were hospitalized after a construction crew in Heilongjiang inadvertently dug up chemical shells that had been buried deep in the soil more than fifty years before. Heilongjiang (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江省; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江省; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Heilungkiang) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ...


Anta testing site

This site was an open air testing area about 120 km from the Pingfang facility. Pingfang (Chinese: 平房), today a district in the outskirts of Harbin, China (in the 1930s and 1940s a part of the Japanese puppet state Manchukuo), Pingfang was the headquarters of the Japanese Biological Warfare Unit 731 during the Japanese invasion of China and World War II. It had an airport, railway...


Hsinking (Changchung) HQ

Headquarters of "Wakamatsu Unit" (Unit 100), under command of veterinarian Wakamatsu Yujiro. This facility dedicated itself to both the study of animal vaccines to protect Japanese resources, and, especially, veterinary biological-warfare. Diseases were tested for use against the Soviet and Chinese horses and other livestock. In addition to these tests, Unit 100 ran a bacteria factory to produce the pathogens needed by other units. Biological sabotage testing was also handled at this facility: everything from poisons to chemical crop destruction. A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ...


Peking (Peiping) HQ

This HQ served as the headquarters of Unit 1855. It was also an experimental branch unit based at Chinan, Hopei. Plague and other diseases were extensively studied at this facility. Unit 1855 was a secret Imperial Japanese Army facility that focused on the development of biological weapons during World War II. It was operated by the Kempeitai, the Japanese military police. ... ... This article is about large epidemics. ...


Nanking HQ

This section was the headquarters of the "Tama Unit" (Unit Ei-1644) and conducted extensive joint projects and operations with Unit 731.


Kwantung (Canton) HQ

The headquarters of the "Nami Unit" (Unit 8604). This installation conducted human experimentation in food and water deprivation as well as water-borne typhus. In addition, this facility served as the main rat-farm for the medical units to provide them with bubonic plague vectors for experiments. The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. ...


Syonan (Singapore) HQ

Formed in 1942, by Naito Ryoichi, Unit 9420 had approximately 1000 personnel based at the Raffles Medical University. The unit was commanded by Major General Kitagawa Masataka and supported by the Japanese Southern Army Headquarters. Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Unit 9420 or Oka Unit was formed in 1942 in Singapore by Naito Ryoichi. ...


There were two main sub units: the "Kono Unit," which specialized in malaria, and "Umeoka Unit," which dealt with the plague. In addition to disease experiments this facility served as one of the main rat catching and processing centers. Evidence points towards this facility supplying a medical sub-unit operating in Thailand, with diseases for unknown operations and or experiments. Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ...


Hiroshima HQ

A top secret factory in Hiroshima, it produced chemical weapons for the Japanese military and medical units. Starting with mustard gas production in 1928, the factory moved on to such poisons as Yperite, Lewisite, and Cyanogen. During the 1930s, as the war in China grew worse, the island the factory sat on was removed from most maps to strengthen secrecy and security. For other uses, see Hiroshima (disambiguation). ... Airborne exposure limit 0. ... Mustard gas (HD) is a chemical compound that was first used as a chemical weapon in World War I. In pure form, it is a colourless, odourless, viscous liquid at room temperature and causes blistering of the skin. ... Lewisite is a chemical compound from a chemical family called arsines. ... Cyanogen is a chemical compound (CN)2. ...


Manchuria HQ (Unit 200)

This unit was associated directly with Unit 731, and worked mainly in plague research.


Manchuria HQ (Unit 571)

This section, with unknown headquarters, was another unit that worked directly and extensively with Unit 731.


Special Mobile Teams

Special units led by Ishii Shiro's elder brother and only staffed with members from Ishii's home town operated separately from the regular medical organizations as roving researchers and trouble shooters. Ishii Shiro (石井四郎) (1889/1890-1959) was the Lieutenant General of Unit 731 of the Imperial Japanese Army during the Sino-Japanese War. ... Troubleshooting is a form of problem solving. ...


Special Operations units

Units with special and unknown assignments in Manchuria and the Asian mainland. It has been suggested that nuclear research was conducted in Manchuria towards the end of the war by this branch.[citation needed]


Disbanding and the end of World War II

Information sign at the site today
Information sign at the site today

Operations and experiments continued until the end of the war. Shiro Ishii had wanted to use biological weapons in the Pacific conflict since May 1944, but his attempts were repeatedly foiled by poor planning and Allied intervention. With the Russian invasion of Manchukuo and Mengjiang in August 1945, the unit had to abandon their work in haste. The members and their families fled across Manchuria and China to return to Japan. Image File history File links Harbin_Gedenkplakette_Einheit731. ... Image File history File links Harbin_Gedenkplakette_Einheit731. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Ishii ordered every member of the group "to take the secret to the grave," threatening to find them if they failed, and ordering none of them to go into public work back in Japan. Potassium cyanide vials were issued for use in the event that the remaining personnel were captured. Potassium cyanide or KCN is the potassium salt of hydrogen cyanide or hydrocyanic acid. ...


Skeleton crews of Ishii’s Japanese troops blew the compound up in the final days of the war to destroy evidence of their activities, but most were so well constructed that they survived somewhat intact as a testimony to what had happened there.


After Imperial Japan surrendered to the Allies in 1945, Douglas MacArthur became the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, rebuilding Japan during the Allied occupation. Representatives of Japan stand aboard the USS Missouri prior to signing of the Instrument of Surrender. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... Look up scap in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Surrender of Japan Japan surrendered to the Allies...


At the end of the war, MacArthur secretly granted immunity to the physicians of Unit 731 in exchange for providing America with their research on biological warfare. The United States believed that the research data was valuable because the allies had never publicly conducted or condoned such experiments on humans due to moral and political revulsion. The U.S. also did not want other nations, particularly the Soviet Union, to acquire data on biological weapons, not to mention the military benefits of such research.[15] For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Human experimentation involves medical experiments performed on human beings. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ...


The Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal has heard only one reference to Japanese experiments with "poisonous serums" on Chinese civilians. This took place in August 1946 and was actioned by David Sutton, assistant to the Chinese prosecutor. Categories: Possible copyright violations ...


Japanese defense counselor Michael Levin argued that the claim was vague and uncorroborated and it was dismissed by the tribunal president, Sir William Webb, for lack of evidence. The subject was not pursued further by Sutton, who was likely aware of Unit 731's activities. His reference to it at the trial is believed to have been accidental. Michael Levin (Ph. ... Hon Sir William Flood Webb KBE (21 January 1887 – 11 August 1972), Australian judge, was a Justice of the High Court of Australia. ...


Although publicly silent on the issue at the Tokyo trials, the Soviet Union pursued the case and prosecuted twelve top military leaders and scientists from Unit 731 and its affiliated biological-war prisons Unit 1644 in Nanjing, and Unit 100 in Changchun, in the Khabarovsk War Crime Trials. Included among the prosecuted germ warfare criminals was General Otozoo Yamada, the commander-in-chief of the million man Japanese army occupying Manchuria. Khabarovsk War Crime Trials - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...


Many Russian civilians, including women and children, and Soviet POWs held by Axis Japan were killed in chemical and biological warfare experiments by Unit 731, along with Chinese, Koreans, Mongolians, and other nationalities. The trial of those captured Japanese perpetrators was held in Khabarovsk in December of 1949. A lengthy partial transcript of the trial proceedings was published in different languages the following year by a Moscow foreign languages press, including an English language edition: Materials on the Trial of Former Servicemen of the Japanese Army Charged with Manufacturing and Employing Bacteriological Weapons (Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1950). This book remains an invaluable resource for historians on the organization and activities of the Japanese biological warfare "death factory" lab-prisons. The lead prosecuting attorney at the Khabarovsk trial was Lev Smirnov, who had been one of the top Soviet prosecutors at the Nuremberg Trials. Government Country District Krai Russia Far Eastern Federal District Khabarovsk Krai Established 1858 Mayor Alexandr Sokolov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 372 km² Population  - City (2005) 579,000 Coordinates Other Information Postal Code 680xxx Dialing Code +7 4212 Website: www. ... For the 1947 Soviet film about the trials, see Nuremberg Trials (film). ...


The Japanese doctors and army commanders who had perpetrated the Unit 731 atrocities and germ warfare experiments received sentences ranging from 2 to 25 years in a labor camp from the Khabarovsk court.


Many former members of Unit 731 became part of the Japanese medical establishment. Dr Masaji Kitano led Japan's largest pharmaceutical company, the Green Cross. Others headed U.S.-backed medical schools or worked for the Japanese health ministry. Shiro Ishii in particular went on to supervise biological research at the University of Maryland. [16] Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... Green Cross Corporation (株式会社ミドリ十字; Kabushiki Gaisha Midori Jūji) was one of the premier pharmaceutical companies in Japan. ... Shiro Ishii Microbiologist Shiro Ishii (石井四郎 Ishii Shirō, June 25, 1892-1959) was the Lieutenant General of Unit 731, a biological-warfare unit of the Imperial Japanese Army during the Sino-Japanese War. ... The University of Maryland, College Park (also known as UM, UMD, or UMCP) is a public university located in the city of College Park, in Prince Georges County, Maryland, just outside Washington, D.C., in the United States. ...


Cultural depictions and representations

  • Japanese author Morimura Seiichi published the book The Devil's Gluttony (悪魔の飽食) in 1981, followed by The Devil's Gluttony - A Sequel in 1983, which were the first Japanese language publications to reveal the dark history of Unit 731 in Japan.
  • The Chinese movie Men Behind the Sun is a film about the atrocities committed by Unit 731.
  • Two episodes of the television show The X-Files weave Unit 731 into the series' complex alien abduction/government conspiracy mythology. In the episodes "Nisei" and "731", Japanese scientists who were given amnesty in the U.S. after World War II are said to be continuing their work in secret, experimenting with creating an alien-human hybrid, possibly as a weapon to be immune to biological weapons. The name of the doctor in charge of the secret Japanese group of former Unit 731 doctors, Takeo Ishimaru, and his alias, Shiro Zama, is an amalgamation of the name of the real head of Unit 731, Dr. Shiro Ishii. Camp Zama is the name of a U.S. Army base in Sagamihara, Japan.
  • The British comics writer Warren Ellis wrote a John Constantine story ("Setting Sun," Hellblazer #142, DC Comics) about a fictional version of one of the doctors who performed the experiments and his guilt-ridden desire to have done to him what he did to others.
  • Japanese director Minoru Matsui's 2001 documentary Japanese Devils was composed largely of interviews with 14 members of Unit 731 who had been taken as prisoners by China and later released.
  • Iron Maiden vocalist Bruce Dickinson recorded a solo song entitled "The Breeding House", which was about Unit 731.
  • Alfred Coppel's paperback The Burning Mountain, which depicts the Allied invasion of Japan had the Fat Man nuclear design not worked, depicts a P-61 Black Widow night fighter strafing a Japanese convoy carrying cyanogen after the convoy's leader risks turning on the convoy's headlights to reach before dawn a place to safely camouflage for the day. The cyanogen decimates a Japanese village and some of the gas is detected by the CW detector on board a Fletcher-class destroyer offshore, but disregarded as a false alarm.

Morimura Seiichi (森村誠一) (born January 2, 1933) is a Japanese novelist and author. ... Not to be confused with the Javanese language. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The X-Files is a Peabody- and Emmy Award-winning science fiction television series created by Chris Carter, which first aired on September 10, 1993, and ended on May 19, 2002. ... Shiro Ishii Microbiologist Shiro Ishii (石井四郎 Ishii Shirō, June 25, 1892-1959) was the Lieutenant General of Unit 731, a biological-warfare unit of the Imperial Japanese Army during the Sino-Japanese War. ... This article is about the comic book author. ... John Constantine (born May 10, 1953 in Liverpool, England) is the fictional protagonist of the comic series Hellblazer. ... Hellblazer is a contemporary horror comic book series published by the Vertigo imprint of DC Comics. ... DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company. ... Japanese Devils (or Riben Guizi) is a Japanese film revealing the atrocities of the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II. The horrific stories were retold by some retired Japanese soldiers in eighties, such as Shinozuka Yoshio. ... This article is about the band. ... For the record producer in the Saturday Night Live skit, see More cowbell. ... Alfred Coppel, Alfredo Jose de Arana-Marini Coppel (1929-2004) an American author. ... The Burning Mountain is an alternate history novel by Alfred Coppel that depicts the likely outcome of Operations Olympic and Operation Coronet (both part of Operation Downfall) in 1946 had the Trinity nuclear test of July 16, 1945 failed. ... This article is about the nuclear weapon used in World War II. For other uses, see Fat Man (disambiguation). ... Northrop P-61 Black Widow in flight The Northrop P-61 Black Widow was an all-metal, twin engine, twin boom, monoplane night fighter and night intruder aircraft flown by the United States Army Air Force during World War II. It was the first American aircraft designed specifically as a... Cyanogen is a chemical compound (CN)2. ...

See also

Pacific War (World War II)

During the Second World War, Japanese soldiers have carried out human exprimentations on the Chinese on different parts of the conquered lands. ... The Changde Chemical Weapon Attack refers to the Japanese chemical/biological attacks during the Battle of Changde, in the Chinese Province of Hunan during April and May 1943 In the intense fighting around Changde, Japanese forces could not punch through the heavy Chinese resistance, and decided to launch poison gas... Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism. ... Slain children in the ruins of Manila The Manila massacre, February 1945, refers to the atrocities conducted against Filipino civilians in Manila, Philippines by retreating Japanese troops during World War II. Various credible Western and Eastern sources agree that the death toll was at least 100,000 people. ... “Rape of Nanking” redirects here. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Combatants China United States1 Soviet Union2 Japan Manchukuo3 Mengjiang3 Wang Jingwei Government 3 Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Peng Dehuai, Joseph Stilwell, Albert Wedemeyer, Claire Chennault, Aleksandr Vasilevsky Hirohito, Fumimaro Konoe, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime... The Sook Ching massacre (肅清大屠殺) was a systematic extermination of perceived hostile elements among the Chinese in Singapore by the Japanese military during the Japanese Occupation of Singapore, after the British colony surrendered in the Battle of Singapore on 15 February 1942 during World War II. Sook Ching was later extended...

Nazi Germany

This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Mengele in uniform Josef Mengele (March 16, 1911– February 7, 1979), was a German SS officer and a physician in the German Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz-Birkenau. ...

In Asia

There have been several reports of alleged North Korean human experimentation. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/en/doc/2003-10/17/content_273165.htm – Book on Japan’s germ warfare crimes published.
  2. ^ http://english.people.com.cn/200508/03/eng20050803_200004.html - Archives give up secrets of Japan’s Unit 731.
  3. ^ http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/japan/bw.htm – Biological Weapons Program.
  4. ^ http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/cbw/bw.htm - Biological Weapons.
  5. ^ Harris, Sheldon H. Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare 1932-45 and the American Cover-Up, Routledge, 1994. ISBN 0-415-09105-5 ISBN 0-415-93214-9. Page 26 for the Zhong Ma Prison Camp's creation, page 33 for the Pingfang site's creation.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Christopher Hudson. "Doctors of Depravity", Daily Mail, 2 March 2007. 
  7. ^ a b Richard Lloyd Parry. "Dissect them alive: order not to be disobeyed", Times Online, February 25, 2007. 
  8. ^ Interview with former Unit 731 member Nobuo Kamada
  9. ^ "Unmasking Horror" Nicholas D. Kristof (March 17, 1995) New York Times. A special report.; Japan Confronting Gruesome War Atrocity
  10. ^ Unlocking a deadly secret Photos of vivisection
  11. ^ Japan Admits Dissecting WW-II POWs James Bauer. "Japanese Unit 731 Biological Warfare Unit" Viewed January 16, 2007
  12. ^ Barenblatt, Daniel. A Plague Upon Humanity: the Secret Genocide of Axis Japan's Germ Warfare Operation, HarperCollins, 2004. ISBN 0-06-018625-9
  13. ^ Biological Weapons Program-Japan Federation of American Scientists
  14. ^ Review of the studies on Germ Warfare Tien-wei Wu A Preliminary Review of Studies of Japanese Biological Warfare and Unit 731 in the United States
  15. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/correspondent/1796044.stm - Unit 731: Japan's biological force.
  16. ^ "http://www.commondreams.org/views05/0510-24.htm An Ethical Blank Cheque: British and US mythology about the second world war ignores our own crimes and legitimises Anglo-American war making- the Guardian, May 10, 2005, by Richard Drayton

Further reading

  • Barenblatt, Daniel. A Plague Upon Humanity: the Secret Genocide of Axis Japan's Germ Warfare Operation, HarperCollins, 2004. ISBN 0-06-018625-9
  • Gold, Hal. Unit 731 Testimony, Charles E Tuttle Co., 1996. ISBN 4-900737-39-9
  • Williams, Peter. Unit 731: Japan's Secret Biological Warfare in World War II, Free Press, 1989. ISBN 0-02-935301-7
  • Harris, Sheldon H. Factories of Death: Japanese Biological Warfare 1932-45 and the American Cover-Up, Routledge, 1994. ISBN 0-415-09105-5 ISBN 0-415-93214-9
  • Endicott, Stephen and Hagerman, Edward. The United States and Biological Warfare: Secrets from the Early Cold War and Korea, Indiana University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-253-33472-1
  • Handelman, Stephen and Alibek, Ken. Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World--Told from Inside by the Man Who Ran It, Random House, 1999. ISBN 0-375-50231-9 ISBN 0-385-33496-6
  • Harris, Robert and Paxman, Jeremy. A Higher Form of Killing : The Secret History of Chemical and Biological Warfare, Random House, 2002. ISBN 0-8129-6653-8
  • Barnaby, Wendy. The Plague Makers: The Secret World of Biological Warfare, Frog Ltd, 1999. ISBN 1-883319-85-4 ISBN 0-7567-5698-7 ISBN 0-8264-1258-0 ISBN 0-8264-1415-X
  • Moreno, Jonathan D. Undue Risk: Secret State Experiments on Humans, Routledge, 2001. ISBN 0-415-92835-4

External links

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Resources

Images

Accounts

  • Army Doctor — a firsthand account by Yuasa Ken.

Articles

Unit 731: a half century of denial] — by Steven Butler.

Imperial Japanese Army special research units
Unit 100 (Shenyang) | Unit 516 (Qiqihar) | Unit 543 (Hailar) | Unit 731 (Pingfang) / Unit 200 (Manchuria) / Unit 8604 or Nami Unit (Guangzhou) | Unit 773 (Songo) | Unit Ei 1644 (Nanjing) | Unit 1855 (Nanjing) | Unit 2646 or Unit 80 (Hailar) | Unit 9420 or Oka Unit (Singapore)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Doctors of Depravity | the Daily Mail (3271 words)
The answer is that the Japanese were allowed to erase Unit 731 from the archives by the American government, which wanted Ishii's biological warfare findings for itself.
Unit 731 was not part of the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal.
It does not have the specimens kept at Unit 731: the jars containing feet, heads and internal organs, all neatly labelled; or the six-foot-high glass jar in which the naked body of a Western man, cut vertically in two pieces, was pickled in formaldehyde.
Unit 731 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2452 words)
Unit 731 was one of many units used by the Japanese to research biological warfare and is to this day used as a general term to describe the practice.
The war crimes committed by Unit 731 are but some examples of those the Imperial Japanese Army carried out from their occupation of Manchuria in 1931 to the end of World War II in 1945.
In August 2002, the Tokyo District Court acknowledged the existence of Unit 731 and its biological warfare activities but ruled that all compensation issues were settled by the Joint Communique of the Government of Japan and the Government of the People's Republic of China of September 29, 1972.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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