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Encyclopedia > Union of Russia and Belarus
Map of the Union of Russia and Belarus.
Map of the Union of Russia and Belarus.

The Union of Russia and Belarus (Russian: Союз России и Беларуси - Soyuz Rossii i Byelorusi), also known as the United State of Russia and Belarus (Russian: Союзное государство России и Беларуси - Soyuznoye gosudarstvo Rossii i Belorusii), is a supranational confederal entity consisting of Russia and Belarus. It is unofficially called the Rusobelia (Russian: Русобелия). Download high resolution version (1356x928, 35 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1356x928, 35 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Supranationalism is a method of decision-making in international organizations, where power is held by independent appointed officials or by representatives elected by the legislatures or people of the member states. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ...

Contents

Creation

Originally, the Community of Russia and Belarus was formed on April 2, 1996. The basis of the union was strengthened on April 2, 1997, at which time its name was changed to Union of Russia and Belarus. On December 25, 1998, with the signature of several agreements intending to provide greater political, economic, and social integration, the union was strengthened further. In reality, however, the Union may be considered as a confederation. April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... April 2 is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 273 days remaining. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining for the year. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ...


The creation of the Union was initiated by the president of Belarus, Alexander Lukashenko, in order to harmonise the political and economic differences between the two nations. In 1994, a similar proposal by the president of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, was put forward with the intention of founding of a confederal Eurasian Union. However, this was never adopted. Aleksandr Grigoryevich Lukashenko or Alyaksandar Ryhoravich Lukashenka (Belarusian: , Russian: ) (born August 30, 1954 at Kopys, Vitebsk voblast) has been the President of Belarus since 1994. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... Nursultan Abishuly Nazarbayev (Kazakh: Нұрсұлтан Әбішұлы Назарбаев [Nûrsûltan Äbîshûlâ Nazarbayev]; Russian: Нурсултан Абишёвич Назарбаев [Nursultan Abishevich Nazarbayev]) (born July 6, 1940 in Chemolgan, Kazakhstan) is the current President of Kazakhstan, and the countrys only leader since independence from the Soviet Union. ...


In 1999 the then-president of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Slobodan Milošević, declared his wish to join the Union as an observing member. 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Official language Serbian written in Cyrillic alphabet1 Capital Belgrade2 President3 Svetozar Marović Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 105th 102,350 km² 0. ... Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević   (IPA Serbian Cyrillic: Слободан Милошевић) (Požarevac, 20 August 1941 – The Hague, 11 March 2006) was President of Serbia and of Yugoslavia. ...


The United State of Belarus and Russia's Treaty of Creation was signed on December 8, 1999. The intention was to eventually achieve a federation like the USSR with a common president, parliament, flag, coat of arms, anthem, constitution, army, citizenship, currency etc. December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... A map displaying todays federations. ... Abraham Lincoln, 16th President of the United States (1861-1865) The majority of this article is about heads of states. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... The tricolour flag of France A flag is a piece of cloth, often flown from a pole or mast, generally used symbolically for signalling or identification. ... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... An anthem is a choral composition to an English religious text sung in church services. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city but now usually a country) and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ...


Institutions and legal framework

The Treaty on the Formation of a Union State has established the following institutions:

  • A Supreme State Council, made up of the Presidents, Prime Ministers, and the heads of both chambers of the Parliaments of both countries.
  • A Council of Ministers
  • A Permanent Committee
  • A bicameral Union Parliament, comprised of an elected House of Representatives, which contains 75 deputies from Russia and 28 from Belarus, and a House of the Union with an equal number of deputies from each nation, appointed by the executive branch.
  • A Supreme Court of Justice
  • An Accounting Chamber, controlling the implementation of the budget.

Pavel Borodin, who is suspected of fraud, embezzlement and other financial crimes and who was arrested in the United States [1], is the current state secretary of the Union. He was first appointed by the Supreme State Council on January 26, 2000 for a four-year term. In 2004, his term was renewed for another four years. The bicameral legislature of the United States is housed in a capitol building with two wings. ... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Developments

Both member states seem to have lost their initial enthusiasm for the union, with first Russia, and then Belarus, restoring customs controls along their common border in 2001, effectively ending the customs union. Plans had also been set in motion to implement a common currency across the union, but these have been postponed several times. Furthermore, a long-awaited agreement on a draft constitution, which according to Belarus' President Lukashenko, the Russian government seeks to model on the European Union, could be put to a vote in both countries in 2006. This is contrary to the wishes of the Belarussian administration, which would prefer that the union resemble that of the former Soviet Union. Customs duty is a tariff or tax on the import or export of goods. ... This article is about the year 2001. ... A customs union is a free trade area with a Common External Tariff. ... 2006 (MMVI), a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Belarus and Russia had been collecting the Value Added Tax (VAT) in the country of origin, but from January 1, 2005 VAT is collected in the country of destination, as in most other independent countries of the world. This change gave rise to a considerable degree of confusion and has disrupted many trade operations between Belarus and Russia. vat can be a type of barrel used for storage. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On February 10, 2005 almost all (an estimated 85%-90%) private entrepreneurs in Belarus staged a one-day warning strike, protesting the new VAT scheme between the two countries and Lukashenko's economic policies. February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On December 15, 2006, talks were heating up over the unionization of the two states.[1] December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI), a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Common currency

Initially, Lukashenko promised to introduce a common currency on January 1, 2004. The currency was not introduced, and the plan pushed back by one year. On January 1, 2005 the "union state" again failed to introduce common currency, and it was again postponed by one year, which, in 2006, happened again. During a press-conference in Minsk on February 2, 2006, Pyotr Prokopovich, chief of the National Bank of Belarus, announced that a "common currency might be introduced in 2008." January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI), a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location Location of Minsk, shown within the Minsk Voblast Government Country Subdivision Belarus Minsk Founded 1067 Mayor Mikhail Pavlov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 305. ... February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI), a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... // After the collapse of the Soviet Union all former Soviet republics faced a deep economic crisis. ...


See also

Post-Soviet states in alphabetical order: 1. ... Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Member states 11 member states 1 associate member Working language Russian Executive Secretary Vladimir Rushailo Formation December 21, 1991 Official website http://cis. ...

References

  1. ^ "Unified state of Russia and Belarus discussed in Kremlin", an article in Russia Today, 15-12-06 22:05

  Results from FactBites:
 
Building a Russia-Belarus Union State is impossible without economic integration between the countries, which has now ... (408 words)
He said that to build a Union State, three elements were needed: the passing of a relevant constitutional act, the introduction of a single currency, which the countries had planned to finalize two years ago failed due unpreparedness on the part of Belarus, and the creation of a "common-regulation economic space".
Russia has traditionally been the closest ally of Belarus, whose leadership has become increasing isolated in the West over clampdowns on civic and political freedoms.
The dispute was resolved when Belarus lifted its transit duty, and Russia later cut its export duty from $180.7 to $53 per metric ton, effective from January 1, 2007, avoiding potentially crippling economic consequences for its neighbor, which has relied heavily on receipts from refining and re-exporting Russian oil.
Union of Russia and Belarus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (751 words)
The Union of Russia and Belarus (Russian: Союз России и Беларуси - Soyuz Rossii i Byelorusi), also known as the United State of Russia and Belarus (Russian: Союзное государство России и Беларуси - Soyuznoye gosudarstvo Rossii i Belorusii), is a supranational confederal entity consisting of Russia and Belarus.
The creation of the Union was initiated by the president of Belarus, Alexander Lukashenko, in order to harmonise the political and economic differences between the two nations.
Belarus and Russia had been collecting the Value Added Tax (VAT) in the country of origin, but from January 1, 2005 VAT is collected in the country of destination, as in most other independent countries of the world.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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