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Encyclopedia > Union blockade
1861 Cartoon map of the blockade
1861 Cartoon map of the blockade
Theaters of the American Civil War
Union blockadeEasternWesternLower Seaboard – Trans-Mississippi – Pacific Coast

Contents

The Union Blockade refers to the naval actions between 1861 and 1865, during the American Civil War, in which the Union Navy maintained a massive effort on the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of the Confederate States of America designed to prevent the passage of trade goods, supplies, and arms to and from the Confederacy. Ships that tried to evade the blockade, known as blockade runners, were mostly newly built, high-speed ships with small cargo capacity. They were operated by the British (using Royal Navy officers on leave) and ran between Confederate-controlled ports and the neutral ports of Havana, Cuba; Nassau, Bahamas, and Bermuda, where British suppliers had set up supply bases. Image File history File linksMetadata Anaconda_Plan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Anaconda_Plan. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Lincoln, President Ulysses S. Grant, General Jefferson Davis, President Robert E. Lee, General Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action... President Lincoln visiting the Army of the Potomac at the Antietam battlefield, September 1862. ... Western Theater Overview (1861 – 1865) This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Lower Seaboard Theater of the American Civil War. ... This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War. ... This article presents an overview of major military operations in the Pacific Coast Theater of the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Lincoln, President Ulysses S. Grant, General Jefferson Davis, President Robert E. Lee, General Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Look up Atlantic Ocean in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... States that border the Gulf of Mexico are shown in red The Gulf Coast region of the United States comprises the coasts of states which border the Gulf of Mexico. ... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: With God As Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (popular) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until 29 May 1861) Richmond, Virginia (29 May 1861–2 April 1865) Danville, Virginia (from 3 April 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Republic... Motto: Deo Vindice (Latin: With God As Our Vindicator) Anthem: God Save the South (unofficial) Dixie (popular) The Bonnie Blue Flag (popular) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until 29 May 1861) Richmond, Virginia (29 May 1861–2 April 1865) Danville, Virginia (from 3 April 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Government Republic... A blockade is any effort to prevent supplies, troops, information or aid from reaching an opposing force. ... A blockade runner is a ship designed to provide vital supplies to countries or areas blockaded by enemy forces during wartime. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore the Senior Service). ... Havana (Spanish in full: Ciudad de La Habana, formerly named San Cristóbal de La Habana; UN/LOCODE: CU HAV) is the capital of Cuba. ... Map of the Bahamas Nassau is the capital city of the Bahamas. ...


President Abraham Lincoln proclaimed the blockade on April 19, 1861. His strategy, part of the Anaconda Plan of General Winfield Scott, required the closure of 3,500 miles (5,600 km) of Confederate coastline and twelve major ports, including New Orleans, Louisiana, and Mobile, Alabama, the top two cotton-exporting ports prior to the outbreak of the war, as well as the Atlantic ports of Richmond, Virginia, Charleston, South Carolina, Savannah, Georgia, and Wilmington, North Carolina.[1] To this end, Lincoln commissioned 500 ships, which destroyed or captured about 1,500 blockade runners over the course of the war; nonetheless, five out of six ships evading the blockade were successful.[2] The blockade runners carried only a small fraction of the usual cargo. Thus, Confederate cotton exports were reduced 95% from 10 million bales in the three years prior to the war to just 500,000 bales during the blockade period.[3] The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was an American politician who served as the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1861 Cartoon map of Scotts plan The Anaconda Plan was proposed in 1861 by Union General Winfield Scott to win the American Civil War with minimal loss of life, enveloping the Confederacy by blockade at sea and control of the Mississippi River. ... Winfield Scott Winfield Scott (June 13, 1786 – May 29, 1866) was a United States Army general, diplomat, and presidential candidate. ... Nickname: The Crescent City, The Big Easy, The City That Care Forgot, NOLA (acronym for New Orleans, LA) Location in the State of Louisiana and the United States Coordinates: Country United States State Louisiana Parish Orleans Founded 1718 Mayor Ray Nagin (D) Area    - City 350. ... Nickname: The Azalea City Coordinates: Country US State Alabama County Mobile Founded 1702 Incorporated 1814 Mayor Sam Jones Area    - City 412. ... Cotton ready for harvest. ... Nickname: River City, Cap City, R-V-A Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (D) Area    - City 62. ... Nickname: The Holy City, The Palmetto City, Chucktown, The Port City, Charlie O The C-Port City Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Nickname: Coordinates: County Chatham Mayor Otis S. Johnson Area    - City 202. ... Wilmington is a city in New Hanover County, North Carolina, United States. ...


Proclamation of blockade and legal implications

On April 19, 1861, President Lincoln issued a Proclamation of Blockade Against Southern Ports:[4]: April 19 is the 109th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (110th in leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ...

"Whereas an insurrection against the Government of the United States has broken out in the States of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, and the laws of the United States for the collection of the revenue cannot be effectually executed therein comformably to that provision of the Constitution which requires duties to be uniform throughout the United States: And whereas a combination of persons engaged in such insurrection, have threatened to grant pretended letters of marque to authorize the bearers thereof to commit assaults on the lives, vessels, and property of good citizens of the country lawfully engaged in commerce on the high seas, and in waters of the United States: And whereas an Executive Proclamation has been already issued, requiring the persons engaged in these disorderly proceedings to desist therefrom, calling out a militia force for the purpose of repressing the same, and convening Congress in extraordinary session, to deliberate and determine thereon: Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, with a view to the same purposes before mentioned, and to the protection of the public peace, and the lives and property of quiet and orderly citizens pursuing their lawful occupations, until Congress shall have assembled and deliberated on the said unlawful proceedings, or until the same shall ceased, have further deemed it advisable to set on foot a blockade of the ports within the States aforesaid, in pursuance of the laws of the United States, and of the law of Nations, in such case provided. For this purpose a competent force will be posted so as to prevent entrance and exit of vessels from the ports aforesaid. If, therefore, with a view to violate such blockade, a vessel shall approach, or shall attempt to leave either of the said ports, she will be duly warned by the Commander of one of the blockading vessels, who will endorse on her register the fact and date of such warning, and if the same vessel shall again attempt to enter or leave the blockaded port, she will be captured and sent to the nearest convenient port, for such proceedings against her and her cargo as prize, as may be deemed advisable. And I hereby proclaim and declare that if any person, under the pretended authority of the said States, or under any other pretense, shall molest a vessel of the United States, or the persons or cargo on board of her, such person will be held amenable to the laws of the United States for the prevention and punishment of piracy. In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed. Done at the City of Washington, this nineteenth day of April, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, and of the Independence of the United States the eighty-fifth. Official language(s) English Capital Charleston(1670-1789) Columbia(1790-present) Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32°430N to 35... Official language(s) English Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Area  Ranked 30th  - Total 52,419 sq mi (135,765 km²)  - Width 190 miles (306 km)  - Length 330 miles (531 km)  - % water 3. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Texas is the gayest motherfucking state out there they can suck my big black balls. ... Lexington Minuteman representing militia minuteman John Parker A militia is the activity of one or more citizens organized to provide defense or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate Dick Cheney, R, since January 20, 2001 Speaker of the House Dennis Hastert, R, since January 6, 1999 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of January 4, 2005 elections) Democratic Party Republican Party... Obverse The Great Seal of the United States is used to authenticate certain documents issued by the United States government. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia. ...

Recognition of the Confederacy

Flag of the CSA
Enlarge
Flag of the CSA

Some have contended that the announcement of a blockade carried de facto recognition of the Confederate States of America as an independent national entity since countries do not blockade their own ports but rather close them.[5] Under international law and maritime law, however, nations had the right to search neutral vessels on the open sea if they were suspected of violating a blockade, something port closures would not allow. In an effort to avoid conflict between the United States and Britain over the searching of British merchant vessels thought to be trading with the Confederacy, the Union needed the privileges of international law that came with the declaration of a blockade. Image File history File links CSA_FLAG_4. ... Image File history File links CSA_FLAG_4. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... International law (also called public international law to distinguish from private international law, i. ... Admiralty law (usually referred to as simply admiralty and also referred to as maritime law) is a distinct body of law which governs maritime questions and offenses. ...


Under the Declaration of Paris, 1856, international law required that a blockade must be (1) formally proclaimed, (2) promptly established, (3) enforced, and (4) effective, in order to be legal.[6] The Declaration of Paris from April 16, 1856 was issued to abolish privateering. ...


However, by effectively declaring the Confederate States of America to be belligerents—rather than insurrectionists, who under international law would not be legally eligible for recognition by foreign powers—Lincoln opened the way for European powers such as Britain and France to recognize the Confederacy. Britain's proclamation of neutrality was consistent with the position of the Lincoln Administration under international law—the Confederates were belligerents—giving them the right to obtain loans and buy arms from neutral powers, and giving the British the formal right to discuss openly which side, if any, to support.[7] A belligerent is an individual, group, country or other entity which acts in an aggressive or hostile manner, such as engaging in combat. ... Insurrection could refer to: * in a general sense, it means Rebellion * it is also a title of a Star Trek film, see Star Trek: Insurrection ...


Operations

Scope

A joint Union military-navy commission, known as the Blockade Strategy Board, was formed to develop plans for seizing key Southern ports to utilize as Union bases of operations to expand the blockade. It first met in June 1861 in Washington, D.C., under the leadership of Captain Samuel F. Du Pont.[8] Southern United States The states shown in dark red are usually included in the South, while all or portions of the striped states may or may not be considered part of the Southern United States. ... Samuel Francis du Pont by Daniel Huntington 1867-68, oil on canvas National Portrait Gallery, Washington, DC Samuel Francis du Pont (September 27, 1803 - d. ...


In the initial phase of the blockade, Union forces concentrated on the Atlantic Coast. The November 1861 capture of Port Royal in South Carolina provided the Federals with an open ocean port and repair and maintenance facilities in good operating condition. It became an early base of operations for futher expansion of the blockade along the Atlantic coastline.[9] Apalachicola, Florida, received Confederate goods traveling down the Chattahoochee River from Columbus, Georgia, and was an early target of Union blockade efforts on Florida's Gulf Coast.[10] Another early prize was Ship Island, which gave the Navy a base from which to patrol the entrances to both the Mississippi River and Mobile Bay. The Navy gradually extended its reach throughout the Gulf of Mexico to the Texas coastline, including Galveston and Sabine Pass.[11] The Battle of Port Royal was one of the earliest amphibious operations of the American Civil War, in which a United States Navy fleet and United States Army expeditionary force captured Port Royal Sound, South Carolina, on November 7, 1861. ... The mouth of the Apalachicola River, looking towards the Bay. ... The Chattahoochee River runs from the Chattahoochee Spring in the mountains of northeast Georgia, southwestward by Atlanta and through its suburbs, then turns southward to form the southern half of the Georgia/Alabama state line. ... Columbus is a city in Muscogee County, Georgia, United States. ... Ship Island is a famous tourist spot off the Gulf Coast of Mississippi. ... The Mississippi River, derived from the old Ojibwe word misi-ziibi meaning great river (gichi-ziibi big river at its headwaters), is the second-longest river in the United States; the longest is the Missouri River, which flows into the Mississippi. ... Mobile Bay - Landsat photo Mobile Bay is an inlet of the Gulf of Mexico, lying within the state of Alabama in the United States. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... Texas is the gayest motherfucking state out there they can suck my big black balls. ... Nickname: The Oleander City Location in the state of Texas County Galveston Mayor Lyda Ann Thomas Area    - City 539. ... Sabine Pass, Texas is a city located in Jefferson County, Texas, 15 miles south of Port Arthur, Texas, on the west bank of Sabine Pass, near the Louisiana border. ...


Union Navy

USS Passaic of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron

The United States Navy—with a strength of only 90 vessels, of which half were sailing ships—was grossly inadequate for the task at hand, but the Navy Department quickly attempted to correct this deficiency. In 1861, nearly 80 steamers and 60 sailing ships were brought into service, and the number of blockading vessels rose to 160.[12] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... USN redirects here. ... Seal The United States Department of the Navy was established by an Act of Congress on April 30, 1798, to provide administrative and technical support, and civilian leadership to the United States Navy. ... Paddle steamers - Lucerne-Switzerland Left: original paddlewheel from a paddle steamer on the lake of Lucerne. ...


To implement such an ambitious plan, the Navy had been increased by the end of 1861 to 24,000 officers and enlisted men, over 15,000 more than in antebellum service, and four squadrons of ships were deployed, two in the Atlantic and two in the Gulf of Mexico.[13] Antebellum is a Latin word meaning before war (ante means before and bellum war). ... A Squadron is a small unit or formation of cavalry, aircraft (including balloons), or naval vessels. ...


Blockade service

Blockade service was attractive to Federal seamen and landsmen alike. Blockade station service was the most boring job in the war but also the most attractive in terms of potential financial gain. The task was for the fleet to sail back and forth to intercept any blockade runners. More than 50,000 men volunteered for the boring duty, because food and living conditions on ship were much better than the infantry offered, the work was safer, and especially because of the real (albeit small) chance for big money. Captured ships and their cargoes were sold at auction and the proceeds split among the sailors. When the USS Aeolus seized the hapless blockade runner Hope off Wilmington, North Carolina, in late 1864, the captain won $13,000, the chief engineer $6,700, the seamen more than $1,000 each, and the cabin boy $533, rather better than infantry pay of $13 per month. The amount garnered for blockade runners widely varied. While the little Alligator sold for only $50, bagging the Memphis brought in $510,000 (about what 40 civilian workers could earn in a lifetime of work). In four years, $25 million in prize money was awarded. Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units, though they may be transported to the battlefield by horses, ships, automobiles, skis, or other means. ... Wilmington is a city in New Hanover County, North Carolina, United States. ...


Blockade runners

While a large proportion of blockade runners did manage to evade the Union ships, as the blockade matured, the type of ship most likely to find success in evading the naval cordon was a small, light ship with a short draft—qualities that facilitated blockade running but were poorly suited to carrying large amounts of heavy weaponry, metals, and other supplies badly needed by the South. To be successful in helping the Confederacy, a blockade runner had to make many trips; eventually most were captured or sank.


Ordinary ships were too slow and visible to escape the Navy. The blockade runners therefore relied mainly on new ships built in England with low profiles, shallow draft, and high speed. Their paddle-wheels, driven by steam engines that burned smokeless anthracite coal, could make 17 knots (31 km/hr). Because the South lacked sufficient sailors, skippers and shipbuilding capability, the runners were built, officered and manned by Brits. Private British investors spent perhaps £50 million on the runners ($250 million in U.S. dollars, equivalent to about $2.5 billion in 2006 dollars). The pay was high: a Royal Navy officer on leave might earn several thousand dollars (in gold) in salary and bonus per round trip, with ordinary seamen earning several hundred dollars. On dark nights they ran the gauntlet to and from the British islands of Bermuda and the Bahamas, or Havana, Cuba, 500-700 miles (800-1,100 km) away. The ships carried several hundred tons of compact, high-value cargo such as cotton, turpentine or tobacco outbound, and rifles, medicine, brandy, lingerie and coffee inbound. They charged from $300 to $1,000 per ton of cargo brought in; two round trips a month would generate perhaps $250,000 in revenue (and $80,000 in wages and expenses). Anthracite coal Anthracite (Greek Ανθρακίτης, literally a form of coal, from Anthrax [Άνθραξ], coal) is a hard, compact variety of mineral coal that has a high luster. ... This article is about the Cuban city. ...


In November 1864, a wholesaler in Wilmington asked his agent in the Bahamas to stop sending so much chloroform and instead send "essence of cognac" because that perfume would sell "quite high." Confederate patriots held Rhett Butler types and the other nouveau riche blockade runners in contempt for profiteering on luxuries while Robert E. Lee's soldiers were in rags. On the other hand, their bravery and initiative were necessary for the nation's survival, and many women in the back country flaunted imported $10 gew gaws and $50 hats as patriotic proof that the "damn yankees" had failed to isolate them from the outer world. The government in Richmond, Virginia, eventually regulated the traffic, requiring half the imports to be munitions; it even purchased and operated some runners on its own account and made sure they loaded vital war goods. By 1864, Lee's soldiers were eating imported meat. Blockade running was reasonably safe for both sides. It was not illegal under international law; captured foreign sailors were released, while Confederates went to prison camps. The ships were unarmed (cannon would slow them down), so they posed no danger to the Navy warships. Rhett Butler is the handsome, dashing fictional hero of Gone with The Wind written by American author, Margaret Mitchell. ... Robert Edward Lee (January 19, 1807 – October 12, 1870) was a career U.S. Army officer and the most celebrated general of the Confederate forces during the American Civil War. ... The term Yankee refers to citizens of the United States, particularly northerners, especially those Americans from the Northeastern United States whose ancestors arrived from Britain before 1700. ... Nickname: River City, Cap City, R-V-A Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (D) Area    - City 62. ... A Prisoner-of-war camp is a site for the containment of persons captured by the enemy in time of war. ...


One example of the lucrative (and short-lived) nature of the blockade running trade was the ship Banshee, which operated out of Nassau and Bermuda. She was captured on her seventh run into Wilmington, North Carolina, and confiscated by the U.S. Navy for use as a blockading ship. However, at the time of her capure, she had turned a 700% profit for her English owners, who quickly commissioned and built the Banshee No. 2, which soon joined the firm's fleet of blockade runners.[14]


Impact on the Confederacy

The Union blockade was a powerful weapon that eventually ruined the Southern economy, at the cost of very few lives. The blockade stopped cotton exports and choked off munitions imports. The measure of the blockade's success was not the few ships that slipped through, but the thousands that never tried it. Ordinary freighters stopped calling at Southern ports. The interdiction of coastal traffic meant that long-distance travel depended on the rickety railroad system, which never overcame the devastating impact of the blockade. The blockade caused other hardships as well, especially the maldistribution of food. Throughout the war, the South produced enough food for civilians and soldiers, but it had growing difficulty in moving surpluses to areas of scarcity and famine. Lee's army, at the end of the supply line, nearly always was short of supplies as the war progressed into its final two years.


Occasional bread riots in Richmond and other cities showed that patriotism was not sufficient to satisfy the demands of housewives. Land routes remained open for cattle drovers, but after the Federals seized control of the Mississippi River in summer 1863, it became impossible to ship horses, cattle and swine from Texas and Arkansas to the eastern Confederacy. The blockade was a triumph of the U.S. Navy and a major factor in winning the war.


Confederate response

The Confederacy constructed torpedo boats, generally small, fast steam launches equipped with spar torpedoes, to attack the blockading fleet. Some torpedo boats were refitted steam launches, others, such as the David class, were purpose-built. The torpedo boats tried to attack under cover of night by ramming the spar torpedo into the hull of the blockading ship, then backing off and detonating the explosive. The torpedo boats were not very effective and were easily countered by simple measures such as hanging chains over the sides of ships to foul the screws of the torpedo boats, or encircling the ships with wooden booms to trap the torpedoes at a distance. A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to launch torpedoes at larger surface ships. ... A spar torpedo is a weapon consisting of a bomb placed at the end of a long pole, or spar, and attached to a boat. ... CSS David was built as a private venture by T. Stoney at Charleston, South Carolina in 1863, and put under the control of the Confederate States Navy. ...


One historically notable naval action was the attack of the H. L. Hunley, a hand-powered submarine launched from Charleston, South Carolina, against Union blockade ships. On the night of February 17, 1864, the Hunley attacked the USS Housatonic. The Housatonic sank with the loss of 5 crew; the Hunley also sank, taking her crew of 9 to the bottom. H. L. Hunley was a submarine of the Confederate States Navy that demonstrated both the advantages and the dangers of undersea warfare. ... Nickname: The Holy City, The Palmetto City, Chucktown, The Port City, Charlie O The C-Port City Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... USS Housatonic was a screw sloop-of-war of the United States Navy, named for one of the rivers of New England which rises in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, and flows southward into Connecticut before emptying into Long Island Sound a little east of Bridgeport, Connecticut. ...


Major engagements

The first victory for the U.S. Navy during the early phases of the blockade occurred on April 24, 1861, when the sloop USS Cumberland and a small flotilla of support ships began seizing Confederate ships and privateers in the vicinity of Fort Monroe off the Virginia coastline. Within the next two weeks, Flag Officer Garrett J. Pendergrast had captured 16 enemy vessels, serving early notice to the Confederate War Department that the blockade would be effective if extended.[15] April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Satellite Photo of Fort Monroe Fort Monroe, Virginia (also known as Fortress Monroe) is a military installation located at Old Point Comfort on the tip of the Virginia Peninsula at the mouth of Hampton Roads on the Chesapeake Bay in eastern Virginia in the United States. ... Commodore Garrett Jesse Pendergrast (5 December 1802 – 7 November 1862) was an officer in the United States Navy during the American Civil War. ...


Early battles in support of the blockade included the Blockade of Chesapeake Bay[16], from May to June 1861, and the Blockade of the Carolina Coast, August-December 1861.[17] Both enabled the Union Navy to gradually extend its blockade southward along the Atlantic seaboard. The Chesapeake Bay - Landsat photo The Chesapeake Bay where the Susquehanna River empties into it. ...


The Battle of Mobile Bay, August 5, 1864, closed the last major Confederate port in the Gulf of Mexico. Combatants United States of America (U.S. Navy) Confederate States of America (Confederate States Navy) Commanders David Farragut (navy) Gordon Granger (army) Franklin Buchanan (navy) Dabney H. Maury (army) Strength 14 wooden ships (including 2 gunboats) 4 ironclad monitors 5,500 Land Force Three gunboats One ironclad Casualties 322 men... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


In December 1864, Union Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles sent a force against Fort Fisher, which protected the Confederate's access to the Atlantic from Wilmington, North Carolina, the last open Confederate port.[18] The first attack failed, but with a change in tactics (and Union generals), the fort fell in January 1865, closing the last major Confederate port. Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... Gideon Welles (July 1, 1802–February 11, 1878) was the United States Secretary of the Navy from 1861 to 1869, including the entire duration of the American Civil War: his dedication to naval blockades was one of the key reasons for the Norths victory over the South. ... The Pulpit after capture, Fort Fisher, North Carolina, January 1865. ...


End of the blockade and its impact

As the Union fleet grew in size, speed and sophistication, more ports came under Federal control. After 1862, only three ports—Wilmington, North Carolina; Charleston, South Carolina; and Mobile, Alabama—remained open for the 75 to 100 blockade runners in business. Charleston was shut down by Admiral John A. Dahlgren's South Atlantic Blockading Squadron in 1863. Mobile Bay was captured in August 1864 by Admiral David Farragut (tied to the rigging of his flagship, he cried out, "Damn the torpedoes! Full steam ahead!"). Blockade runners faced an increasing risk of capture—in 1861 and 1862, one sortie in 9 ended in capture; in 1863 and 1864, one in 3. By war's end, imports had been choked to a trickle as the number of captures came to 50% of the sorties. Some 1,100 blockade runners were captured (and another 300 destroyed). British investors frequently made the mistake of reinvesting their profits in the trade; when the war ended they were stuck with useless ships and rapidly depreciating cotton. In the final accounting, perhaps half the investors took a profit, and half a loss. Wilmington is a city in New Hanover County, North Carolina, United States. ... Nickname: The Holy City, The Palmetto City, Chucktown, The Port City, Charlie O The C-Port City Motto: Aedes Mores Juraque Curat (She cares for her temples, customs, and rights) Location of Charleston in South Carolina. ... Nickname: The Azalea City Coordinates: Country US State Alabama County Mobile Founded 1702 Incorporated 1814 Mayor Sam Jones Area    - City 412. ... Rear Admiral John Adolph Dahlgren, USN, (1809-1870), son of the Swedish Consul in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, made his career in the United States Navy. ... Admiral David Glasgow Farragut Admiral David Glasgow Farragut David Glasgow Farragut (July 5, 1801 – August 14, 1870) was the commander-in-chief of the U.S. Navy during the American Civil War. ...

"The Union victory at Vicksburg, Mississippi, in July 1863 opened up the Mississippi River and effectively cut off the western Confederacy as a source of troops and supplies. The fall of Fort Fisher and the city of Wilmington, North Carolina, early in 1865 closed the last major port for blockade runners, and in quick succession Richmond was evacuated, the Army of Northern Virginia disintegrated, and General Lee surrendered. Thus, most economists give the Union blockade a prominent role in the outcome of the war." (Elekund, 2004) Vicksburg is a city located in Warren County, Mississippi, 234 miles (377 km) north by west of New Orleans on the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers. ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ...

Squadrons

The Union naval ships enforcing the blockade were divided into squadrons based on their area of operation.


North Atlantic Blockading Squadron

The North Atlantic Blockading Squadron was based at Hampton Roads, Virginia, and was tasked with coverage of Virginia and North Carolina. Its official range of operation was from the Potomac River to Cape Henry in North Carolina. It was tasked primarily with preventing Confederate ships from supplying troops and with supporting Union troops. It was created when the Atlantic Blockading Squadron was split between the North and South Atlantic Blockading Squadrons on October 29, 1861. After the end of the war, the squadron was merged into the Atlantic Squadron on July 25, 1865. Hampton Roads, Virginia 1858 Hampton Roads is the name of both a body of water and the land areas which surround it in southeastern Virginia in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  Ranked 35th  - Total 42,793 sq mi (110,862 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 7. ... This article is the current U.S. Collaboration of the Week. ... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ... Cape Henry is a cape on the Atlantic shore of Virginia. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Commanders

Squadron Commander From To
Flag Officer Louis M. Goldsborough 29 October 1861 4 September 1862
Rear Admiral Samuel Phillips Lee 4 September 1862 12 October 1864
Rear Admiral David Dixon Porter 12 October 1864 1 May 1865
Rear Admiral William Radford 1 May 1865 25 July 1865

Flag Officer is both a historic naval rank and a modern day navy title. ... Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough (February 18, 1805–February 20, 1877) was an admiral in the United States Navy who served during the early 1800s. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... Samuel Phillips Lee (13 February 1812 – 7 June 1897) was a Rear Admiral of the United States Navy. ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... Portrait of David Dixon Porter during the Civil War David Dixon Porter (June 8, 1813 – February 13, 1891) was a United States admiral who became one of the most noted naval heroes of the Civil War. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... Rear Admiral William Radford (1 March 1808 - 8 January 1890) was an officer in the United States Navy during the Mexican War and the Civil War Radford was born in Fincastle, Virginia and entered the U.S. Navy during 1825. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ...

Ships

The second USS Alert was a screw tug purchased by the United States Navy under the name USS on 3 October 1861 to fight in the American Civil War. ... Brandywine was a United States Navy 44-gun sailing frigate launched in 1825. ...

South Atlantic Blockading Squadron

The South Atlantic Blockading Squadron was tasked primarily with preventing Confederate ships from supplying troops and with supporting Union troops operating between Cape Henry in North Carolina down to Key West in Florida. It was created when the Atlantic Blockading Squadron was split between the North and South Atlantic Blockading Squadrons on 29 October 1861. After the end of the war, the squadron was merged into the Atlantic Squadron on 25 July 1865. Map of Key West Key West is a city located in Monroe County, Florida. ... October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... July 25 is the 206th day (207th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 159 days remaining. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Commanders

Rear Admiral John Adolph Dahlgren, USN, (1809-1870), son of the Swedish Consul in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, made his career in the United States Navy. ...

Gulf Blockading Squadron

The Gulf Blockading Squadron was a squadron of the United States Navy in the early part of the War, patrolling from Key West to the Mexican border. The squadron was the largest in operation. It was split into the East and West Gulf Blockading Squadrons in early 1862 for more efficiency.


Commanders

William Mervine (14 March 1791 - 15 September 1868) was a Rear Admiral in the United States Navy during the War of 1812, the Mexican-American War and the Civil War. ... May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (127th in leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... William Wister McKean (19 September 1800 - 22 April 1865) was an admiral in the United States Navy during the American Civil War. ... September 22 is the 265th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (266th in leap years). ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ...

West Gulf Blockading Squadron

The West Gulf Blockading Squadron was tasked primarily with preventing Confederate ships from supplying troops and with supporting Union troops along the western half of the Gulf Coast. It was created early in 1862 when the Gulf Blockading Squadron was split between the East and West Gulf Blockading Squadron. Admiral David Farragut's USS Hartford was the flagship. The squadron was merged into the Gulf Squadron on July 13, 1865. Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks, of the highest naval officers. ... Admiral David Glasgow Farragut Admiral David Glasgow Farragut David Glasgow Farragut (July 5, 1801 – August 14, 1870) was the commander-in-chief of the U.S. Navy during the American Civil War. ... USS Hartford, a sloop-of-war, was the first ship of the United States Navy named for Hartford, the capital of Connecticut. ... A flagship is the ship used by the commanding officer of a group of naval ships. ... July 13 is the 194th day (195th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 171 days remaining. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Commanders

Admiral David Glasgow Farragut Admiral David Glasgow Farragut David Glasgow Farragut (July 5, 1801 – August 14, 1870) was the commander-in-chief of the U.S. Navy during the American Civil War. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Henry Knox Thatcher (26 May 1806 - 5 April 1880) was an admiral in the United States Navy, who served during the American Civil War. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Greene
  2. ^ Lincoln biography
  3. ^ Lincoln biography
  4. ^ History Place
  5. ^ Jenkins essay
  6. ^ Blockade essay
  7. ^ Lincoln biography
  8. ^ Time-Life, page 29.
  9. ^ Time-Life, page 31.
  10. ^ National Park Service
  11. ^ U.S Naval Blockade
  12. ^ Blockade essays
  13. ^ Time-Life, page 33.
  14. ^ Time-Life, page 95.
  15. ^ Time-Life, page 24.
  16. ^ National Park Service
  17. ^ National Park Service
  18. ^ Amphibious Warfare: Nineteenth Century

References

  • Browning, Robert M., Jr., From Cape Charles to Cape Fear. The North Atlantic Blockading Squadron during the Civil War. University of Alabama Press, 1993.
  • Buker, George E., Blockaders, Refugees, and Contrabands: Civil War on Florida's Gulf Coast, 1861-1865. University of Alabama Press, 1993.
  • Elekund, R.B., Jackson J.D., and Thornton M., "The 'Unintended Consequences' of Confederate Trade Legislation." Eastern Economic Journal, Spring 2004)
  • Greene, Jack, Ironclads at War, Combined Publishing, 1998.
  • Time-Life Books, The Blockade: Runners and Raiders. The Civil War series. Time-Life Books, 1983. ISBN 0-8094-4708-8.
  • Vandiver, Frank Everson, Confederate Blockade Running Through Bermuda, 1861-1865: Letters And Cargo Manifests (1947), primary documents
  • Wise, Stephen R., Lifeline of the Confederacy: Blockade Running during the Civil War. University of South Carolina Press, 1988.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Union blockade Summary (3074 words)
The Union blockade refers to the naval actions between 1861 and 1865, during the American Civil War, in which the United States Navy maintained a massive effort on the Atlantic and Gulf Coast of the Confederate States of America designed to prevent the passage of trade goods, supplies, and arms to and from the Confederacy.
In the initial phase of the blockade, Union forces concentrated on the Atlantic coast[7], gradually extending its reach into the Eastern Gulf of Mexico and the Texas coastline.
The North Atlantic Blockading Squadron was based at Hampton Roads, Virginia and was tasked with coverage of Virginia and North Carolina.
Blockade at AllExperts (609 words)
Blockades are the cornerstone to nearly all military campaigns and the tool of choice for economic warfare on an opposing nation.
Blockades can take any number of forms from a simple garrison of troops along a main roadway to utilizing dozens or hundreds of surface combatant ships in securing a harbor, denying its use to the enemy, and even in cutting off or jamming broadcast signals from radio or television.
The need for the blockade was high because of the value of the missiles as a military threat against the United States.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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