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Encyclopedia > Union between Sweden and Norway
Sweden and Norway 1888
Sweden and Norway 1888
This article is part of the
Scandinavia series
Geography
The Viking Age
Unions
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History of Sweden

The Union between Sweden and Norway refers to the kingdoms of Sweden and Norway between 1814 and 1905, when they were united under one monarch in a personal union, following the Convention of Moss, on August 14, and the Norwegian constitutional revision of November 4. On the same day, the Norwegian parliament elected Charles XIII king of Norway. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x809, 97 KB) Schweden und Norwegen um 1888 / Maßstab: 1:7. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x809, 97 KB) Schweden und Norwegen um 1888 / Maßstab: 1:7. ... Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe named after the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... The Scandinavian Mountains, in Swedish Skanderna, Fjällen (The Mountains) or Kölen and in Norwegian Kjølen, with the two latter meaning the Keel, are a mountain range that runs through the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... The Scandinavian Peninsula is in northeastern Europe, consisting principally of the mainland territories of Norway and Sweden. ... The Viking Age is the name of the period between 793 and 1066 AD in Scandinavia and Britain, following the Germanic Iron Age (and the Vendel Age in Sweden). ... The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... The term Viking is used to denote the ship-borne explorers, traders and warriors who originated in Norway, Iceland, Denmark and Sweden and raided the coasts of the British Isles, France and other parts of Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century. ... A thing or ting (Old Norse and Icelandic: þing; other modern Scandinavian: ting) was the governing assembly in Germanic societies, made up of the free men of the community and presided by lawspeakers. ... The Kalmar Union flag. ... The Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, consisting of Denmark and Norway, including Norways possessions Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, is a term used for the two united kingdoms after their amalgamation as one state in 1536. ... The Scandinavian Monetary Union (Swedish: Skandinaviska myntunionen, Danish: Skandinaviske møntunion) was a monetary union formed by Sweden and Denmark on May 5, 1873 by fixing their currencies against gold at par to each other. ... A Scandinavian defense union that would include Sweden, Norway and Denmark was planned between the three countries after World War II. Denmark and Norway had been occupied by Germany between 1940 and 1945, while Sweden, having escaped the horrors of occupation it had, still felt the effects of the war. ... The history of Scandinavia is the common history of the Scandinavian countries— Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... The Royal League logo The Royal League is an annual Scandinavian football tournament, starting after the end of the regular domestic seasons of Norway and Sweden. ... The history of Sweden dates back to 9000 BC. // Pre-historic age: 9,000–500 BC Main article Prehistoric Sweden Sweden, as well as the adjacent country Norway, has a high concentration of petroglyphs (ristningar or hällristningar in Swedish) throughout the country, with the highest concentration in the province... // Ice age The pre-history of Sweden begins at the end of the Pleistocene epoch at the beginning of Holocene epoch, following the last ice age, the Weichsel glaciation. ... This article will cover the time following the pre-historic era and partly the Viking Age, and spans from circa 800 AD, when the process of Christianization began, up to 1523, when the king Gustav Vasa was crowned. ... The Kalmar Union flag. ... // Gustav Vasa Main article: Gustav I of Sweden Gusav Vasa Gustav I of Sweden (Vasa) had political and religious difficulties in his kingdom established in 1523. ... // Charles IX Main article: Charles IX of Sweden Not till March 6, 1604, after Duke John son of John III of Sweden, had formally renounced his hereditary right to the throne, did Charles IX of Sweden begin to style himself king. ... Sweden between the years 1611 and 1718 is known as the Swedish Empire. ... The period from Charles XIIs death in 1718 to Gustav IIIs coup detat in 1772 is mostly referred to as Frihetstiden (the Age of Liberty), representing a 50 year long experiment with Parliamentarism and increasing Civil Rights. ... // The Enlightened Despot See also: Gustav III of Sweden Adolf Frederick of Sweden died on February 12, 1771. ... Politics in the New Riksdag See also: Riksdag The economic condition of Sweden, owing to the progress in material prosperity which had taken place in the country as the result of the Franco-German War, was at the accession of Oscar II to the throne on September 18, 1872 fairly... The policy of Sweden during World War II was to remain neutral. ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... A personal union is a political union of two or more entities that, internationally, are considered separate states, but through established law, share the same head of state —hence also whatever political actions are vested in the head of state, but no (or very few) others. ... The Moss Ironworks main office - where the Convention of Moss was negotiated and signed The Convention of Moss was a cease fire agreement, signed August 14, 1814, between the Swedish King and the Norwegian Storting. ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... The Storting main building The Storting, or Stortinget, (the Great Assembly), is the parliament of Norway, and is located in Oslo. ... Charles XIII, Karl XIII, or Carl II, (1748-1818), king of Sweden and Norway, the second son of king Adolf Frederick of Sweden, and Louisa Ulrica of Prussia, sister of Frederick the Great, was born at Stockholm on October 7, 1748. ...


The Act of Union, which was given royal assent on August 6, 1815, was implemented differently in the two countries. In Norway it was a part of constitutional law known as Rigsakten, and in Sweden it was a set of provisions under regular law and was known as Riksakten. The Congress of Vienna, which oversaw numerous territorial changes in post Napoleonic Europe, did not object to the union of the Norwegian and Swedish crowns. The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which the Sovereign of the United Kingdom, or the Sovereigns representative in Commonwealth Realms, completes the process of the enactment of legislation by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... The Battle of New Orleans 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ...


Sweden and Norway had previously been united under the same crown on two occasions, from 1319 to 1343, and briefly from 1449 to 1450 in opposition to Christian of Oldenburg who was elected king of the Kalmar Union by the Danes. Events Magnus VII ascends the throne of Norway and unites the country with Sweden. ... Events Magnus II of Sweden abdicates from the throne of Norway in favor of his son Haakon VI of Norway. ... Events January 6 - Constantine XI is crowned Byzantine Emperor. ... Events March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen April 15 - Battle of Formigny. ... Christian I of Denmark (1426 – 1481), Danish monarch and union king of Denmark (1448 – 1481), Norway (1450 – 1481) and Sweden (1457 – 1464), under the Kalmar Union. ... The House of Oldenburg is a North German noble family and one of Europes most influential Royal Houses. ... The Kalmar Union flag. ...


Norway was a reluctant member of the union. One manifestation of this was that Norwegian history and culture were glorified in the literature of the period. Norwegian farm culture served as a symbol and focus of nationalistic resistance to the forced union with Sweden. A growing sense of nationalism also influenced political affairs.[1] One significant political step, the development of the Norwegian local self-government district known as the Formannskapsdistrikt, was approved by the Storthing and signed into law by Charles XIV of Sweden and Norway on January 14, 1837.[2] The law, required by the Constitution of Norway, mandated that every parish (in Norwegian prestegjeld[3]) form a formannsskapsdistrikt. In this manner the Norwegian State Church districts of the country became administrative districts as well, creating 373 formannsskapsdistrikt in 1837.[4] This introduction of self-government in rural districts was a major political watershed. The legislation of 1837 gave both the towns and the rural areas the same institutions; it represented a minor change for the town, but a major advance for the rural communities and an advance for Norwegian nationalism. [1] Norwegian Literature // Early Influences Around 1030, Christianity came to Norway, bringing with it the Latin alphabet, which supplanted the runic alphabet. ... Norwegian Farm Culture or bondekultur was a rural civilization which assumed a form in Viking Age Norway retained with little change into the age of firearms, and in many respects even to the early 20th Century. ... Formannsskapsdistrikt was a Norwegian local self-government district created in a bill approved by the Storthing and signed into law by king Carl Johan on January 14, 1837. ... This article is part of the Politics of Norway series. ... Charles XIV John (Swedish: Carl XIV Johan), born Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte (January 26, 1763 – March 8, 1844) was King of Sweden and Norway (where he was known as Carl III Johan) from 1818 until his death. ... The Constitution of Norway was first adopted on May 16, 1814 by the Norwegian Constituent Assembly at Eidsvoll (a small town north of the countrys capital, Christiania), then signed and dated May 17. ...


Following growing dissatisfaction with the union in Norway, the parliament unanimously declared its dissolution on June 7, 1905. This unilateral action met with Swedish threats of war. A plebiscite on August 13 confirmed the parliamentary decision by a majority of 368,208 to 184. Negotiations in Karlstad led to agreement with Sweden September 23 and mutual demobilization. Both parliaments revoked the Act of Union October 16, and the deposed king Oscar II of Sweden renounced his claim to the Norwegian throne and recognized Norway as an independent kingdom on October 26. The Norwegian parliament offered the vacant throne to Prince Carl of Denmark, who accepted after another plebiscite had confirmed the monarchy. He arrived in Norway on November 25, 1905, taking the name Haakon VII. June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ... Karlstad [kɑːɭstɑː(d)] is a City and Municipality in Värmland County, in mid-western Sweden. ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in Leap years). ... Oscar II (Oscar Fredrik) (January 21, 1829 – December 8, 1907) was King of Sweden and Norway from 1872 until his death. ... October 26 is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 66 days remaining. ... November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... King Haakon VII King Haakon VII of Norway, Christian Frederik Carl Georg Valdemar Axel (August 3, 1872 - September 21, 1957) was the first King of Norway after the dissolution of the personal union with Sweden in 1905. ...

Contents


A new dynasty

Charles XIV John of Sweden.
Charles XIV John of Sweden.

Charles XIII was both infirm and childless. To secure the succession to the throne, he adopted Prince Christian August of Augustenborg as his heir. He had been viceroy of Norway and commander-in-chief of the Norwegian army during its successful resistance against the Swedish invasion in 1808-1809. His great popularity in Norway was considered an advantage to the Swedish plans for the acquisition of that country. In addition, he had demonstrated his interest in a rapprochement between the two countries by refraining from invading Sweden during the conflict with Russia. As crown prince of Sweden, he changed his name to Carl August of Augustenborg. After his mysterious death on May 28, 1810, the French marshal, Bernadotte, was adopted by Charles XIII and received the homage of the estates on November 5, 1810. Charles XIV John (Swedish: Carl XIV Johan), born Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte (January 26, 1763 – March 8, 1844) was King of Sweden and Norway (where he was known as Carl III Johan) from 1818 until his death. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Charles XIII, Karl XIII, or Carl II, (1748-1818), king of Sweden and Norway, the second son of king Adolf Frederick of Sweden, and Louisa Ulrica of Prussia, sister of Frederick the Great, was born at Stockholm on October 7, 1748. ... 1808 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Charles August was Crown Prince of Sweden briefly in 1810. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (149th in leap years). ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Charles XIV John (Swedish: Carl XIV Johan), born Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte (January 26, 1763 – March 8, 1844) was King of Sweden and Norway (where he was known as Carl III Johan) from 1818 until his death. ... In several different regions of medieval Europe, and continuing in some countries down to the present day, the Estates of the realm were broad divisions of society, usually distinguishing nobility, clergy, and commoners; this last group was, in some regions, further divided into burghers (also known as bourgeoisie) and peasants. ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


The new crown prince was very soon the most popular and the most powerful man in Sweden. The infirmity of the old king, and the dissensions in the Privy Council, placed the government and especially the control of foreign affairs almost entirely in his hands; and he boldly adopted a policy which was antagonistic indeed to the wishes and hopes of the old school of Swedish statesmen, but perhaps, the best adapted to the circumstances. Finland he at once gave up for lost, he knew that Russia would never voluntarily relinquish the grand duchy, while Sweden could not hope to retain it permanently, even if she reconquered it. But the acquisition of Norway might make up for the loss of Finland; and Bernadotte, now known as the crown prince Charles John or "Karl Johan", argued that it might be an easy matter to persuade the anti-Napoleonic powers to punish Denmark for her loyalty to France by wrestling Norway from her. Napoleon he rightly distrusted, though at first he was obliged to submit to the emperor's dictation. Thus on November 13, 1810 the Swedish government was forced to declare war against the United Kingdom, though the British government was privately informed at the same time that Sweden was not a free agent and that the war would be a mere demonstration. But the pressure of Napoleon became more and more intolerable, culminating in the occupation of Pomerania by French troops in 1812. The Swedish government thereupon concluded a secret convention with Russia Treaty of Petersburg, April 5, 1812 undertaking to send 30,000 men to operate against Napoleon in Germany in return for a promise from Alexander I of Russia guaranteeing to Sweden the possession of Norway. Too late Napoleon endeavoured to outbid Alexander by offering to Sweden Finland, all Pomerania and Mecklenburg, in return for Sweden's active co-operation against Russia. The Swedish Senate: Riksrådet, from 1809 Statsrådet, from 1975 Regeringen was and is the principal government institution of Sweden The Swedish Senate, Senatus Regni Sueciae, originated as a council of Regional Magnates acting as advisers to the Monarch of the combined Realms of the Swedes (from 996, approximately). ... Charles XIV John (Swedish: Carl XIV Johan), born Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte (January 26, 1763 – March 8, 1844) was King of Sweden and Norway (where he was known as Carl III Johan) from 1818 until his death. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Historic Pomerania (outlined in yellow) on the background of modern country borders. ... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Aleksander I Pavlovich Romanov (Russian: Александр I Павлович) (December 23, 1777–December 1, 1825), was Emperor of Russia from March 23, 1801–December 1, 1825 and King of Poland from 1815–1825, as well as the first Grand Duke of Finland. ... Historic Pomerania (outlined in yellow) on the background of modern country borders. ... The coat of arms of Mecklenburg-Western-Pommerania Mecklenburg is a geographical area located in Northern Germany. ...


The Örebro Riksdag (April-August, 1812), remarkable besides for its partial repudiation of Sweden's national debt and its reactionary press laws, introduced general conscription into Sweden, and thereby enabled the crown prince to carry out his ambitious policy. In May 1812 he mediated a peace between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, so as to enable Russia to use all her forces against France (Peace of Bucharest); and on July 18, at Örebro, peace was also concluded between the United Kingdom on one side and Russia and Sweden on the other. These two treaties were, in effect, the corner-stones of a fresh coalition against Napoleon, and were confirmed on the outbreak of the Franco-Russian War by a conference between Alexander and Charles John at Åbo on August 30, 1812 when the tsar undertook to place an army corps of 35,000 men at the disposal of the Swedish crown prince for the conquest of Norway. Örebro [Å“rÉ™bruː] is a Swedish city in Närke in central Sweden, situated at 59°16′N 15°13′E. It has 95,354 inhabitants (2000), with 126,000 inhabitants in the municipality. ... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 166 days remaining. ... Charles XIV John (Swedish: Carl XIV Johan), born Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte (January 26, 1763 – March 8, 1844) was King of Sweden and Norway (where he was known as Carl III Johan) from 1818 until his death. ... Location within Finland Turku (IPA: , Swedish: Ã…bo  listen?, Latin: Aboa) is a city in Finland, founded in the 13th century. ... August 30 is the 242nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (243rd in leap years), with 123 days remaining. ... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Personal union with Norway

King Charles XIII.
King Charles XIII.

The Treaty of Åbo, and indeed the whole of Charles John's foreign policy in 1812, provoked violent and justifiable criticism among the better class of politicians in Sweden. The immorality of indemnifying Sweden at the expense of a weaker friendly power was obvious; and, while Finland was now definitively sacrificed, Norway had still to be won. Moreover, the United Kingdom and Russia very properly insisted that Charles John's first duty was to the anti-Napoleonic coalition, the former power vigorously objecting to the expenditure of her subsidies on the nefarious Norwegian adventure before the common enemy had been crushed. Only on his very ungracious compliance did the United Kingdom also promise to countenance the union of Norway and Sweden (Treaty of Stockholm, March 3, 1813); and, on April 23, Russia gave her guarantee to the same effect. The Swedish crown prince rendered several important services to the allies during the campaign of 1813 but, after Leipzig, he went his own way, determined at all hazards to cripple Denmark and secure Norway. The Norwegians themselves were opposed to this, but had to accept a personal union with Sweden after a short war that ended with the Convention of Moss. On November 4, 1814, the parliament of Norway revised the constitution and elected Charles XIII of Sweden as the new king of Norway. Charles XIII of Sweden The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Charles XIII of Sweden The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The Treaty of Ã…bo or Treaty of Turku is a Peace Treaty between Imperial Russia and Sweden after the Hats Russian War 1741-43. ... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Treaty of Stockholm can mean: Treaty of Stockholm (1371) Treaty of Stockholm (1435) Treaty of Stockholm (1465) Treaty of Stockholm (1497) Treaty of Stockholm (1502) Treaty of Stockholm (1523) Treaty of Stockholm (1672) Treaty of Stockholm (1719) - Hannover Treaty of Stockholm (1720) - Prussia Treaty of Stockholm (1720) - Denmark Treaty... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Map of battle by 18 October 1813, from Meyers Encyclopaedia The Battle of Leipzig (October 16-19, 1813), also called the Battle of the Nations, was the largest conflict in the Napoleonic Wars and one of the worst defeats suffered by Napoleon Bonaparte. ... The Moss Ironworks main office - where the Convention of Moss was negotiated and signed The Convention of Moss was a cease fire agreement, signed August 14, 1814, between the Swedish King and the Norwegian Storting. ... November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Charles XIII, Karl XIII, or Carl II, (1748-1818), king of Sweden and Norway, the second son of king Adolf Frederick of Sweden, and Louisa Ulrica of Prussia, sister of Frederick the Great, was born at Stockholm on October 7, 1748. ...


The royal house of Bernadotte

See also: Bernadotte

Charles XIII of Sweden, died on February 5, 1818, and was succeeded by Bernadotte under the title of Charles XIV John. The new king devoted himself to the promotion of Charles the material development of the country, the Göta Canal absorbing the greater portion of the twenty-four million Riksdaler voted for the purpose. The external debt of Sweden was gradually extinguished, the internal debt considerably reduced, and the budget showed an average annual surplus of 700,000 Riksdaler. With returning prosperity the necessity for internal reform became urgent in Sweden. The antiquated Riksdag of the Estates, where the privileged estates predominated, while the cultivated middle class was practically unrepresented, had become an insuperable obstacle to all free development; but though the Riksdag of 1840 itself raised the question, the king and the aristocracy refused to entertain it. Yet the reign of Charles XIV was, on the whole, most beneficial to Sweden; and if there was much just cause for complaint, his great services to his adopted country were generally acknowledged. Abroad he maintained a policy of peace based mainly on a good understanding with Russia. The House of Bernadotte, the current Royal House of the Kingdom of Sweden, has reigned since 1818. ... Charles XIII, Karl XIII, or Carl II, (1748-1818), king of Sweden and Norway, the second son of king Adolf Frederick of Sweden, and Louisa Ulrica of Prussia, sister of Frederick the Great, was born at Stockholm on October 7, 1748. ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... Charles XIV John (Swedish: Carl XIV Johan), born Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte (January 26, 1763 – March 8, 1844) was King of Sweden and Norway (where he was known as Carl III Johan) from 1818 until his death. ... Bergs slussar (locks) at Berg near Linköping, descending to lake Roxen Göta Kanal is a Swedish canal constructed in the early 19th century. ... The Riksdaler was the name of the currency used in Sweden until 1873 when it was replaced with the krona as an effect of the Scandinavian Monetary Union. ... The Riksdag of the Estates, or Ståndsriksdagen, was the name used for the Estates of the Swedish realm, or Rikets ständer, when they were assembled. ...


Oscar I

See also: Oscar I of Sweden
King Oscar I.
King Oscar I.

Charles XIV's son and successor King Oscar I was much more liberally inclined. Shortly after his accession on March 4, 1844 he laid several projects of reform before the Riksdag; but the estates would do little more than abolish the obsolete marriage and inheritance laws and a few commercial monopolies. As the financial situation necessitated a large increase of taxation, there was much popular discontent, which culminated in riots in the streets of Stockholm March 1848. Yet, when fresh proposals for parliamentary reform were laid before the Riksdag in 1849, they were again rejected by three out of the four estates. As regards foreign politics, Oscar I was strongly anti-German. On the outbreak of the Dano-Prussian War of 1848-1849, Sweden sympathized warmly with Denmark. Hundreds of Swedish volunteers hastened to Schleswig-Holstein. The Riksdag voted 2,000,000 Riksdaler for additional armaments. It was Sweden, too, who mediated the Truce of Malmö on August 26, 1848 which helped Denmark out of her difficulties. During the Crimean War Sweden remained neutral, although public opinion was decidedly anti-Russian, and sundry politicians regarded the conjuncture as favourable for regaining Finland. Oscar I, born Joseph François Oscar Bernadotte (July 4, 1799, Paris–July 8, 1859, Stockholm), was King of Sweden and Norway from 1844 to his death. ... Image File history File links Crownprince_Oscar_of_Sweden_painted_by_Joseph_Karl_Stieler. ... Image File history File links Crownprince_Oscar_of_Sweden_painted_by_Joseph_Karl_Stieler. ... King Charles XIV of Sweden, Charles III of Norway, or domestically Karl XIV Johan and Carl III Johan respectively, Jean Baptiste Jules Bernadotte (January 26, 1763 – March 8, 1844) was born at Pau, France, the son of Henri Bernadotte (1711–1780), procurator at Pau, and Jeanne St. ... Oscar I, born Joseph François Oscar Bernadotte (July 4, 1799, Paris–July 8, 1859, Stockholm), was King of Sweden and Norway from 1844 to his death. ... March 4 is the 63rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (64th in leap years). ... 1844 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Riksdag of the Estates, or Ståndsriksdagen, was the name used for the Estates of the Swedish realm, or Rikets ständer, when they were assembled. ... In several different regions of medieval Europe, and continuing in some countries down to the present day, the Estates of the realm were broad divisions of society, usually distinguishing nobility, clergy, and commoners; this last group was, in some regions, further divided into burghers (also known as bourgeoisie) and peasants. ... Stockholm panorama from the City Hall is the capital of Sweden, located on the south east coast of Sweden. ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... The Riksdaler was the name of the currency used in Sweden until 1873 when it was replaced with the krona as an effect of the Scandinavian Monetary Union. ... August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (239th in leap years). ... Combatants United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Second French Empire, Ottoman Empire, Kingdom of Sardinia Imperial Russia Strength 250,000 British 400,000 French 10,000 Sardinian 1,200,000 Russian Casualties 17,500 British 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 2,050 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of...


Charles XV

King Charles XV.
King Charles XV.

Oscar I was succeeded on July 8, 1859 by his son, Charles XV, who had already acted as regent during his father's illnesses. He succeeded, with the invaluable assistance of the minister of justice, Baron Louis de Geer, in at last accomplishing the much-needed reform of the constitution. The way had been prepared in 1860 by a sweeping measure of municipal reform; and, in January 1863, the government brought in a reform bill by the terms of which the Riksdag was henceforth to consist of two chambers, the Upper House being a sort of aristocratic senate, while the members of the Lower House were to be elected triennially by popular suffrage. The new constitution was accepted by all four estates in 1865 and promulgated on January 22, 1866. On September 1, 1866, the first elections under the new system were held; and on January 19, 1867, the new Riksdag met for the first time. With this one great reform Charles XV had to be content; in all other directions he was hampered, more or less, by his own creation. The Riksdag refused to sanction his favourite project of a reform of the Swedish army on the Prussian model, for which he laboured all his life, partly from motives of economy, partly from an apprehension of the king's martial tendencies. In 1864 Charles XV had endeavoured to form an anti-Prussian league with Denmark; and after the defeat of Denmark he projected a Scandinavian Union, in order, with the help of France, to oppose Prussian predominance in the north - a policy which naturally collapsed with the overthrow of the French Empire in 1870. He died on September 18, 1872 and was succeeded by his brother, the duke of Ostrogothia, who reigned as Oscar II. Carl XV King of Sweden and Norway Carl XV (Carl Ludvig Eugén) (May 3, 1826 – August 19, 1872) was King of Sweden and Norway (where he was known as Carl IV) from 1859 until his death. ... Charles XV of Sweden The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Charles XV of Sweden The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Oscar I, born Joseph François Oscar Bernadotte (July 4, 1799, Paris–July 8, 1859, Stockholm), was King of Sweden and Norway from 1844 to his death. ... July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... 1859 (MDCCCLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Carl XV King of Sweden and Norway Carl XV (Carl Ludvig Eugén) (May 3, 1826 – August 19, 1872) was King of Sweden and Norway (where he was known as Carl IV) from 1859 until his death. ... Louis De Geer. ... 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar). ... The Riksdag or Sveriges Riksdag is the Parliament of Sweden. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Riksdag or Sveriges Riksdag is the Parliament of Sweden. ... Swedish Army - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1894-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Old Prussian: Prūsa; Polish: ) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe named after the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Oscar II (Oscar Fredrik) (January 21, 1829 – December 8, 1907) was King of Sweden and Norway from 1872 until his death. ...


State of the Union

Flag of Sweden 1844-1905
Flag of Sweden 1844-1905

The relations with Norway during King Oscar's reign had great influence on political life in Sweden, and more than once it seemed as if the union between the two countries was on the point of being wrecked. The dissensions chiefly had their origin in the demand by Norway for separate consuls and foreign ministers. They had, according to the constitution of 1814, the right to a separate consulate office, but had not established it both because of financial reasons and because the Swedish consuls generally did a satisfactory job of representing Norway. At last, after vain negotiations and discussions, the Swedish government in 1895 gave notice to Norway that the commercial treaty which until then had existed between the two countries and would lapse in July 1897 would, according to a decision in the Riksdag, cease, and as Norway at the time had raised the customs duties, a considerable diminution in the exports of Sweden to Norway took place. Count Lewenhaupt, the Swedish minister of foreign affairs, who was considered as too friendly towards the Norwegians, resigned and was replaced by Count Ludvig Douglas, who represented the opinion of the majority in the First Chamber. However, when the Norwegian Storting, for the third time, passed a bill for a national or "pure" flag, which King Oscar eventually sanctioned, Count Douglas resigned in his turn and was succeeded by the Swedish minister at Berlin, Lagerheim, who managed to pilot the questions of the union into more quiet waters. He succeeded all the better as the new elections to the Riksdag of 1900 showed clearly that the Swedish people were not inclined to follow the ultraconservative or so-called "patriotic" party, which resulted in the resignation of the two leaders of that party, Professor Oscar Alin and Count Marshall Patrick Reutersvärd as members of the First Chamber. On the other hand, ex-Professor E. Carlson, of the Gothenburg University, succeeded in forming a party of Liberals and Radicals to the number of about 90 members, who besides being in favour of the extension of the franchise, advocated the full equality of Norway with Sweden in the management of foreign affairs. Image File history File links Swedish_norwegian_union_flag. ... Image File history File links Swedish_norwegian_union_flag. ... Oscar II (Oscar Fredrik) (January 21, 1829 – December 8, 1907) was King of Sweden and Norway from 1872 until his death. ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Riksdag or Sveriges Riksdag is the Parliament of Sweden. ... This article is part of the Politics of Norway series. ... For other uses, see Berlin (disambiguation). ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday. ... Gothenburg University, or Göteborgs universitet, is a university in Gothenburg, Sweden. ...

Flag of Norway 1844-1898
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Flag of Norway 1844-1898

The state of quietude which for some time prevailed with regard to the relations with Norway was not, however, to be of long duration. The question of separate consuls for Norway soon came up again. In 1902 the Swedish government proposed that negotiations in this matter should be opened with the Norwegian government, and that a joint committee, consisting of representatives from both countries, should be appointed to consider the question of a separate consular service without in any way interfering with the existing administration of the diplomatic affairs of the two countries. The result of the negotiations was published in a so-called "communiqué", dated March 24, 1903 in which, among other things, it was proposed that the relations of the separate consuls to the joint ministry of foreign affairs and the embassies should be arranged by identical laws, which could not be altered or repealed without the consent of the governments of the two countries. The proposal for these identical laws, which the Norwegian government in May 1904 submitted, did not meet with the approval of the Swedish government. The latter in their reply proposed that the Swedish foreign minister should have such control over the Norwegian consuls as to prevent the latter from exceeding their authority. However, the Norwegian government found this proposal unacceptable, and explained that, if such control were insisted upon, all further negotiations would be purposeless. They maintained that the Swedish demands were incompatible with the sovereignty of Norway, as the foreign minister was a Swede and the proposed Norwegian consular service, as a Norwegian institution, could not be placed under a foreign authority. A new proposal by the Swedish government was likewise rejected, and in February 1905 the Norwegians broke off the negotiations. Notwithstanding this an agreement did not appear to be out of the question. All efforts to solve the consular question by itself had failed, but it was considered that an attempt might be made to establish separate consuls in combination with a joint administration of diplomatic affairs on a full unionistic basis. Crown Prince Gustaf, who during the illness of King Oscar was appointed regent, took the initiative of renewing the negotiations between the two countries, and on April 5 in a combined Swedish and Norwegian Council of State made a proposal for a reform both of the administration of diplomatic affairs and of the consular service on the basis of full equality between the two kingdoms, with the express reservation, however, of a joint foreign minister — Swedish or Norwegian — as a condition for the existence of the union. This proposal was approved of by the Swedish Riksdag on May 3, 1905. In order that no obstacles should be placed in the way for renewed negotiations, Gustav Boström, the Prime Minister, resigned and was succeeded by Johan Ramstedt. The proposed negotiations were not, however, renewed. Image File history File links Norge-Unionsflagg-1844. ... Image File history File links Norge-Unionsflagg-1844. ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in Leap years). ... 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Gustav IV Adolf (1778-1837), king of Sweden, of the house Holstein-Gottorp, was the son of Gustav III of Sweden and Sophia Magdalena of Denmark, and born at Stockholm on November 1, 1778. ... Oscar II (Oscar Fredrik) (January 21, 1829 – December 8, 1907) was King of Sweden and Norway from 1872 until his death. ... // High public office A regent, from the Latin regens who reigns is anyone who acts as head of state, especially if not the monarch (who has higher titles). ... April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... The Swedish Senate: Riksrådet, from 1809 Statsrådet, from 1975 Regeringen was and is the principal government institution of Sweden The Swedish Senate, Senatus Regni Sueciae, originated as a council of Regional Magnates acting as advisers to the Monarch of the combined Realms of the Swedes (from 996, approximately). ... The Riksdag or Sveriges Riksdag is the Parliament of Sweden. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Prime Minister or Statsminister is the head of Government in Sweden. ... Johan Ramstedt Johan Olof Ramstedt (7 November 1852 – 15 March 1935) was a Swedish politician who served as Prime Minister of Sweden from 14 April to 2 August 1905. ...


Dissolution of the Union

On May 23 the Norwegian Storting passed the government's proposal for the establishment of separate Norwegian consuls, and as King Oscar, who again had resumed the reins of government, made use of his constitutional right to veto the bill, the Norwegian ministry tendered their resignation. The king, however, declared he could not now accept their resignation, whereupon the ministry at a sitting of the Norwegian Storting on June 7 placed their resignation in its hands. The Storting thereupon unanimously adopted a resolution stating that, as the king had declared himself unable to form a government, the constitutional royal power "ceased to be operative", whereupon the ministers were requested, until further instructions, to exercise the power vested in the king, and as King Oscar thus had ceased to act as "the king of Norway", the union with Sweden was in consequence dissolved. Postcard with photo of Prince Carl of Denmark, candidate for king. ... May 23 is the 143rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (144th in leap years). ... This article is part of the Politics of Norway series. ... Oscar II (Oscar Fredrik) (January 21, 1829 – December 8, 1907) was King of Sweden and Norway from 1872 until his death. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ...

Swedish union flag 1844-1905
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Swedish union flag 1844-1905
The peace monument of Karlstad was erected on the city square in 1955, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the dissolution of the union
The peace monument of Karlstad was erected on the city square in 1955, commemorating the 50th anniversary of the dissolution of the union

In Sweden, where they were least of all prepared for the turn things had taken, the action of the Storting created the greatest surprise and resentment. The king solemnly protested against what had taken place and summoned an extraordinary session of the Riksdag for June 20 to consider what measures should be taken, with regard to the question of the union, which had arisen suddenly through the revolt of the Norwegians on June 7. The Riksdag declared that it was not opposed to negotiations being entered upon regarding the conditions for the dissolution of the union if the Norwegian Storting, after a new election, made a proposal for the repeal of the Act of Union between the two countries, or if a proposal to this effect was made by Norway after the Norwegian people, through a plebiscite, had declared in favour of the dissolution of the union. The Riksdag further resolved that 100 million kronor should be held in readiness and be available as the Riksdag might decide. On the resignation of the Ramstedt ministry Mr. Lundeberg formed a coalition ministry consisting of members of the various parties in the Riksdag, after which the Riksdag was prorogued on August 3. Download high resolution version (480x640, 69 KB)from Swedish Wikipedia, photo by Tubaist File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 69 KB)from Swedish Wikipedia, photo by Tubaist File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 322 KB) Summary An image of the peace monument of Karlstad, erected 50 years after the dissolution of the union between Sweden and Norway. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 322 KB) Summary An image of the peace monument of Karlstad, erected 50 years after the dissolution of the union between Sweden and Norway. ... June 20 is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 194 days remaining. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... The krona (currency code SEK) has been the currency of Sweden since 1873. ... Johan Ramstedt Johan Olof Ramstedt (7 November 1852 – 15 March 1935) was a Swedish politician who served as Prime Minister of Sweden from 14 April to 2 August 1905. ... Christian Lundeberg Christian Lundeberg (14 July 1842 – 10 November 1911) was a Swedish politician who served as Prime Minister of Sweden from 2 August to 7 November 1905. ... August 3 is the 215th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (216th in leap years), with 150 days remaining. ...


After the plebiscite in Norway on the August 13 had decided in favour of the dissolution of the union with 368,392 votes against 184 votes, and after the Storting had requested the Swedish government to co-operate with it for the repeal of the Act of Union, a conference of delegates from both countries was convened at Karlstad on August 31. On September 23 the delegates came to an agreement, the principal points of which were: that such disputes between the two countries which could not be settled by direct diplomatic negotiations, and which did not affect the vital interests of either country, should be referred to the permanent court of arbitration at The Hague, that on either side of the southern frontier a neutral zone of about fifteen kilometres width should be established, and that within eight months the fortifications within the Norwegian part of the zone should be destroyed. Other clauses dealt with the rights of the Laplanders to graze their reindeer alternatively in either country, and with the question of transport of goods across the frontier by rail or other means of communication, so that the traffic should not be hampered by any import or export prohibitions or otherwise. August 13 is the 225th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (226th in leap years), with 140 days remaining. ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... Arms of The Hague Flag of The city of The Hague. ... The Sami people (also Sámi, Saami, Lapps and Laplanders) are the indigenous people of Sápmi, which encompasses parts of northern Sweden, Norway, Finland and the Kola Peninsula of Russia. ...


From October 2 to 19 the extraordinary Riksdag was again assembled, and eventually approved of the arrangement come to by the delegates at Karlstad with regard to the dissolution of the union as well ordinary as the government proposal for the repeal of the Act of Union and the recognition of Norway as an independent state. An alteration in the Swedish flag was also decided upon, by which the mark of union was to be replaced by an azure-blue square. An offer from the Norwegian Storting to elect a prince of the Swedish royal house as king in Norway was declined by King Oscar, who now on behalf of himself and his successors renounced the right to the Norwegian crown. Mr Lundeberg, who had accepted office only to settle the question of the dissolution of the union, now resigned and was succeeded by a Liberal government with Mr Karl Staaff as prime minister. October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Flag ratio: 5:8 The merchant flag of Sweden (1844-1905), with the Sweden-Norway union badge. ... The House of Bernadotte, the current Royal House of the Kingdom of Sweden, has reigned since 1818. ... Oscar II (Oscar Fredrik) (January 21, 1829 – December 8, 1907) was King of Sweden and Norway from 1872 until his death. ... Karl Albert Staaff (21 January 1860 – 4 October 1915), liberal politician lawyer, member of the swedish parliaments II Cabinet 1896-1915 , Leader of Liberala samlingspartiet 1907-15, prime minister 1905-06 and 1911-14. ...


See also

The Union Dissolution Day, observed in Norway on 7 June (though not a public holiday), is marked in remembrance of the Norwegian parliaments 1905 declaration of dissolving the union with Sweden, a personal union which had existed since 1814. ... // Etymology According to traditional Icelandic sagas, the Nor in Norway is from king Nor Thorrasson (See Orkneyinga saga. ... This is a history of the Kingdom of Denmark and the areas comprising modern day Denmark. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Derry, T.K. (1973). A History of Modern Norway; 1814—1972. Clarendon Presss, Oxford. ISBN 0-19-822503-2.
  2. ^ Gjerset, Knut (1915). History of the Norwegian People, Volumes II. The MacMillan Company. ISBN none.
  3. ^ Prestegjeld is an geographic and administrative district in the Norwegian State Church.
  4. ^ Derry, T.K. (1960). A Short History of Norway. George Allen & Unwin. ISBN none.
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

 
 

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