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Encyclopedia > Uniform Crime Reports
Federal Bureau of Investigation

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The Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) contain official data on crime that is reported to law enforcement agencies across the United States, who then provide the data to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). UCR focuses on index crimes, which include murder and non-negligent manslaughter, robbery, forcible rape, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny/theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson. UCR is a summary-based reporting system, with data aggregated to the city, county, state, and other geographic levels. Crime statistics are compiled from UCR data and published annually by the FBI in the Crime in the United States series. To address limitations of UCR, the FBI has developed the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) system, which is slowly being deployed by law enforcement agencies. Image File history File links Information_icon. ... // At present, the FBI has investigative jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes and is second to only the United States Marshal Service in terms of law enforcement jurisdiction (although the USMS by practice relegates itself to judicial duties, making the FBI the de-facto lead... Image File history File links Federal Bureau of Investigation seal. ... Robert Swan Mueller III (born August 7, 1944) is the current Director of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... DOJ headquarters in Washington, D.C. Justice Department redirects here. ... The FBI Academy is located in Quantico, Virginia. ... The FBI Laboratory is a division within the FBI. The lab is located in the J. Edgar Hoover Building. ... The Criminal Justice Information Services Division (CJIS) is a divions of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... The Behavioral Analysis Unit or BAU, is a division of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... The Critical Incident Response Group (or CIRG) is the part of the Federal Bureau of Investigation which facilitates the FBIs rapid response to, and the management of, crisis incidents. ... The FBI Counterterrorism Division is the division of the FBI that deals with terrorist threats inside the United States. ... The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin is published monthly by the FBI, with articles of interest to state and local law enforcement personnel. ... The Hostage Rescue Team (HRT) is the United States Federal Bureau of Investigations Counter-Terrorism tactical unit. ... The Joint Terrorism Task Force is a section of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation charged with taking action against terrorism. ... The National Security Service is to be an office within the Federal Bureau of Investigation that will consolidate the bureaus counterterrorism, counterintelligence, and intelligence duties. ... Directors of the Federal Bureau of Investigation are appointed by the President of the United States. ... The United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) operates 56 field offices in major cities across the U.S. Many of these offices are further subdivided into smaller resident agencies which have jurisdiction over a specific area. ... COINTELPRO (Counter Intelligence Program) is a program of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation aimed at investigating and disrupting dissident political organizations within the United States. ... National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) is an incident-based reporting system used by law enforcement agencies for collecting and reporting data on crimes. ... The FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list arose from a conversation held in late 1949, during a game of Hearts between J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation, and William Kinsey Hutchinson,[1] International News Service (the predecessor of the United Press International) Editor-in... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... W. Mark Felt on the set of CBSs Face the Nation in 1976. ... Joseph Leo Gormley was the chief of chemistry and toxicology for the FBI. Born in Clinton, Massachusetts, he was raised in Somerville, Massachusetts. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Police are public servants of a city, town, municipality, county, or state, with the responsibility of maintaining law and order (law enforcement). ... // At present, the FBI has investigative jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes and is second to only the United States Marshal Service in terms of law enforcement jurisdiction (although the USMS by practice relegates itself to judicial duties, making the FBI the de-facto lead... Aggravated assault is a form of violent crime. ... In the United States, larceny is a common law crime involving stealing. ... Everyday instance of theft: the bike which fits on this wheel has disappeared. ... Motor vehicle theft is a crime of theft. ... The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ... National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) is an incident-based reporting system used by law enforcement agencies for collecting and reporting data on crimes. ...

Contents

History of the UCR

The UCR Program was based upon work by the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) throughout the 1920s to create a uniform national set of crime statistics, reliable for analysis. In 1927, the IACP created the Committee on Uniform Crime Reporting to determine standards for national comparisons. The committee determined seven crimes fundamental to comparing crime rates: murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, burglary, aggravated assault, larceny and motor vehicle theft (the eighth, arson, was added under a congressional directive in 1978). The early program was managed by the IACP, prior to FBI involvement, done through a monthly report. The first report in January of 1930 reported data from 400 cities throughout 43 states, coving more than 20 million individuals, approximately twenty percent of the total U.S. population. [1] For other uses of the acronym IACP, please see the IACP disambiguation page. ...


June 11, 1930, through IACP lobbying, the United States Congress passed legislation enacting 28 USC §534, which granting the office of the Attorney General the ability to “acquire, collect, classify, and preserve identification, criminal identification, crime, and other records” with the ability appoint officials to oversee this duty, including the subordinate members of the Bureau of Investigation. In 1930, full authority was passed to the Bureau of Investigation, which was renamed numerous times throughout the 1930’s eventually becoming the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935, the July 1930 issue of the IACP crime report serving as notice of the FBI’s takeover of the program. While the IACP discontinued oversight of the program, they continued to advise the FBI to better the UCR. June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link is to a full 1930 calendar). ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate Dick Cheney, R, since January 20, 2001 Speaker of the House Dennis Hastert, R, since January 6, 1999 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of January 4, 2005 elections) Democratic Party Republican Party... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see ) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ...


Since 1935, the FBI served as a data clearinghouse; organizing, collecting, and disseminating information voluntarily submitted by local, state, federal and tribal law enforcement agencies. The UCR remained the primary tool for collection and analysis of data for the next half century. Throughout the 1980s, a series of National UCR Conferences were with members from the IACP, Department of Justice, including the FBI, and newly formed Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). The purpose was to determine necessary system revisions and then implement them. The result of these conferences was the release of a “Blueprint for the Future of the Uniform Crime Reporting Program” release in May 1985, detailing the necessary revisions. The report proposed splitting reported data into two separate categories, the eight ‘serious’ crimes and twenty-one less commonly reported crimes. The eight serious crimes became known as Part I index crimes. The additional twenty-one crimes are considered Part II index crimes. A clearing house is an organization affiliated with a securities or derivatives exchange that completes the transactions on that exchange by seeing to validation, delivery, and settlement. ... The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) is a department of the US Department of Justice which is responsible for maintaining criminal justice data and statistics. ...


In 2003, FBI UCR data were compiled from more than 16,000 agencies, representing 93 percent of the population [2] in forty seven states [3]. While nationally reporting is not mandated, many states have instituted laws requiring law enforcement within those states to provide UCR data. The continued growth an improvement of the UCR is unlikely as the US Department of Justice and other UCR Conference members have decided to integrate the UCR program into the NIBRS program, created in the late 1980s based on the UCR framework. The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans. ...


Data collection

Each month, law enforcement agencies report the number of known index crimes in their jurisdiction to the FBI. This mainly includes crimes reported to the police by the general public, but may also include crimes that police officers discover, and known through other sources. Law enforcement agencies also report the number of crime cases cleared. A police officer is a person who works for a police force. ... A clearance can refer to: a closeout sale in engineering and safety, a physical distance or space tolerance, as in a truck (lorry) or boat under a bridge an authorization or permission from an authority (i. ...


UCR indexes

Violent and Property Crime Indexes per 100,000 population, 2004 Uniform Crime Report
Violent and Property Crime Indexes per 100,000 population, 2004 Uniform Crime Report

For reporting purposes, criminal offenses are divided into two groups: Part I offenses and Part II offenses. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (896x565, 67 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Uniform Crime Reports Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (896x565, 67 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Uniform Crime Reports Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or...


In Part I, the UCR indexes reported incidents in two categories: violent and property crimes. Aggravated assault, forcible rape, murder, and robbery are classified as violent while arson, burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft are classified as property crimes. These are reported via the document named Return A - Monthly Return of Offenses Known to the Police. Aggravated assault is a form of violent crime. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ... In the United States, larceny is a common law crime involving stealing. ... Motor vehicle theft is a crime of theft. ...


In Part II, the following categories are indexed: simple assault, curfew offenses and loitering, embezzlement, forgery and counterfeiting, disorderly conduct, driving under the influence, drug offenses, fraud, gambling, liquor offenses, offenses against the family, prostitution, public drunkenness, runaways, sex offenses, stolen property, vandalism, vagrancy, and weapons offenses. Assault is a crime of violence against another person. ... A curfew can be one of the following: An order by the government for certain persons to return home daily before a certain time. ... Forgery is the process of making or adapting objects or documents (see false document), with the intention to deceive. ... A counterfeit is an imitation that is made with the intent to deceptively represent its content or origins. ... In the criminal law of the United States of America, disorderly conduct is a name given to a rather ill defined crime. ... Drunk driving (drink driving in the UK) or drinking and driving is the act of operating a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol (i. ... These lollipops were found to contain heroin when inspected by the US DEA The illegal drug trade is a global black market activity consisting of production, distribution, packaging and sale of illegal psychoactive substances. ... Gambling has had many different meanings depending on the cultural and historical context in which it is used. ... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... Whore redirects here. ... ... A runaway child is a minor who has left the home of his or her parent or legal guardian without permission. ... Sex crimes are forms of human sexual behavior that are crimes. ... // Use of the term In common usage, property means ones own thing and refers to the relationship between individuals and the objects which they see as being their own to dispense with as they see fit. ... A caricature of Gustave Courbet taking down a Morris column, published by Le Père Duchêne illustré magazine Vandalism is the conspicuous defacement destruction of a structure or symbol against the will of the owner/governing body. ... A vagrant is a person, almost always poor, without a home or regular work. ... The bayonet is used as both knife and spear. ...


Two property reports are also included with the Return A. The first is the Property Stolen by Classification report. This report details the number of actual crimes of each type in the Return A and the monetary value of property stolen in conjunction with that crime. Some offenses are reported in greater detail on this report than on the Return A. For example, on the Report A, burglaries are divided into three categories: Forcible Entry, Unlawful Entry - No Force, and Attempted Forcible Entry. On the Property Stolen by Classification report, burglaries are divided into six categories based on location type and the time of the offense. Offenses are counted in residences with offense times of 6pm to 6am, 6am to 6pm and Unknown Time and Non-residences with the same three time groupings.


The second property report is the Property Stolen by Type and Value report. The monetary value of both stolen and recovered property are totaled and classified as one of eleven property types:

  • Currency, Notes, Etc.
  • Jewelry and Precious Metals
  • Clothing and Furs
  • Locally Stolen Motor Vehicles
  • Office Equipment
  • Televisions, Radios, Stereos, Etc.
  • Firearms
  • Household Goods
  • Consumable Goods
  • Livestock
  • Miscellaneous

The FBI began recording arson rates, as part of the UCR, in 1979. This report details arsons of the following property types:

  • Single Occupancy Residential (houses, townhouses, duplexes, etc)
  • Other Residential (apartments, tenements, flats, hotels, motels, dormitories, etc)
  • Storage (barns, garages, warehouses, etc)
  • Industrial/Manufacturing
  • Other Commercial (stores, restaurants, offices, etc)
  • Community/Public (churches, jails, schools, colleges, hospitals, etc)
  • All Other Structures (out buildings, monuments, buildings under construction, etc)
  • Motor Vehicles (automobiles, trucks, buses, motorcycles, etc)
  • Other Mobile Property (trailers, recreational vehicles, airplanes, boats, etc)
  • Other (crops, timber, fences, signs, etc)

Criticism of the UCR

Critics of the UCR note they do not accurately reflect crime rates in that they can only list crimes reported to law enforcement agencies. Also, should a number of crimes be connected, they only list the most serious one. For instance, if someone were murdered during a car theft, they would only list murder. Lastly, the list is biased in the reporting of rape. The UCR defines forcible rape as, "the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will." It does not list rapes against men, nor does it list same-sex rape. For other uses, see Bias (disambiguation). ...


Criticisms of Statistical Validity

Comparing arrests, reports and unknown violent crime
Comparing arrests, reports and unknown violent crime

The UCR does not include simple assaults in part 1 and minor assaults, verbal assaults and other such crimes, which can account for between 50% and 90% of violent crimes in other countries, are not recorded. poop! Image File history File links Download high resolution version (807x573, 15 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Uniform Crime Reports ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (807x573, 15 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Uniform Crime Reports ...


Differences with and Evolution to NIBRS

Main article: NIBRS

Categories: Possible copyright violations ...

See also

The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) is conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics for the purposes of building a crime index. ... National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) is an incident-based reporting system used by law enforcement agencies for collecting and reporting data on crimes. ... Frequently referred to as The Green Book due to its green cover, the Uniform Crime Reporting Handbook is a publication of the United States Department of Justice and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Geostat Center: Collections: Uniform Crime Reports County Data (494 words)
Other crime data is available in spreadsheet and interactive format from the Bureau of Justice Statistics, including state-level data.
Because not all agencies report data, the population repr esented by a non-reporting agency is not available for aggreagation into the county population total.
Consequently data from earlier year files should not be compared to data from 1994 and subsequent years because changes in procedures used to adjust for incomplete reporting at the ORI or jurisdiction level may be expected to have an impact on aggregates for counties in which some ORIs have not reported for all 12 months.
Phoenix Police Department - Uniform Crime Reporting - Definitions (739 words)
The Crime Index is composed of selected offenses used to gauge fluctuations in the overall volume and rate of crime reported to law enforcement.
The offenses included are the violent crimes of murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery and aggravated assault and the property crimes of burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft and arson.
A hate crime, also known as a bias crime, is a criminal offense committed against a person, property or society that is motivated, in whole or in part, by the offender's bias against a race, religion, ethnic/national origin group or sexual-orientation group.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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