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Encyclopedia > Unicode
Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article.
The Unicode Standard, Version 5.0
Unicode
Encodings
UCS
Mapping
Bi-directional text
BOM
Han unification
Unicode and HTML
Unicode and E-mail
Unicode typefaces

In computer science, Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the world's writing systems. Developed in tandem with the Universal Character Set standard and published in book form as The Unicode Standard, Unicode consists of a repertoire of about 100,000 characters, a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding methodology and set of standard character encodings, an enumeration of character properties such as upper and lower case, a set of reference data computer files, and a number of related items, such as character properties, rules for text normalization, decomposition, collation, rendering and bidirectional display order (for the correct display of text containing both right-to-left scripts, such as Arabic or Hebrew, and left-to-right scripts).[1] An example of a Web browser (Konqueror) A Web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This page compares Unicode encodings. ... UTF-7 (7-bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a variable-length character encoding that was proposed for representing Unicode-encoded text using a stream of ASCII characters, for example for use in Internet e-mail messages. ... UTF-8 (8-bit UCS/Unicode Transformation Format) is a variable-length character encoding for Unicode. ... CESU-8 is a variant of UTF-8 that is described in Unicode Technical Report 26. ... In computing, UTF-16 is a variable-length (16 or 32 bits) character encoding. ... UTF-32 and UCS-4 are alternate names for a method of encoding Unicode characters, using the fixed amount of exactly 32 bits for each Unicode code point. ... UTF-EBCDIC is an encoding of Unicode that is meant to be EBCDIC friendly so that some older EBCDIC applications can handle some Unicode data. ... The Standard Compression Scheme for Unicode (SCSU) is a Unicode Technical Standard to reduce the number of bytes needed to represent text, especially if that text uses mostly characters from a small number of Unicode blocks. ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer. ... Example of Arabic IDN Example of Chinese IDN Example of Greek IDN Example of Hebrew IDN Example of Hindi IDN An internationalized domain name (IDN) is an Internet domain name that (potentially) contains non-ASCII characters. ... GB18030 is the registered Internet name for the official character set of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) superseding GB2312. ... The international standard ISO/IEC 10646 defines the Universal Character Set (UCS) as a character encoding. ... Unicode’s Universal Character Set potentially supports over 1 million code points (1,114,112 = 220 + 216 or 17 × 216, hexadecimal 110000) code points. ... Some writing systems of the world, such as Arabic and Hebrew, are written in a form known as right-to-left (RTL), in which writing begins at the right-hand side of a page and concludes at the left-hand side. ... A Byte Order Mark (BOM) is the character at code point U+FEFF (zero-width no-break space), when that character is used to denote the endianness of a string of UCS/Unicode characters encoded in UTF-16 or UTF-32 and/or as a marker to indicate that text... Han unification is the process used by the authors of Unicode and the Universal Character Set to map multiple character sets of the CJK languages into a single set of unified characters. ... The relationship between Unicode and HTML tends to be a difficult topic for many computer professionals, document authors, and web users alike. ... Many e-mail clients are now able to use Unicode. ... Unicode typefaces (also known as UCS fonts and Unicode fonts) contains wide range of characters, letters, digits, glyphs, symbols, ideograms, logograms, etc, which are collectively mapped into Universal Character Set, also known as, UCS (which is an international standard ISO/IEC 10646), derived from many different languages, scripts from all... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... Standardization or standardisation (sometimes abbreviated s13n), in the context related to technologies and industries, is the process of establishing a technical standard among competing entities in a market, where this will bring benefits without hurting competition. ... This article is about the machine. ... In computer and machine-based telecommunications terminology, a character is a unit of information that roughly corresponds to a grapheme or a grapheme-like unit or symbol, such as in an alphabet or syllabary in the written form of a natural language. ... A writing system, also called a script, is used to visually record a language with symbols. ... The international standard ISO/IEC 10646 defines the Universal Character Set (UCS) as a character encoding. ... A character encoding or character set (sometimes referred to as code page) consists of a code that pairs a sequence of characters from a given set with something else, such as a sequence of natural numbers, octets or electrical pulses, in order to facilitate the storage of text in computers... In orthography and typography, letter case (or just case) is the distinction between majuscule (capital or upper-case) and minuscule (lower-case) letters. ... A computer file is a collection of information that is stored in a computer system and can be identified by its full path name. ... Text normalization is a process by which text is transformed in some way to make it consistent in some way which it may not have been before. ... Alphabetical redirects here. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ...


The Unicode Consortium, the non-profit organization that coordinates Unicode's development, has the ambitious goal of eventually replacing existing character encoding schemes with Unicode and its standard Unicode Transformation Format (UTF) schemes, as many of the existing schemes are limited in size and scope and are incompatible with multilingual environments. In computing, Unicode is the international standard whose goal is to provide the means to encode the text of every document people want to store in computers. ... -1...


Unicode's success at unifying character sets has led to its widespread and predominant use in the internationalization and localization of computer software. The standard has been implemented in many recent technologies, including XML, the Java programming language and modern operating systems. Internationalization and localization[1] are means of adapting products such as publications, hardware or software for non-native environments, especially other nations and cultures. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Computer program. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ... “Java language” redirects here. ... // An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer. ...

Contents

Origin and development

Unicode has the explicit aim of transcending the limitations of traditional character encodings, such as those defined by the ISO 8859 standard which find wide usage in various countries of the world but remain largely incompatible with each other. Many traditional character encodings share a common problem in that they allow bilingual computer processing (usually using Roman characters and the local language) but not multilingual computer processing (computer processing of arbitrary languages mixed with each other). A character encoding or character set (sometimes referred to as code page) consists of a code that pairs a sequence of characters from a given set with something else, such as a sequence of natural numbers, octets or electrical pulses, in order to facilitate the storage of text in computers... ISO 8859, more formally ISO/IEC 8859, is a joint ISO and IEC standard for 8-bit character encodings for use by computers. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world. ...


Unicode, in intent, encodes the underlying charactersgraphemes and grapheme-like units — rather than the variant glyphs (renderings) for such characters. In the case of Chinese characters, this sometimes leads to controversies over distinguishing the underlying character from its variant glyphs (see Han unification). In typography, a grapheme is the atomic unit in written language. ... variant glyphs representing the character a (allographs of a) in the Zapfino typeface. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Hantu: A Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Han unification is the process used by the authors of Unicode and the Universal Character Set to map multiple character sets of the CJK languages into a single set of unified characters. ...


In text processing, Unicode takes the role of providing a unique code point — a number, not a glyph — for each character. In other words, Unicode represents a character in an abstract way and leaves the visual rendering (size, shape, font or style) to other software, such as a web browser or word processor. This simple aim becomes complicated, however, by concessions made by Unicode's designers in the hope of encouraging a more rapid adoption of Unicode. A font can mean: A member of a typeface family; or digital font - file format that encapsulates a typeface family in a database. ... An example of a Web browser (Konqueror) A Web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ... A word processor (also more formally known as a document preparation system) is a computer application used for the production (including composition, editing, formatting, and possibly printing) of any sort of viewable or printed material. ...


The first 256 code points were made identical to the content of ISO 8859-1 so as to make it trivial to convert existing western text. A lot of essentially identical characters were encoded multiple times at different code points to preserve distinctions used by legacy encodings and therefore allow conversion from those encodings to Unicode (and back) without losing any information. For example, the "fullwidth forms" section of code points encompasses a full Latin alphabet that is separate from the main Latin alphabet section. In Chinese, Japanese and Korean (CJK) fonts, these characters are rendered at the same width as CJK ideographs rather than at half the width. For other examples, see Duplicate characters in Unicode. ISO 8859-1, more formally cited as ISO/IEC 8859-1 or less formally as Latin-1, is part 1 of ISO/IEC 8859, a standard character encoding originally developed by ISO, but later jointly maintained by ISO and IEC. The standard, when supplemented with additional character assignments, is the... In CJK computing, graphic characters are traditionally classed into fullwidth (in Taiwan and Hong Kong: 全形; elsewhere: 全角) and halfwidth (in Taiwan and Hong Kong: 半形; elsewhere: 半角) characters. ... CJK is a collective term for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, which comprise the main East Asian languages. ... A Chinese character. ... Unicode has a certain ammount of duplication due to aiming to allow legacy encodings to be converted to unicode without losing any information. ...


Standard

The Unicode Consortium, based in California, develops the Unicode standard. Any company or individual willing to pay the membership dues may join this organization. Members include virtually all of the main computer software and hardware companies with any interest in text-processing standards, such as Adobe Systems, Apple, HP, IBM, Microsoft, Xerox and many others. In computing, Unicode is the international standard whose goal is to provide the means to encode the text of every document people want to store in computers. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Adobe Systems (pronounced a-DOE-bee IPA: ) (NASDAQ: ADBE) (LSE: ABS) is an American computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California, USA. Adobe was founded in December 1982[1] by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who established the company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell... Apple Inc. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... International Business Machines Corporation (IBM, or colloquially, Big Blue) (NYSE: IBM) (incorporated June 15, 1911, in operation since 1888) is headquartered in Armonk, New York, USA. The company manufactures and sells computer hardware, software, and services. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) (name pronounced ) is a global document management company, which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. ...


The Consortium first published The Unicode Standard (ISBN 0-321-18578-1) in 1991, and continues to develop standards based on that original work. Unicode is developed in conjunction with the International Organization for Standardization and shares the character repertoire with ISO/IEC 10646: the Universal Character Set. Unicode and ISO/IEC 10646 function equivalently as character encodings, but The Unicode Standard contains much more information for implementers, covering — in depth — topics such as bitwise encoding, collation and rendering. The Unicode Standard enumerates a multitude of character properties, including those needed for supporting bidirectional text. The two standards do use slightly different terminology. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Universal Character Set is a character encoding that is defined by the international standard ISO/IEC 10646. ... The Unicode collation algorithm provides a standard way to put names, words or strings of text in sequence according to the needs of a particular situation. ... Some writing systems of the world, such as Arabic and Hebrew, are written in a form known as right-to-left (RTL), in which writing begins at the right-hand side of a page and concludes at the left-hand side. ...


In 2005, the 100,000th character to be entered into the pipeline for standardisation was the MALAYALAM PRASLESHAM. It was encoded based on the contribution by Rachana Akshara Vedi.


Unicode revisions thus far:

  • Unicode 1.0: October 1991[2]
  • Unicode 1.0.1: June 1992[3]
  • Unicode 1.1: June 1993[4]
  • Unicode 2.0: July 1996[5]
  • Unicode 2.1: May 1998
  • Unicode 2.1.2: May 1998[6]
  • Unicode 3.0: September 1999. Covered 16-bit UCS Basic Multilingual Plane from ISO 10646-1:2000.[7]
  • Unicode 3.1: March 2001. Added Supplementary Planes from ISO 10646-2, providing supplementary characters
  • Unicode 3.2: March 2002
  • Unicode 4.0: April 2003[8]
  • Unicode 4.0.1: March 2004
  • Unicode 4.1: March 2005
  • Unicode 5.0: July 2006[9]
  • Unicode 5.1: expected early or mid 2008

Unicode reserves 1,114,112 (= 220 + 216) code points, and currently assigns characters to more than 96,000 of those code points. ... Unicode’s Universal Character Set potentially supports over 1 million code points (1,114,112 = 220 + 216 or 17 × 216, hexadecimal 110000) code points. ...

Scripts covered

Unicode covers almost all scripts (writing systems) in current use today.[10] Writing systems of the world today. ...


Although more than 30 writing systems (alphabets, syllabaries, and others) are included in Unicode, there remain many more still awaiting encoding. Further additions of characters to the already-encoded scripts, as well as symbols, in particular for mathematics and music (in the form of notes and rhythmic symbols), also occur. Michael Everson, Rick McGowan, and Ken Whistler maintain the list of such scripts and their tentative code block assignments on the Unicode Consortium Web site, at Unicode Roadmap. For some scripts on the Roadmap, encoding proposals have been made and are working their way through the approval process. For others, no proposal can be made until the scholarly communities involved can agree on the character repertoire and other details. Writing systems of the world today. ... An alphabet is a complete standardized set of letters—basic written symbols—each of which roughly represents a phoneme of a spoken language, either as it exists now or as it may have been in the past. ... A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent (or approximate) syllables, which make up words. ... Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Michael Everson Michael Everson (born January 9, 1963) is a self-styled expert in the writing systems of the world. ... In computing, Unicode is the international standard whose goal is to provide the means to encode the text of every document people want to store in computers. ...


Among the scripts awaiting encoding are Egyptian Hieroglyphics, Babylonian and other cuneiforms, Phoenician, and Mayan, together with lesser-known scripts of Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Many of them are not understood, such as the Rongorongo of Easter Island, Linear A of Crete, and Meroitic of the Upper Nile. It has been suggested that Hieroglyph (French Wiki article) be merged into this article or section. ... “Cuneiform” redirects here. ... The Phoenician alphabet is a continuation of the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, by convention taken to begin with a cut-off date of 1050 BCE. It was used by the Phoenicians to write Phoenician, a Northern Semitic language. ... Maya hieroglyphics is the common name for the system of writing which was used by the pre-Columbian Maya civilization of the Mesoamerican region. ... Rongorongo or ko hau rongo rongo (Rapa Nui kohau rongorongo wooden messenger, talking wood) is the undeciphered script of Easter Island. ... “Rapa Nui” redirects here. ... Linear A incised on tablets found in Akrotiri, Santorini. ... Crete (Greek Κρήτη — classical transliteration KrÄ“tÄ“, modern Greek transliteration Kríti; Ottoman Turkish گريد (Girit); Classical Latin CrÄ“ta, Vulgar Latin Candia) is the largest of the Greek islands at 8,336 km² (3,219 square miles) and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean. ... The Meroitic script is an alphabet of Egyptian (Hieroglyphic) origin used in Kingdom of Meroë. Some scholars, e. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ...


Invented scripts, most of which do not qualify for inclusion in Unicode due to lack of real-world usage, are listed in the ConScript Unicode Registry, along with unofficial but widely-used Private Use Area code assignments. Similarly, many medieval letter variants and ligatures not in Unicode are encoded in the Medieval Unicode Font Initiative. In 1997 Michael Everson made a proposal to encode the characters of the artificial Klingon language in Plane 1 of ISO/IEC 10646-2.[11] The Unicode Consortium rejected this proposal in 2001 as "inappropriate for encoding" — not because of any technical inadequacy, but because users of Klingon normally read, write and exchange data in Latin transliteration. Proposals suggested the inclusion of the elvish scripts Tengwar and Cirth from J. R. R. Tolkien's fictional Middle-earth setting in Plane 1 in 1993.[12] The Consortium withdrew the draft to incorporate changes suggested by Tolkienists, and as of 2005 it remains under consideration. Both Klingon and the Tolkien scripts have assignments in the ConScript Unicode Registry. The ConScript Unicode Registry is a volunteer project to coordinate the assignment of code points in the Unicode Private Use Area for the encoding of artificial scripts. ... Unicode reserves 1,114,112 (= 220 + 216) code points, and currently assigns characters to more than 96,000 of those code points. ... In digital typography, the Medieval Unicode Font Initiative (MUFI) is a project which aims to coördinate the encoding and display of special characters in Medieval texts written in the Latin alphabet, which are not encoded as part of Unicode. ... Michael Everson Michael Everson (born January 9, 1963) is a self-styled expert in the writing systems of the world. ... The Klingon language (tlhIngan Hol in Klingon) is the constructed language spoken by Klingons in the fictional Star Trek universe. ... The Universal Character Set is a character encoding that is defined by the international standard ISO/IEC 10646. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens legendarium, an Elf is an individual member of one of the races that inhabit the lands of Arda. ... First article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (in English) The Tengwar are an artificial script which was invented by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...   This chart showing the runes shared by the Angerthas Daeron and Angerthas Moria is presented in Appendix E of The Return of the King. ... J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916. ... A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ... Tolkien fandom is an international, informal community of fans of the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, especially of the Middle-earth legendarium which includes The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit and The Silmarillion. ...


Mapping and encodings

See also: Mapping of Unicode characters

Several mechanisms have been specified for implementing Unicode; which one implementers choose depends on available storage space, source code compatibility, and interoperability with other systems. Unicode’s Universal Character Set potentially supports over 1 million code points (1,114,112 = 220 + 216 or 17 × 216, hexadecimal 110000) code points. ... Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ...


Unicode defines two mapping methods: the Unicode Transformation Format (UTF) encodings, and the Universal Character Set (UCS) encodings. An encoding maps (possibly a subset of) the range of Unicode code points to sequences of values in some fixed-size range, termed code values. The numbers in the names of the encodings indicate the number of bits in one code value (for UTF encodings) or the number of bytes per code value (for UCS) encodings. UTF-8 and UTF-16 are probably the most commonly used encodings. UCS-2 is an obsolete subset of UTF-16; UCS-4 and UTF-32 are functionally equivalent. UTF-8 (8-bit UCS/Unicode Transformation Format) is a variable-length character encoding for Unicode. ... The international standard ISO/IEC 10646 defines the Universal Character Set (UCS) as a character encoding. ...


UTF encodings include:

  • UTF-7 — a relatively unpopular 7-bit encoding, often considered obsolete (not part of The Unicode Standard but rather an RFC)
  • UTF-8 — an 8-bit, variable-width encoding, which maximizes compatibility with ASCII.
  • UTF-EBCDIC — an 8-bit variable-width encoding, which maximizes compatibility with EBCDIC. (not part of The Unicode Standard)
  • UTF-16 — a 16-bit, variable-width encoding
  • UTF-32 — a 32-bit, fixed-width encoding

UTF-8 uses one to four bytes per code point and, being compact for Latin scripts and ASCII-compatible, provides the de facto standard encoding for interchange of Unicode text. It is also used by most recent Linux distributions as a direct replacement for legacy encodings in general text handling. UTF-7 (7-bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a variable-length character encoding that was proposed for representing Unicode-encoded text using a stream of ASCII characters, for example for use in Internet e-mail messages. ... UTF-8 (8-bit UCS/Unicode Transformation Format) is a variable-length character encoding for Unicode. ... Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... UTF-EBCDIC is an encoding of Unicode that is meant to be EBCDIC friendly so that some older EBCDIC applications can handle some Unicode data. ... EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) is an 8-bit character encoding (code page) used on IBM mainframe operating systems, like z/OS, OS/390, VM and VSE, as well as IBM minicomputer operating systems like OS/400 and i5/OS. It is also employed on various non-IBM... In computing, UTF-16 is a 16-bit Unicode Transformation Format, a character encoding form that provides a way to represent a series of abstract characters from Unicode and ISO/IEC 10646 as a series of 16-bit words suitable for storage or transmission via data networks. ... UTF-32 is a method of encoding Unicode characters, using a fixed amount of 32 bits for each character. ... A Linux distribution or GNU/Linux distribution (or a distro) is a Unix-like operating system plus application software comprising the Linux kernel, the GNU operating system, assorted free software and sometimes proprietary software, all created by individuals, groups or organizations from around the world. ...


The UCS-2 and UTF-16 encodings specify the Unicode Byte Order Mark (BOM) for use at the beginnings of text files, which may be used for byte ordering detection (or byte endianness detection). Some software developers have adopted it for other encodings, including UTF-8, which does not need an indication of byte order. In this case it attempts to mark the file as containing Unicode text. The BOM, code point U+FEFF has the important property of unambiguity on byte reorder, regardless of the Unicode encoding used; U+FFFE (the result of byte-swapping U+FEFF) does not equate to a legal character, and U+FEFF in other places, other than the beginning of text, conveys the zero-width no-break space (a character with no appearance and no effect other than preventing the formation of ligatures). Also, the units FE and FF never appear in UTF-8. The same character converted to UTF-8 becomes the byte sequence EF BB BF. A Byte Order Mark (BOM) is the character at code point U+FEFF (zero-width no-break space), when that character is used to denote the endianness of a string of UCS/Unicode characters encoded in UTF-16 or UTF-32 and/or as a marker to indicate that text... In computing, endianness is the byte (and sometimes bit) ordering in memory used to represent some kind of data. ... In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ... UTF-8 (8-bit UCS/Unicode Transformation Format) is a variable-length character encoding for Unicode. ...


In UTF-32 and UCS-4, one 32-bit code value serves as a fairly direct representation of any character's code point (although the endianness, which varies across different platforms, affects how the code value actually manifests as an octet sequence). In the other cases, each code point may be represented by a variable number of code values. UTF-32 is widely used as internal representation of text in programs (as opposed to stored or transmitted text), since every Unix operating system which uses the gcc compilers to generate software uses it as the standard "wide character" encoding. Recent versions of the python programming language (beginning with 2.2) may also be configured to use UTF-32 as the representation for unicode strings, effectively disseminating such encoding in high-level coded software. The GNU Compiler Collection (usually shortened to GCC) is a set of programming language compilers produced by the GNU Project. ... Python is a high-level programming language first released by Guido van Rossum in 1991. ... A high-level programming language is a programming language that, in comparison to low-level programming languages, may be more abstract, easier to use, or more portable across platforms. ...


Punycode, another encoding form, enables the encoding of Unicode strings into the limited character set supported by the ASCII-based Domain Name System. The encoding is used as part of IDNA, which is a system enabling the use of Internationalized Domain Names in all languages that are supported by Unicode. This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer. ... Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... Example of Arabic IDN Example of Chinese IDN An internationalized domain name (IDN) is an Internet domain name that (potentially) contains non-ASCII characters. ... Example of Arabic IDN Example of Chinese IDN An internationalized domain name (IDN) is an Internet domain name that (potentially) contains non_ASCII characters. ...


GB18030 is another encoding form for Unicode, from the Standardization Administration of China. It is the official character set of the People's Republic of China (PRC). GB18030 is the registered Internet name for the official character set of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... A character encoding is a code that pairs a set of characters (such as an alphabet or syllabary) with a set of something else, such as numbers or electrical pulses. ...


The April Fools' Day RFC of 2005 specified two parody UTF encodings, UTF-9 and UTF-18. Almost every April Fools Day (1 April) since 1989, the Internet Engineering Task Force has published one or more humorous RFC documents, following in the path blazed by the June 1973 RFC 527 entitled ARPAWOCKY. The following list also includes humorous RFCs published on other dates. ... In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... UTF-9 (9-bit Unicode Transformation Format) and UTF-18 (18-bit Unicode Transformation Format) are two specifications for encoding unicode on systems where the nonet (nine bit group) is a better fit for the native word size than the octet such as the PDP-10. ...


Ready-made versus composite characters

Unicode includes a mechanism for modifying character shape and so greatly extending the supported glyph repertoire. This covers the use of combining diacritical marks. They get inserted after the main character (one can stack several combining diacritics over the same character). Unicode also contains precomposed versions of most letter/diacritic combinations in normal use. These make conversion to and from legacy encodings simpler and allow applications to use Unicode as an internal text format without having to implement combining characters. For example é can be represented in Unicode as U+0065 (Latin small letter e) followed by U+0301 (combining acute) but it can also be represented as the precomposed character U+00E9 (Latin small letter e with acute). So in many cases, users have many ways of encoding the same character. To deal with this, Unicode provides the mechanism of canonical equivalence. Combining diacritical marks are Unicode characters that are intended to modify other characters (see Diacritic). ... Precomposed character is a Unicode entity that can be decomposed into a canonically equivalent string of several other characters. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Canonical equivalence refers to the state in which two things are in every significant respect identical. ...


An example of this arises with Hangul, the Korean alphabet. Unicode provides the mechanism for composing Hangul syllables with their individual subcomponents, known as Hangul Jamo. However, it also provides all 11,172 combinations of precomposed Hangul syllables. Jamo redirects here. ... Hangul is the native alphabet used to write the Korean language, as opposed to the Hanja system borrowed from China. ...


The CJK ideographs currently have codes only for their precomposed form. Still, most of those ideographs evidently comprise simpler elements (radicals), so in principle Unicode could have decomposed them just as it has happened with Hangul. This would have greatly reduced the number of required code points, while allowing the display of virtually every conceivable ideograph (which might do away with some of the problems caused by the Han unification). A similar idea covers some input methods, such as Cangjie and Wubi. However, attempts to do this for character encoding have stumbled over the fact that ideographs do not actually decompose as simply or as regularly as it seems they should. CJK is a collective term for Chinese, Japanese, and Korean, which comprise the main East Asian languages. ... Jamo redirects here. ... Han unification is the process used by the authors of Unicode and the Universal Character Set to map multiple character sets of the CJK languages into a single set of unified characters. ... An input method editor (IME) is a program or operating system component that allows computer users to enter complex characters and symbols (such as Japanese, Chinese, Tibetan and Korean characters), using a standard Western keyboard. ... The Cangjie method (倉頡輸入法, 仓颉输入法)—originally spelt Changjei method—is a system by which Chinese characters may be entered into the computer. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


A set of radicals was provided in Unicode 3.0 (CJK radicals between U+2E80 and U+2EFF, KangXi radicals in U+2F00 to U+2FDF, and ideographic description characters from U+2FF0 to U+2FFB), but the Unicode standard (ch. 11.1 of Unicode 4.1) warns against using ideographic description sequences as an alternate representation for previously encoded characters: The left part of mā, a Chinese character meaning mother, is a radical that means woman A radical (from Latin radix, meaning root) is a basic identifiable component of every Chinese character. ...

This process is different from a formal encoding of an ideograph. There is no canonical description of unencoded ideographs; there is no semantic assigned to described ideographs; there is no equivalence defined for described ideographs. Conceptually, ideograph descriptions are more akin to the English phrase, “an ‘e’ with an acute accent on it,” than to the character sequence <U+006E, U+0301> [sic; 'e' should be U+0065].

Ligatures

Many scripts, including Arabic and Devanagari, have special orthographic rules which require that certain combinations of letterforms be combined into special ligature forms. The rules governing ligature formation can be quite complex, requiring special script-shaping technologies such as OpenType (by Adobe and Microsoft), Graphite (by SIL International), or AAT (by Apple). Instructions are also embedded in fonts to tell the operating system how to properly output different character sequences. A simple solution to the placement of combining marks or diacritics is assigning the marks a width of zero and placing the glyph itself to the left or right of the left sidebearing (depending on the direction of the script they are intended to be used with). A mark handled this way will appear over whatever character precedes it, but will not adjust its position relative to the width or height of the base glyph; it may be visually awkward and it may overlap some glyphs. Real stacking is impossible, but can be approximated in limited cases (for example, Thai top-combining vowels and tone marks can just be at different heights to start with). Generally this approach is only effective in monospaced fonts but can also be used as a fallback rendering method when more complex methods fail. The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. ... () is an abugida script used to write, either along with other scripts, or exclusively, several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Hindi, Marathi, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Marwari, Konkani, Bhojpuri, languages from Nepal like Nepali, Tharu Nepal Bhasa and sometimes Kashmiri and Romani. ... In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ... OpenType is a scalable computer font format initially developed by Microsoft, later joined by Adobe Systems. ... Graphite is a programmable Unicode-compliant smart-font rendering system developed by SIL International. ... SIL International is a worldwide non-profit evangelical Christian organization whose main purpose is to study, develop and document lesser-known languages in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy and aid minority language development. ... Apple Computer has been attentive to the typefaces used in its marketing, operating systems and industrial design. ... // An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer. ...


As of 2004, most software still cannot reliably handle many features not supported by older font formats, so combining characters generally will not work correctly. For example, (precomposed e with macron and acute above) and ḗ (e followed by the combining macron above and combining acute above) should be rendered identically, both appearing as an e with a macron and acute accent, but in practice, their appearance can vary greatly across software applications. Similarly, underdots, as needed in the romanization of Indic, will often be placed incorrectly. As a workaround, Unicode characters that map to precomposed glyphs can be used for many such characters. The need for such alternatives inherits from the limitations of fonts and rendering technology, not weaknesses of Unicode itself. 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up E, e in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A macron, from Greek (makros) meaning large, is a diacritic ¯ placed over a vowel originally to indicate that the vowel is long. ... The acute accent (   ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct ( · ), or to the glyphs combining dot above ( ) and combining dot below ( ) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese. ... Languages can be romanized in a variety of ways, as shown here with Mandarin Chinese In linguistics, romanization (or Latinization, also spelled romanisation or Latinisation) is the representation of a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, or a system for doing so, where the original word or language... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ...


Standardized subsets

Several subsets of Unicode are standardized: Microsoft Windows since Windows NT 4.0 supports WGL-4 with 652 characters, which is considered to support all contemporary European languages using the Latin, Greek or Cyrillic script. Other standardized subsets of Unicode include the Multilingual European Subsets:[13] MES-1 (Latin scripts only, 335 characters), MES-2 (Latin, Greek and Cyrillic 1062 characters)[14] and MES-3A & MES-3B (two larger subsets, not shown here). Note that MES-2 includes every character in MES-1, which in turn includes all of WGL-4. Windows Glyph List version 4. ...

WGL-4, MES-1 and MES-2
Row Cells Range(s)
00 20–7E Basic Latin (00–7F)
A0–FF Latin-1 Supplement (80–FF)
01 00–13, 14–15, 16–2B, 2C–2D, 2E–4D, 4E–4F, 50–7E, 7F Latin Extended-A (00–7F)
8F, 92, B7, DE-EF, FA–FF Latin Extended-B (80–FF )
02 18–1B, 1E–1F Latin Extended-B ( 00–4F)
59, 7C, 92 IPA Extensions (50–AF)
BB–BD, C6, C7, C9, D6, D8–DB, DC, DD, DF, EE Spacing Modifier Letters (B0–FF)
03 74–75, 7A, 7E, 84–8A, 8C, 8E–A1, A3–CE, D7, DA–E1 Greek (70–FF)
04 00, 01–0C, 0D, 0E–4F, 50, 51–5C, 5D, 5E–5F, 90–91, 92–C4, C7–C8, CB–CC, D0–EB, EE–F5, F8–F9 Cyrillic (00–FF)
1E 02–03, 0A–0B, 1E–1F, 40–41, 56–57, 60–61, 6A–6B, 80–85, 9B, F2–F3 Latin Extended Additional (00–FF)
1F 00–15, 18–1D, 20–45, 48–4D, 50–57, 59, 5B, 5D, 5F–7D, 80–B4, B6–C4, C6–D3, D6–DB, DD–EF, F2–F4, F6–FE Greek Extended (00–FF)
20 13–14, 15, 17, 18–19, 1A–1B, 1C–1D, 1E, 20–22, 26, 30, 32–33, 39–3A, 3C, 3E General Punctuation (00–6F)
44, 4A, 7F, 82 Superscripts and Subscripts (70–9F)
A3–A4, A7, AC, AF Currency Symbols (A0–CF)
21 05, 13, 16, 22, 26, 2E Letterlike Symbols (00–4F)
5B–5E Number Forms (50–8F)
90–93, 94–95, A8 Arrows (90–FF)
22 00, 02, 03, 06, 08-09, 0F, 11–12, 15, 19–1A, 1E–1F, 27-28, 29, 2A, 2B, 48, 59, 60–61, 64–65, 82–83, 95, 97 Mathematical Operators (00–FF)
23 02, 0A, 20–21, 29–2A Miscellaneous Technical (00–FF)
25 00, 02, 0C, 10, 14, 18, 1C, 24, 2C, 34, 3C, 50–6C Box Drawing (00–7F)
80, 84, 88, 8C, 90–93 Block Elements (80–9F)
A0–A1, AA–AC, B2, BA, BC, C4, CA–CB, CF, D8–D9, E6 Geometric Shapes (A0–FF)
26 3A–3C, 40, 42, 60, 63, 65–66, 6A, 6B Miscellaneous Symbols (00–FF)
F0 (01–02) Private Use Area (00–FF …)
FB 01–02 Alphabetic Presentation Forms (00–4F)
FF FD Specials

Rendering software which cannot process a Unicode character appropriately most often display it as only an open rectangle, or the Unicode “replacement character” (U+FFFD, �), to indicate the position of the unrecognized character. Some systems have made attempts to provide more information about such characters. The Apple LastResort font will display a substitute glyph indicating the Unicode range of the character and the SIL Unicode fallback font will display a box showing the hexadecimal scalar value of the character. Specials is the name of a short Unicode block allocated at the very end of the Basic Multilingual Plane, at U+FFF0–FFFF. Of these 16 codepoints, 5 are assigned as of Unicode 5. ... Sample glyphs from the Apples LastResort font. ... SIL International is a worldwide non-profit evangelical Christian organization whose main purpose is to study, develop and document lesser-known languages in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy and aid minority language development. ... The Unicode BMP Fallback Font is a Unicode font containing a glyph for every character in the Basic multilingual plane. ...


Unicode in use

Operating systems

Unicode has become the dominant scheme for internal processing and sometimes storage (though a lot of text is still stored in legacy encodings) of text. Early adopters tended to use UCS-2 and later moved to UTF-16 (as this was the least disruptive way to add support for non-BMP characters). The best known such system is Windows NT (and its descendants, Windows 2000 and Windows XP), which uses Unicode as the sole internal character encoding. The Java and .NET bytecode environments, Mac OS X, and KDE also use it for internal representation. Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. ... Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K) is a preemptive, interruptible, graphical and business-oriented operating system that was designed to work with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor 32-bit Intel x86 computers. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... A Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is a set of computer software programs and data structures which implements a specific virtual machine model. ... The Microsoft . ... KDE (K Desktop Environment) (IPA: ) is a free software project which aims to be a powerful system for an easy-to-use desktop environment. ...


UTF-8 (originally developed for Plan 9) has become the main storage encoding on most Unix-like operating systems (though others are also used by some libraries) because it is a relatively easy replacement for traditional extended ASCII character sets. Plan 9 from Bell Labs is a distributed operating system, primarily used as a research vehicle. ... Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... The term extended ASCII (or high ASCII) describes eight-bit or larger character encodings that include the standard seven-bit ASCII characters as well as others. ...


Multilingual text-rendering engines which use Unicode include Uniscribe for Microsoft Windows, ATSUI for Mac OS X and Pango, a free software engine used by GTK+ (and hence the GNOME desktop). Uniscribe is the Microsoft Windows set of services for rendering Unicode-encoded text. ... The Apple Type Services for Unicode Imaging (ATSUI) is the Mac OS set of services for rendering Unicode-encoded text. ... This article is about computing. ... Clockwise from top: The logo of the GNU Project (the GNU head), the Linux kernel mascot Tux the Penguin, and the FreeBSD daemon Free software is a term coined by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation[1] to refer to software that can be used, studied, and modified without... GTK+, or the GIMP Toolkit, is one of the two most popular widget toolkits for the X Window System for creating graphical user interfaces. ... This article is about the GNOME project and desktop environment. ...


Input methods

Because keyboard layouts cannot have simple key combinations for all characters, several operating systems provide alternative input methods that allow access to the entire repertoire.


ISO 14755[15] describes methods for entering Unicode characters from their codepoints; clause 5.1 describes a Basic method whereby a beginning sequence is followed by the hexadecimal representation of the codepoint and ther ending sequence; an example of an ISO 14755-conformant system is GNOME, where the beginning sequence is CTRL+SHIFT+U and the ending sequence is null. In various operating systems, alt codes can be used to input Unicode points; where the code point of the desired character is known, it is possible to create Unicode characters by pressing Alt + PLUS + #, where # represents the hexadecimal code point; for example, Alt + PLUS + F + 1 will produce the Unicode character ñ. On some systems, this is limited to the BMP (characters up to U+FFFF). This article is about the GNOME project and desktop environment. ... The term Alt codes is used to refer to a number of Unicode input methods that allow characters to be entered by typing a characters code point in concert with the Alt key. ...


ISO 14755 also describes a screen-selection entry method; in Microsoft Windows (since Windows 2000), the "Character Map" program (Start/Programs/Accessories/System Tools/Character Map) provides browsing and rich-text editing controls for all Table I characters in the BMP, by selection from a drop-down table, assuming that a Unicode font is selected. Mac OS X (version 10.2 and newer), KDE and GNOME have similar utilities. Windows redirects here. ... A font can mean: A member of a typeface family; or digital font - file format that encapsulates a typeface family in a database. ... KDE (K Desktop Environment) (IPA: ) is a free software project which aims to be a powerful system for an easy-to-use desktop environment. ... This article is about the GNOME project and desktop environment. ...


E-mail

Main article: Unicode and e-mail

MIME defines two different mechanisms for encoding non-ASCII characters in e-mail, depending on whether the characters are in e-mail headers such as the "Subject:" or in the text body of the message. In both cases, the original character set is identified as well as a transfer encoding. For e-mail transmission of Unicode the UTF-8 character set and the Base64 transfer encoding are recommended. The details of the two different mechanisms are specified in the MIME standards and are generally hidden from users of e-mail software. Many e-mail clients are now able to use Unicode. ... Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is an Internet Standard that extends the format of e-mail to support: text in character sets other than US-ASCII; non-text attachments; multi-part message bodies; and header information in non-ASCII character sets. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that Radix-64 be merged into this article or section. ...


The adoption of Unicode in e-mail has been very slow. Some East-Asian text is still encoded in a local encoding such as Shift-JIS, and some devices, such as cell phones, still cannot handle Unicode data correctly. Support has been improving however. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...


Web

Main article: Unicode and HTML

All W3C recommendations have used Unicode as their document character set since HTML 4.0. Web browsers have supported Unicode, especially UTF-8, for many years. Display problems result primarily from font related issues. In particular Internet Explorer does not render many code points unless it is explicitly told to use a font that contains them.[citation needed] The relationship between Unicode and HTML tends to be a difficult topic for many computer professionals, document authors, and web users alike. ... The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is a consortium that produces standards&#8212;recommendations, as they call them&#8212;for the World Wide Web. ... An example of a Web browser (Konqueror) A Web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ... For the origin and evolution of fonts, see History of western typography. ... Windows Internet Explorer (formerly Microsoft Internet Explorer, abbreviated MSIE), commonly abbreviated to IE, is a series of proprietary graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems starting in 1995. ...


Although syntax rules may affect the order in which characters are allowed to appear, both HTML 4 and XML (including XHTML) documents, by definition, comprise characters from most of the Unicode code points, with the exception of: HTML, short for Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for the creation of web pages. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ... The Extensible HyperText Markup Language, or XHTML, is a markup language that has the same depth of expression as HTML, but also conforms to XML syntax. ...

  • most of the C0 and C1 control codes
  • the permanently-unassigned code points D800–DFFF
  • any code point ending in FFFE or FFFF

These characters manifest either directly as bytes according to document's encoding, if the encoding supports them, or users may write them as numeric character references with percent-encoding based on the character's Unicode code point. For example, the references &#916;, &#1049;, &#1511;, &#1605;, &#3671;, &#12354;, &#21494;, &#33865;, and &#45307; (or the same numeric values expressed in hexadecimal, with &#x as the prefix) display on browsers as Δ, Й, ק, م, ๗, あ, 叶, 葉, and 냻. In HTTP requests, URLs must be percent-encoded. The C0 and C1 control code sets define control codes for use in text. ... In computer science a byte (pronounced bite) is a unit of measurement of information storage, most often consisting of eight bits. ... Percent-encoding, also known as URL encoding, is a mechanism for encoding information in a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) under certain circumstances. ... HTTP (for HyperText Transfer Protocol) is the primary method used to convey information on the World Wide Web. ... “URL” redirects here. ...


Fonts

Free and retail fonts based on Unicode are commonly available, since TrueType and OpenType support Unicode. These font formats map Unicode code points to glyphs. Unicode fonts (also known as UCS fonts, Unicode Typefaces and Typefaces) contains wide range of characters, letters, digits, glyphs, symbols, etc, which are collectively mapped into Universal Character Set, also known as, UCS (which is an international standard ISO/IEC 10646), derived from many different languages from all around the... TrueType is an outline font standard originally developed by Apple Computer in the late 1980s as a competitor to Adobes Type 1 fonts used in PostScript. ... OpenType is a scalable computer font format initially developed by Microsoft, later joined by Adobe Systems. ...


Thousands of fonts exist on the market, but fewer than a dozen fonts — sometimes described as "pan-Unicode" fonts — attempt to support the majority of Unicode's character repertoire. Instead, Unicode-based fonts typically focus on supporting only basic ASCII and particular scripts or sets of characters or symbols. Several reasons justify this approach: applications and documents rarely need to render characters from more than one or two writing systems; fonts tend to demand resources in computing environments; and operating systems and applications show increasing intelligence in regard to obtaining glyph information from separate font files as needed, i.e. font substitution. Furthermore, designing a consistent set of rendering instructions for tens of thousands of glyphs constitutes a monumental task; such a venture passes the point of diminishing returns for most typefaces. This is a list of typefaces. ... This is a list of typefaces. ... Font substitution is the process of using one font in place of another when the intended font either is not available or does not contain glyphs for the required characters. ... In economics, diminishing returns is the short form of diminishing marginal returns. ...


Issues

Philosophical and completeness criticisms

Han unification (the identification of forms in the three East Asian languages which one can treat as stylistic variations of the same historical character) has become one of the most controversial aspects of Unicode, despite the presence of a majority of experts from all three regions in the Ideographic Rapporteur Group (IRG), which advises the Consortium and ISO on additions to the repertoire and on Han unification.[16] Han unification is the process used by the authors of Unicode and the Universal Character Set to map multiple character sets of the CJK languages into a single set of unified characters. ... East Asian languages or the East Asian sprachbund describe two notional groupings of languages in East and Southeast Asia, either (1) languages which have been greatly influenced by Classical Chinese, or the CJKV Chinese, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese) area or (2) a larger grouping including the CJKV area as well... The IRG advises the Unicode Consortium and the ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG2 on Han character additions to the repertoire of the Unicode and ISO/IEC 10646-1 (Universal Multiple-Octet Coded Character Set, or UCS) character set standards, and on Han unification. ...


Unicode has been criticized for failing to allow for older and alternative forms of kanji which, critics argue, complicates the processing of ancient Japanese and uncommon Japanese names, although it follows the recommendations of Japanese language scholars and of the Japanese government and contains all of the same characters as previous widely used encoding standards.[17] There have been several attempts to create an alternative encodings that preserve the minor, stylistic differences between Chinese, Japanese, and Korean characters in opposition to Unicode's policy of Han unification. Among them are TRON (although it is not widely adopted in Japan, there are some users who need to handle historical Japanese text and favor it), and UTF-2000. Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Han unification is the process used by the authors of Unicode and the Universal Character Set to map multiple character sets of the CJK languages into a single set of unified characters. ... TRON is a multi-byte character encoding. ... The UTF-2000 character encoding project is an alternative for Unicode, first proposed in 1998. ...


Many older forms were not included in early versions of the Unicode standard, but Unicode 4.0 contains more than 70,000 Han characters and work continues on adding characters from the early literature of China, Korea, and Japan. Some argue, however, that this is not satisfactory, pointing out as an example the need to create new characters, representing words in various Chinese dialects, more of which may be invented in the future. Spoken Chinese The Chinese spoken language(s) comprise(s) many regional variants. ...


Despite these problems, the official encoding of China, GB-18030, supports the full range of characters in Unicode. GB18030 is the registered Internet name for the official character set of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) superseding GB2312. ...


Mapping to legacy character sets

Injective mappings must be provided between characters in existing legacy character sets and characters in Unicode to facilitate conversion to Unicode and allow interoperability with legacy software. Lack of consistency in various mappings between earlier Japanese encodings such as Shift-JIS or EUC-JP and Unicode led to round-trip format conversion mismatches, particularly the mapping of the character JIS X 201 '~' (1-33, WAVE DASH), heavily used in legacy database data, to either '~' U+FF5E FULLWIDTH TILDE (in Microsoft Windows) or '〜' U+301C WAVE DASH (other vendors).[18] In mathematics, an injective function (or one-to-one function or injection) is a function which maps distinct input values to distinct output values. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Extended Unix Coding (EUC) is an 8-bit character encoding used primarily for Japanese and Korean. ... The term round-trip is commonly used in document conversion particularly involving markup languages such as XML and SGML. A successful round-trip consists of converting a document in format A (docA) to one in format B (docB) and then back again to format A (docA). If docA and docA... Windows redirects here. ...


Some Japanese computer programmers objected to Unicode because it requires them to separate the use of '' U+005C REVERSE SOLIDUS (backslash) and '¥' U+00A5 YEN SIGN, which was mapped to 0x5C in JIS X 0201, and there is a lot of legacy code with this usage.[19] (This encoding also replaces tilde '~' 0x7E with overline '¯', now 0xAF.) The separation of these characters exists in ISO 8859-1, from long before Unicode.


Indic scripts

Thai language support has been criticized for its illogical ordering of Thai characters. The vowels เ, แ, โ, ใ, ไ that are written to the left of the preceding consonant are in visual order instead of logical order, unlike the Unicode representations of other Indic scripts. This complication is due to Unicode inheriting the Thai Industrial Standard 620, which worked in the same way. This ordering problem complicates the Unicode collation process slightly, requiring table lookups to reorder Thai characters for collation.[17] Thai Industrial Standard 620-2533, commonly referred to as TIS-620, is the most common character set and character encoding for the Thai language. ...


Indic scripts of India itself such as Hindi, Tamil and Telugu are each allocated only 128 code points, matching the ISCII standard. The correct rendering of Unicode Indic text requires transforming the stored logical order characters into visual order and the forming of ligatures out of components. Some local scholars argued in favor of assignments of Unicode codepoints to these ligatures, going against the practice for other writing systems, though Unicode contains some Arabic and other ligatures for back compatibility purposes only. [20] [21] [22] Encoding of any new ligatures in Unicode will not happen, in part because the set of ligatures is font-dependent, and Unicode is an encoding independent of font variations. The same kind of issue arose for Tibetan script (the Chinese National Standard organization failed to achieve a similar change). The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas used in South Asia and Southeast Asia. ... () is an abugida script used to write, either along with other scripts, or exclusively, several Indian languages, including Sanskrit, Bangla, Hindi, Marathi, Sindhi, Bihari, Bhili, Marwari, Konkani, Bhojpuri, languages from Nepal like Nepali, Tharu Nepal Bhasa and sometimes Kashmiri and Romani. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Telugu script, an abugida from the Brahmic family of scripts, is used to write Telugu, a Dravidian Language found in the Southern Indian state of Andhra Pradesh as well as several other neighboring states. ... ISCII (Indian Script Code for Information Interchange) is a coding scheme for representing various Indic scripts as well as a Latin-based script with diacritic marks used to depict Romanised Indic languages. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


See also

This page compares Unicode encodings. ... A few projects exist to provide free software Unicode typefaces, i. ... It has been suggested that Unified Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics character table be merged into this article or section. ... In SGML, HTML and XML documents, the logical constructs known as character data and attribute values consist of sequences of characters, in which each character can manifest directly (representing itself), or can be represented by a series of characters called a character reference, of which there are two types: a...

Notes

  1. ^ http://www.unicode.org/standard/principles.html#What_Characters
  2. ^ ISBN 0-201-56788-1
  3. ^ ISBN 0-201-60845-6
  4. ^ Previous 2 Publications, and, Unicode Technical Report #4:The Unicode Standard, Version 1.1 by Mark Davis
  5. ^ ISBN 0-201-48345-9
  6. ^ Previous 3 Publications, and, Unicode Technical Report #8, The Unicode Standard, Version 2.1 by Lisa Moore
  7. ^ ISBN 0-201-61633-5
  8. ^ ISBN 0-321-18578-1
  9. ^ (The character database, aka. UCD, published on 18 July 2006; the book, The Unicode Standard, Version 5.0 was released on 9 November 2006. ISBN 0321480910
  10. ^ http://www.unicode.org/charts/
  11. ^ http://std.dkuug.dk/JTC1/SC2/WG2/docs/n1643/n1643.htm
  12. ^ http://std.dkuug.dk/JTC1/SC2/WG2/docs/n1641/n1641.htm http://std.dkuug.dk/JTC1/SC2/WG2/docs/n1642/n1642.htm
  13. ^ CWA 13873:2000 - Multilingual European Subsets in ISO/IEC 10646-1 CEN Workshop Agreement 13873
  14. ^ Multilingual European Character Set 2 (MES-2) Rationale, Markus Kuhn, 1998
  15. ^ ISO/IEC JTC1/SC 18/WG 9 N
  16. ^ A Brief History of Character Codes, Steven J. Searle, originally written 1999, last updated 2004
  17. ^ a b The secret life of Unicode: A peek at Unicode's soft underbelly, Suzanne Topping, 1 May 2001
  18. ^ AFII contribution about WAVE DASH, Unicode vendor-specific character table for Japanese
  19. ^ ISO 646-* Problem, Section 4.4.3.5 of Introduction to I18n, Tomohiro KUBOTA, 2001
  20. ^ http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/UFB50.pdf
  21. ^ http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/UFE70.pdf
  22. ^ http://www.unicode.org/charts/PDF/UFB00.pdf

is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... CEN, the European Committee for Standardization, was founded in 1961 by the national standard bodies in the European Economic Community and EFTA countries. ... Dr. Markus G. Kuhn (born 1971 in Munich) is a German computer scientist, currently teaching and researching at the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...

References

  • The Unicode Standard, Version 5.0, Fifth Edition, The Unicode Consortium, Addison-Wesley Professional, 27 October 2006. ISBN 0-321-48091-0
  • The Unicode Standard, Version 4.0, The Unicode Consortium, Addison-Wesley Professional, 27 August 2003. ISBN 0-321-18578-1
  • The Complete Manual of Typography, James Felici, Adobe Press; 1st edition, 2002. ISBN 0-321-12730-7
  • Unicode: A Primer, Tony Graham, M&T books, 2000. ISBN 0-7645-4625-2.
  • Unicode Demystified: A Practical Programmer's Guide to the Encoding Standard, Richard Gillam, Addison-Wesley Professional; 1st edition, 2002. ISBN 0-201-70052-2
  • Unicode Explained, Jukka K. Korpela, O'Reilly; 1st edition, 2006. ISBN 0-596-10121-X

In computing, Unicode is the international standard whose goal is to provide the means to encode the text of every document people want to store in computers. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Find more information on Unicode by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... It has been suggested that Client-side JavaScript be merged into this article or section. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
What is Unicode? (452 words)
Depending on the level of Unicode support in the browser you are using and whether or not you have the necessary fonts installed, you may have display problems for some of the translations, particularly with complex scripts such as Arabic.
Unicode provides a unique number for every character, no matter what the platform, no matter what the program, no matter what the language.
Membership in the Unicode Consortium is open to organizations and individuals anywhere in the world who support the Unicode Standard and wish to assist in its extension and implementation.
Unicode Home Page (88 words)
Unicode announces new corrigendum to Unicode 5.0, Corrigendum #6: Bidi Mirroring (2007.08.17)
Proposed Draft UTR #42: An XML Representation of the UCD
Proposed Update to UAX #15: Unicode Normalization Forms
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