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Encyclopedia > Ungulate
Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Ungulate
Fossil range: Late Cretaceous - Recent
Llamas such as this, which have two toes, are artiodactyls -- "even toed" ungulates
Llamas such as this, which have two toes, are artiodactyls -- "even toed" ungulates
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Infraclass: Eutheria
(unranked) Ungulatomorpha
Superorder: Ungulata
Orders & Clades

Ungulates (meaning roughly "being hoofed" or "hoofed animal") are several groups of mammals most of which use the tips of their toes, usually hoofed, to sustain their whole bodyweight while moving. They make up several orders of mammals, of which six to eight survive. There is some dispute as to whether ungulate should be treated as an actual cladistic (evolution-based) group, or merely a phenetic group (similar, but not necessarily related), in light of the fact that all ungulates do not appear to be as closely related as once believed (see below). Ungulata was formerly considered an order which has been split into Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla. Members of these two orders are called the 'true ungulates' to distinguish them from 'subungulates' (paenungulata) which include members from the Proboscidea, Sirenia, and Hyracoidea orders.[1] Geography of the US in the late Cretaceous Late Cretaceous (also called the Upper Cretaceous) refers to the second half of the Cretaceous period, named after the famous white chalk cliffs of southern England, which date from this time. ... Download high resolution version (1000x1351, 279 KB) A llama. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Families Suidae Hippopotamidae Tayassuidae Camelidae Tragulidae Moschidae Cervidae Giraffidae Antilocapridae Bovidae The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... “Animalia” redirects here. ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses Subclass Allotheria* Order Docodonta (extinct) Order Multituberculata (extinct) Order Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Order Triconodonta (extinct) Order Volaticotheria (extinct) Subclass Prototheria Order Monotremata Subclass Theria Infraclass Trituberculata (extinct) Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals are a class of vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in females for the nourishment of... Orders[1] Magnorder Xenarthra: Cingulata (Armadillos) Pilosa (Sloths, True Anteaters) Magnorder Epitheria: Superorder Afrotheria: Afrosoricida (Tenrecs, etc. ... Families Equidae Tapiridae Rhinocerotidae The odd-toed ungulates or Perissodactyla are large to very large browsing and grazing mammals with relatively simple stomachs and a large middle toe. ... Mesonychids are an extinct order of even-toed carnivorous ungulates (hoofed animals) which looked like wolves, and were scavengers for carrion and hunters of fish. ... Orders Order Cetacea Order Artiodactyla Humpback Whale breaching. ... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti Archaeoceti (extinct) (see text for families) The order Cetacea (IPA: , L. cetus, whale) includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ... Families Suidae Hippopotamidae Tayassuidae Camelidae Tragulidae Moschidae Cervidae Giraffidae Antilocapridae Bovidae The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... Clade with the rank of cohort or super-order, part of the Atlantogenata, containing the South-American Ungulates: Xenungulata, Astrapotheria, Notoungulata and Litopterna. ... The Litopterna, also known as the pseudo-horse, is an order of fossil mammals from the Tertiary Period that displays toe reduction. ... The Notoungulates are an extinct order of hoofed mammals that were native in South America. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Subclasses Subclass Allotheria* Order Docodonta (extinct) Order Multituberculata (extinct) Order Palaeoryctoides (extinct) Order Triconodonta (extinct) Order Volaticotheria (extinct) Subclass Prototheria Order Monotremata Subclass Theria Infraclass Trituberculata (extinct) Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals are a class of vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in females for the nourishment of... In scientific classification used in biology, the order (Latin: ordo, plural ordines) is a rank between class and family (termed a taxon at that rank). ... Greek clados = branch) or phylogenetic systematics is a branch of biology that determines the evolutionary relationships of living things based on derived similarities. ... In biology, phenetics, also known as numerical taxonomy, is an attempt to classify organisms based on overall similarity, usually in morphology or other observable traits, regardless of their phylogeny or evolutionary relation. ... Families Equidae Tapiridae Rhinocerotidae The odd-toed ungulates or Perissodactyla are large to very large browsing and grazing mammals with relatively simple stomachs and a large middle toe. ... Families Suidae Hippopotamidae Tayassuidae Camelidae Tragulidae Moschidae Cervidae Giraffidae Antilocapridae Bovidae The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... Orders Proboscidea Sirenia Hyracoidea Embrithopoda (Extinct) Desmostylia (Extinct) Paenungulata is a superorder that groups some remarkable mammals constituting three orders: Proboscidea (elephants), Sirenia (sea cows, including dugongs and manatees), and Hyracoidea (hyraxes, such as the African Rock Hyrax, Procavia habessinica). ... Paenungulata is a superorder that groups some remarkable mammals constituting three orders: Proboscidea (Elephants) Sirenia (Sea cows and manatees) Hyracoidea (Hyraxes, such as the African Rock Hyrax, Procavia habessinica) All three still exist but the Paenungulata once had at least two additional orders, namely: Embrithopoda Desmostylia Both of these were... Groups Jozaria (extinct) Anthracobunidae (extinct) Moeritheriidae (extinct) Euproboscidea Numidotheriidae (extinct) Barytheriidae (extinct) Deinotheriidae (extinct) Elephantiformes Phiomiidae (extinct) Palaeomastodontidae (extinct) Hemimastodontidae (extinct) Euelephantoidea Choerolophodontidae (extinct) Amebelodontidae (extinct) Gnathabelodontidae (extinct) Gomphotheriidae (extinct) Elephantidae Mammutidae (extinct) Proboscidea is an order containing only one family of living animals, Elephantidae, the elephants, with three species... Families Dugongidae Trichechidae Hydrochichus (extinct) For information about the Gothic metal band, see Sirenia (band) The Sirenia are fully aquatic, herbivorous mammals that inhabit rivers, estuaries and coastal marine waters. ... Genera  Procavia  Heterohyrax  Dendrohyrax A hyrax is any of about 11 species of fairly small, thickset, herbivorous mammals in the order Hyracoidea. ...


Some commonly known examples of Ungulates living today are the horse, zebra, donkey, cow, rhinoceros, camel, hippopotamus, goat, sheep, giraffe, deer, antelope, and gazelle. Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Species Equus zebra Equus hartmannae Equus quagga Equus grevyi The Zebra is a part of the horse family, Equidae, native to central and southern Africa. ... Binomial name Equus asinus Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... COW is an acronym for a number of things: Can of worms The COW programming language, an esoteric programming language. ... Black Rhino from Howletts Wild Animal Park For other uses, see Rhinoceros (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), from the Greek ‘ιπποπόταμος (hippopotamos, hippos meaning horse and potamos meaning river), is a large, mostly plant-eating African mammal, one of only two extant in the family Hippopotamidae. ... Species See Species and subspecies The goat is a mammal in the genus Capra, which consists of nine species: the Ibex, the West Caucasian Tur, the East Caucasian Tur, the Markhor, and the Wild Goat. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all land-living animal species. ... “Fawn” redirects here. ... Genera Aepyceros Alcelaphus Antidorcas Antilope Cephalophus Connochaetes Damaliscus Gazella Hippotragus Kobus Madoqua Neotragus Oreotragus Oryx Ourebia Pantholops Procapra Sylvicapra Taurotragus Tragelaphus and others Antelope are herbivorous mammals of the family Bovidae, often noted for their horns. ... Species Several, see text A gazelle is an antelope of the genus Gazella. ...

Contents

Relationships

The Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla make up the largest portion of ungulates, and also comprise the majority of large land mammals. These two groups first appeared during the late Paleocene and early Eocene (about 54 million years ago), rapidly spreading to a wide variety of species on numerous continents, and have developed in parallel since that time. Families Equidae Tapiridae Rhinocerotidae The odd-toed ungulates or Perissodactyla are large to very large browsing and grazing mammals with relatively simple stomachs and a large middle toe. ... Families Suidae Hippopotamidae Tayassuidae Camelidae Tragulidae Moschidae Cervidae Giraffidae Antilocapridae Bovidae The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... The Paleocene, early dawn of the recent, is a geologic epoch that lasted from 65. ... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ...


Although whales and dolphins (Cetacea) do not possess most of the typical morphological characteristics of ungulates, recent discoveries have suggested that they are likely descended from early artiodactyls, and thus are directly related to other even-toed ungulates such as cattle and hippopotami. As a result of these discoveries, a new order of Cetartiodactyla has also been proposed to include the members of Artiodactyla and Cetacea, to reflect their common ancestry; however, strictly speaking, this is not necessary, as it is possible simply to recognize Cetacea as a subgroup of Artiodactyla. Whales are the largest species of exclusively aquatic placental mammals, members of the order Cetacea, which also includes dolphins and porpoises. ... This article is about the dolphin mammal. ... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti Archaeoceti (extinct) (see text for families) The order Cetacea (IPA: , L. cetus, whale) includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ... Families Antilocapridae Bovidae Camelidae Cervidae Giraffidae Hippopotamidae Moschidae Suidae Tayassuidae Tragulidae The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... Families Suidae Hippopotamidae Tayassuidae Camelidae Tragulidae Moschidae Cervidae Giraffidae Antilocapridae Bovidae The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... Binomial name Hippopotamus amphibius Linnaeus, 1758 The Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) or Greek ίππόποταμος (hippos meaning horse and potamus meaning river) is a large, plant-eating African mammal, one of only two living and three (or four) recently extinct species in the family Hippopotamidae. ... Orders Order Cetacea Order Artiodactyla Humpback Whale breaching. ... Families Suidae Hippopotamidae Tayassuidae Camelidae Tragulidae Moschidae Cervidae Giraffidae Antilocapridae Bovidae The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti Archaeoceti (extinct) (see text for families) The order Cetacea (IPA: , L. cetus, whale) includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ...


The Hyracoidea, Sirenia and Proboscidea are the Paenungulata. The Tubulidentata are also thought to be ungulates. The Macroscelidea have been interpreted as ungulates, and there is dental as well as genetic evidence supporting this interpretation. The Macroscelidea and Tubulidentata have recently been united with the Paenungulata in the Pseudungulata. Genetic studies indicate that these animals are not closely related to the artiodactyls and perissodactyls. Instead, the closest relatives of pseudungulates are the Afrosoricida; the Pseudungulata and Afrosoricida make up the Afrotheria. Paenungulata is a superorder that groups some remarkable mammals constituting three orders: Proboscidea (Elephants) Sirenia (Sea cows and manatees) Hyracoidea (Hyraxes, such as the African Rock Hyrax, Procavia habessinica) All three still exist but the Paenungulata once had at least two additional orders, namely: Embrithopoda Desmostylia Both of these were... Genera  Rhynchocyon  Petrodromus  Macroscelides  Elephantulus The small insectivorous mammals endemic to Africa known as elephant shrews are neither elephants nor shrews and, more formally, are the members of the biological order Macroscelidea. ... The Pseudungulates, or false hoof mammals, are made of two orders, the aardvarks, and the elephant shrew. ... Families  Chrysochloridae  Tenrecidae The order Afrosoricida (also known as Tenrecomorpha) contains two families of small mammals that are possibly a part of the traditional order Insectivora. ... Afrotheria are a clade of mammals with the rank of cohort, that has been proposed based on DNA analysis. ...


Ungulate groups represented in the fossil record include the embrithopods, demostylians, mesonychids, "condylarths" and various South American and Paleogene lineages. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fossil. ... Families Arsinoitheriidae Phenacolophidae Embrithopoda is an extinct order of mammals which lived during the Oligocene. ... Families Desmostylidae Paleoparadoxiidae Genera Ashoroa Behemotops Desmostylus Paleoparadoxia The Desmostylia are an extinct order of marine mammals comprising four genera, known from late Oligocene and Miocene fossil records. ... Mesonychids are an extinct order of even-toed carnivorous ungulates (hoofed animals) which looked like wolves, and were scavengers for carrion and hunters of fish. ... Condylarthra is an order of Paleocene mammals. ... Palaeogene (alternatively Paleogene) period is a unit of geologic time that began 65 and ended 23 million years ago. ...


In addition to hooves, most ungulates have developed reduced canine teeth, bunodont molars (molars with low, rounded cusps), and an astragalus (one of the ankle bones at the end of the lower leg) with a short, robust head. The Canine teeth are the long, pointed teeth used for grabbing hold of and tearing apart foods, also called cuspids, dogteeth or fangs. Species that feature them, such as humans and dogs, usually have four, two in the top jaw, two in the lower, on either side of the Incisors. ... Molar 47 (left), molar 46 and premolar 45(right) Molars are the rearmost and most complicated kind of tooth in most mammals. ... Species See text. ...


Another characteristic of most ungulates is the fusion of the front forelimbs. In ungulates, the radius and ulna are fused along the length of the forelimb. This is a trait of most modern ungulates, as early ungulates, such as the arctocyonids did not share this unique skeletal structure[2]. The fusion of the radius and ulna prevents an ungulate from rotating its forelimb. Since this skeletal structure has no specific function in ungulates, it is considered to be a homologous characteristic that ungulates share with other mammals. This trait would have been passed down from a common ancestor. Circle illustration In classical geometry, a radius (plural: radii) of a circle or sphere is any line segment from its center to its boundary. ... The ulna (Elbow Bone) [Figs. ...


Ungulates diversified rapidly in the Eocene, but are thought to date back as far as the late Cretaceous. Most ungulates are herbivores, but a few are omnivores or even predators: the Mesonychia and whales. hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... The Cretaceous Period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, reaching from the end of the Jurassic Period (i. ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ... Mesonychids are an extinct order of even-toed carnivorous ungulates (hoofed animals) which looked like wolves, and were scavengers for carrion and hunters of fish. ... Whales are the largest species of exclusively aquatic placental mammals, members of the order Cetacea, which also includes dolphins and porpoises. ...


This is the family tree of the ungulates (notice below, it's excluding the paenungulates, but including the whales and the South American unuglates, and the common ancestor, as some scientists believe).

Recent developments

That these groups of mammals are most closely related to each other has occasionally been questioned on anatomical and genetic grounds. Molecular phylogenetic studies have suggested that Perissodactyla and Cetartiodactyla are closest to Carnivora and Pholidota rather than to the Pseudungulata. In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or IPA: ; from Latin carō (stem carn-) flesh, + vorāre to devour) includes over 260 placental mammals. ... Species Manis gigantea Manis temmincki Manis tricuspis Manis tetradactyla Manis crassicaudata Manis pentadactyla Manis javanica Pangolins are mammals with large scales on their skins which can be found in parts of Africa and Asia. ...


The Pseudungulata are by some scientists united with the Afrosoricida in the cohort or super-order Afrotheria based on molecular and DNA analysis. This means they are not related to other ungulates. Families  Chrysochloridae  Tenrecidae The order Afrosoricida (also known as Tenrecomorpha) contains two families of small mammals that are possibly a part of the traditional order Insectivora. ... Afrotheria are a clade of mammals with the rank of cohort, that has been proposed based on DNA analysis. ...


The orders of the extinct South-American ungulates, which arose when the continent was in isolation some time during the mid to late Paleocene, are united in the super-order Meridiungulata. They are by some thought to be unrelated to the other ungulates. Instead, they are united with the Afrotheria and the Xenarthra in the supercohort Atlantogenata. The Paleocene, early dawn of the recent, is a geologic epoch that lasted from 65. ... Clade with the rank of cohort or super-order, part of the Atlantogenata, containing the South-American Ungulates: Xenungulata, Astrapotheria, Notoungulata and Litopterna. ... Orders and suborders Order Pilosa Suborder Vermilingua Suborder Folivora Order Cingulata See text for more details The superorder Xenarthra is a group of placental mammals (infraclass Eutheria), extant today only in the Americas. ... Atlantogenata is a mammal clade containing the cohorts or super-orders Xenarthra, Afrotheria and Meridiungulata. ...


The position of other extinct ungulates is unclear. Embrithopods, Desmostylians and other related groups are seen as relatives of the Paenungulata, thus members of the Afrotheria. The condylarths are, as a result, no longer seen as the ancestors of all ungulates. Instead, it is now believed the condylarths are members of the cohort Laurasiatheria. So it seems that, of all the ungulates, only the Perissiodacyla and Artiodactyla descended from the condylarths—assuming that the animals lumped by scientists into Condylarthra over the years are even related to one another. Laurasiatheria is a proposed clade with the rank of cohort or super-order, of the Epitheria infraclass of the Placentalia (living) or Eutheria (Placentals and their extinct ancestors) subclass of Mammals, based on molecular and DNA research It is a sister group to Euarchontoglires. ...


As a result of all this, it seems the typical ungulate morphology originated three times independently: in the Meridiungulata, the Afrotheria and the "true" ungulates in the Laurasiatheria. This is a great example of convergent evolution. This is met with scepticism by some scientists, who say there is no morphological evidence to split the ungulates up into so many unrelated clades. In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. ...


See also

  • Even-toed ungulate
  • Odd-toed ungulate
  • Cetaceans

Families Antilocapridae Bovidae Camelidae Cervidae Giraffidae Hippopotamidae Moschidae Suidae Tayassuidae Tragulidae Leptochoeridae † Chaeropotamidae † Dichobunidae † Cebochoeridae † Entelodontidae † Anoplotheriidae † Anthracotheriidae † Cainotheriidae † Agriochoeridae † Merycoidodontidae † Leptomerycidae † Protoceratidae † Xiphodontidae † Amphimerycidae † Helohyidae † Gelocidae † Merycodontidae † Dromomerycidae † Raoellidae † Choeropotamidae † Sanitheriidae † The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... Families Equidae Tapiridae Rhinocerotidae Brontotheriidae (extinct) Chalicotheriidae (extinct) Hyracodontidae (extinct) Palaeotheriidae (extinct) Amynodontidae (extinct) The odd-toed ungulates are browsing and grazing mammals that comprise the order Perissodactyla. ... Suborders Mysticeti Odontoceti (see text) The order Cetacea includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. ...

References

  1. ^ Mammology: adaptation, diversity, and ecology, Feldhammer, George A. 1999, p. 312
  2. ^ Christine M. Janis, Kathleen M. Scott, and Louis L. Jacobs, Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America, Volume 1. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998), 322-23.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ungulates: AllAboutMammals.com (544 words)
Ungulates are digitigrade; they walk on their toes.
The word ungulate is from the Latin word unguis, which means nail, claw, or hoof.
Perissodactyls are odd-toed ungulates (a much smaller group) - some of these include horses, zebras, rhinoceroses, and tapirs.
What is an UNGULATE? (1369 words)
Modern ungulates have taken this to the extreme: the metapodials (the bones between the wrist/ankle and the digits) are often as long as the other parts of the legs.
Since the hoof was the defining character of the ungulates, feet were the focus of researchers trying to decipher their origins.
Originally placed at the base of the ungulate lineage, continued research suggested that the paenungulates were more specialized than the true ungulates, nesting them firmly in the ungulate family tree.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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