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Encyclopedia > Ungarndeutsche

Germans of Hungary (German: Ungarndeutsche) are any German-speaking minority group in Hungary who would be counted among the Danube Swabians (German: Donauschwaben). Danube Swabian is a collective term for a number of German ethnic groups who lived in the former Kingdom of Hungary, now the modern-day countries of Hungary, Romania, and several former Yugoslav republics. Hungary Germans refers to the descendants of Germans who immigrated to the Carpathian Mountains and surrounding regions, and who are now minorities in those areas. Many Hungary Germans were expelled from the region between 1946 and 1948, and many now live in Germany or Austria, but also in Brazil and the United States. However, many are still dispersed within the country of Hungary. The Danube Swabians (German: Donauschwaben, Hungarian: Dunai-Svábok or Dunamenti németek, Romanian: Şvabi or Şvabi Dunăreni, Serbian: Dunavske Švabe or Дунавске Швабе, Croatian: Podunavski Švabe) is a collective term for Germans who lived in the former Kingdom of Hungary, especially in the Danube (Donau) River valley. ... The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság) is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ...

Contents

History

The immigration of German-speaking peoples into modern-day Hungary began in approximately 1000, when knights who came in the company of Giselle of Bavaria, the German-born queen of the first king of Hungary, Stephen I, entered the country. Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... Giselle or Gizella of Bavaria (c. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “King” redirects here. ... King Stephens statue in his hometown, Esztergom A statue of the king in Miskolc Saint Stephen I (Hungarian: ; Latin: ; Slovak: , German: ) (circa 975 – 15 August 1038) was a ruling prince of Hungary, the first King of Hungary and a ruling prince of Nitra. ...


The largest wave of German-speaking immigrants into Hungary occurred after the conquest of Hungary by the Ottoman Empire. Between 1700 and 1750, German-speaking settlers from Southern Germany, Austria, and Saxony immigrated to the regions of Pannonia, Banat, and Bačka, which had been depopulated by the Ottoman wars. This influx of immigrants helped to bring economic recovery and cultural distinction to these regions. At the end of the 18th century, the Kingdom of Hungary contained over one million German-speaking residents. During this time, a flourishing German-speaking culture could be found in the kingdom, with German-language literary works, newspapers, and magazines being produced. A German language theater also operated in the kingdom's capital, Budapest. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Events March 2 - Small earthquake in London, England April 4 - Small earthquake in Warrington, England August 23 - Small earthquake in Spalding, England September 30 - Small earthquake in Northampton, England November 16 – Westminster Bridge officially opened Jonas Hanway is the first Englishman to use an umbrella James Gray reveals her sex... Southern Germany is the term used to desribe the southern states of Germany: namely Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria. ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stat Sakska) is the easternmost federal state of Germany. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... Location of Banat in Europe Map of the Banat region with largest cities shown The Banat (Romanian: Banat, Serbian: Банат or Banat, Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság, German: Banat, Slovak: Banát, Bulgarian: Банат) is a geographical and historical region of Central Europe currently divided between three countries: the... Bačka (Serbian: Бачка or Bačka, Hungarian: Bácska, Croatian: Bačka, Slovak: Báčka, German: Batschka) is an area of the Pannonian plain lying between the rivers Danube and Tisa. ... The wars of the Ottoman Empire in Europe marked the better part of the history of southeastern Europe, notably, giving infamy to the Balkans. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Throughout the 19th century, a strong German industrial community developed, with glass-blowing, foundries, and masonry being particularly important. In response to this, the second half of the century saw the rise of a strong Hungarian nationalist political movement, whose purpose was to retain German economic power by assimilating the German-speaking citizens into Hungarian culture. As a mean toward this end, the German language was slowly replaced with the Hungarian language. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Hungarian (magyar nyelv  ) is a Finno-Ugric language (more specifically an Ugric language) unrelated to the other languages of Central Europe. ...


By 1918, at the onset of World War I, 1.5 million Danube Swabians and other German-speaking peoples lived in what is now present-day Hungary, Romania, and the former Yugoslav republics. Between 1918 and 1945 several factors greatly reduced the number of German-speaking residents in the kingdom, so much so that only thirty percent of the original German-speaking population was left after World War II. The number of Germans in the Hungarian kingdom was more than halved by the Treaty of Trianon in 1920, as the kingdom was forced to make large cessions of its territory to neighboring countries. Meanwhile continuing nationalist pushes under the Magyarization plan to assimilate German-speaking citizens forced a backlash within the German-speaking community. In 1924, under the leadership of Jakob Bleyer, the Hungarian Germans' Peoples' Preservation Society (German: Ungarnländische Deutsche Volksbildungsverein) was formed to combat the forced dominance of the Hungarian language in schools and government. However, the Hungarian government proceeded with its Magyarization programs. In this situation, the German-speaking community of Hungary looked for foreign intervention in its language predicament. This fact was very interesting to Hitler controlled Germany, and the German and Hungarian governments used the status of German-speaking peoples within the Hungarian state as a political bargaining chip. After the end of World War II, the German-speaking community in Hungary was seen as a scapegoat. Many were sent to work camps in Soviet Russia, and others were sent back to Germany, first to the American-occupied area of Germany, and later to the Soviet-occupied area. Overall, approximately 220,000 Germans were expelled from Hungary. From that point on, the history of Hungary Germans focuses on two points, the fate of Germans who remained in Hungary, and the fate of the exiles. 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The negotiations on June 4, 1920. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The Scapegoat by William Holman Hunt, 1854. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) was the government body responsible for administering prison camps across the former Soviet Union. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


Expulsion

The expulsion of German-speaking people from Hungary began in 1946 in Budapest and continued until 1948. The Hungarian Parliament decided in 1944 that the German-speaking population must be expelled from Hungary, and they passed laws forming the framework of such a movement on December 22, 1945. They took effect under an executive order issued January 4, 1946. The expulsion orders affected anyone who claimed German nationality or German as a mother language in the 1941 Hungarian census, anyone who was a member of a German ethnic organization, former members of the SS, and anyone who changed their Hungarianized surnames back to their German equivalents. At first, expelled Hungarian Germans were sent to the American-occupied section of Germany, but this was stopped on June 1, 1946, because the Americans would not allow Hungary to pay its war debts by simply returning seized assets to the displaced Germans. Approximately 170,000 Germans were sent to the American zone of occupied Germany in this time period. Another round of expulsions began in August 1947, but this time the expelled Germans were sent to the Soviet-occupied area of Germany. Many times, Germans were expelled from Hungary because of forced evictions from their properties. This phase of expulsions was more haphazard and unplanned, as some villages of Germans were expelled, whereas others were left untouched. Most Germans removed in this round of expulsions moved to refugee camps in the Soviet-controlled German province of Saxony. Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... 1870 US Census for New York City A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... The   (German for Protective Squadron), abbreviated (Runic) or SS (Latin), was a large security and military organization of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) in Germany. ... Refugee camp for Rwandans located in what is now the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo following the Rwandan Genocide A refugee camp is a temporary camp built up by governments or NGOs (such as the ICRC) to receive refugees. ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stat Sakska) is the easternmost federal state of Germany. ...


Treatment in Post-War Hungary

The Germans who remained in Hungary fared even worse. Their citizenship was revoked in 1945, and they were then considered to be stateless. However, they were regranted their citizenship in 1950, and given personal identification. However, a difficult period ensued between 1950 and 1956, when Hungary Germans were portrayed as enemies to the state and had to work, often for little or no pay, for kulaks, wealthy farmers who owned a majority of the land. Hungary German men were still conscripted into the Hungarian military, but were often given no weapons and substandard training, as they were viewed as expendable. Even given these conditions, the men were expected to serve three-year tours of duty. Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city or town but now usually a country) and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ... The collectivisation campaign in the USSR, 1930s. ...


In addition to this, many other inequalities could be seen. There are numerous instances were Hungary German students were denied admission to universities. The discrimination was so widespread and pervasive that many Hungary Germans abandoned the country in 1956 during the Hungarian Revolution. Many moved to Germany or to the United States, Canada, or Australia. Speaking German in public was widely disdained, and often verbally reproached, even into the 1970s. Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Soviet Union ÁVH Hungarian government, various nationalist militias Commanders Yuri Andropov Pál Maléter, Béla Király, Gergely Pongrátz, József Dudás Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks 100,000+ demonstrators (some later armed), unknown number of soldiers Casualties 720 killed according to official... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ...


However, things began to improve for minority groups, including the Hungary Germans, under a program of economic liberalization called Goulash Communism. This movement, lead by the then- General Secretary of the Hungarian Communist Party, János Kádár, guaranteed certain economic rights to minority groups, as well as rights to practice their own cultures. In 1955, a new organization, the Association of Hungary Germans (German: Verband der Ungarndeutschen), was founded. Its main goals included the interests of the Hungary German ethnic group, including the release of the Hungary Germans from Hungarian rule. Another major focus of the group was the teaching of the German language in Hungarian schools. Because of the government's position on German culture in the recent past, very little German was taught in schools at the time, and the group's organizer felt that "a mute generation" was being raised by the Hungarian school system. The group's organizers felt that the Hungary German youth had a very poor command of the German language, including limited speech comprehension, which they found disturbing. The group met with success in the 1980s, when German gained status as a minority language, thus gaining legal standing in the Hungarian school system. The number of bilingual schools has continued to rise. Goulash Communism (Hungarian: gulyáskommunizmus) is a term sometimes used to denote the variety of socialism as practised in the Hungarian Peoples Republic between 1962-63 and 1989. ... János Kádár János Kádár, né Giovanni Csermanek (his Italian first name was due to the laws of Fiume, his father denied paternity and refused to support his mother Borbála[1]) (May 26, 1912–July 6, 1989), was the communist leader of Hungary from... 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Speech disorders or speech impediments, as they are also called, are a type of communication disorders where normal speech is disrupted. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a country. ...


See also

Germans are a notable national minority in Poland, consisting of almost 150,000 people. ... The Baltic Germans (German: Deutsch-Balten, Deutschbalten, sometimes incorrectly Baltendeutsche), were ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea which forms today the countries of Estonia and Latvia. ... The German minority in Russia and the Soviet Union was created from several sources and in several waves. ... The Transylvanian Saxons (German: ; Hungarian: ; Romanian: ) are a people of German origin who settled in Transylvania (German: ) from the 12th century onwards. ... The Banat Swabians are a German-speaking population in Southeast Europe, part of the Danube Swabians, who immigrated over 200 years ago from different parts of Southern Germany into Banat, after it had been almost entirely depopulated during wars with Turkey. ... The most intractable nationality problem in the interwar period - one that played a major role in the destruction of democratic Czechoslovakia - was that of the Sudeten Germans living mostly in Sudetenland. ... Ethnic Germans – often simply called Germans – are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German but do not live within the present-day Federal Republic of Germany, nor necessarily hold its citizenship. ... The Baltic Germans (German: , Deutschbalten; literally German Balts) were ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, which today forms the countries of Estonia and Latvia. ... Church of the Saviour – a German Kirche in Baku, Azerbaijan. ... The most intractable nationality problem in the interwar period - one that played a major role in the destruction of democratic Czechoslovakia - was that of the Sudeten Germans living mostly in Sudetenland. ... The Transylvanian Saxons (German: ; Hungarian: ; Romanian: ) are a people of German origin who settled in Transylvania (German: ) from the 12th century onwards. ... The Danube Swabians (German: Donauschwaben, Hungarian: Dunai-Svábok or Dunamenti németek, Romanian: Şvabi or Şvabi Dunăreni, Serbian: Dunavske Švabe or Дунавске Швабе, Croatian: Podunavski Švabe) is a collective term for Germans who lived in the former Kingdom of Hungary, especially in the Danube (Donau) River valley. ... The Banat Swabians are a German-speaking population in Southeast Europe, part of the Danube Swabians, who immigrated over 200 years ago from different parts of Southern Germany into Banat, after it had been almost entirely depopulated during wars with Turkey. ... The Bukovina Germans formed a German ethnic group that lived from about 1780 to 1940 in Bukovina, part of present-day West Ukraina. ... Carpathian Germans (German: , Slovak: Karpatskí Nemci), sometimes simply called Slovak Germans (German: Slowakeideutsche), is the name for a group of German language speakers on the territory of present-day Slovakia. ... The Dobrujan Germans (Germ. ... Satu Mare Swabians (German: Sathmarer Schwaben) are a German ethnic group, who live near Satu Mare in Romania, and who form part of the broader group known as Danube Swabians. ... Detail of a church window in Hermannstadt dedicated to the memory of the Austrian Protestants. ... The Zipser Germans (Romanian: Ţipţeri, Hungarian: Cipszer) are a German-speaking ethnic group in northern Romania in the region of Maramureş. The name Zipser is applied to immigrants who originally came from Zips (then in the Kingdom of Hungary, now Spiš in Slovakia). ... Regat Germans or Old Kingdom Germans (Germ. ... Volga German pioneer family commemorative statue in Victoria, Kansas, USA. The Volga Germans (German: or Russlanddeutsche) were ethnic Germans living near the Volga River in the region of southern European Russia around Saratov and to the south, maintaining German culture, language, traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutheranism, Reformed and Roman Catholicism... The Black Sea Germans (German: Schwarzmeerdeutsche) are ethnic Germans who left their homeland in the 18th and 19th centuries, and settled in territories of the northern bank of the Black Sea, mostly in southern Russia. ... The Russian Mennonites are a group of Mennonites descended from Dutch and mainly Germanic Prussian Anabaptists who established colonies in South Russia (present-day Ukraine) beginning in 1789. ... The Crimea Germans (De. ... The Pennsylvania Dutch (perhaps more strictly Pennsylvania Deitsch or Pennsylvanian German) are the descendants of German immigrants who came to Pennsylvania prior to 1800. ... German Texans are an ethnic category belonging to residents of the state of Texas who acknowledge German ancestry and self-identify with the term. ... Hutterite women at work Hutterites are a communal branch of Anabaptists who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the 16th century. ...

External links

(German) Website and forums relating to Hungary Germans


This article incorporates text translated from the corresponding German Wikipedia article as of 22 June 2006.


 
 

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