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Encyclopedia > Unequal treaties
Unequal Treaties
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese: 不平等條約
Simplified Chinese: 不平等条约
Japanese name
Kanji: 不平等条約
Kana: ふびょうどうじょうやく
Korean name
Hangul: 불평등 조약
Hanja: 不平等條約
This article contains Chinese text.
Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.

Unequal Treaties, is a term used in reference to the type of treaties signed by several East Asian states, including Qing Dynasty China, late Tokugawa Japan, and late Joseon Korea, with Western powers and Imperial Japan, during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. This was a period during which these Asian states were largely unable to resist the military and economic pressures from foreign powers. Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Standard Mandarin, also known as Standard Chinese, Modern Standard Chinese or Standard spoken Chinese, is the official modern Chinese spoken language used by the Peoples Republic of China, the Republic of China (Taiwan), and Singapore. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Cantonese is a major dialect group or language of the Chinese language, a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Jyutping (sometimes spelled Jyutpin) is a romanization system for Standard Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK) in 1993. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Manyogana 万葉仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Rōmaji ローマ字 For other meanings of Kana, see Kana (disambiguation). ... Jamo redirects here. ... Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... Image File history File links Zhongwen. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quoc Ngu: Hantu: A Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... A treaty is a binding agreement under international law concluded by subjects of international law, namely states and international organizations. ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Territory of Qing China in 1892 Capital Shengjing (1636-1644) Beijing (1644-1912) Language(s) Chinese Manchu Mongolian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1636-1643 Huang Taiji  - 1908-1912 Xuantong Emperor Prime Minister  - 1911 Yikuang  - 1911-1912 Yuan Shikai History  - Establishment of the Late... The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. ... Territory of Joseon after Jurchen conquest of King Sejong Capital Hanseong Language(s) Korean Religion Neo-Confucianism Government Monarchy Wang  - 1392 - 1398 Taejo (first)  - 1863 - 1897 Gojong (last)1 Yeong-uijeong  - 1431 - 1449 Hwang Hui  - 1466 - 1472 Han Myeonghoe  - 1592 - 1598 Ryu Seongryong  - 1894 Kim Hongjip History  - Coup of 1388... Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or ì¡°ì„  in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ...



The earliest attempt to come to a settlement was the 1841 Convention of Chuenpeh in the wake of the First Opium War that started in 1839. China and Great Britain signed the first unequal treaties under the Treaty of Nanking in 1842. Following Qing China's defeat, treaties with Britain opened up several ports to foreign trade, while also allowing Christians to reside. In addition, the administration of justice on foreign residents in the port cities were afforded trials by their own consular authorities rather than the Chinese legal system, a concept termed extraterritoriality. Under this convention, China would need to cede Hong Kong Island to Britain in 1841. ... Combatants Qing China British East India Company Commanders Daoguang Emperor Charles Elliot, Anthony Blaxland Stransham The First Opium War or the First Anglo-Chinese War was fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing Empire in China from 1839 to 1842 with the aim of forcing China to import British... The Treaty of Nanjing (Chinese: 南京條約, NánjÄ«ng TiáoyuÄ“) is the agreement which marked the end of the First Opium War between the United Kingdom and China. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who... The Law of China, for most of the history of China, was rooted in the Confucian philosophy of social control. ... Extraterritoriality is the state of being exempt from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations. ...

Although the term "Unequal treaty" did not come into use until early in the 20th century, many Chinese considered the treaties unequal since the foreign powers did not reciprocate most of China's concessions with similar privileges. In many cases China was effectively forced to pay large amounts of reparations, open up ports for trade, cede or lease territories (such as Hong Kong to Great Britain), and make various other concessions of sovereignty to foreign "spheres of influence", following humiliating military defeats. War reparations refer to the monetary compensation provided to a triumphant nation or coalition from a defeated nation or coalition. ... A sphere of influence (SOI) is an area or region over which an organization or state exerts some kind of indirect cultural, economic, military or political domination. ...

When the United States Commodore Matthew Perry forced open Japan in 1854, Japan was soon prompted to sign treaties that were similar treaties to the ones China had signed and the same thing soon happened to Korea. Ironically, Korea's first unequal treaties were not with the West but with Japan, which, taking a page from Western tactics, had forced Korea to open its doors to foreign commerce in 1876. Matthew Calbraith Perry (1794-1858). ...

Such unequal treaties ended at various times for the countries involved. Japan was the first to throw off the shackles of its treaties during the mid 1890s, when its performance in the First Sino-Japanese War convinced many in the West that Japan had indeed entered among the body of "civilized nations". For China and Korea, the wait was somewhat longer. Most of China's unequal treaties were abrogated during World War II, when the Republic of China led by Chiang Kai-shek emerged victorious and became a permanent member of the Security Council of the United Nations. China's unequal treaties almost completely dissolved only following Hong Kong's 1997 handover. The agreement was made in 1984 following talks between Deng Xiaoping and the British under the Sino-British Joint Declaration. Exception of territory seized were made by Imperial Russia (Outer Manchuria) in 1860. Korea's unequal treaties with European states became largely null and void in 1910, when it became a Japanese colony. Combatants Qing Empire (China) Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The transfer of the sovereignty of Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to China, often referred to as The Handover, occurred on July 1, 1997. ... Year 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar). ... Deng Xiaoping   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Teng Hsiao-ping; August 22, 1904–February 19, 1997) was a leader in the Communist Party of China (CCP). ... The Sino-British Joint Declaration, formally known as the Joint Declaration of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the Peoples Republic of China on the Question of Hong Kong, was signed by the Prime Ministers of the Peoples... Outer Manchuria is in light red on this map. ... Flag of the Japanese Empire Anthem Kimi ga Yoa Korea under Japanese Occupation Capital Keijo Language(s) Korean, Japanese Religion Shintoisma Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor of Japan  - 1910–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1925 Emperor Taisho  - 1925–1945 Emperor Showa Governor-General of Korea  - 1910–1916 Masatake Terauchi  - 1919–1931 Makoto...

List of major Unequal Treaties imposed on China

with United Kingdom
with United Kingdom
with United States
with France
with Russia
with France, United Kingdom, Russia, United States
with United Kingdom, France, and Russia
  • Chefoo Convention (煙台條約) (1876)
with United Kingdom
  • Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Peking (中葡北京條約) (1887)
with Portugal
with Japan
  • Li-Lobanov Treaty (1896)
with Russia
with United Kingdom
with United Kingdom, United States, Japan, Russia, France, Germany, Italy, Austro-Hungary, Belgium, Spain, Netherlands
  • Twenty-One Demands (二十一條) (1915)
with Japan

The Treaty of Nanjing (Chinese: 南京條約, Nánjīng Tiáoyuē) is the agreement which marked the end of the First Opium War between the United Kingdom and China. ... The Treaty of the Bogue is an additional agreement between the United Kingdom and China that came one year after the earlier Treaty of Nanjing settlement. ... The Sino-American Treaty of Wanghia (Traditional Chinese: 中美望廈條約; Simplified Chinese: 中美望厦条约; Pinyin: ) is the first diplomatic agreement between China and the United States in history, signed on July 3, 1844. ... The Treaty of Whampoa (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a commercial treaty between France and China, which was signed by Théodore de Lagrené and Qiying on October 24, 1844. ... The Treaty of Aigun was the Russian-Chinese treaty that established the modern borders of the Russian Far East. ... The Treaties of Tientsin (天津條約) were signed in Tianjin in June 1858, ending the first part of the Second Opium War (1856-1860). ... The Convention of Peking (October 18, 1860), also known as the First Convention of Peking, was a treaty between the Qing Government of China and the British Empire, and between China and France, and China and Russia. ... The Chefoo Convention (烟台条约) was a treaty between the Qing and British Empires, which was signed by Sir Thomas Wade and Li Hongzhang in Chefoo on 21 August 1876. ... The Shunpanrō hall where the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed The Treaty of Shimonoseki (Japanese: 下関条約, Shimonoseki Jōyaku), known as the Treaty of Maguan (T. Chinese: 馬關條約, S. Chinese: 马关条约;) in China, was signed at the Shunpanrō hall on April 17, 1895 between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire. ... The Li-Lobanov Treaty was a treaty signed on June 3, 1896 in Moscow by Alexey Lobanov-Rostovsky and Sergey Witte on behalf of the Russian Empire and Li Hung Chang on behalf of China. ... The Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory (aka. ... The Treaty of 1901, known as the Xinchou Treaty (辛丑条约) in China, and more commonly known as Boxer Protocol or Peace Agreement between the Great Powers and China, was a peace treaty signed on September 7, 1901 between the Qing Empire of China and the Eight-Nation Alliance: the United Kingdom... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... For other meanings, see 21 demands of MKS. For other meanings, see 21 Demands a Dublin based band. ...

List of major Unequal Treaties imposed on Japan

with United States
  • Anglo-Japanese Friendship Treaty (日英和親条約) (1854)
with United Kingdom
  • Harris Treaty (日米修好通商条約) (1858)
with United States
  • Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Amity and Commerce (日英修好通商条約) (1858)
with United Kingdom

On March 31, 1854, the Convention of Kanagawa (Japanese: 神奈川条約, Kanagawa Jōyaku, or 日米和親条約, Nichibei Washin Jōyaku) was used by Commodore Matthew Perry of the U.S. Navy to force the opening of the Japanese ports of... On October 14, 1854 the first limited treaty between Britain and Japan (called the Anglo-Japanese Friendship Treaty, Nichi-Ei Washin Joyaku 日英和親条約) was signed in Nagasaki by Admiral Sir James Stirling and the governors of Nagasaki (Nagasaki bugyō) as representatives of the Tokugawa shogunate (Bakufu). ... The Ryōsen-ji Temple in Shimoda, where the Treaty of Amity and Commerce was signed. ... The Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Amity and Commerce (NichiEi ShuuKou Tsushou Jouyaku 日英修好通商条約) was signed on August 26, 1858 by Lord Elgin and the then representatives of the Japanese government (Tokugawa shogunate). ...

List of major Unequal Treaties imposed on Korea

with Japan
with United States
  • Taft-Katsura Agreement (가쓰라-태프트 밀약) (1905)
with United States
with Japan
  • Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty (한일 병합 조약)(1910)
with Japan

The Treaty of Kanghwa, signed in 1875, was written by Kuroda Kiyotaka, Governor of Hokkaido, and designed to open up Korea to Japanese trade. ... Shinmiyangyo (lit. ... The Taft-Katsura Agreement was a secret agreement signed between William Howard Taft, United States Secretary of War, and Count Katsura of Japan in July 1905. ... Through the Eulsa Treaty of 17 November 1905, the Korean Empire ceded foreign diplomacy to the Japanese Empire, became a protectorate of Japan, and in effect ceded its national sovereignty to Japan. ... The Treaty of Annexation of Korea by Japan, also called in Korea 경술국치(庚戌國恥), meaning Humiliation of the Nation in the Year of the Dog, was signed on August 22, 1910 by the representatives of the Korean and Japanese Imperial Governments. ...

Other uses of term "Unequal Treaty"

The 2003 UK-US extradition treaty was called an "unequal treaty" by the RESPECT party and the Liberal Democrat leader Menzies Campbell. Extradition is the official process by which one nation or state requests and obtains from another nation or state the surrender of a suspected or convicted criminal. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sir Walter Menzies Campbell, CBE, QC (born 22 May 1941), commonly known as Ming Campbell, is a British politician. ...

See also

According to the notion of client states, just as a client of a corporation remains dependent on the corporation for a continued supply of products, and just as it is in the companys interest to make expendable products which need to be replaced regularly, client states of the two... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Most favoured nation (MFN), also called normal trade relations in the United States, is a status accorded by one nation to another in international trade. ...

External link

  • Treaty Ports and Extraterritoriality in 1920s' China

  Results from FactBites:
Unequal Treaties - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (372 words)
The Unequal Treaties is the name in the English language used by modern China for a series of treaties signed by several Asian states, including the Qing Empire in China, late Tokugawa Japan, and late Joseon Korea, and foreign powers (列強, 열강) during the 19th and early 20th centuries.
China considered these treaties "unequal" because in most cases China saw itself as being forced to pay large amounts of reparations, open up ports, cede lands, and make various concessions to foreign "spheres of influence," following military defeats in wars initiated against her will.
Japan was the first to throw off the shackles of its treaties during the mid 1890s, when its performance in the First Sino-Japanese War convinced many in the West that Japan had indeed entered among the body of "civilized nations".
Edo, Treaty of - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about Edo, Treaty of (196 words)
Because the conditions were unfavourable to Japan, the 1858 agreements are counted among the unequal treaties.
Under these treaties, foreign nationals in Japan were not subject to Japanese jurisdiction: if they committed offences they could be tried only by the consular courts of the treaty powers.
Treaty ports were opened (Nagasaki, Yokohama, and Hakodate from 1859, Niigata from 1860, and Kōe from 1863).
  More results at FactBites »



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