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Encyclopedia > Undue influence
Contract Law
Part of the common law series
Contract
Contract formation
Offer and acceptance  · Mailbox rule
Mirror image rule  · Invitation to treat
Firm offer  · Consideration
Defenses against formation
Lack of capacity to contract
Duress  · Undue influence
Illusory promise  · Statute of frauds
Non est factum
Contract interpretation
Parol evidence rule
Contract of adhesion
Integration clause
Contra proferentem
Excuses for non-performance
Mistake  · Misrepresentation
Frustration of purpose  · Impossibility
Impracticability  · Illegality
Unclean hands  · Unconscionability
Accord and satisfaction
Rights of third parties
Privity of contract
Assignment  · Delegation
Novation  · Third party beneficiary
Breach of contract
Anticipatory repudiation  · Cover
Exclusion clause  · Efficient breach
Fundamental breach
Remedies
Specific performance
Liquidated damages
Penal damages  · Rescission
Quasi-contractual obligations
Promissory estoppel
Quantum meruit
Subsets: Conflict of law
Commercial law
Other areas of the common law
Tort law  · Property law
Wills and trusts
Criminal law  · Evidence

Undue influence (as a term in jurisprudence) is an equitable doctrine that involves one person taking advantage of a position of power over another person. It is where free will to bargain is not possible. Image File history File links Scale_of_justice. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... Offer and acceptance analysis is a traditional approach in contract law used to determine whether an agreement exists between two parties. ... The mailbox rule or the postal acceptance rule is a term of common law contracts which determines the timing of acceptance of an offer when mail is contemplated as the medium of acceptance. ... In the law of contracts, the mirror image rule states that an offer must be accepted exactly without modifications. ... In contract law, an invitation to treat (invitation to bargain in the US) is an action by one party which may appear to be a contractual offer but which is actually inviting others to make an offer of their own. ... In the United States, a firm offer is an offer defined by UCC § 2-205 of the Uniform Commercial Code of the United States. ... Consideration is something that is done or promised in return for a contractual promise. ... The capacity of both natural and artificial persons determines whether they may make binding amendments to their rights, duties and obligations, such as getting married or merging, entering into contracts, making gifts, or writing a valid will. ... Duress in the context of contract law is a common law defence, and if you are successful in proving that the contract is vitiated by duress, you can rescind the contract, since it is then voidable. ... In contract law, an illusory promise is one that courts will not enforce. ... The statute of frauds refers to a requirement in many common law jurisdictions that certain kinds of contracts, typically contractual obligations, be done in writing. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A standard form contract (sometimes referred to as an adhesion contract or boilerplate contract) is a contract between two parties that does not allow for negotiation, i. ... An integration clause, in the contract law, is a term in the language of the contract that declares it to be the complete and final agreement between the parties. ... Contra preferendum or contra preferentem is the rule in contract law that is applied when interpreting a clause, especially an exclusion clause, in an action that says that, where ambiguity as to a terms meaning exists, it should be read against the party who wrote it. ... In contract law a mistake is incorrect understanding by one or more parties to a contract and may be used as grounds to invalidate the agreement. ... In contract law, a misrepresentation is a false statement of fact made by one party to another party and has the effect of inducing that party into the contract. ... Frustration of purpose is a term used in the law of contracts to describe a defense to an action for non-performance based on the occurance of an unforseen event which makes performance impossible or commercially impracticable. ... Impossible redirects here. ... The doctrine of impracticability in the common law of contracts excuses performance of a duty, where that duty has become unfeasibly difficult or expensive for the party who was to perform. ... An illegal agreement, under the common law of contract, is one that the courts will not enforce because the purpose of the agreement is to achieve an illegal end. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Accord and satisfaction is the purchase of the release from a debt obligation. ... The doctrine of privity in contract law provides that a contract cannot confer rights or impose obligations arising under it on any person or agent except the parties to it. ... An assignment is a term used with similar meanings in the law of contracts and in the law of real estate. ... Delegation is a term used in the law of contracts to describe the act of giving another person the responsibility of carrying out the performance agreed to in a contract. ... Novation is a term used in contract law and business law to describe the act of either replacing an obligation to perform with a new obligation, or replacing a party to an agreement with a new party. ... A third party beneficiary, in the law of contracts, is a person who may have the right to sue on a contract, despite not having originally been a party to the contract. ... Breach of contract is a legal concept in which a binding agreement or bargained-for exchange is not honored by one or more of the parties to the contract by non-performance or interference with the other partys performance. ... Anticipatory repudiation (or anticipatory breach) is a term in the law of contracts that describes a declaration by one party (the promissing party) to a contract that they do not intend to live up to their obligations under the contract. ... Cover is a term used in the law of contracts to describe a remedy available to a merchant buyer who has received an anticipatory repudiation of a contract for the receipt of goods. ... An exclusion clause is a term in a contract that seeks to restrict the rights of the parties to the contract. ... Efficient breach refers to a breach of contract that the breaching party considers desirable even when the legal and economic ramifications of such a breach are considered. ... Fundamental breach, sometimes known as a repudiatory breach, is a breach so fundamental that it permits the aggrieved party to terminate performance of the contract, in addition to entitling that party to sue for damages. ... Definition of Specific performance In the law of remedies, a specific performance is a demand of a party to perform a specific act. ... Liquidated damages is a term used in the law of contracts to describe a contractual term which establishes damages to be paid to one party if the other party should breach the contract. ... Penal damages are best seen as quantitatively excessive liquidated damages and are invalid under the common law. ... In contract law, rescission (to rescind or set aside a contract) refers to the cancellation of the contract between the parties. ... Estoppel is a concept that prevents a party from acting in a certain way because it is not equitable to do so. ... Quantum meruit is a Latin phrase meaning as much as he has deserved. In the context of contract law, it means something along the lines of reasonable value of services. Situations The concept of quantum meruit applies to the following situations: I. When a person employs (impliedly or expressly) another... International private law, private international law or conflict of laws is the branch of private law which regulates lawsuits involving foreign laws or jurisdictions. ... Commercial law or business law is the body of law which governs business and commerce and is often considered to be a branch of civil law and deals both with issues of private law and public law. ... In the common law, a tort is a civil wrong for which the law provides a remedy. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In the common law, a will or testament is a document by which a person (the testator) regulates the rights of others over his property or family after death. ... The law of trusts and estates is generally considered the body of law which governs the management of personal affairs and the disposition of property of an individual in anticipation and the event of such persons incapacity or death, also known as the law of successions in civil law. ... Criminal law (also known as penal law) is the body of statutory and common law that deals with crime and the legal punishment of criminal offenses. ... The law of evidence governs the use of testimony (e. ... Philosophers of law ask what is law? and what should it be? Jurisprudence is the theory and philosophy of law. ... The Court of Chancery, London, early 19th century This article is about the concept of equity in the jurisprudence of common law countries. ...

Contents

Undue influence in contract law

If undue influence is proved in a contract (at least in Australia), the contract is voidable by the innocent party, and the remedy is rescission. There are two categories to consider:

  • Presumed undue influence
  • Actual undue influence

Presumed undue influence

First subgroup

In the first subgroup, the relationship falls in a class of relationships that as a matter of law will raise a presumption of undue influence. Such classes include:

  • Parent/child
  • Guardian/ward
  • Priest/member of parish
  • Solicitor/client
  • Doctor/patient

In such cases, the onus of proof lies on a doctor, say, to disprove undue influence on a patient.


Second subgroup

The second subgroup covers relationships that do not fall into the first subgroup, but on the facts of case, there was an antecedent relationship between the parties that led to undue influence. The test is one of whether there was a relationship of such trust and confidence that it should give rise to such a presumption (see Johnson v. Buttress (1936) 56 CLR 113).


Actual undue influence

An innocent party may also seek to have a contract set aside for actual undue influence, where there is no presumption of undue influence, but there is evidence that the power was unbalanced at the time of the signing of the contract.


Undue influence in probate law

"Undue Influence" is the most common ground for will contests and are often accompanied by a capacity challenge. In probate law, it is generally defined as a testator's loss of free agency regarding property disposition through contemporaneous psychological domination by an advisor which results in an excessive benefit to the advisor. It is important to note that "undue influence" is only an issue when the advisor is benefiting, not when advisor is getting a benefit for someone else; in that case it would be considered fraud. In litigation most jurisdictions place the burden of proving undue influence on the party challenging the will. Probate is the legal process of settling the estate of a deceased person, specifically resolving all claims and distributing the decedents property. ... A testator is a person who has made a legally binding will or testament, which specifies what is to be done with that persons penis family and/or property after death. ... Advisor is the title of the British colonial head of administration in the Unfederated Malay States of Johor, Kelantan, Terengganu, Perlis and Kedah. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
DCBA Brief, April Issue: Undue Influence in Illinois Estates (2518 words)
Undue influence is by far the most commonly asserted ground for invalidating a will, a trust instrument or a deed which is part of a person’s post-death estate plan.
The usual case of undue influence involves subtle means ranging from flattery to attempts to encourage fear, isolation or loneliness on the part of the testator.
Once the presumption of undue influence is established it has the effect of shifting to the party against whom it operates the burden of going forward and introducing evidence to meet the presumption.
Undue Influence In Contract And Probate Law (5357 words)
This article outlines the history of undue influence and the law, the definitions of undue influence, judicial considerations in deciding undue influence cases, and the types of cases in which document examiners may be called upon to testify.
Undue influence cases were seen within a larger context, where the wrong perpetrated was the interference with another's will, which ideally should be free.
Therefore, undue influence also includes situations in which the weaker individual comes under the domination of the stronger, when such "strength" is based on knowledge, training, or relationship, and "weakness" is a product of weakness of mind or necessities of life and/or distress.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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