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Encyclopedia > Underground culture

Underground culture, or just underground, is a term to describe various alternative cultures which either consider themselves different to the mainstream of society and culture, or are considered so by others. The word underground is used because there is a history of resistance movements under harsh regimes where the term underground was employed to refer to the necessary secrecy of the resisters. Alternative culture is a catch-all phrase used predominately by the media and the marketing industry to refer to a variety of separate sub-cultures – (which are either loosely related or near-totally unrelated) – and are perceived by the general public as being outside or on the edge of so... Mainstream is, generally, the common current of thought of the majority. ... Human relationships within an ethnically diverse society. ... The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Underground Resistance (commonly abbreviated to UR) are a musical collective from Detroit, Michigan, in the United States of America. ...


For example, the Underground Railroad was a network of clandestine routes by which African slaves in the 19th century United States attempted to escape to freedom. The phrase "underground railroad" was resurrected and applied in the 1960s to the extensive network of draft counseling groups and houses used to help Vietnam-era draft dodgers escape to Canada (References: [1]), and was also applied in the 1970s to the clandestine movement of people and goods by the American Indian Movement in and out of occupied Native American reservation lands. (See Wounded Knee (References: [2]). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Africa (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... Their actions were criminal offences and once they had left the country draft dodgers could not return or they would be arrested. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... The American Indian Movement (AIM), is a Native American activist organization in the United States that burst on the international scene with its seizure of the Bureau of Indian Affairs headquarters in Washington, D.C., in 1972 and the 1973 standoff at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, on the Pine Ridge... American Indian and Alaskan Natives[1] (term preferred by the majority of people included) are the indigenous peoples within the territory that is now encompassed by the continental United States, including parts of Alaska down to their descendants in modern times. ... Wounded Knee is a census-designated place located in Shannon County, South Dakota. ...


The unmodified term "The underground" was a common name for World War II resistance movements. It was later applied to counter-cultural movement(s) many of which sprang up during the 1960s. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the use of images on this page may require cleanup, involving adjustment of image placement, formatting, size, or other adjustments. ... A resistance movement is a non-military group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... During the 1960s the term underground acquired a new meaning in that it referred to members of the so-called counterculture, i. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ...


These 1960s and 1970s underground cultural movements had some connections to the "beat generation" which had, in turn, been inspired by the philosophers, artists and poets of the Paris Existentialist movement which gathered around Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus in the years after World War II. Sartre and Camus were members of Combat a French resistance group formed in 1942 by Henri Frenay. Frenay, Sarte and Camus were all involved in publishing Underground newspapers for the resistance. The French underground culture which inspired Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg in America in the 1940s was steeped in socialist thinking before the cold war began, but this wasn't the monolithic socialism of the totalitarian Soviet state, but rather the free-thinking and expressive socialism of artists and dreamers attempting to re-think society. The term Beat Generation refers primarily to a group of American writers of the 1950s. ... Philosopher in Meditation (detail), by Rembrandt. ... Look up artist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A poet is some one who writes poetry. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur Tossed by the waves, she does not founder Coordinates : , Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Département Paris (75) Région ÃŽle-de-France Mayor Bertrand Delanoë (PS) City (commune) Characteristics Land Area 86. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement emphasizing individualism, individual freedom, and subjectivity. ... Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (June 21, 1905 – April 15, 1980), normally known simply as Jean-Paul Sartre (pronounced: ), was a French existentialist philosopher, dramatist and screenwriter, novelist and critic. ... Albert Camus (pronounced ) (November 7, 1913 – January 4, 1960) was a French author and philosopher and one of the principal luminaries of absurdism. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the use of images on this page may require cleanup, involving adjustment of image placement, formatting, size, or other adjustments. ... Combat, or fighting, is purposeful violent conflict between one or more persons or organizations, often intended to establish dominance over the opposition. ... Bold textItalic textLink title // Headline text Headline text Headline text == The cross of Lorraine used by the French Resistance as a symbolic reference to Joan of Arc. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Henri Frenay (1905-1988) was a French military officer and French resistance member. ... The phrase underground press, especially underground newspapers (or simply underground papers) is, these days, most often used in reference to the print media associated with the countercultural movements of the late 1960s and early 1970s, although publishers of those journals had borrowed the name from previous underground presses such as... Jack Kerouac (pronounced ) (March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969) was an American novelist, writer, poet, artist, and part of the Beat Generation. ... Allen Ginsberg (left) with his lifelong companion, poet Peter Orlovsky. ... // Events and trends World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrination, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atomic bomb. ... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... The Cold War (Russian: Холодная война Kholodnaya Voina) was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between the global superpowers of the Soviet Union and the United States, supported by their military alliance partners. ... The concept of Totalitarianism is a typology or ideal-type used by some political scientists to encapsulate the characteristics of a number of twentieth century regimes that mobilized entire populations in support of the state or an ideology. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


Jack Kerouac (In Esquire magazine in 1958) [3] said: "The same thing was almost going on in the postwar France of Sartre and Genet and what's more we knew about it--But as to the actual existence of a Beat Generation, chances are it was really just an idea in our minds--We'd stay up 24 hours drinking cup after cup of black coffee, playing record after record of Wardell Gray, Lester Young, Dexter Gordon, Willie Jackson, Lennie Tristano and all the rest, talking madly about that holy new feeling out there in the streets- -We'd write stories about some strange beatific Negro hepcat saint with goatee hitchhiking across Iowa with taped up horn bringing the secret message of blowing to other coasts, other cities, like a veritable Walter the Penniless leading an invisible First Crusade- -We had our mystic heroes and wrote, nay sung novels about them, erected long poems celebrating the new 'angels' of the American underground--In actuality there was only a handful of real hip swinging cats and what there was vanished mightily swiftly during the Korean War when (and after) a sinister new kind of efficiency appeared in America, maybe it was the result of the universalization of Television and nothing else (the Polite Total Police Control of Dragnet's 'peace' officers) but the beat characters after 1950 vanished into jails and madhouses, or were shamed into silent conformity, the generation itself was shortlived and small in number." It took a few years more, however, for the culture Kerouac describes to grow in numbers and redefine itself variously as the underground culture or the freak scene etc. Esquire is a magazine for men owned by the Hearst Corporation. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The freak scene was a term used by a slightly post-hippie and pre-punk style of bohemian subculture. ...


Since then, the term has come to designate various subcultures such as mod culture, hippie culture, punk rock culture, techno music/rave culture and underground hip hop. As understood in sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a set of people with a distinct set of behavior and beliefs that differentiate them from a larger culture of which they are a part. ... Mod (or, to use its full name, Modernism or sometimes Modism) was a youth lifestyle based around fashion and music that developed in London, England in the late 1950s and reached its peak in the early to mid 1960s. ... Hippies (singular hippie or sometimes hippy) were members of the 1960s counterculture movement who adopted a communal or nomadic lifestyle, renounced corporate nationalism and the Vietnam War, embraced aspects of Buddhism, Hinduism, and/or Native American religious culture, and were otherwise at odds with traditional middle class Western values. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Techno is a form of electronic dance music that became prominent in Detroit, Michigan during the mid-1980s with influences from electro, New Wave, Funk and futuristic fiction themes that were prevalent and relative to modern culture during the end of the Cold War in industrial America at that time. ... A rave party, more often called a rave, is an all-night dance event where DJs and other performers play electronic dance music and rave music. ... Alternative hip hop or Underground hip hop is defined as a culture rather than just a musical genre. ...


Applied to the arts, the term underground typically means artists that are not corporately sponsored and generally do not want to be. However, with the advent of the world wide web (or internet), many experts argue that there is no underground since so much art and so many political ideas, especially music, is far easier to locate and because so it provides artists and activists a means to promote their work and ideas without large, established corporate interests. Even the concept of obscurity is questionable given 21st century access to information about past or current artistic trends. The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1891-1892). ... Look up artist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (WWW or simply the Web) is a global, read-write information space. ...


Perhaps the best way to define it is a quote by Frank Zappa: Frank Vincent Zappa (December 21, 1940 – December 4, 1993) was an American composer, guitarist, singer, film director, and satirist. ...

"The mainstream comes to you, but you have to go to the underground."

Etymology

The use of underground as adjective meaning "subculture" is attested is from 1953, from World War II application to resistance movements against German occupation, on analogy of the dominant culture and Nazis [4] and, at least, as far back as the Underground railroad. As understood in sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a set of people with a distinct set of behavior and beliefs that differentiate them from a larger culture of which they are a part. ...


See also

Alternative culture is a catch-all phrase used predominately by the media and the marketing industry to refer to a variety of separate sub-cultures – (which are either loosely related or near-totally unrelated) – and are perceived by the general public as being outside or on the edge of so... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The term underground music has been applied to several artistic movements, notably to the early psychedelic movement of the mid 60s centred in Los Angeles. ... Mr. ... The phrase underground press, especially underground newspapers (or simply underground papers) is, these days, most often used in reference to the alternative print media, independently published and distributed, associated with the countercultural movements of the late 1960s and early 1970s. ... The first use of the term underground film occurs in a 1957 essay by American film critic Manny Farber, Underground Films. ... Prague underground - was a Underground culture developed in Prague, Czechoslovakia in the middle of 1960´s. ... The English underground is a phrase used by those who study and chronicle the arts history of England, especially the musical traditions. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... // Subcultures The 20th century, particularly the latter half, was a time of increasing social diversity and individualism. ... Notes from Underground (also translated in English as Notes from the Underground or Letters from the Underworld) (1864) is a short novel by Fyodor Dostoevsky. ... The Underground Literary Alliance is a Philadelphia-based, but internationally membered, group of untalented writers, zinesters and DIY writers who seek to expose what they see as the corruption and insularity in the American book-publishing establishment while providing alternative avenues for writers who dont easily fit into mainstream...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Underground culture - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (493 words)
Underground culture, or just underground, is a term to describe various alternative cultures which either consider themselves different to the mainstream of society and culture, or are considered so by others.
The word underground is used because there is a history of resistance movements under harsh regimes where the term underground was employed to refer to the necessary secrecy of the resisters.
The French underground culture which inspired Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg in America in the 1940s was steeped in socialist thinking before the cold war began, but this wasn't the monolithic socialism of the totalitarian Soviet state, but rather the free-thinking and expressive socialism of artists and dreamers attempting to re-think society.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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