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Encyclopedia > Uncle Tom's Cabin
Title Uncle Tom's Cabin

Uncle Tom's Cabin, Boston edition
Author Harriet Beecher Stowe
Illustrator Hammatt Billings (1st edition)
Country United States
Language English
Genre(s) Novel
Publisher National Era (as a serial) & John P. Jewett and Company (in two volumes)
Released March 20, 1852
Media type Print (Hardback & Paperback)
ISBN none

Uncle Tom's Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly, is American author Harriet Beecher Stowe's fictional anti-slavery novel. Published in 1852, the novel had a profound effect on worldwide attitudes toward African Americans and slavery. In the United States, it is widely thought to have helped intensify the sectional conflict that led to civil war.[1] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 300 × 559 pixelsFull resolution (300 × 559 pixel, file size: 54 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Title-page illustration by Hammatt Billings for Uncle Toms Cabin [First Edition: Boston: John P. Jewett and Company, 1852]. Shows characters of Chloe, Mose... Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe (June 14, 1811 – July 1, 1896) was a white American abolitionist and novelist, whose Uncle Toms Cabin (1852) attacked the cruelty of slavery; it reached millions as a novel and play, and became influential as well in Britain. ... Charles Howland Hammatt Billings (1818-1874) was an artist and architect from Boston, Massachusetts. ... In political geography and international politics a country is a geographical entity, a territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state or nation. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The barcode of an ISBN . ... Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe (June 14, 1811 – July 1, 1896) was a white American abolitionist and novelist, whose Uncle Toms Cabin (1852) attacked the cruelty of slavery; it reached millions as a novel and play, and became influential as well in Britain. ... Slave redirects here. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... The battle of Fort Sumter was the first stage in a conflict that had been brewing for decades. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


Stowe, a Connecticut-born teacher at the Hartford Female Academy and an active abolitionist, focused the novel on the character of Uncle Tom, a long-suffering Black slave around whose life revolve the stories of other characters—both fellow slaves and slave owners. It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ...


Uncle Tom's Cabin was the best-selling novel of the 19th century (and the second best-selling book of that century following the Bible)[2] and is credited with helping to fuel the abolitionist cause in the 1850s.[3] In the first year after it was published, 300,000 copies of the book were sold in the United States alone. The book's impact was so great that when Abraham Lincoln met Stowe at the start of the American Civil War, Lincoln is often quoted as having declared, "So this is the little lady who made this big war."[4] This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... This article is becoming very long. ...


The book also helped create a number of common stereotypes about Blacks, many of which endure to this day. These include the affectionate, dark-skinned mammy; the Pickaninny stereotype of black children; and the Uncle Tom, or dutiful, long-suffering servant faithful to his white master or mistress. In recent years, the negative associations with Uncle Tom's Cabin have to a large degree overshadowed the historical impact of the book as a "vital antislavery tool."[5] A Masai man in Kenya Black people or blacks is a political, social or cultural classification of people. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... Pickaninny (also pickaninnie) is a pidgin word form which may be derived from the Portuguese pequenino (little) via Lingua franca. ... Uncle Tom is a pejorative for an African American who is perceived by others as behaving in a subservient manner to White American authority figures, or as seeking ingratiation with them by way of unnecessary accommodation. ...

Contents

Sources for the novel

Stowe wrote the novel as a response to the 1850 passage of the second Fugitive Slave Act, which punished those who aided runaway slaves and diminished the rights of fugitives as well as freed Blacks. An April 24, 1851 poster warning colored people in Boston about policemen acting as slave catchers. ...

An engraving of Harriet Beecher Stowe from 1872, based on an oil painting by Alonzo Chappel.

Much of the book was composed in Brunswick, Maine, where her husband, Calvin Stowe, taught at his alma mater Bowdoin College.[6] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe (June 14, 1811 – July 1, 1896) was a white American abolitionist and novelist, whose Uncle Toms Cabin (1852) attacked the cruelty of slavery; it reached millions as a novel and play, and became influential as well in Britain. ... Brunswick is a town located in Cumberland County, Maine. ... Official language(s) None (English de facto; French is also an administrative language) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... Bowdoin College,founded in 1794 by is a private liberal arts college located in the coastal New England town of Brunswick, Maine. ...


Stowe was partly inspired to create Uncle Tom's Cabin by the autobiography of Josiah Henson, an African-American who lived and worked on a 3,700–acre tobacco plantation in North Bethesda, Maryland owned by Isaac Riley.[7] Henson escaped slavery in 1830 by fleeing to the Province of Upper Canada (now Ontario), where he helped other fugitive slaves arrive and become self-sufficient, and where he wrote his memoirs. Harriet Beecher Stowe evidently acknowledged that Henson's writings inspired Uncle Tom's Cabin.[8] When Stowe's book became famous, Henson republished his memoirs as The Memoirs of Uncle Tom, and traveled extensively in America and Europe.[7] Stowe's novel lent its name to Henson's home—Uncle Tom's Cabin Historic Site, near Dresden, Ontario—which since the 1940s has been a museum. A photo of Josiah Henson, taken in 1877 Josiah Henson (June 15, 1789 – May 5, 1883) was born into slavery in Charles County, Maryland. ... North Bethesda is a census-designated place and an uncorporated area located in Montgomery County, Maryland. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council  - Lower house Legislative Assembly Historical... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area Ranked 4th... Dresden, Ontario is a town in the southwestern part of the Canadian province of Ontario. ...


American Slavery As It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses, a volume co-authored by Theodore Dwight Weld and the Grimké sisters, is also identified as a source of some of the material.[9] Stowe also said she based the novel on a number of interviews with escaped slaves during the time when Stowe was living in Cincinnati, Ohio, just across the Ohio River from Kentucky, a slave state. In Cincinnati the Underground Railroad had local abolitionist sympathizers and was active in efforts to help runaway slaves on their escape route from the South. Theodore Dwight Weld (1803–1895), the author of American Slavery As It Is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses, was an American abolitionist. ... Sarah Grimke (1792-1873) and Angelina Grimké Weld (1805-1879), known as the Grimké sisters, were 19th-century American Quakers, educators and writers who were early advocates of abolitionism and womens rights. ... Nickname: Location in Hamilton County, Ohio, USA Coordinates: Country United States State Ohio County Hamilton Founded 1788 Incorporated 1802 (village) - 1819 (city) Government  - Type Strong mayor  - Mayor Mark L. Mallory (D) Area  - City  79. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Stowe mentioned a number of the inspirations and sources for her novel in her 1853 book A Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin. This nonfiction book was written to back up Stowe's claims about the evils of slavery.[10] However, later research has indicated that Stowe didn't actually read many of the book's cited works until after the publication of her novel.[10] Cover of the 1854 edition. ...


Publication

Uncle Tom's Cabin was first published as a 40-week serial in National Era, an abolitionist periodical, starting with the June 5, 1851 issue. Because of the story's popularity, publisher John Jewett contacted Stowe about turning the serial into a book. While Stowe questioned if anyone would read Uncle Tom's Cabin in book form, she eventually consented to the request. This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Fullpage illustration by Hammatt Billings for Uncle Tom's Cabin (First Edition: Boston: John P. Jewett and Company, 1852). The engraving shows Eliza telling Uncle Tom that she has been sold and is running away to save her child.

Convinced the book would be popular, Jewett made the unusual decision (for that time) to have six fullpage illustrations by Hammatt Billings engraved for the first printing.[11] Published in book form on March 20, 1852, the novel soon sold out its complete print run. A number of other editions were soon printed (including a deluxe edition in 1853, featuring 117 illustrations by Billings).[12] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Charles Howland Hammatt Billings (1818-1874) was an artist and architect from Boston, Massachusetts. ... Charles Howland Hammatt Billings (1818-1874) was an artist and architect from Boston, Massachusetts. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


In the first year of publication, 300,000 copies of Uncle Tom's Cabin were sold. The book eventually became the best-selling novel in the world during the 19th century (and the second best-selling book after the Bible), with the book being translated into every major language.[2] A number of the early editions carried an introduction by Rev James Sherman, a Congregational minister in London noted for his abolitionist views. The Rev. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Uncle Tom's Cabin sold equally well in England, with the first London edition appearing in May, 1852 and selling 200,000 copies.[13] In a few years over 1.5 million copies of the book were in circulation in England, although most of these were pirated copies (a similar situation occurred in the United States).[14]


Plot summary

Eliza escapes with her son, Tom sold "down the river"

The book opens with a Kentucky farmer named Arthur Shelby facing the loss of his farm because of debts. Even though he and his wife (Emily Shelby) believe that they have a benevolent relationship with their slaves, Shelby decides to raise the needed funds by selling two of them—Uncle Tom, a middle-aged man with a wife and children, and Harry, the son of Emily Shelby’s maid Eliza—to a slave trader. Emily Shelby hates the idea of doing this because she had promised her maid that her child would never be sold; Emily's son, George Shelby, hates to see Tom go because he sees the old man as his friend and mentor. Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Uncle Toms Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly, is American author Harriet Beecher Stowes fictional anti-slavery novel. ... Uncle Toms Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly, is American author Harriet Beecher Stowes fictional anti-slavery novel. ... Uncle Tom is a pejorative for an African American who is perceived by others as behaving in a subservient manner to White American authority figures, or as seeking ingratiation with them by way of unnecessary accommodation. ... Uncle Toms Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly, is American author Harriet Beecher Stowes fictional anti-slavery novel. ... Uncle Toms Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly, is American author Harriet Beecher Stowes fictional anti-slavery novel. ...

Simon Legree assaulting Uncle Tom.
Simon Legree assaulting Uncle Tom.

When Eliza overhears Mr. and Mrs. Shelby discussing plans to sell Tom and Harry, Eliza determines to run away with her son. The novel states that Eliza made this decision not because of physical cruelty, but by her fear of losing her only surviving child (she had already lost two children due to miscarriage). Eliza departs that night, leaving a note of apology to her mistress. Image File history File links Legree. ... Image File history File links Legree. ...


While all of this is happening, Uncle Tom is sold and placed on a riverboat, which sets sail down the Mississippi River. While onboard, Tom meets and befriends a young white girl named Eva. When Eva falls into the river, Tom saves her. In gratitude, Eva's father, Augustine St. Clare, buys Tom from the slave trader and takes him with the family to their home in New Orleans. During this time, Tom and Eva begin to relate to one another because of the deep Christian faith they both share. A riverboat is a specialized watercraft (vessel) designed for operating on inland waterways. ... The Mississippi River, derived from the old Ojibwe word misi-ziibi meaning great river (gichi-ziibi big river at its headwaters), is the second-longest named river in North America, with a length of 2320 miles (3733 km) from Lake Itasca to the Gulf of Mexico. ... Uncle Toms Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly, is American author Harriet Beecher Stowes fictional anti-slavery novel. ... Uncle Toms Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly, is American author Harriet Beecher Stowes fictional anti-slavery novel. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ...


Eliza's family hunted, Tom's life with St. Clare

During Eliza's escape, she meets up with her husband George Harris, who ran away previously. They decide to attempt to reach Canada. However, they are now being tracked by a slave hunter named Tom Loker. Eventually Loker and his men trap Eliza and her family, causing George to shoot Loker. Worried that Loker may die, Eliza convinces George to bring the slave hunter to a nearby Quaker settlement for medical treatment. The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ...


Back in New Orleans, St. Clare debates slavery with his cousin Ophelia who, while opposing slavery, is deeply prejudiced against Black people. St. Clare, however, believes he is not biased, even though he is a slave owner. In an attempt to show Ophelia that her views on Blacks are wrong, St. Clare purchases Topsy, a young black slave. St. Clare then asks Ophelia to educate Topsy. Uncle Toms Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly, is American author Harriet Beecher Stowes fictional anti-slavery novel. ...


After Tom has lived with the St. Clares for two years, Eva grows very ill. Before she dies she experiences a vision of heaven, which she shares with the people around her. As a result of her death and vision, the other characters resolve to change their lives, with Ophelia promising to love her slaves more, Topsy saying she will better herself, and St. Clare pledging to free Uncle Tom.


Tom sold to Simon Legree

Fullpage illustration by Hammatt Billings for Uncle Tom's Cabin (First Edition: Boston: John P. Jewett and Company, 1852). Cassy, another of Legree's slaves, is shown ministering to Uncle Tom after his whipping.

Before St. Clare can follow through on his pledge, he is fatally stabbed while intervening in a fight. His wife reneges on her late husband's vow and sells Tom at auction to a vicious plantation owner named Simon Legree. Legree (who is not a native southerner but a transplanted Yankee) takes Tom to rural Louisiana, where Tom meets Legree's other slaves, including Emmeline (whom Legree purchased at the same time). Legree begins to hate Tom when Tom refuses Legree's order to whip his fellow slave. Tom receives a brutal beating, and Legree resolves to crush Tom's faith in God. But Tom refuses to stop reading his Bible and comforting the other slaves as best he can. While at the plantation, Tom meets Cassy, another of Legree's slaves. Cassy was previously separated from her son and daughter when they were sold; unable to endure the pain of seeing another child sold, she killed her third child. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... // This article is about crop plantations. ... Uncle Toms Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly, is American author Harriet Beecher Stowes fictional anti-slavery novel. ... The term Yankee currently refers to people from or in New England; by extension it is applied to any resident of the Northeast (New England, Mid-Atlantic, and upper Great Lakes states), to any Northerner during and after the American Civil War, or to other citizens of the United States. ... Official language(s) de jure: none de facto: English & French Capital Baton Rouge Largest city New Orleans [1] Area  Ranked 31st  - Total 51,885 sq mi (134,382 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 16  - Latitude 29°N to 33°N  - Longitude 89°W... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Reading is a process of retrieving and comprehending some form of stored information or ideas. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ...


At this point Tom Loker returns to the story. Loker has changed as the result of being healed by the Quakers. George, Eliza, and Harry have also obtained their freedom after crossing into Canada. In Louisiana, Uncle Tom almost succumbs to hopelessness as his faith in God is tested by the hardships of the plantation. However, he has two visions—one of Jesus and one of Eva—which renews his resolve to remain a faithful Christian, even unto death. He encourages Cassy to escape, which she does, taking Emmeline with her. When Tom refuses to tell Legree where Cassy and Emmeline have gone, Legree orders his overseers to kill Tom. As Tom is dying, he forgives the overseers who savagely beat him. Humbled by the character of the man they have killed, both men become Christians. After Tom's death, George Shelby (Arthur Shelby's son) arrives to buy Tom’s freedom, but finds he is too late. This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


Final Section

On their boat ride to freedom, Cassy and Emmeline meet George Harris' sister and accompany her to Canada. Once there Cassy discovers that Eliza is her long-lost daughter who was sold as a child. Now that their family is together again, they travel to France and eventually Liberia, the African nation created for former American slaves. There they meet Cassy's long-lost son. George Shelby returns to the Kentucky farm and frees all his slaves. George tells them to remember Tom's sacrifice and his belief in the true meaning of Christianity.


Major characters in Uncle Tom's Cabin

Uncle Tom

Illustration of Tom and Eva by Hammat Billings for the 1853 deluxe edition of Uncle Tom's Cabin.

Uncle Tom, the title character, was initially seen as a noble long-suffering Christian slave. In more recent years his name has become an epithet directed towards African-Americans who are accused of selling out to whites (for more on this, see the creation and popularization of stereotypes section). However, Stowe intended Tom to be a "noble hero"[15] and praiseworthy person. Throughout the book, far from allowing himself to be exploited, Tom stands up for his beliefs and is grudgingly admired even by his enemies. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Predominantly Christianity and Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... Uncle Toms Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly, is American author Harriet Beecher Stowes fictional anti-slavery novel. ...


Eliza

A slave (personal maid to Mrs. Shelby), she escapes to the North with her five-year old son Harry after he is sold to Mr. Haley. Her husband, George, eventually finds Eliza and Harry in Ohio, and emigrates with them to Canada, then France and finally Liberia. Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ...


The character Eliza was inspired by an account given at Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati by John Rankin to Stowe's husband Calvin, a professor at the school. According to Rankin, in February, 1838 a young slave woman had escaped across the frozen Ohio River to the town of Ripley with her child in her arms and stayed at his house on her way further north.[16] Lane Theological Seminary was established in the Walnut Hills section of Cincinnati, Ohio in 1829 to educate Presbyterian ministers. ... Nickname: Location in Hamilton County, Ohio, USA Coordinates: Country United States State Ohio County Hamilton Founded 1788 Incorporated 1802 (village) - 1819 (city) Government  - Type Strong mayor  - Mayor Mark L. Mallory (D) Area  - City  79. ... John Rankin (1793-1886) was a Presbyterian minister and abolitionist. ... Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... Main Street ends at the Ohio River in Ripley, Ohio Ripley is a village in Brown County, Ohio, 50 miles southeast of Cincinnati, along the Ohio River. ...


Eva

Eva, whose real name is Evangeline St. Clare, is the daughter of Augustine St. Clare. Eva enters the narrative when Uncle Tom is traveling via steamship to New Orleans to be sold, and he rescues the 5 or 6 year-old girl from drowning. Eva begs her father to buy Tom, and he becomes the head coachman at the St. Clare plantation. He spends most of his time with the angelic Eva, however. Uncle Tom is a pejorative for an African American who is perceived by others as behaving in a subservient manner to White American authority figures, or as seeking ingratiation with them by way of unnecessary accommodation. ... Paddle steamers - Lucerne-Switzerland Left: original paddlewheel from a paddle steamer on the lake of Lucerne. ... New Orleans is the largest city in the state of Louisiana, United States of America. ... // This article is about crop plantations. ...


Eva constantly talks about love and forgiveness, even convincing the dour slave girl Topsy that she deserves love. She even manages to touch the heart of her sour aunt, Ophelia. Some consider Eva to be a prototype of the character archetype known as the Mary Sue. Mary Sue (or simply Sue) is a pejorative expression for a fictional character who is an idealized stand-in for the author, or for a story with such a character. ...


Eventually Eva falls ill. Before dying, she gives a lock of her hair to each of the slaves, telling them that they must become Christians so that they may see each other in Heaven. On her deathbed, she convinces her father to free Tom, but because of circumstances the promise never materializes. Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Simon Legree

A villainous and cruel slave owner—a Northerner by birth—whose name has become synonymous with greed. It is Tom's Christianity which arouses him. One popular concept of the villain, meant to mimic the purposely distinctive visage of villains, initially from the stage plays of the 1880s. ...


Topsy

A "ragamuffin" young slave girl of unknown origin (she claims to have "just growed"). She was transformed by Little Eva's love. Topsy is often seen as the origin of the pickaninny stereotype of Black children. Pickaninny (also pickaninnie) is a pidgin word form which may be derived from the Portuguese pequenino (little) via Lingua franca. ...


The phrase "growed like Topsy" (later "grew like Topsy"; now somewhat archaic) passed into the English language, originally with the specific meaning of unplanned growth, later sometimes just meaning enormous growth.[17]


Other characters

There are a number of secondary and minor characters in Uncle Tom's Cabin. Among the more notable are:

  • Arthur Shelby, Tom's master in Kentucky. Shelby is characterized as a "kind" slaveowner and a stereotypical Southern gentleman.
  • Emily Shelby, Arthur Shelby's wife. A deeply religious woman who strives to be a kind and moral influence upon her slaves. She is appalled when her husband sells his slaves with a slave trader. As a woman, she had no legal way to stop this, as all property belonged to her husband.
  • George Shelby, Arthur and Emily's son. Sees Tom as a "friend" and as the perfect Christian.
  • Augustine St. Clare, Tom's second owner and father of Little Eva. Of the slaveowners in the novel, the most sympathetic character. St. Clare recognizes the evil in chattel slavery, but is not ready to relinquish the wealth it brings him. After his daughter's death he becomes more religious and starts to read the Bible to Tom. His sometimes good intentions ultimately come to nothing.

Major themes

"The fugitives are safe in a free land." Illustration by Hammatt Billings for Uncle Tom's Cabin, First Edition. The image shows George Harris, Eliza, Harry, and Mrs. Smyth after they escape to freedom.

Uncle Tom's Cabin is dominated by a single theme: the immorality of slavery. While Stowe weaves other subthemes throughout her text, such as the moral authority of motherhood and the redeeming possibilities offered by Christianity[citation needed], she emphasizes the connections between these and the horrors[citation needed] of slavery. Stowe pushed home her theme of the immorality of slavery on almost every page of the novel, sometimes even changing the story's voice so she could give a "homily" on the destructive nature of slavery[18] (such as when a white woman on the steamboat carrying Tom further south states, "The most dreadful part of slavery, to my mind, is its outrages of feelings and affections—the separating of families, for example.").[19] One way Stowe showed the evil of slavery[20] was how this "peculiar institution" forcibly separated families from each other.[21] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... In the Roman Catholic Church and in the Eastern Orthodox Church, a homily is usually given during Mass (or Divine Liturgy for Orthodox) at the end of the Liturgy of the Word. ... Slave redirects here. ...


Because Stowe saw motherhood as the "ethical and structural model for all of American life,"[22] and also believed that only women had the moral authority to save[23] the United States from the demon[citation needed] of slavery, another major theme of Uncle Tom's Cabin is the moral power and sanctity of women. Through characters like Eliza, who escapes from slavery to save her young son (and eventually reunites her entire family), or Little Eva, who is the ideal[citation needed] Christian, Stowe shows how she believed women could save those around them from even the worst injustices. While later critics have noted that Stowe's female characters are often domestic cliches instead of realistic women,[24] Stowe's novel "reaffirmed the importance of women's influence" and helped pave the way for the women's rights movement in the following decades.[25] It has been suggested that servant (domestic) be merged into this article or section. ... Cliché (from French, imitative) refers to: an overused phrase or expression, or the idea expressed by it; a situation, theme or characterization which has become common; a thing (as a style of clothing) that has become overly familiar or commonplace. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ...


Stowe's puritanical religious beliefs show up in the novel's final, over-arching theme, which is the exploration of the nature of Christianity and how she feels Christian theology is fundamentally incompatible with slavery.[26] This theme is most evident when Tom urges St. Clare to "look away to Jesus" after the death of St. Clare's beloved daughter Eva. After Tom dies, George Shelby eulogizes Tom by saying, "What a thing it is to be a Christian."[27] Because Christian themes play such a large role in Uncle Tom's Cabin—and because of Stowe's frequent use of direct authorial interjections on religion and faith—the novel often takes the "form of a sermon."[28] For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Christian theology is reasoned discourse concerning Christian faith. ...


Style

Uncle Tom's Cabin is written in the sentimental[29] and melodramatic style common to 19th century sentimental novels and domestic fiction (also called women's fiction). These genres were the most popular novels of Stowe's time and tended to feature female main characters and a writing style which evoked a reader's sympathy and emotion.[30] Even though Stowe's novel differs from other sentimental novels by focusing on a large theme like slavery and by having a man as the main character, she still set out to elicit certain strong feelings from her readers (such as making them cry at the death of Little Eva).[31] The power in this type of writing can be seen that in the reaction of contemporary readers. Georgiana May, a friend of Stowe's, wrote a letter to the author stating that "I was up last night long after one o'clock, reading and finishing Uncle Tom's Cabin. I could not leave it any more than I could have left a dying child."[32] Another reader is described as obsessing on the book at all hours and having considered renaming her daughter Eva.[33] Evidently the death of Little Eva affected a lot of people at that time, because in 1852 alone 300 baby girls in Boston were given that name.[33] A melodrama, in the broadest sense, is a serious drama that can be distinguished from tragedy by the fact that it is open to having a happy ending. ... The sentimental novel is an 18th century literary genre which celebrates the emotional and intellectual concepts of sentiment , sentimentalism and sensibility. ...


Despite this positive reaction from readers, for decades literary critics dismissed the style found in Uncle Tom's Cabin and other sentimental novels because these books were written by women and so prominently featured "women's sloppy emotions."[34] One literary critic said that had the novel not been about slavery, "it would be just another sentimental novel,"[35] while another described the book as "primarily a derivative piece of hack work."[36] George Whicher turned his nose up at the book in his Literary History of the United States by saying it was "Sunday-school fiction" and full of "broadly conceived melodrama, humor, and pathos."[37] Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ...


However, in 1985 Jane Tompkins changed this view of Uncle Tom's Cabin with her landmark book In Sensational Designs: The Cultural Work of American Fiction.[34] Tompkins praised the very sentimental style so many other critics had dismissed, noting that sentimental novels showed how women's emotions had the power to change the world for the better. She also said that the popular domestic novels of the 19th century, including Uncle Tom's Cabin, were remarkable for their "intellectual complexity, ambition, and resourcefulness; and that Uncle Tom's Cabin offers a "critique of American society far more devastating than any delivered by better-known critics such as Hawthorne and Melville."[37]


Despite this changing view of Uncle Tom's Cabin's style, because the book is written so differently from most modern novels, today's readers can find the book's prose to be dense, overdone, or "even corny."[38]


Reactions to the novel

Uncle Tom's Cabin has exerted an influence "equaled by few other novels in history."[39] Upon publication, Uncle Tom's Cabin ignited a firestorm of protest from defenders of slavery (who created a number of books in response to the novel) while the book elicited praise from abolitionists. As a best-seller, the novel heavily influenced later protest literature (such as The Jungle by Upton Sinclair). The Jungle (1906) is the title of the book of socialist American author Upton Sinclair. ... Upton Beall Sinclair Jr. ...


Contemporary and world reaction

Immediately upon publication, Uncle Tom's Cabin outraged people in the American South.[13] The novel was also roundly criticized by slavery supporters. The U.S. Southern states or The South, known during the American Civil War era as Dixie, is a distinctive region of the United States with its own unique historical perspective, customs, musical styles, and cuisine. ...


Acclaimed Southern novelist William Gilmore Simms declared the work utterly false,[40] while others called the novel criminal and slanderous.[41] Reactions ranged from a bookseller in Mobile, Alabama who was forced to leave town for selling the novel[13] to threatening letters sent to Stowe herself (including a package containing a slave's dismembered ear).[13] Many Southern writers, like Simms, soon wrote their own books in opposition to Stowe's novel (see the Anti-Tom section below).[42] William Gilmore Simms William Gilmore Simms (April 17, 1806 – June, 1870) was a southern American poet, novelist and historian whose novels achieved great prominence during the 19th century, with Edgar Allan Poe pronouncing him the best novelist America had ever produced. ... Nickname: The Azalea City Coordinates: Country US State Alabama County Mobile Founded 1702 Incorporated 1814 Government  - Mayor Sam Jones Area  - City 412. ... Uncle Toms Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly, is American author Harriet Beecher Stowes fictional anti-slavery novel. ...


Some critics highlighted Stowe's paucity of life-experience relating to Southern life, which (in their view) led her to create inaccurate descriptions of the region. For instance, she had never set foot on a Southern plantation. However, Stowe always said she based the characters of her book on stories she was told by runaway slaves in Cincinnati, Ohio, where Stowe lived. It is reported that, "She observed firsthand several incidents which galvanized her to write [the] famous anti-slavery novel. Scenes she observed on the Ohio River, including seeing a husband and wife being sold apart, as well as newspaper and magazine accounts and interviews, contributed material to the emerging plot."[43] Nickname: Location in Hamilton County, Ohio, USA Coordinates: Country United States State Ohio County Hamilton Founded 1788 Incorporated 1802 (village) - 1819 (city) Government  - Type Strong mayor  - Mayor Mark L. Mallory (D) Area  - City  79. ... Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ...


In response to these criticisms, in 1853 Stowe published A Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin, an attempt to document the veracity of the novel's depiction of slavery. In the book, Stowe discusses each of the major characters in Uncle Tom's Cabin and cites "real life equivalents" to them while also mounting a more "aggressive attack on slavery in the South than the novel itself had."[10] Like the novel, A Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin was also a best-seller. It should be noted, though, that while Stowe claimed A Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin documented her previously consulted sources, she actually read many of the cited works only after the publication of her novel.[10] Despite these supposed and actual flaws in Stowe's research, and despite the shrill attacks from defenders of slavery, the novel still captured the imagination of many Americans. Cover of the 1854 edition. ...


According to Stowe's son, when Abraham Lincoln met her in 1862 Lincoln commented, "So this is the little lady who started this great war."[44] Historians are undecided if Lincoln actually said this line, and in a letter that Stowe wrote to her husband a few hours after meeting with Lincoln no mention of this comment was made.[45] Since then, many writers have credited this novel with focusing Northern anger at the injustices of slavery and the Fugitive Slave Law[45] and helping to fuel the abolitionist movement.[46] Union General and politician James Baird Weaver said that the book convinced him to become active in the abolitionist movement.[47] For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... The Fugitive Slave Law of the United States may refer to one of two laws of the same name: Fugitive Slave Law of 1793 Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... James Baird Weaver James Baird Weaver (June 12, 1833 – February 6, 1912) was a United States politician and member of the United States House of Representatives, representing Iowa as a member of the Greenback Party. ...


Uncle Tom's Cabin also created great interest in England. The first London edition appeared in May, 1852, and sold 200,000 copies.[13] Much of this interest was because of British antipathy to America. As one prominent writer explained, "The evil passions which 'Uncle Tom' gratified in England were not hatred or vengeance [of slavery], but national jealousy and national vanity. We have long been smarting under the conceit of America—we are tired of hearing her boast that she is the freest and the most enlightened country that the world has ever seen. Our clergy hate her voluntary system—our Tories hate her democrats—our Whigs hate her parvenus—our Radicals hate her litigiousness, her insolence, and her ambition. All parties hailed Mrs. Stowe as a revolter from the enemy."[48] Charles Francis Adams, the American minister to Britain during the war, argued later that, "Uncle Tom's Cabin; or Life among the Lowly, published in 1852, exercised, largely from fortuitous circumstances, a more immediate, considerable and dramatic world-influence than any other book ever printed."[49] The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Several notable persons have been named Charles Adams: Charles Adams is an adult male age 30 living in Philadelphia. ...


The book has been translated into almost every language, including Chinese (with translator Lin Shu creating the first Chinese translation of an American novel) and Amharic (with the 1930 translation created in support of Ethiopian efforts to end the suffering of blacks in that nation.[50] Lin Shu (æž—ç´“ 1852-1924) is a Chinese man of letters, most famous for his introducing Western literature to a whole generation of Chinese readers, despite his ignorance of any foreign language. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...


Literary significance and criticism

As the first widely read political novel in the United States,[51] Uncle Tom's Cabin greatly influenced development of not only American literature but also protest literature in general. Later books which owe a large debt to Uncle Tom's Cabin include The Jungle by Upton Sinclair and Silent Spring by Rachel Carson.[52] American literature refers to written or literary work produced in the area of the United States and Colonial America. ... The Jungle (1906) is the title of the book of socialist American author Upton Sinclair. ... Upton Beall Sinclair Jr. ... Silent Spring is a book written by Rachel Carson and published by Houghton Mifflin in September 1961. ... Rachel Louise Carson (27 May 1907 — 14 April 1964) was an American marine biologist whose landmark book, Silent Spring, is often credited with having launched the global environmental movement. ...


Despite this undisputed significance, the popular perception of Uncle Tom's Cabin is as "a blend of children's fable and propaganda."[53] The novel has also been dismissed by a number of literary critics as merely a sentimental novel,"[54] while critic George Whicher stated in his Literary History of the United States that "Nothing attributable to Mrs. Stowe or her handiwork can account for the novel's enormous vogue; its author's resources as a purveyor of Sunday-school fiction were not remarkable. She had at most a ready command of broadly conceived melodrama, humor, and pathos, and of these popular cements she compounded her book."[55] Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation of literature. ...


Other critics, though, have praised the novel. Edmund Wilson stated that "To expose oneself in maturity to Uncle Tom's Cabin may...prove a startling experience."[53] Jane Tompkins states that the novel is one of the classics of American literature and wonders if many literary critics aren't dismissing the book because it was simply too popular during its day.[37]


Over the years scholars have postulated a number of theories about what Stowe was trying to say with the novel (aside from the obvious themes, such as condemning slavery). For example, as an ardent Christian and active abolitionist, Stowe placed many of her religion's beliefs into the novel.[56] Some scholars have stated that Stowe saw her novel as offering a solution to the moral and political dilemma that troubled many slavery opponents: whether engaging in prohibited behavior was justified in opposing evil. Was the use of violence to oppose the violence of slavery and the breaking of proslavery laws morally defensible? Which of Stowe's characters should be emulated, the passive Uncle Tom or the defiant George Harris?[57] Stowe's solution was similar to Ralph Waldo Emerson's: God's will would be followed if each person sincerely examined his principles and acted on them.[57] Uncle Toms Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly, is American author Harriet Beecher Stowes fictional anti-slavery novel. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ...


Scholars have also seen the novel as expressing the values and ideas of the Free Soil Movement.[58] In this view, the character of George Harris embodies the principles of free labor, while the complex character of Ophelia represents those Northerners who condoned compromise with slavery. In contrast to Ophelia is Dinah, who operates on passion. During the course of the novel Ophelia is transformed, just as the Republican Party (3 years later) proclaimed that the North must transform itself and stand up for its antislavery principles.[58] In the United States, Free Soil was a position taken by northern citizens and politicians in the 19th century advocating that all new U.S. territory be closed to slavery. ...


Feminist theory can also be seen at play in Stowe's book, with the novel as a critique of the patriarchal nature of slavery.[59] For Stowe, blood relations rather than paternalistic relations between masters and slaves formed the basis of families. Moreover, Stowe viewed national solidarity as an extension of a person's family, thus feelings of nationality stemmed from possessing a shared race. Consequently she advocated African colonization for freed slaves and not amalgamation into American society. Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical, ground. ... A patriarch (from Greek: patria means father; arché means rule, beginning, origin) is a male head of an extended family exercising autocratic authority, or, by extension, a member of the ruling class or government of a society controlled by senior men. ...


The book has also been seen as an attempt to redefine masculinity as a necessary step toward the abolition of slavery.[60] In this view, abolitionists had begun to resist the vision of aggressive and dominant men that the conquest and colonization of the early 19th century had fostered. In order to change the notion of manhood so that men could oppose slavery without jeopardizing their self-image or their standing in society, some abolitionists drew on principles of women's suffrage and Christianity as well as passivism, and praised men for cooperation, compassion, and civic spirit. Others within the abolitionist movement argued for conventional, aggressive masculine action. All the men in Stowe's novel are representations of either one kind of man or the other.[60]


Creation and popularization of stereotypes

Illustration of Sam from the 1888 "New Edition" of Uncle Tom's Cabin. The character of Sam helped create the stereotype of the lazy, carefree "happy darky."

In recent decades, scholars and readers have criticized the book for what is seen as condescending racist descriptions of the book's black characters, especially with regard to the character's appearance, speech, and behavior and the passive nature of Uncle Tom in accepting his fate.[61] The novel's creation and use of common stereotypes about African Americans[62] is important because Uncle Tom's Cabin was the best-selling novel in the world during the 19th century.[2] As a result, the book (along with images illustrating the book[63] and associated stage productions) had a major role in permanently engraining these stereotypes into the American psyche.[64] Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... In modern usage, a stereotype is a simplified mental picture of an individual or group of people who share a certain characteristic (or stereotypical) qualities. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ...


Among the stereotypes of Blacks in Uncle Tom's Cabin are:[5] This article discusses stereotypes of blacks of African descent present in American culture. ...

  • The "happy darky" (in the lazy, carefree character of Sam);
  • The light-skinned tragic mulatto as a sex object (in the characters of Eliza, Cassy, and Emmeline);
  • The affectionate, dark-skinned female mammy (through several characters, including Mammy, a cook at the St. Clare plantation).
  • The Pickaninny stereotype of black children (in the character of Topsy);
  • The Uncle Tom, or African American who is too eager to please white people (in the character of Uncle Tom). It should be noted, though, that Stowe intended Tom to be a "noble hero." The stereotype of him as a "subservient fool who bows down to the white man" evidently resulted from staged "Tom shows," over which Stowe had no control.[15]

In the last few decades these negative associations have to a large degree overshadowed the historical impact of Uncle Tom's Cabin as a "vital antislavery tool."[5] The beginning of this change in perception had its roots in an essay by James Baldwin titled "Everybody’s Protest Novel." In the essay, Baldwin called Uncle Tom’s Cabin a "very bad novel" which was also racially obtuse and aesthetically crude.[65] Dame Kelly Holmes is half Black (Jamaican) and half White (English). ... Mammy is an alternate spelling of mother, used most prominently by African American slaves during the 1800s. ... Pickaninny (also pickaninnie) is a pidgin word form which may be derived from the Portuguese pequenino (little) via Lingua franca. ... Uncle Tom is a pejorative for an African American who is perceived by others as behaving in a subservient manner to White American authority figures, or as seeking ingratiation with them by way of unnecessary accommodation. ... Uncle Toms Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly, is American author Harriet Beecher Stowes fictional anti-slavery novel. ... James Baldwin may refer to: James Baldwin (schoolbook editor and author) (1841–1925) James Baldwin (writer) (1924–1987) James Baldwin (baseball player) (born 1971) J. Baldwin (born 1934), industrial designer, author, educator James Mark Baldwin (1861–1934), philosopher and psychologist James Baldwin (abolitionist), early American Abolitionist This human name article...


In the 1960s and '70s, the Black Power and Black Arts Movements attacked the novel, saying that the character of Uncle Tom engaged in "race betrayal," making Tom (in some eyes) worse than even the most vicious slave owner.[65] Criticisms of the other stereotypes in the book also increased during this time. Tommie Smith (gold medal) and John Carlos (bronze medal) famously performed the Black Power salute on the 200 m winners podium at the 1968 Olympics. ... // The Black Arts Movement is commonly known as the artistic branch of the Black Power movement. ...


In recent years, though, scholars such as Henry Louis Gates Jr. have begun to reexamine Uncle Tom's Cabin, stating that the book is a "central document in American race relations and a significant moral and political exploration of the character of those relations."[65] Henry Louis Gates Jr. ...


Anti-Tom literature

Main article: Anti-Tom literature

In response to Uncle Tom's Cabin, writers in the Southern United States produced a number of books to rebut Stowe's novel. This so-called Anti-Tom literature generally took a pro-slavery viewpoint, arguing that the issues of slavery as depicted in Stowe's book were overblown and incorrect. The novels in this genre tended to feature a benign white patriarchal master and a pure wife, both of whom presided over child-like slaves in a benevolent extended-family-style plantation. The novels either implied, or directly stated, the racist view that African Americans were a child-like people unable to live their lives without being directly overseen by white people.[66] Anti-Tom literature refers to the 19th century pro-slavery novels and other literary works written in response to Harriet Beecher Stowes Uncle Toms Cabin. ... Historic Southern United States. ... 1. ...


The two most famous anti-Tom books are The Sword and the Distaff by William Gilmore Simms and The Planter's Northern Bride by Caroline Lee Hentz;[67] the latter author had been a close personal friend of Stowe's when the two lived in Cincinnati. Simms' book was published a few months after Stowe's novel and it contains a number of sections and discussions disputing Stowe's book and her view of slavery. Hentz's 1854 novel, widely-read at the time, but now largely forgotten, offers a defense of slavery as seen through the eyes of a northern woman—the daughter of an abolitionist, no less—who marries a southern slave owner. William Gilmore Simms William Gilmore Simms (April 17, 1806 – June, 1870) was a southern American poet, novelist and historian whose novels achieved great prominence during the 19th century, with Edgar Allan Poe pronouncing him the best novelist America had ever produced. ... William Gilmore Simms William Gilmore Simms (April 17, 1806 – June, 1870) was a southern American poet, novelist and historian whose novels achieved great prominence during the 19th century, with Edgar Allan Poe pronouncing him the best novelist America had ever produced. ... Image from The Planters Northern Bride (1854) by Caroline Lee Hentz, one of the most famous examples of Anti-Tom literature. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ...


In the decade between the publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin and the start of the American Civil War, between twenty and thirty anti-Tom books would be published. Among these novels are two books titled Uncle Tom's Cabin As It Is (one by W.L. Smith and the other by C.H. Wiley) and a book by John Pendleton Kennedy. More than half these Anti-Tom books were written by white women, with Simms commenting at one point about the "Seemingly poetic justice of having the Northern woman (Stowe) answered by a Southern woman."[68] This article is becoming very long. ... There have been several John Kennedys: John F. Kennedy, American president John F. Kennedy, Jr. ...


Dramatic adaptations

"Tom shows"

Main article: Tom Shows
1886 poster for "Stetson's Uncle Tom's Cabin"
1886 poster for "Stetson's Uncle Tom's Cabin"

Even though Uncle Tom's Cabin was the best-selling novel of the 19th century, far more Americans of that time saw the story as a stage play or musical than read the book.[69] Eric Lott, in his book Uncle Tomitudes: Racial Melodrama and Modes of Production, estimates that at least three million people saw these plays, ten times the book's first-year sales. 1886 poster for Stetsons Uncle Toms Cabin Tom Shows were stage plays and musicals based on the 1852 novel Uncle Toms Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1325x2977, 501 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Uncle Toms Cabin User:Davepape/Images Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1325x2977, 501 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Uncle Toms Cabin User:Davepape/Images Metadata This file contains additional information, probably... Romeo and Juliet by Ford Madox Brown A play, written by a playwright, or dramatist, is a form of literature, almost always consisting of dialog between characters, and intended for performance rather than reading. ... The Fantasticks is the longest-running musical in history. ...


Given the lax copyright laws of the time, stage plays based on Uncle Tom's Cabin—"Tom shows"—began to appear while the story itself was still being serialized. Stowe refused to authorize dramatization of her work because of her puritanical distrust of drama (although she did eventually go to see George Aiken's version, and, according to Francis Underwood, was "delighted" by Caroline Howard's portrayal of Topsy).[70] Stowe's refusal left the field clear for any number of adaptations, some launched for (various) political reasons and others as simply commercial theatrical ventures. For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... George Aiken (1830-1876) was a nineteenth century American playwright and actor who is best known for writing the most popular of the numerous stage adaptations of Harriet Beecher Stowes Uncle Toms Cabin. ...


All "Tom shows" appear to have incorporated elements of melodrama and blackface minstrelsy.[71] These plays varied tremendously in their politics—some faithfully reflected Stowe's sentimentalized antislavery politics, while others were more moderate, or even pro-slavery.[70] Many of the productions featured demeaning racial caricatures of Black people,[71] while a number of productions also featured songs by Stephen Foster (including "My Old Kentucky Home," "Old Folks at Home," and "Massa's in the Cold Ground"). [69] The best-known "Tom Shows" were those of George Aiken and H.J. Conway.[70] Poster for The Perils of Pauline (1914). ... This reproduction of a 1900 minstrel show poster, originally published by the Strobridge Litho Co. ... Detail from cover of The Celebrated Negro Melodies, as Sung by the Virginia Minstrels, 1843 The minstrel show, or minstrelsy, was an American entertainment consisting of comic skits, variety acts, dancing, and music, performed by white people in blackface or, especially after the American Civil War, African Americans in blackface. ... Stephen Foster Stephen Collins Foster (July 4, 1826 – January 13, 1864), known as the father of American music, was the pre-eminent songwriter in the United States of the 19th century. ... My Old Kentucky Home (also titled My Old Kentucky Home, Good-Night!) is the state song of Kentucky. ... Old Folks at Home, as sung by Christys Minstrels in 1851. ... George Aiken (1830-1876) was a nineteenth century American playwright and actor who is best known for writing the most popular of the numerous stage adaptations of Harriet Beecher Stowes Uncle Toms Cabin. ...


The many stage variants of Uncle Tom's Cabin "dominated northern popular culture… for several years" during the 19th century[70] and the plays were still being performed in the early 20th century.


Film adaptations

Uncle Tom's Cabin has been made into a number of film versions. Most of these movies were created during the silent film era (with Uncle Tom's Cabin being the most-filmed story of that time period).[72] This was due to the continuing popularity of both the book and "Tom shows," meaning audiences were already familiar with the characters and the plot, making it easier for the film to be understood without spoken words.[72] Still from Edwin S. Porters 1903 version of Uncle Toms Cabin, which was one of the first full length movies. ... A silent film is a film which has no accompanying soundtrack. ...


The first film version of Uncle Tom's Cabin was one of the earliest "full-length" movies (although "full-length" at that time meant between 10 and 14 minutes).[73] This 1903 film, directed by Edwin S. Porter, used white actors in blackface in the major roles and black performers only as extras. This version was evidently similar to many of the "Tom Shows" of earlier decades and featured a large number of black stereotypes (such as having the slaves dance in almost any context, including at a slave auction).[73] Edwin Stanton Porter (April 21, 1870 - April 30, 1941) was an influential early film pioneer. ... This reproduction of a 1900 minstrel show poster, originally published by the Strobridge Litho Co. ... The term extra has many meanings: in drama, an extra is a character who has no role or purpose other than to appear in the background (for example, in an audience scene or a busy street scene). ...

Still from Edwin S. Porter's 1903 version of Uncle Tom's Cabin, which was one of the first "full length" movies. The still shows Eliza telling Uncle Tom that she has been sold and that she is running away to save her child.

In 1910, a 3-Reel Vitagraph Company of America production was directed by J. Stuart Blackton and adapted by Eugene Mullin. According to The Dramatic Mirror, this film was "a decided innovation" in motion pictures and "the first time an American company" released a dramatic film in 3 reels. Until then, "full-length" movies of the time were 15 minutes long and contained only one reel of film. The movie starred Florence Turner, Mary Fuller, Edwin R. Phillips, Flora Finch, Genevieve Tobin and Carlyle Blackwell Sr.[74] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Edwin Stanton Porter (April 21, 1870 - April 30, 1941) was an influential early film pioneer. ... James Stuart Blackton (January 5, 1875 - August 13, 1941), usually known as J. Stuart Blackton, was an American film producer of the Silent Era, the founder of Vitagraph Studios and among the first filmmakers to use the techniques of stop-motion and drawn animation. ... Florence Turner Florence Turner, (January 6, 1885–August 28, 1946) was an American stage and film actress. ... Mary Fuller, c. ... Flora Finch (June 17, 1869 London, UK) - (January 4, 1940, Los Angeles, California) was an English-born film actress who starred in over 200 silents for the Vitagraph film company. ...


At least four more movie adaptations were created in the next two decades. The last silent film version came in 1927. Directed by Harry A. Pollard (who'd played Uncle Tom in a 1913 release of Uncle Tom's Cabin), this two-hour movie spent more than a year in production and was the third most expensive picture of the silent era (at a cost of $1.8 million). Black actor Charles Gilpin was originally cast in the title role, but was fired after the studio decided his "portrayal was too aggressive."[75] James B. Lowe then took over the character of Tom. One difference in this film from the novel is that after Tom dies, he returns as a vengeful spirit and confronts Simon Legree before leading the slave owner to his death. Black media outlets of the time praised the film, but the studio—fearful of a backlash from Southern and white film audiences—ended up cutting out controversial scenes, including the film's opening sequence at a slave auction (where a mother is torn away from her baby).[76] The story was adapted by Pollard, Harvey F. Thew and A.P. Younger, with titles by Walter Anthony. It starred James B. Lowe, Virginia Grey, George Siegmann, Margarita Fischer, Mona Ray and Madame Sul-Te-Wan.[75] Harry A. Pollard (23 January 1879, Republic City Kansas - 6 July 1934, Pasadena California) was an American silent film actor director and screenwriter who in total was involved in over 300 film productions. ... Charles Sidney Gilpin (November 20, 1878 - May 6, 1930) worked as an apprentice in the Richmond Planet print shop before finding his career in theater and becoming one of the most highly regarded actors of the 1920s. ... Virginia Grey (March 22, 1917 - July 31, 2004) was an American actress. ... George Siegmann (February 8, 1882, New York City - June 22, 1928, Hollywood, California) was an American actor in the silent film era. ... Mona Ray (born 1909 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) was an American stage and screen comedienne/actress who appeared in the late 1927 silent film Uncle Toms Cabin as the mischevious slave Topsy (a white actress appearing in black face). ... Madame Sul-Te-Wan Madame Sul-Te-Wan (March 7, 1873 - February 1, 1959) was the stage name of an African-American stage and film actress whose career spanned over five decades. ...


For several decades after the end of the silent film era, the subject matter of Stowe's novel was judged too sensitive for further film interpretation. In 1946, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer considered filming the story, but ceased production after protests led by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.[77] For alternate meanings of MGM, see MGM (disambiguation). ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP, generally pronounced as EN Double AY SEE PEE) is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ...

A movie poster from Kroger Babb's 1965 production of Uncle Tom's Cabin.
A movie poster from Kroger Babb's 1965 production of Uncle Tom's Cabin.

A German language version, directed by Géza von Radványi, appeared in 1965 and was presented in the United States by exploitation film presenter Kroger Babb. The most recent film version was a television broadcast in 1987 directed by Stan Lathan and adapted by John Gay. It starred Avery Brooks, Phylicia Rashad, Edward Woodward, Jenny Lewis, Samuel L. Jackson and Endyia Kinney. Image File history File links Babbuncletomscabin. ... Image File history File links Babbuncletomscabin. ... Howard W. Kroger Babb (December 30, 1906 - January 28, 1980) was an American film and television producer. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Exploitation film is a loosely defined term to describe a film genre that typically sacrifices the traditional notions of artistic merit for a more sensationalistic display, often featuring excessive sex, violence, and gore. ... Howard W. Kroger Babb (December 30, 1906 - January 28, 1980) was an American film and television producer. ... Stan Lathan is an African-American television director, notably of The Steve Harvey Show for the WB and HBOs Def Comedy Jam. ... Brooks as Sisko Avery Franklin Brooks (born October 2, 1948 in Evansville, Indiana) is an American actor. ... In a Mothers Day survey, Rashads character on The Cosby Show, Claire Huxtable, was named, TV mom closest to your own mom in spirit. ... Edward Albert Arthur Woodward (born June 1, 1930 Croydon, Surrey) is an English stage, film and television actor and singer. ... Jenny Lewis playing at a concert. ... “Samuel Jackson” redirects here. ...


In addition to film adaptations, versions of Uncle Tom's Cabin have featured in a number of animated cartoons, including Walt Disney's "Mickey's Mellerdrammer" (1933), which features the classic Disney character performing the play in blackface with exaggerated, orange lips; the Bugs Bunny cartoon "Southern Fried Rabbit" (1953), where Bugs disguises himself as Uncle Tom and sings "My Old Kentucky Home" in order to cross the Mason-Dixon line; "Uncle Tom's Bungalow" (1937), a Warner Brother's cartoon supervised by Tex Avery; "Eliza on Ice" (1944), one of the earliest Mighty Mouse cartoons produced by Paul Terry; and "Uncle Tom's Cabana" (1947), a six-minute cartoon directed by Tex Avery.[77] An animated cartoon is a short, hand-drawn (or made with computers to look similar to something hand-drawn) film for the cinema, television or computer screen, featuring some kind of story or plot (even if it is a very short one). ... For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ... A United Artists 1933 release. ... This reproduction of a 1900 minstrel show poster, originally published by the Strobridge Litho Co. ... Bugs Bunny is an Academy Award-winning fictional animated rabbit who appears in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of animated films produced by Warner Bros. ... Southern Fried Rabbit is a Looney Tunes cartoon by Warner Brothers and was directed by Friz Freleng. ... My Old Kentucky Home (also titled My Old Kentucky Home, Good-Night!) is the state song of Kentucky. ... For the fictional character, see Mason Dixon (Rocky Balboa character). ... Frederick Bean Fred/Tex Avery (Wednesday, February 26, 1908 – Tuesday, August 26, 1980) was an American animator, cartoonist, and director, famous for producing animated cartoons during the Golden Age of Hollywood. ... A Mighty Mouse poster. ... Paul H. Terry (Born February 19, 1887 in San Mateo, California, USA-Died October 25, 1971 in New York, New York, USA) is an American cartoonist, screenwriter, film director and the most prolific film producer in history. ... Frederick Bean Fred/Tex Avery (Wednesday, February 26, 1908 – Tuesday, August 26, 1980) was an American animator, cartoonist, and director, famous for producing animated cartoons during the Golden Age of Hollywood. ...


Uncle Tom's Cabin has also influenced a large number of movies, including Birth of a Nation. This controversial 1915 film deliberately used a cabin similar to Uncle Tom's home in the film's dramatic climax, where several white Southerners unite with their former enemy (Yankee soldiers) to defend what the film's caption says is their "Aryan birthright." According to scholars, this reuse of such a familiar cabin would have resonated with, and been understood by, audiences of the time.[78] The Birth of a Nation is a controversial silent film directed by D.W. Griffith, based on the play The Clansmen and the book The Leopards Spots, both by Thomas Dixon. ... The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ...


Among the other movies influenced by or making use of Uncle Tom's Cabin include Dimples (a 1936 Shirley Temple film),[77] "Uncle Tom's Uncle," (a 1926 Our Gang (The Little Rascals) episode),[77] the Rodgers and Hammerstein musical The King and I (in which a ballet called "Small House of Uncle Thomas" is performed in traditional Siamese style), and Gangs of New York (in which Leonardo DiCaprio and Daniel Day-Lewis's characters attend an imagined wartime adaptation of Uncle Tom's Cabin). Shirley Jane Temple (born April 23, 1928) later known as Shirley Temple Black, is an Academy Award-winning former child actress. ... A poster for the 1931 Our Gang comedy Love Business featuring depictions of (from left to right): Pete the Pup, Jackie Cooper, and Norman Chubby Chaney. ... Rodgers (left) and Hammerstein (right), with Irving Berlin (middle) and Helen Tamiris, watching auditions at the St. ... The King and I is a musical by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II, with a script based on the book Anna and the King of Siam by Margaret Landon. ... Gangs of New York is a 2002 film set in the middle 19th century in the Five Points district of New York City. ... Leonardo Wilhelm DiCaprio (born November 11, 1974[1]) is a three-time Academy Award-nominated and Golden Globe Award-winning American actor well known for his roles in blockbuster movies such as William Shakespeares Romeo + Juliet (1996), Titanic (1997), Catch Me If You Can (2002), Gangs of New York... Daniel Michael Blake Day-Lewis (born 29 April 1957), is an Academy-Award winning and Golden Globe-award nominated actor. ...


See also

The battle of Fort Sumter was the first stage in a conflict that had been brewing for decades. ... Slave sale in Easton, Maryland The history of slavery in the United States began soon after Europeans first settled in what became the United States. ... This is a timeline of the American Civil Rights Movement. ... Uncle Tom is a pejorative for an African American who is perceived by others as behaving in a subservient manner to White American authority figures, or as seeking ingratiation with them by way of unnecessary accommodation. ... Ramona is a novel written by Helen Hunt Jackson and published in 1884. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The Civil War in American Culture by Will Kaufman, Edinburgh University Press, 2006, page 18.
  2. ^ a b c Introduction to Uncle Tom's Cabin Study Guide, BookRags.com, accessed May 16, 2006.
  3. ^ Goldner, Ellen J. "Arguing with Pictures: Race, Class and the Formation of Popular Abolitionism Through Uncle Tom's Cabin." Journal of American & Comparative Cultures 2001 24(1-2): 71-84. Issn: 1537-4726 Fulltext: online at Ebsco.
  4. ^ Charles Edward Stowe, Harriet Beecher Stowe: The Story of Her Life (1911) p. 203.
  5. ^ a b c Africana: arts and letters: an A-to-Z reference of writers, musicians, and artists of the African American Experience by Henry Louis Gates, Kwame Anthony Appiah, Running Press, 2005, page 544.
  6. ^ Harriett Beecher Stowe's Life & Times. Harriet Beecher Stowe House and Library. Accessed Feb. 17, 2007.
  7. ^ a b Susan Logue, "Historic Uncle Tom's Cabin Saved", VOA News, January 12, 2006. Accessed May 16, 2006.
  8. ^ Harriet Beecher Stowe, A Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin 1853, page 42, in which Stowe states "A last instance parallel with that of Uncle Tom is to be found in the published memoirs of the venerable Josiah Henson..." An excerpt of this information and acknowledgement is also in A Routledge Literary Sourcebook on Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin by Debra J. Rosenthal, Routledge, 2003, pages 25-26.
  9. ^ Weld, Theodore Dwight. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2001-05. Accessed May 15,2007.
  10. ^ a b c d A Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin, Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture, a Multi-Media Archive, accessed April 20, 2007.
  11. ^ First Edition Illustrations, Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture, a Multi-Media Archive, accessed April 18, 2007.
  12. ^ Illustrations for the "Splendid Edition", Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture, a Multi-Media Archive, accessed April 18, 2007.
  13. ^ a b c d e Slave narratives and Uncle Tom's Cabin, Africans in America, PBS, accessed Feb. 16, 2007.
  14. ^ "publishing, history of." (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved April 18, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  15. ^ a b A Routledge Literary Sourcebook on Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin by Debra J. Rosenthal, Routledge, 2003, page 31.
  16. ^ Hagedorn, Ann. Beyond The River: The Untold Story of the Heroes of the Underground Railroad. Simon & Schuster, 2002, pp. 135-39.
  17. ^ The Word Detective, issue of May 20, 2003, accessed Feb. 16, 2007.
  18. ^ Drawn With the Sword: Reflections on the American Civil War by James Munro McPherson, Oxford University Press, 1997, page 30.
  19. ^ Uncle Tom's Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe, Vintage Books, Modern Library Edition, 1991, page 150.
  20. ^ PBS Slave narratives and Uncle Tom's Cabin 1845 - 1862
  21. ^ Drawn With the Sword: Reflections on the American Civil War by James Munro McPherson, Oxford University Press, 1997, page 29.
  22. ^ "Stowe's Dream of the Mother-Savior: Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Women Writers Before the 1920s" by Elizabeth Ammons, New Essays on Uncle Tom's Cabin, Eric J. Sundquist, editor, Cambridge University Press, 1986, page 159.
  23. ^ Whitewashing Uncle Tom's Cabin: Nineteenth-Century Women Novelists Respond to Stowe by Joy Jordan-Lake, Vanderbilt University Press, 2005, page 61.
  24. ^ The Stowe Debate: Rhetorical Strategies in Uncle Tom's Cabin by Mason I. (jr.) Lowance, Ellen E. Westbrook, C. De Prospo, R., Univ of Massachusetts Press, 1994, page 132.
  25. ^ Historical Dictionary of Women's Education in the United States by Linda Eisenmann, Greenwood Press, 1998, page 3.
  26. ^ The Company of the Creative: A Christian Reader's Guide to Great Literature and Its Themes by David L. Larsen, Kregel Publications, 2000, pages 386-387.
  27. ^ The Company of the Creative: A Christian Reader's Guide to Great Literature and Its Themes by David L. Larsen, Kregel Publications, 2000, page 387.
  28. ^ The Cambridge History of American Literature by Sacvan Bercovitch and Cyrus R. K. Patell, Cambridge University Press, 1994, page 119.
  29. ^ Marianne Noble, "The Ecstasies of Sentimental Wounding In Uncle Tom's Cabin," from A Routledge Literary Sourcebook on Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin Edited by Debra J. Rosenthal, Routledge, 2003, page 58.
  30. ^ "Domestic or Sentimental Fiction, 1820-1865" American Literature Sites, Washington State University, accessed April 26, 2007.
  31. ^ "Uncle Tom's Cabin," The Kansas Territorial Experience, accessed April 26, 2007.
  32. ^ Reading Women: Literary Figures and Cultural Icons from the Victorian Age to the Present by Janet Badia and Jennifer Phegley, University of Toronto Press, 2005, page 67.
  33. ^ a b Reading Women: Literary Figures and Cultural Icons from the Victorian Age to the Present by Janet Badia and Jennifer Phegley, University of Toronto Press, 2005, page 66.
  34. ^ a b A Routledge Literary Sourcebook on Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin by Debra J. Rosenthal, Routledge, 2003, page 42.
  35. ^ "Review of The Building of Uncle Tom's Cabin by E. Bruce Kirkham" by Thomas F. Gossett, American Literature, Vol. 50, No. 1 (Mar., 1978), pp. 123-124.
  36. ^ "The Origins of Uncle Tom's Cabin" by Charles Nichols, The Phylon Quarterly, Vol. 19, No. 3 (3rd Qtr., 1958), page 328.
  37. ^ a b c "Sentimental Power: Uncle Tom's Cabin and the Politics of Literary History" by Jane Tompkins, from In Sensational Designs: The Cultural Work of American Fiction, 1790-1860. New York: Oxford UP, 1985. Pp. 122-146.
  38. ^ "Introduction to Uncle Tom's Cabin" by Alyssa Harad, Cynthia Brantley Johnson, ereader.com, accessed April 26, 2007.
  39. ^ "Stowe, Harriet Beecher." (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved April 18, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  40. ^ "Simms's Review of Uncle Tom's Cabin" by Charles S. Watson, American Literature, Vol. 48, No. 3 (Nov., 1976), pp. 365-368
  41. ^ "Over and above... There Broods a Portentous Shadow,--The Shadow of Law: Harriet Beecher Stowe's Critique of Slave Law in Uncle Tom's Cabin" by Alfred L. Brophy, Journal of Law and Religion, Vol. 12, No. 2 (1995 - 1996), pp. 457-506.
  42. ^ "Woodcraft: Simms's First Answer to Uncle Tom's Cabin" by Joseph V. Ridgely, American Literature, Vol. 31, No. 4 (Jan., 1960), pp. 421-433.
  43. ^ The Classic Text: Harriett Beecher Stowe. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Library. Special collection page on traditions and interpretations of Uncle Tom's Cabin. Accessed May 15, 2007.
  44. ^ Charles Edward Stowe, Harriet Beecher Stowe: The Story of Her Life (1911) p. 203.
  45. ^ a b Uncle Tom's Cabin, introduction by Amanda Claybaugh, Barnes and Noble Classics, New York, 2003, page xvii.
  46. ^ Goldner, Ellen J. "Arguing with Pictures: Race, Class and the Formation of Popular Abolitionism Through Uncle Tom's Cabin." Journal of American & Comparative Cultures 2001 24(1-2): 71-84. Issn: 1537-4726 Fulltext: online at Ebsco.
  47. ^ "Review of James Baird Weaver by Fred Emory Haynes" by A. M. Arnett, Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 35, No. 1 (Mar., 1920), pp. 154-157; and profile of James Baird Weaver, accessed Feb. 17, 2007.
  48. ^ Nassau Senior, quoted in Ephraim Douglass Adams, Great Britain and the American Civil War (1958) p: 33.
  49. ^ Charles Francis Adams, Trans-Atlantic Historical Solidarity: Lectures Delivered before the University of Oxford in Easter and Trinity Terms, 1913. 1913. p. 79
  50. ^ Richard Pankhurst, Economic History of Ethiopia (Addis Ababa: Haile Selassie I University Press, 1968), p. 122.
  51. ^ Tompkins, Jane. Sensational Designs: The Cultural Work of American Fiction, 1790-1860. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. See chapter five, "Sentimental Power: Uncle Tom's Cabin and the Politics of Literary History."
  52. ^ The Cambridge Companion to Harriet Beecher Stowe by Cindy Weinstein, Cambridge University Press, 2004, page 13.
  53. ^ a b "Uncle Tom's Shadow" by Darryl Lorenzo Wellington, The Nation, December 25, 2006.
  54. ^ "Review of The Building of Uncle Tom's Cabin by E. Bruce Kirkham" by Thomas F. Gossett, American Literature, Vol. 50, No. 1 (Mar., 1978), pp. 123-124.
  55. ^ "Sentimental Power: Uncle Tom's Cabin and the Politics of Literary History" by Jane Tompkins, from In Sensational Designs: The Cultural Work of American Fiction, 1790-1860. New York: Oxford UP, 1985. Pp. 122-146.
  56. ^ Smylie, James H. "Uncle Tom's Cabin Revisited: the Bible, the Romantic Imagination, and the Sympathies of Christ." American Presbyterians 1995 73(3): 165-175. Issn: 0886-5159.
  57. ^ a b Bellin, Joshua D. "Up to Heaven's Gate, down in Earth's Dust: the Politics of Judgment in Uncle Tom's Cabin" American Literature 1993 65(2): 275-295. Issn: 0002-9831 Fulltext online at Jstor and Ebsco.
  58. ^ a b Grant, David. "Uncle Tom's Cabin and the Triumph of Republican Rhetoric." New England Quarterly 1998 71(3): 429-448. Issn: 0028-4866 Fulltext online at Jstor.
  59. ^ Riss, Arthur. "Racial Essentialism and Family Values in Uncle Tom's Cabin." American Quarterly 1994 46(4): 513-544. Issn: 0003-0678 Fulltext in JSTOR.
  60. ^ a b Wolff, Cynthia Griffin. "Masculinity in Uncle Tom's Cabin," American Quarterly 1995 47(4): 595-618. ISSN: 0003-0678. Fulltext online at JSTOR.
  61. ^ Smith; Jessie Carney; Images of Blacks in American Culture: A Reference Guide to Information Sources Greenwood Press. 1988.
  62. ^ Hulser, Kathleen. "Reading Uncle Tom's Image: From Anti-slavery Hero to Racial Insult." New-York Journal of American History 2003 65(1): 75-79. Issn: 1551-5486.
  63. ^ Illustrations, Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture, a Multi-Media Archive, accessed April 18, 2007.
  64. ^ Smith; Jessie Carney; Images of Blacks in American Culture: A Reference Guide to Information Sources Greenwood Press. 1988.
  65. ^ a b c "Digging Through the Literary Anthropology of Stowe’s Uncle Tom", by Edward Rothstein, from the New York Times, October 23, 2006.
  66. ^ Whitewashing Uncle Tom's Cabin: nineteenth-century women novelists respond to Stowe by Joy Jordan-Lake, Vanderbilt University Press, 2005.
  67. ^ "Caroline Lee Hentz's Long Journey" by Philip D. Beidler. Alabama Heritage Number 75, Winter 2005.
  68. ^ Figures in Black: words, signs, and the "racial" self by Henry Louis Gates, Oxford University Press, 1987, page 134.
  69. ^ a b "People & Events: Uncle Tom's Cabin Takes the Nation by Storm" Stephen Foster, The American Experience, PBS, accessed April 19, 2007.
  70. ^ a b c d Lott, Eric. Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993. ISBN 0-19-507832-2. The information on "Tom shows" comes from chapter 8: "Uncle Tomitudes: Racial Melodrama and Modes of Production" (p. 211-233)
  71. ^ a b Africana: arts and letters: an A-to-Z reference of writers, musicians, and artists of the African American Experience by Henry Louis Gates, Kwame Anthony Appiah, Running Press, 2005, page 44.
  72. ^ a b Uncle Tom's Cabin on Film, Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture, a Multi-Media Archive, accessed April 19, 2007.
  73. ^ a b The First Uncle Tom's Cabin Film: Edison-Porter's Slavery Days (1903), Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture, a Multi-Media Archive, accessed April 19, 2007.
  74. ^ The 3-Reel Vitagraph Production (1910), Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture, a Multi-Media Archive, accessed April 19, 2007.
  75. ^ a b Universal Super Jewel Production (1927), Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture, a Multi-Media Archive, accessed April 19, 2007.
  76. ^ Slow Fade to Black: The Negro in American Film, 1900-1942 by Thomas Cripps, Oxford University Press, 1993, page 48.
  77. ^ a b c d Uncle Tom's Cabin in Hollywood: 1929-1956, Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture, a Multi-Media Archive, accessed April 19, 2007.
  78. ^ Playing the Race Card: Melodramas of Black and White from Uncle Tom to O. J. Simpson by Linda Williams, Princeton Univ. Press, 2001, page 115. Also H. B. Stowe's Cabin in D. W. Griffith's Movie, Uncle Tom's Cabin and American Culture, a Multi-Media Archive, accessed April 19, 2007.

A photo of Josiah Henson, taken in 1877 Josiah Henson (June 15, 1789 – May 5, 1883) was born into slavery in Charles County, Maryland. ... Washington State University (WSU) is a major public research university in Pullman, Washington. ... Ephraim Douglass Adams(1865-1930) was a professor of history at Stanford University and an expert on the American Civil War period. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...

Bibliography

  • Gates, Henry Louis; and Appiah, Kwame Anthony. Africana: Arts and Letters: an A-to-Z reference of writers, musicians, and artists of the African American Experience, Running Press, 2005.
  • Jordan-Lake, Joy. Whitewashing Uncle Tom's Cabin: Nineteenth-Century Women Novelists Respond to Stowe, Vanderbilt University Press, 2005.
  • Lott, Eric. Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.
  • Lowance, Mason I. (jr.); Westbrook, Ellen E.; De Prospo, R., The Stowe Debate: Rhetorical Strategies in Uncle Tom's Cabin, Univ of Massachusetts Press, 1994.
  • Rosenthal, Debra J. Routledge Literary Sourcebook on Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin Routledge, 2003.
  • Sundquist, Eric J., editor New Essays on Uncle Tom's Cabin, Cambridge University Press, 1986.
  • Tompkins, Jane. In Sensational Designs: The Cultural Work of American Fiction, 1790-1860. New York: Oxford UP, 1985.
  • Weinstein, Cindy. The Cambridge Companion to Harriet Beecher Stowe, Cambridge University Press, 2004.
  • Williams, Linda. Playing the Race Card: Melodramas of Black and White from Uncle Tom to O. J. Simpson, Princeton Univ. Press, 2001.

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