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Encyclopedia > Uncanny Valley

The uncanny valley is a hypothesis that when robots and other facsimiles of humans look and act almost, but not entirely, like actual humans, it causes a response of revulsion among human observers. The "valley" in question is a dip in a proposed graph of the positivity of human reaction as a function of a robot's lifelikeness. It was introduced by Japanese roboticist Masahiro Mori in 1970, and has been linked to Ernst Jentsch's concept of "the uncanny" identified in a 1906 essay, "On the Psychology of the Uncanny." Jentsch's conception is famously elaborated upon by Sigmund Freud in a 1919 essay, simply entitled "The Uncanny" ("Das Unheimliche"). A similar problem exists in realistic 3D computer animation, such as with the film The Polar Express.[1] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 344 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1148 × 2000 pixel, file size: 253 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 344 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1148 × 2000 pixel, file size: 253 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Actroid ReplieeQ1-expo at Expo 2005 in Aichi, with co-creator Hiroshi Ishiguro Actroid is a humanoid robot with strong graphic human-likeness developed by Osaka University and manufactured by Kokoro Company Ltd. ... For other uses, see robot (disambiguation). ... Masahiro Mori (森 政弘; b. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... We dont have an article called The Uncanny Start this article Search for The Uncanny in. ... Year 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Uncanny (Ger. ... This article is about process of creating 3D computer graphics. ... See also: Computer-generated imagery Computer animation is the art of creating moving images via the use of computers. ... The Polar Express is a 2004 feature film based on the childrens book of the same title by Chris Van Allsburg. ...

Contents

Hypothesis

Mori's hypothesis states that as a robot is made more humanlike in its appearance and motion, the emotional response from a human being to the robot will become increasingly positive and empathic, until a point is reached beyond which the response quickly becomes that of strong repulsion. However, as the appearance and motion continue to become less distinguishable from a human being, the emotional response becomes positive once more and approaches human-to-human empathy levels.[2] Not to be confused with Pity, Sympathy, or Compassion. ...


This area of repulsive response aroused by a robot with appearance and motion between a "barely-human" and "fully human" entity is called the uncanny valley. The name captures the idea that a robot which is "almost human" will seem overly "strange" to a human being and thus will fail to evoke the empathetic response required for productive human-robot interaction.[2] This article is about modern humans. ... For other uses, see robot (disambiguation). ...


Theoretical basis

Hypothesized emotional response of human subjects is plotted against anthropomorphism of a robot, following Mori's statements. The uncanny valley is the region of negative emotional response towards robots that seem "almost human". Movement amplifies the emotional response.
Hypothesized emotional response of human subjects is plotted against anthropomorphism of a robot, following Mori's statements. The uncanny valley is the region of negative emotional response towards robots that seem "almost human". Movement amplifies the emotional response.

The phenomenon can be explained by the notion that, if an entity is sufficiently non-humanlike, then the humanlike characteristics will tend to stand out and be noticed easily, generating empathy. On the other hand, if the entity is "almost human", then the non-human characteristics will be the ones that stand out, leading to a feeling of "strangeness" in the human viewer. In other words, a robot stuck inside the uncanny valley is no longer being judged by the standards of a robot doing a good job at pretending to be human, but is instead being judged by the standards of a human doing a terrible job at acting like a normal person. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


Another possibility is that affected individuals and corpses exhibit many visual anomalies similar to the ones seen in humanoid robots and so elicit the same alarm and revulsion. The reaction may become worse with robots since there is no overt reason for it to occur, whereas distaste for the sight of a corpse is a feeling easy to understand. Hondas ASIMO, an example of a humanoid robot A humanoid robot is a robot with its overall appearance based on that of the human body. ...


It is possible that the "uncanny valley" effect evolved as a means of instinctively identifying and ostracizing human individuals carrying illnesses or mental problems that might render interaction (specifically breeding and long-term care) detrimental to the group.


The uncanny valley and transhumanism

According to writer Jamais Cascio, a similar "uncanny valley" effect could show up when humans begin modifying themselves with transhuman enhancements, which aim to improve the abilities of the human body beyond what would normally be possible, be it eyesight, muscle strength, or cognition. So long as these enhancements remain within a perceived norm of human behavior, a negative reaction is unlikely, but once individuals supplant normal human variety, revulsion can be expected. However, according to this theory, once such technologies gain further distance from human norms, "transhuman" individuals would cease to be judged on human levels and instead be regarded as separate entities altogether (this point is what has been dubbed "posthuman"), and it is here that acceptance would rise once again out of the uncanny valley.[3] Jamais Cascio is a San Francisco Bay Area-based writer and ethical futurist. ... Transhuman is a term that refers to an intermediary form between the human and the posthuman. ... Visual perception is one of the senses, consisting of the ability to detect light and interpret (see) it as the perception known as sight or naked eye vision. ... For other uses of Muscle, see Muscle (disambiguation). ... Look up Cognition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the critique of human as a concept, see posthumanism. ...


Criticism

Some roboticists have heavily criticized the theory, arguing that Mori had no basis for the rightmost part of his chart, as human-like robots have only recently become technically possible. David Hanson, a roboticist who developed a realistic robotic copy of his girlfriend's head, said that the idea of the uncanny valley is "really pseudoscientific, but people treat it like it is science."[4][5] Sara Kiesler, a human-robot interaction researcher at Carnegie Mellon University, questioned uncanny valley's scientific status, stating, "We have evidence that it's true, and evidence that it's not."[6] Roboticist Dario Floreano stated that uncanny valley is not based on scientific evidence, but is taken seriously by the film industry due to negative audience reactions to the animated baby in Pixar's 1988 short film Tin Toy.[7][8] Definition A roboticist conceptualizes, designs, builds, programs, and experiments with robots. ... A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ... Human-robot interaction (HRI) is the study of interactions between people (users) and robots. ... Carnegie Mellon University (also known as CMU) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. ... Dario Floreano is the professor of the Laboratory of Intelligent Systems (LIS) [1] of the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland. ... Cinema admissions in 1995 The film industry consists of the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking: i. ... Pixar Animation Studios is an American computer animation studio based in Emeryville, California, United States, and is notable for its eight Academy Awards. ... Tin Toy is a 1988 Pixar Animation Studios short film using computer animation. ...


In popular culture

  • In the 30 Rock episode " Succession", Frank Rossitano explains the uncanny valley concept to Tracy Jordan, using a graph, to try to convince Jordan that Jordan' dream of creating a pornographic video game is impossible.

This article is about the TV series. ... Frank Rossitano is a fictional character played by Judah Friedlander on the American television series 30 Rock. ... Tracy Jordan is a fictional character on the American television series 30 Rock, played by Tracy Morgan. ...

See also

YOU SUCK ... Bunraku ), also known as Ningyō jōruri (), is a form of traditional Japanese puppet theater, founded in Osaka in 1684. ... In Isaac Asimovs robot novels, the Frankenstein complex is a colloquial term for the fear of robots. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Virtual Woman is a software program that combines elements of a chatterbot, virtual reality, artificial intelligence, a video game, and a virtual human. ... This article is about the Red Dwarf character. ...

Notes

  1. ^ When fantasy is just too close for comfort - The Age, June 10, 2007
  2. ^ a b Mori, Masahiro (1970). Bukimi no tani The uncanny valley (K. F. MacDorman & T. Minato, Trans.). Energy, 7(4), 33–35. (Originally in Japanese)
  3. ^ Jamais Cascio, The Second Uncanny Valley
  4. ^ The Man Who Mistook His Girlfriend for a Robot, Popular Science
  5. ^ Uncanny Valley | Hafta Magazine
  6. ^ The Man Who Mistook His Girlfriend for a Robot, Popular Science
  7. ^ Dario Floreano. Bio-Mimetic Robotics
  8. ^ EPFL. [1]

This article is not about the magazine, Popular Science Popular science is interpretation of science intended for a general audience, rather than for other scientists or students. ... This article is not about the magazine, Popular Science Popular science is interpretation of science intended for a general audience, rather than for other scientists or students. ... Dario Floreano is the professor of the Laboratory of Intelligent Systems (LIS) [1] of the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland. ... Location: Polytechnic of Lausanne, in western Switzerland The École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) is the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne, Switzerland. ...

References

is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Discovery Channel is a cable and satellite TV channel founded by John Hendricks which is distributed by Discovery Communications. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... YOU SUCK ... An Actroid at Expo 2005 in Aichi An Actroid is a humanoid robot with strong visual human-likeness developed by Osaka University and manufactured by Kokoro Company Ltd. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Uncanny Valley - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1640 words)
The Uncanny Valley is a principle of robotics concerning the emotional response of humans to robots and other non-human entities.
The Uncanny Valley is the region of negative emotional response for robots that seem "almost human".
The column extended the Uncanny Valley term to the well-documented analogous debate over what sort of sports fan suffers more, one who roots for a perennial loser or one who roots for a perennial second-best.
Glimpses—The Uncanny Valley (1971 words)
This chasm—the uncanny valley of Doctor Mori’s thesis—represents the point at which a person observing the creature or object in question sees something that is nearly human, but just enough off-kilter to seem eerie or disquieting.
From right to left, they are the steep slope falling off from the final peak, the uncanny valley itself, the corresponding steep slope on the valley’s other side, and the rounded peak linking that slope to the more gradual one at the left of the chart.
The uncanny valley itself is where dwell monsters, in the classic sense of the word.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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