Numeral systems  Arabic (Hindu) Arabic (Abjad) Armenian Attic (Greek) Babylonian Brahmi Chinese Cyrillic D'ni (fictional) Egyptian Etruscan Greek Hebrew Indian Ionian (Greek) Japanese Khmer Mayan Roman Thai Jump to: navigation, search A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols that represents a number. ...
Jump to: navigation, search Arabic numerals (also called Hindu numerals or Indian numerals ) are the most common set of symbols used to represent numbers. ...
The Abjad numerals are a numeral system which was used in the Arabicspeaking world prior to the use of the socalled Arabic numerals (which are actually of Indian origin and the ENGLISH NUMBERS are ARABIC ORIGIN not english ). In the Abjad system the letters of the arabic alphabet...
Attic numerals were used by ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2nd century manuscript by Herodianus. ...
Babylonian numerals were written in cuneiform, using a wedgetipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record. ...
The Brahmi numerals are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). ...
Cyrillic numerals was a numbering system derived from the Cyrillic alphabet, used by South and East Slavic peoples. ...
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The Etruscan numerals were used by the ancient Etruscans. ...
The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasidecimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. ...
Ionian numerals were used by the ancient Greeks, possibly before the 7th century BC. They are also known by the names Milesian numerals or Alexandrian numerals. ...
Khmer numerals are the numerals used in the Khmer language of Cambodia. ...
The PreColumbian Maya civilization used a vigesimal (basetwenty) numeral system. ...
Jump to: navigation, search The system of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, and was adapted from Etruscan numerals. ...
Unary (1) Binary (2) Ternary (3) Quinary (5) Senary (6) Octal (8) Decimal (10) Duodecimal (12) Hexadecimal (16) Vigesimal (20) Quadrovigesimal (24) Hexavigesimal (26) Septemvigesimal (27) Hexatridecimal (36) Sexagesimal (60) Jump to: navigation, search The binary numeral system represents numeric values using two symbols, typically 0 and 1. ...
Ternary is the base3 numeral system. ...
Quinary (basefive) is a numeral system with five as the base. ...
A senary numeral system is a basesix numeral system. ...
The octal numeral system is the base8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. ...
Decimal, or less commonly, denary, usually refers to the base 10 numeral system. ...
Jump to: navigation, search A duodecimal multiplication table The duodecimal (also known as basetwelve or dozenal) system is a numeral system using twelve as its base. ...
In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix or base of 16 usually written using the symbols 0â€“9 and Aâ€“F or aâ€“f. ...
Jump to: navigation, search The vigesimal (basetwenty) is a numeral system which is based on twenty. ...
As there are 24 hours in a day a numbering system based upon 24, and as the base 12 is convenient here some examples of the base 24 (quadrovigesimal) system. ...
A Hexavigesimal numeral system has a base of twentysix. ...
A Septemvigesimal numeral system has a base of twentyseven. ...
Base 36 refers to a positional numeral system using 36 as the radix. ...
Jump to: navigation, search The sexagesimal (basesixty) is a numeral system with sixty as the base. ...
 edit  The unary numeral system is the simplest numeral system to represent natural numbers: in order to represent a number N, an arbitrarily chosen symbol is repeated N times. For example, using the symbol "" (a tally mark), the number 6 is represented as "". The standard method of counting on one's fingers is effectively a unary system. Unary is most useful in counting or tallying ongoing results, such as the score in a game of sports, since no intermediate results need to be erased or discarded. Jump to: navigation, search A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols that represents a number. ...
Jump to: navigation, search Natural number can mean either a positive integer (1, 2, 3, 4, ...) or a nonnegative integer (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ...). Natural numbers have two main purposes: they can be used for counting (there are 3 apples on the table), and they can be used...
Tally marks are a variation of the unary numeral system. ...
Counting is the mathematical action of adding (or subtracting) one, usually to find out how many objects there are or to set aside a desired number of objects (starting with one for the first object and proceeding with a onetoone correspondence); however, counting is also used (primarily by...
Score can mean one of several things: Look up score in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
Variations on the number eight in unary Marks are typically clustered in groups of five for legibility. This is similar to the practice of using decimal separators such as spaces or commas in the decimal system, to make large numbers such as 100,000,000 easier to read. The first or fifth mark in each group may be written at an angle to the others for easier distinction. Other example of an unary counting system clustered in counts of five is the Japanese custom of writing the character 正 which takes 5 strokes to write, one stroke each time something is added. Incidentally, 正 (せい, sei) means (logical) true, or correct if used as adjective as in 正しい (tadashī). Image File history File links Several representations of the number eight in the unary numeral system. ...
8 (eight) is the natural number following 7 and preceding 9. ...
The decimal separator is a symbol used to mark the boundary between the integer and the fractional parts of a decimal numeral. ...
Decimal, or less commonly, denary, usually refers to the base 10 numeral system. ...
Jump to: navigation, search Logic (from Classical Greek Î»ÏŒÎ³Î¿Ï‚ (logos), originally meaning the word, or what is spoken, but coming to mean thought or reason) is most often said to be the study of arguments, although the exact definition of logic is a matter of controversy amongst philosophers (see below). ...
Jump to: navigation, search An adjective is a part of speech which modifies a noun, usually making its meaning more specific. ...
Addition and subtraction are particularly simple in the unary system, as they involve little more than string concatenation. Multiplication and division are more cumbersome, however. Addition (or summation) is one of the basic operations of arithmetic. ...
Jump to: navigation, search In mathematics, subtraction is one of the four basic arithmetic operations. ...
In various branches of mathematics and computer science, strings are sequences of various simple objects (symbols, tokens, characters, etc. ...
In its simplest form, multiplication is the sum of a list of identical numbers. ...
Jump to: navigation, search In mathematics, especially in elementary arithmetic, division is an arithmetic operation which is the reverse operation of multiplication, and sometimes it can be interpreted as repeated subtraction. ...
Compared to positional numeral systems, the unary system is inconvenient and is not used in practice for large calculations. It occurs in some decision problem descriptions in theoretical computer science (e.g. some Pcomplete problems), where it is used to "artificially" decrease the runtime or space requirements of a problem. For instance, the problem of integer factorization is suspected to require more than a polynomial function of the input as runtime if the input is given in binary, but it only needs linear runtime if the input is presented in unary. But this is potentially misleading: using a unary input is slower for any given number, not faster; the distinction is that a binary (or larger base) input is proportional to the base 2 (or larger base) logarithm of the number while unary input is proportional to the number itself; so while the runtime and space requirement in unary looks better as function of the input size, it is a worse function of the number that the input represents. Jump to: navigation, search A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols that represents a number. ...
In logic, a decision problem is determining whether or not there exists a decision procedure or algorithm for a class S of questions requiring a Boolean value (i. ...
Computation can be defined as finding a solution to a problem from given inputs by means of an algorithm. ...
In complexity theory, the complexity class Pcomplete is a set of decision problems and is useful in the analysis of which problems can be efficiently solved on parallel computers. ...
In number theory, the integer factorization problem is the problem of finding a nontrivial divisor of a composite number; for example, given a number like 91, the challenge is to find a number such as 7 which divides it. ...
Jump to: navigation, search The binary numeral system represents numeric values using two symbols, typically 0 and 1. ...
For a real example of the unary system in ancient mathematics, see the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus, dating from circa 1800 BC. Jump to: navigation, search The Moscow and Rhind Mathematical Papyri are two of the oldest mathematical texts and perhaps our best indication of what ancient Egyptian mathematics might have been like near 2000 BC. They are both written on papyrus. ...
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Dr. Melzak's Q machines, a simplification of Turing machines, basically a set of bottomless pits containing stones, work with the unary number system.
See also
