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Encyclopedia > Umlaut (diacritic)
Diacritical marks

accent
A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent mark, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ...

acute accent ( ˊ )
double acute accent ( ˝ )
grave accent ( ˋ )

breve ( ˘ )
caron / háček ( ˇ )
cedilla ( ¸ )
circumflex ( ˆ )
diaeresis / umlaut ( ¨ )
dot ( · )
The acute accent (  ) is a diacritic mark used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin and Greek scripts. ... The double acute accent ( Ë ) is a diacritic mark of the latin script used primarily in written Hungarian. ... The grave accent ( ` ) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek until 1982 (polytonic orthography), French, Catalan, Welsh, Italian, Vietnamese, Scottish Gaelic, Norwegian, Portuguese and other languages. ... A breve (Latin brevis short, brief) is a diacritical mark Ë˜, shaped like a little round cup, designed to indicate a short vowel, as opposed to the macron Â¯ which indicates long vowels. ... Ä Ä Ä› Ç¨ Ä½ Å™ Å¡ Å¾ A caron ( Ë‡ ), also known as wedge, inverted circumflex, inverted hat or by the Czech name hÃ¡Äek (pronounced ), is a diacritic placed over certain letters to indicate present or historical palatalization or iotation in the orthography of Baltic languages and some Slavic languages, whereas some Finno-Lappic languages use it... Ä Ä Ä› Ç¨ Ä½ Å™ Å¡ Å¾ A caron ( Ë‡ ), also known as wedge, inverted circumflex, inverted hat or by the Czech name hÃ¡Äek (pronounced ), is a diacritic placed over certain letters to indicate present or historical palatalization or iotation in the orthography of Baltic languages and some Slavic languages, whereas some Finno-Lappic languages use it... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The circumflex ( Ë† ) (often called a caret, a hat or an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Dutch, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans and other languages, and formerly in Turkish [citation needed]. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent... When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the middle dot (Â·), or to the glyphs combining dot above ( ) and combining dot below ( ) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Eastern European languages and Vietnamese. ...

anunaasika ( ˙ )
anusvara (  ̣ )
chandrabindu (   ँ   ঁ   ઁ   ଁ ఁ )

hook / dấu hỏi (  ̉ )
horn / dấu móc
macron ( ˉ )
ogonek ( ˛ )
ring / kroužek ( ˚ )
rough breathing / spiritus asper (  ῾ )
smooth breathing / spiritus lenis (  ᾿ )
Anunaasika is a dot on top of a breve above a letter ( &#2350;&#2305; ), used as a diacritic in Sanskrit written in devanagari script to represent vowel nasalization. ... Anusvaara (or anusvaaram) appears in the alphabet of Indian languages like Sanskrit which use the Devanagari script, and in the Dravidian languages. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with anunaasika. ... For other meanings of hook, see hook (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of hook, see hook (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of horn, see horn (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of horn, see horn (disambiguation). ... A macron, from Gr. ... Ogonek (Polish for little tail, the diminutive of ogon; the Lithuanian equivalent is nosinÄ— which literally means nasal) is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in Polish (letters Ä…, Ä™), Lithuanian (Ä…, Ä™, Ä¯, Å³), Creek, Navajo and Western Apache (Ä…, Ä…Ä…, Ä™, Ä™Ä™, Ä¯, Ä¯Ä¯, , ), Chiricahua and Mescalero (Ä…, Ä…Ä…, Ä™, Ä™Ä™, Ä¯, Ä¯Ä¯, Å³, Å³Å³), Tutchone and... In punctuation, the term ring is usually reserved for the ring above diacritic mark &#730; (looks similar to °). The ring may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets. ... In punctuation, the term ring is usually reserved for the ring above diacritic mark &#730; (looks similar to °). The ring may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets. ... The spiritus asper (rough breathing) or dasy pneuma (Greek: dasu, &#948;&#945;&#963;&#973;) is a diacritical mark used in Greek. ... The spiritus lenis (soft breathing) or psilon pneuma (Greek: psilÃ³n, ÏˆÎ¹Î»ÏŒÎ½) is a diacritical mark used in Ancient Greek. ...

Marks sometimes used as diacritics

apostrophe ( )
bar ( | )
colon ( : )
comma ( , )
hyphen ( ˗ )
tilde ( ˜ )
titlo (  ҃ )
An apostrophe An apostrophe (French, from the Greek Î±Ï€Î¿ÏƒÏ„ÏÎ¿Ï†Î¿Ï‚ Ï€ÏÎ¿ÏƒÏ‰Î´Î¹Î±, the accent of elision) ( â€™ ) is a punctuation and sometimes diacritic mark in languages written in the Latin alphabet. ... The bar or stroke can be a diacritic mark, when used with some letters in the Latin or Cyrillic alphabets. ... This article is about colons in punctuation. ... A comma ( , ) is a punctuation mark. ... A hyphen ( -, or â€ ) is a punctuation mark. ... A tilde. ... Titlo is an extended diacritic symbol used in old Cyrillic manuscripts, e. ...

The umlaut mark (or simply umlaut) and the trema or diaeresis mark (or simply diaeresis) are two diacritics consisting of a pair of dots placed over a letter. When the vowel is an i, the diacritic replaces the tittle. The two diacritics are very similar, and the distinction between them is not always made. A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent mark, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... i j A tittle is a small distinguishing mark, such as a diacritic or the dot over an i. ...

äëïöüẅÿ

The trema or diaeresis is the diacritic mark ( ¨ ), used to indicate diaeresis, or, more generally, that a vowel should be pronounced apart from the letter which precedes it. For example, in the spelling coöperate, it reminds the reader that the word has four syllables [ko.opəreɪt], not three [ku:pəreɪt]. In English, the trema is rare, and not mandatory, but other languages like Dutch, Spanish, and French make regular use of it. By extension, the words trema and diaeresis also designate the same diacritic when used to denote other kinds of sound changes, such as marking the schwa ë in Albanian. In linguistics, a, diaeresis, or dieresis (AE) (from Greek (diaerein), to divide) is the modification of a syllable by distinctly pronouncing one of its vowels. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ...

The umlaut is a similar diacritic ( ¨ ) which indicates the phonological phenomenon of umlaut in German. The umlauted vowels are ä, ö, and ü. The same name is used in other languages which have borrowed these symbols from German. In linguistics, the process of umlaut (from German um- around + Laut sound) is a process whereby a vowel is pronounced more like a vowel or semivowel in a following syllable. ... Ã„, or Ã¤, is a glyph which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter A with umlaut, or a letter A with diaeresis. ... Ã–, or Ã¶, is a glyph that represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter O with umlaut, or a letter O with diaeresis. ... Ãœ, or Ã¼, is a glyph which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter U with umlaut, or a letter U with diaeresis. ...

In professional typography, umlaut dots are usually a bit closer to the letter's body than the dots of the trema. [citation needed] In handwriting, however, no distinction is visible between the two. This is also true for most computer fonts and encodings. [citation needed] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

### History

v  d  e
Punctuation

apostrophe ( ', )
brackets ( ), [ ], { }, < >
colon ( : )
comma ( , )
dashes ( , , , )
ellipsis ( , ... )
exclamation mark ( ! )
full stop/period ( . )
guillemets ( « » )
hyphen ( -, )
interpunct ( · )
question mark ( ? )
quotation marks ( ", ‘ ’, “ ” )
semicolon ( ; )
slash/stroke ( / )
solidus ( )
The term punctuation has two different linguistic meanings: in general, the act and the effect of punctuating, i. ... Look up apostrophe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Various brackets in Arial // In writing Brackets are punctuation marks, used in pairs to set apart or interject text within other text. ... This article is about colons in punctuation. ... A comma ( , ) is a punctuation mark. ... A dash is a punctuation mark. ... It has been suggested that Elliptical construction be merged into this article or section. ... an exclamation mark An exclamation mark, exclamation point or bang, !, is usually used after an interjection or exclamation to indicate strong feeling. ... A full stop or period (sometimes stop, full point or dot), is the punctuation mark commonly placed at the end of several different types of sentences in English and several other languages. ... Also called angle quotes, guillemets (<< or >>) are line segments, pointed as if arrows. ... A hyphen ( -, or â€ ) is a punctuation mark. ... An interpunct is a small dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin script, being perhaps the first consistent visual representation of word boundaries in written language. ... ? redirects here. ... For the Wikipedia quotation template, see here. ... A semicolon ( ; ) is a punctuation mark. ... The slash A slash or stroke, /, is a punctuation mark. ... A solidus, oblique or slash, /, is a punctuation mark. ...

Interword separation

spaces ( ) ( ) ( )
This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A space is a punctuation convention for providing interword separation in some scripts, including the Latin, Greek, Cyrillic, and Arabic. ...

General typography

ampersand ( & )
asterisk ( * )
at ( @ )
backslash ( )
bullet ( )
caret ( ^ )
currency ( ¤ ) ¢, \$, , £, ¥
dagger ( ) ( )
degree ( ° )
inverted exclamation point ( ¡ )
inverted question mark ( ¿ )
number sign ( # )
percent and related signs
( %, , )
pilcrow ( )
prime ( )
section sign ( § )
tilde ( ~ )
umlaut/diaeresis ( ¨ )
underscore/understrike ( _ )
vertical/pipe/broken bar ( |, ¦ )

Uncommon typography

asterism ( )
lozenge ( )
interrobang ( )
irony mark ( ؟ )
reference mark ( )
sarcasm mark
This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... In typography, an asterism is a rare symbol consisting of three asterisks placed in a triangle, used to call attention to a passage or to separate sub-chapters in a book. ... A pullover with a lozenge pattern A lozenge is a parallelogram which usually has two corners pointing up and down that are farther apart than the corners pointing sideways. ... The interrobang (//) () is a rarely used, nonstandard English-language punctuation mark intended to combine the functions of a question mark and an exclamation point. ... Examples of irony marks. ... This page lists Japanese typographic symbols which are not included in kana or kanji. ... A sarcasm mark, which is represented in the Ethiopic languages, also called a sarcasm point, like a non-standard androgynous pronoun, is an often desired, but non-standardized form of American English punctuation. ...

Historically, the diaeresis mark or trema is far older than the umlaut mark.

The word trema is taken from the Byzantine Greek τρημα, meaning "perforation, orifice". This sign was first used in that language[citation needed] to indicate that two consecutive vowels should be pronounced separately as a hiatus, such as in the names Chloë and Zoë, rather than together in a diphthong. It is currently used with this purpose in several languages of western and southern Europe, among them Modern Greek, Catalan, Dutch, and Welsh. Medieval Greek (ÎœÎµÏƒÎ±Î¹Ï‰Î½Î¹ÎºÎ® Î•Î»Î»Î·Î½Î¹ÎºÎ®) is a linguistic term that describes the third period in the history of the Greek language. ... Hiatus in linguistics is the separate pronunciation of two adjacent vowels, sometimes with an intervening glottal stop. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (Greek Î´Î¯Ï†Î¸Î¿Î³Î³Î¿Ï‚, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a vowel combination in a single syllable involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... Greek (, IPA: â€” Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language within the Indo-European family. ... Catalan IPA: (catalÃ  IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra and co-official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Valencia (under the name Valencian) and Catalonia. ... Welsh redirects here, and this article describes the Welsh language. ...

For example, according to the spelling rules of Catalan, the digraphs ei and iu are normally read as diphthongs, [ei̯] and [iu̯]. To indicate exceptions to this rule, a diaeresis mark is placed on the second vowel: without the trema the words veïna [bə'inə] ("neighbour", feminine) and diürn [di'urn] ("diurnal") would be read ['bei̯nə] and ['diu̯rn], respectively. In phonetics, a diphthong (Greek Î´Î¯Ï†Î¸Î¿Î³Î³Î¿Ï‚, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a vowel combination in a single syllable involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ...

In French, some pairs of vowels that were originally true diphthongs later coalesced into monophthongs, which led to an extension of the value of this diacritic. It often now indicates that the second vowel is to be pronounced separately from the first, rather than merge with it into a single sound. For example, the French words païen [pa'jɛ̃], Anaïs [ana'is], and naïve [na'ivə] would be pronounced [pɛ'ɛ̃], [a'nɛs], and ['nɛvə], respectively, without the diaeresis mark, since the digraph ai is pronounced [ɛ]. A monophthong (in Greek Î¼Î¿Î½ÏŒÏ†Î¸Î¿Î³Î³Î¿Ï‚ = single note) is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation; compare diphthong. ... Digraph has several meanings: directed graph, or digraph Digraph (orthography) Digraph (computing) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...

Another example is the Dutch spelling coëfficiënt, necessary because the digraphs oe and ie normally represent the simple vowels [u] and [i], respectively.

Ÿ is sometimes used in transcribed Greek, where it represents the non-diphthong αυ (alpha upsilon) (e.g., in the Persian name Artaÿctes at the very end of Herodotus). It also occurs in French as a variant of ï, in rare proper nouns (for instance, the name of the Parisian suburb of L'Haÿ-les-Roses). Hiatus in linguistics is the separate pronunciation of two adjacent vowels, sometimes with an intervening glottal stop. ... Bust of Herodotus Herodotus of Halicarnassus (in Greek, , Herodotos Halikarnasseus) was a Dorian Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (484 BCâ€“ca. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du TrocadÃ©ro. ... LHaÃ¿-les-Roses is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France. ...

In French words such as Gaëlle, however, the diaeresis is mostly etymological. While it is true that without it the digraph ae would be pronounced as the monophthong [ɛ] in Vulgar Latin, it would most likely be spelled with the ligature æ in that case, and in any event [ɛ] is never written ae in modern French orthography. Not to be confused with Entomology, the study of insects. ... Vulgar Latin, as in this political engraving at Pompeii, was the language of the ordinary people of the Roman Empire, distinct from the Classical Latin of literature. ... In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more letterforms are written or printed as a unit. ... Ash (Ã†, Ã¦; pronounced ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet for English. ... The orthography of a language is the set of symbols (glyphs and diacritics) used to write a language, as well as the set of rules describing how to write these glyphs, including spelling, punctuation, and capitalization. ...

As a further extension, other languages began to use the trema whenever they wish to indicate that a vowel should be pronounced separately from the preceding letter (possibly a consonant), with which it would normally form a digraph, according to the orthographic rules of that language. In the orthographies of Spanish, Catalan, Brazilian Portuguese, French, and Galician, the graphemes gu and qu normally represent a single sound, [g] or [k], before the front vowels e and i, for historical reasons. In the few exceptions where the u is pronounced before i or e, a trema is added to it. Catalan IPA: (catalÃ  IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra and co-official in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Valencia (under the name Valencian) and Catalonia. ... Brazilian Portuguese is a collective name for the varieties of Portuguese written and spoken by virtually all the 187 million inhabitants of Brazil and by a couple million Brazilian immigrants and temporary workers in other countries, mainly in Canada, United States, Portugal, Paraguay and Japan. ... Galician (Galician: galego, pron. ...

Examples:

• Spanish - vergüenza ("shame"), pingüino ("penguin")
• Catalan - aigües ("waters"), qüestió ("matter")
• Brazilian - Portuguese cinqüenta ("fifty"), qüinqüênio ("quinquennial")

### In English

The diaeresis mark has also been occasionally applied to English words of Latin origin (e.g., coöperate, reënact), and more rarely in native English words (e.g., noöne), but this usage had become extremely rare by the 1940s. The New Yorker, The Economist, and MIT's Technology Review can be noted as some of the few publications that still spell coöperate with a diaeresis. Its use in English today, apart from words borrowed from other languages, is mostly limited to certain names, such as the surname Brontë and the given names Chloë and Zoë. It is probably most common in words that do not have an obvious divider at the diaeresis point (the diaeresis cannot be replaced by a preceding hyphen), such as naïve. The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... The New Yorker is an American magazine that publishes reportage, criticism, essays, cartoons, poetry and fiction. ... The Economist is a weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London, UK. It has been in continuous publication since September 1843. ... Technology Review is an innovation and technology magazine affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ...

### Other diacritical uses

Diaeresis was used in the early Cyrillic alphabet which was used to write Old Church Slavonic. The modern Cyrillic Belarusian and Russian alphabets include the letter yo (Ё, ё), although in modern Russian it is usually printed without the trema (Е, е) unless doing so would create ambiguity. Since the 1870s, the letter yi (Ї, ї) has been used in the Ukrainian alphabet. The original Cyrillic alphabet was a writing system developed in the First Bulgarian Empire in the tenth century to write the Old Church Slavonic liturgical language. ... Old Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian, Old Macedonian, and Old Slavic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessaloniki (Solun) by the 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... The modern Russian alphabet is a variant of the Cyrillic alphabet (ÐšÐ¸Ñ€Ð¸Ð»Ð»Ð¸Ñ†Ð°). It was introduced into Kievan Rus (ÐšÐ¸ÐµÐ²ÑÐºÐ°Ñ Ð ÑƒÑÑŒ) at the time of its conversion to Christianity (988), or, if certain archaelogical finds are correctly dated, at a slightly earlier date. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... // Events and Trends Technology The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ... Yi (&#1031;, &#1111;) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, used in the Ukrainian language. ... The Ukrainian Alphabet (Ð£ÐºÑ€Ð°Ñ—ÌÐ½ÑÑŒÐºÐ° Ð°Ð±ÐµÌÑ‚ÐºÐ°, Ukrajinsâ€²ka abetka, or Ð°Ð»Ñ„Ð°Ð²Ñ–ÌÑ‚, alfavit in Ukrainian) is used to write Ukrainian, the official language of Ukraine. ...

The Cyrillic alphabet letters A, O and U (А, О, У) with trema have been used in the Altay, Mari and Keräşen Tatar alphabets for the sounds ä, ö, ü since the 19th century. The Rusyn alphabet uses both Ё and Ї, as well as ÿ for the "ü" sound. In the Udmurt language, the trema is also used with the consonant letters Zhe (Ж, ж → Ӝ, ӝ) and Ze (З, з → Ӟ, ӟ). The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced , also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languagesâ€”Belarusian, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainianâ€”and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... A (Ð, Ð°) is the first letter of the Cyrillic alphabet. ... O (&#1054;, &#1086;) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the vowel /o/. Categories: Cyrillic letters | Substubs ... U (&#1059;, &#1091;) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the vowel /u/. Categories: Cyrillic letters | Substubs ... Altay is a language of the Turkic group of languages. ... The Mari language (Mari: Ð¼Ð°Ñ€Ð¸Ð¹ Ð¹Ñ‹Ð»Ð¼Ðµ, Russian Ð¼Ð°Ñ€Ð¸Ð¹ÑÐºÐ¸Ð¹ ÑÐ·Ñ‹Ðº), spoken by more than 600,000 people, belongs to the Finno-Ugric language group and is part of the Volgaic subgroup of the Finnic languages together with Mordvin (though this relationship is contested; see Klima 2004 for discussion). ... KÃ¼ltigin Monument where first mention of Tatar people is inscribed Tatars (Tatar: Tatarlar/Ð¢Ð°Ñ‚Ð°Ñ€Ð»Ð°Ñ€), sometimes spelled Tartar (more about the name), is a collective name applied to the Turkic speaking people of Eastern Europe and Central Asia. ... Two versions of the Tatar alphabet are currently used for the Tatar language. ... Udmurt (ÑƒÐ´Ð¼ÑƒÑ€Ñ‚ ÐºÑ‹Ð», udmurt kyl) is a Finno-Ugric language spoken by the Udmurts, native of the Russian constituent republic of Udmurtia, where it is co-official with the Russian language. ... Zhe (Ð–, Ð¶) is the letter of Cyrillic alphabet which represents the voiced postalveolar fricative (listen), similar to the s in the English word treasure. Zhe is the 7th letter of the Bulgarian and Belarusian alphabets, the 8th letter in the Macedonian, Russian and Serbian alphabets, and the 9th in the Ukrainian... Ze is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet that looks like a 3. ...

In Albanian, two dots over 'e' represent a schwa. Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ...

Jacaltec, a Mayan dialect, and Malagasy are the only languages to allow a pair of dots over the letter "n", which is presented in unicode as "n̈". The Jacaltec (or Jakalteko or Popti) are a group of Maya Indians living in the Western Guatemala highlands and adjoining part of Chiapas and southern Mexico. ... Page 9 of the Dresden Codex showing the classic Maya language written in Mayan hieroglyphs(from the 1880 FÃ¶rstermann edition) Mayan languages (alternatively: Maya languages[1]) constitute a language family spoken in Mesoamerica and northern Central America. ... NÌˆ, or nÌˆ (referred to as n-diaeresis) is a glyph that represents a letter from several minor extended Latin alphabets, the letter N with an umlaut. ...

The usage of double dots over vowels, particularly ü, also occurs in the transcription of languages that do not use the Roman alphabet, such as Chinese. For example, 女 (meaning female) is transcribed as .

Ÿ occurs in handwritten Dutch as a glyph variant of the letter IJ. The words â€œijsvrijâ€ and â€œyoghurtâ€ in various forms of handwriting. ...

In J. R. R. Tolkien's Romanisation of Elvish names, double dots over trailing e characters (as in Manwë) indicate that the e is pronounced rather than silent (as it would normally be in English). Tolkien redirects here. ... A fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe, Middle-earth, ManwÃ« SÃºlimo (from the Valarin MÃ¢nawenÃ»z) is an Ainu, the King of the Valar, husband of Varda ElentÃ¡ri, brother of the Dark Lord Melkor (Morgoth), and King of Arda. ...

## Umlaut

### History

Historically, the umlaut mark is far younger than the diaeresis mark, and has unrelated origins, though it has been speculated that an awareness of diaeresis might have influenced the final written form of the umlaut.

Development of the umlaut in Sütterlin: schoen becomes schön via schoͤn ("beautiful")

Originally, the phonological phenomenon umlaut was denoted in written German by adding an e to the affected vowel, either after the vowel or, in small form, above it. (In medieval German manuscripts, other digraphs could also be written using superscripts: in bluome ("flower"), for example, the <o> was frequently placed above the <u>.) In blackletter handwriting as used in German manuscripts of the later Middle Ages, and also in many printed texts of the early modern period, the superscript <e> still had a form which would be recognisable to us as an <e>. However, in the forms of handwriting which emerged in the early modern period (of which Sütterlin is the latest and best known example), the letter <e> had two strong vertical lines, and the superscript <e> looked like two tiny strokes. Gradually these strokes were reduced to dots, and as early as the 16th century we find this handwritten convention being transferred sporadically to printed texts too. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... In linguistics, the process of umlaut (from German um- around + Laut sound) is a process whereby a vowel is pronounced more like a vowel or semivowel in a following syllable. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Blackletter in a Latin Bible of AD 1407, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... SÃ¼tterlin example in German The SÃ¼tterlinschrift, or SÃ¼tterlin for short, is a form of the old German blackletter handwriting (Spitzschrift) that was designed by and named after Ludwig SÃ¼tterlin, a German graphical designer and teacher who was commissioned to do so by the Prussian ministry for...

In modern handwriting, the umlaut sometimes looks like a breve, tilde, or other small mark. A breve (Latin brevis short, brief) is a diacritical mark Ë˜, shaped like a little round cup, designed to indicate a short vowel, as opposed to the macron Â¯ which indicates long vowels. ... A tilde. ...

### Printing conventions in German

When typing German, if umlaut letters are not available, the proper way is to replace them with the underlying vowel and a following <e>. So, for example, "Schröder" becomes "Schroeder". As the pronunciation differs greatly between the normal letter and the umlaut, simply omitting the dots is considered incorrect. The result might often be a different word, as in schon 'already', schön 'beautiful' or Mutter 'mother', Mütter 'mothers'.

Despite this, the umlauted letters are not considered part of the alphabet proper. When alphabetically sorting German words, the umlaut is usually treated like the underlying vowel; if two words differ only by an umlaut, the umlauted one comes second, for example: Alphabetical redirects here. ...

1. Schon
2. Schön
3. Schonen

There is a second system in limited use, mostly for sorting names (colloquially called "telephone directory sorting"), which treats ü like ue, and so on.

1. Schön
2. Schon
3. Schonen

Austrian telephone directories insert ö after oz.

1. Schon
2. Schonen
3. Schön

In Switzerland, capital umlauts are sometimes printed as digraphs, in other words, <Ae>, <Oe>, <Ue>, instead of <Ä>, <Ö>, <Ü>. (See German alphabet for an elaboration.) This is because the Swiss keyboard contains the French accents on the same buttons as the umlauts (selected by Shift). To write capital umlauts the ¨-key is pressed followed by the capital letter to which the umlaut should apply. Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... The German alphabet consists of the same 26 letters as the modern Latin alphabet: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J...

### Borrowing of German umlaut notation

Some languages have borrowed some of the forms of the German letters Ä, Ö, or Ü, including Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian, Karelian, the Sami languages, Slovak, Swedish and Turkish.[citation needed] The use of the diacritic in these languages does not usually relate to instances the historical phenomenon of Germanic umlaut, but it often indicates sounds similar to those for which it is used in German. Ã„, or Ã¤, is a glyph which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter A with umlaut, or a letter A with diaeresis. ... Ã–, or Ã¶, is a glyph that represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter O with umlaut, or a letter O with diaeresis. ... Ãœ, or Ã¼, is a glyph which represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, the letter U with umlaut, or a letter U with diaeresis. ... The Karelian language is a variety closely related to Finnish, with which it is not necessarily mutually intelligible. ... Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ...

The Estonian alphabet has borrowed <ä>, <ö> and <ü> from German, Swedish and Finnish have <ä> and <ö>, and Slovak has <ä>. In Estonian, Swedish, Finnish and Sami <ä> and <ö> denote [ æ ] and [ ø ] respectively. Hungarian, on the other hand, has <ü>, and <ö>. The Slovak language uses the letter <ä> to denote [ ɛ ] (or a bit archaic but still correct [ æ ]) — the sign is called dve bodky ("two dots"), and the full name of the letter ä is a s dvomi bodkami ("a with two dots"). In all these languages, however, the replacement rule for situations where the umlaut character is not available, is to simply use the underlying unaccented character instead (without a following e). This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

In Luxembourgish (Lëtzebuergesch), the umlaut diacritic in <ä> and <ë> represents a stressed schwa. Since the Luxembourgish language uses the mark to show stress, it cannot be used to modify the 'u' which therefore has to be 'ue'. Luxembourgish, Luxemburgish, or Luxembourgian (Luxembourgish: LÃ«tzebuergesch, French: , German: , Walloon: ) is a West Germanic language spoken in Luxembourg. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ...

When Turkish switched from the Arabic to the Latin alphabet in 1928 it adopted a number of diacritics borrowed from various languages, including <ü>, which was taken from German (Turkey had a close relationship with Germany) and <ö> from Swedish, which in turn had borrowed this symbol from German. These Turkish graphemes represent similar sounds to their values in German. See Turkish alphabet. The current 29-letter Turkish alphabet, used for the Turkish language, was established by law in Turkey on November 1, 1928 (YazÄ±m KÄ±lavuzu). ...

As the borrowed diacritic has lost its relationship to Germanic i-mutation, they are in some languages considered independent graphemes, and cannot be replaced with <ae>, <oe>, or <ue> as in German. In Estonian and Finnish, for example, these latter diphthongs have independent meanings. Even some Germanic languages such as Swedish (which does have a transformation analogous to the German umlaut, called omljud ), treat them as independent letters. In collation, this means they have their own positions in the alphabet, for example at the end ("A–Ö", not "A–Z") as in Swedish and Finnish, which means that the dictionary order is different from German. It also means that the transformations ä -> ae and ö -> oe are inappropriate for these languages. Alphabetical redirects here. ...

Early Volapük used Fraktur a, o and u as different than Antiqua ones. Later, the Fraktur forms were replaced with umlauted vowels. VolapÃ¼k is a constructed language, created in 1879â€“1880 by Johann Martin Schleyer, a Roman Catholic priest in Baden, Germany. ... The German word Fraktur (pronounced in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)) refers to a specific sub-group of blackletter typefaces. ... Antiqua is the traditional term for most kinds of roman typeface derived from the archetype designed by Nicholas Jenson circa 1470. ...

### Use of the umlaut for special effect

The umlaut diacritic can be used in "sensational spellings", for example in advertising, or for other special effects. A heavy metal umlaut is an umlaut over a letter in the name of a heavy metal band. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Original research If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ...

As the German short /a/ is more open than the equivalent sound in English (/æ/), Germans sometimes use the diacritic <ä> to imitate the English sound in writing, giving an English "feel" to words used in advertising; in a McDonald's restaurant in Germany one can buy a "Big Mäc". The Big Mac is a type of hamburger, a signature sandwich sold by the McDonalds chain of fast-food restaurants since 1968, made with two all beef patties, special sauce, lettuce, cheese, pickles, onions on a sesame seed bun. ...

Since the letter ü is very common in Turkish, its inappropriate use can make a text in another language look "turkified", a purely visual mimicry. Because of the large number of Turks living in Germany, this again is a phenomenon familiar in German. The Turkish-German satirist Osman Engin, for example, wrote a book entitled Dütschlünd, Dütschlünd übür üllüs - the opening line of the first stanza from the Lied der Deutschen, but turkified. Das Lied der Deutschen (The Song of the Germans, also known as Das Deutschlandlied, The Song of Germany) has been used wholly or partially as the national anthem of Germany since 1922. ...

In the heavy metal scene, the umlaut diacritic can frequently be observed as a mere decoration (with no significance for the pronunciation) on the names of bands such as Motörhead, Mötley Crüe, or Leftöver Crack. The fictitious group Spın̈al Tap places an umlaut over the <n>. An interestingly self-referential example is the Finnish group Ümlaut. Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that emerged as a defined musical style in the 1970s, having its roots in hard rock bands which, between 1969 and 1974,[1] mixed blues and rock music to create a hybrid with a thick, heavy, guitar-and-drums-centered sound, characterised... The title of this article contains the following characters: Ã¶. Where they are unavailable or not desired, the name may be given as Motorhead. ... MÃ¶tley CrÃ¼e (IPA pronunciation: ) is a popular American rock band from Los Angeles, California. ... The LeftÃ¶ver Crack logo. ... This article is about the quasi-fictional heavy metal band. ... Ãœmlaut is a rocking crust hardcore band from Finland. ...

## In mathematics and physics

The derivative with respect to time is often represented as a dot above a variable. Two dots represents the second derivative. In mathematics, a derivative is the rate of change of a quantity. ...

${dot{a}} = {mathrm{d} over mathrm{d}t} a$
${ddot{a}} = {mathrm{d} ^2 over mathrm{d} t^2} a$

This may be contrasted with the more common notation for a derivative using a prime: This article is not about the symbol for the set of prime numbers, â„™. The prime (â€², Unicode U+2032, &prime;) is a symbol with many mathematical uses: A complement in set theory: Aâ€² is the complement of the set A A point related to another (e. ...

$f'(x) = {mathrm{d} over mathrm{d}x} f(x)$
$f''(x) = {mathrm{d}^2 over mathrm{d} x^2} f(x)$

In physics, a dot typically represents a (partial) time derivative $mathrm d over mathrm d t$ while a prime represents a spatial derivative $mathrm d over mathrm d x$. Physics (from the Greek, (phÃºsis), nature and (phusikÃ©), knowledge of nature) is the science concerned with the discovery and understanding of the fundamental laws which govern matter, energy, space, and time. ...

## Computer usage

Most character encodings treat the umlaut and the diaeresis as the same diacritic mark.

### Keyboard input

Umlauts on a German computer keyboard. The ligature ß can also be seen.

Using Microsoft Word, the double dot is produced by pressing Ctrl+Shift+:, then the letter. Microsoft Word, or Microsoft Office Word, is Microsofts flagship word processing software. ...

On a computer running Mac OS double dots can be entered be pressing Option+U, followed by the vowel to have a double dot above it. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

X-based systems with the Compose key can usually enter characters with double dots by typing Compose, " followed by the letter. KDE 3. ... The compose key and compose LED on a Sun Type 5c keyboard is the second-last key on the bottom row On some computer systems, a compose key is a key which is designated to signal the software to interpret the next keystrokes as a combination in order to produce...

On several operating systems, double dotted characters can be written even without the current keyboard layout having umlauts or tremas by entering Alt codes. On Microsoft Windows keyboard layouts that do not have double dotted characters, one can especially use Windows Alt keycodes. Double dots are then entered by pressing the left Alt key, and entering the full decimal value of the character's position in the Windows code page on the numeric keypad, provided that the compatible code page is used as a system code page. You can also use numbers from Code page 850; these lack a leading 0. The term Alt codes is used to refer to a number of Unicode input methods that allow characters to be entered by typing a characters code point in concert with the Alt key. ... Microsoft Windows is the name of several families of proprietary software operating systems by Microsoft. ... Computers and other typing devices offer many different keyboard layouts for inputting data in different languages. ... On PCs running the Microsoft Windows operating system, additional characters to those available by the current keyboard layout may be typed using the Alt key in conjunction with the keyboards numeric pad. ... Microsoft uses two main groups of code pages in Microsoft Windows (known as character encodings in other operating systems). ... The code page 850 is a code page which was used in occidental Europe, under systems such as DOS. It has been largely replaced with ISO 8859-1 and UTF-8, but is still sometimes used. ...

Character Windows Code Page Code CP850 Code
ä Alt+0228 Alt+132
ö Alt+0246 Alt+148
ü Alt+0252 Alt+129
Ä Alt+0196 Alt+142
Ö Alt+0214 Alt+153
Ü Alt+0220 Alt+154

### Character encodings

The ISO 8859-1 character encoding includes the letters ä, ë, ï, ö, ü, and their respective capital forms, as well as ÿ in lower case only, with Ÿ added in the revised edition ISO 8859-15. ISO 8859-1, more formally cited as ISO/IEC 8859-1 or less formally as Latin-1, is part 1 of ISO/IEC 8859, a standard character encoding originally developed by ISO, but later jointly maintained by ISO and IEC. The standard, when supplemented with additional character assignments, is the... Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Letter case. ... ISO 8859-15 is part 15 of ISO 8859, a standard character encoding defined by ISO. It is also known as Latin-9, and unofficially as Latin-0 but not as Latin-15. ...

Unicode provides the double dot as a combining character U+0308. Mainly for compatibility with older character encodings, dozens of codepoints with letters with double dots are available. Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Combining diacritical marks are Unicode characters that are intended to modify other characters (see Diacritic). ...

Both the combining character U+0308 and the precombined codepoints can be used as umlaut and as diaeresis.

Sometimes, there's a need to distinguish between the umlaut sign and the diaeresis sign. In these cases, the following recommendation by ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 2/WG 2 should be followed:

• To represent the umlaut use Combining Diaeresis (U+0308)
• To represent the diaeresis use Combining Grapheme Joiner (CGJ, U+034F) + Combining Diaeresis (U+0308)

### HTML

In HTML, vowels with double dots can be entered with an entity reference of the form &?uml;, where ? can be any of a, e, i, o, u, y or their majuscule counterparts. With the exception of the uppercase Ÿ, these characters are also available in all of the ISO 8859 character sets and thus have the same codepoints in ISO-8859-1 (-2, -3, -4, -9, -10, -13, -14, -15, -16) and Unicode. The uppercase Ÿ is available in ISO 8859-15 and Unicode, and Unicode provides a number of other letters with double dots as well. In computing, HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is the predominant markup language for the creation of web pages. ... Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... ISO 8859, more formally ISO/IEC 8859, is a joint ISO and IEC standard for 8-bit character encodings for use by computers. ... ISO 8859-1, more formally cited as ISO/IEC 8859-1 or less formally as Latin-1, is part 1 of ISO/IEC 8859, a standard character encoding defined by ISO. It encodes what it refers to as Latin alphabet no. ... ISO 8859-2, more formally cited as ISO/IEC 8859-2 or less formally as Latin-2, is part 2 of ISO/IEC 8859, a standard character encoding defined by ISO. It encodes what it refers to as Latin alphabet no. ... ISO 8859-3, also known as Latin-3 or South European is an 8-bit character encoding, part of the ISO 8859 standard. ... ISO 8859-4, also known as Latin-4 or North European, is an 8-bit character encoding, part of the ISO 8859 standard. ... ISO 8859-9, also known as Latin-5 or Turkish, is an 8-bit character encoding, part of the ISO 8859 standard. ... ISO 8859-10, also known as Latin-6, is an 8-bit character encoding, part of the ISO 8859 standard. ... ISO 8859-13, also known as Latin-7 or Baltic Rim, is an 8-bit character encoding, part of the ISO 8859 standard. ... ISO 8859-14, also known as Latin-8 or Celtic, is an 8-bit character encoding, part of the ISO 8859 standard. ... ISO 8859-15 is part 15 of ISO 8859, a standard character encoding defined by ISO. It is also known as Latin-9, and unofficially as Latin-0 but not as Latin-15. ... ISO 8859-16, also known as Latin-10 or South-Eastern European, is an 8-bit character encoding, part of the ISO 8859 standard. ... Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...

Umlauts
Character Replacement HTML Unicode
ä a or ae &auml; U+00E4
ö o or oe &ouml; U+00F6
ü u or ue &uuml; U+00FC
Ä A or Ae &Auml; U+00C4
Ö O or Oe &Ouml; U+00D6
Ü U or Ue &Uuml; U+00DC
Other double dots
Character HTML Unicode
ë &euml; U+00EB
ï &iuml; U+00EF
ÿ &yuml; U+00FF
Ë &Euml; U+00CB
Ï &Iuml; U+00CF
Ÿ &Yuml; U+0178

Note: when replacing Umlaut characters with plain ASCII, use ae, oe, etc. for German language, and the simple character replacements for all other languages.
There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ...

### TeX

TeX also allows double dots to be placed over letters in math mode, using "ddot{}", or outside of math mode, with the " control sequence: TeX (IPA: as in Greek, often in English; sometimes written TEX in imitation of the logo) is a typesetting system created by Donald Knuth. ...

$mathrm{ddot{a}ddot{b}ddot{c}ddot{d}ddot{e}ddot{A}ddot{B}ddot{C}ddot{D}ddot{E}}$

However this will give the trema-style dots that are too far above the letter's body for good typographical umlauts. TeX's "German" package should be used if possible: it adds the " control sequence (without backslash) which gives nice umlauts.

Look up ä, Ë, ë, ö in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... A diacritical mark or diacritic, also called an accent mark, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the middle dot (Â·), or to the glyphs combining dot above ( ) and combining dot below ( ) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Eastern European languages and Vietnamese. ... The ß &#8212; Eszett [] in German or scharfes Es (sharp es) if spelled out &#8212; is a letter used only in the German alphabet. ... For other meanings of horn, see horn (disambiguation). ... A macron, from Gr. ... In punctuation, the term ring is usually reserved for the ring above diacritic mark &#730; (looks similar to °). The ring may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets. ... i j A tittle is a small distinguishing mark, such as a diacritic or the dot over an i. ... A heavy metal umlaut is an umlaut over a letter in the name of a heavy metal band. ...

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