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Ume
Ume blossoms, March
Ume blossoms, March
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Prunus
Species: P. mume
Binomial name
Prunus mume
Siebold & Zucc.

Prunus mume is a species of Asian plum in the family Rosaceae. It is called ume (kanji: 梅; hiragana: うめ) in Japanese, méi (梅) in Chinese, maesil (hangul: 매실; hanja: 梅實) in Korean, and hoamai (han ju: 梅花) in Vietnamese. The tree originates from China, but it has also been grown in Japan and Korea since ancient times. The tree is cultivated for its fruit and flowers. Although normally called a plum, it is actually more closely related to the apricot. Another species commonly referred to as the "Japanese plum" is the sumomo (Prunus salicina). Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 796 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... It has been suggested that Angiospermae, and Anthophyta be merged into this article or section. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class: this name is formed by replacing the termination -aceae in the name Magnoliaceae by the termination -opsida (Art 16 of the ICBN). ... Families Barbeyaceae Cannabaceae (hemp family) Dirachmaceae Elaeagnaceae Moraceae (mulberry family) Rosaceae (rose family) Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family) Ulmaceae (elm family) Urticaceae (nettle family) For the Philippine municipality, see Rosales, Pangasinan. ... Subfamilies Rosoideae Spiraeoideae Maloideae Amygdaloideae or Prunoideae The Rosaceae or rose family is a large family of plants, with about 3,000-4,000 species in 100-120 genera. ... Species Prunus alabamensis Prunus alleghaniensis Prunus americana Prunus andersonii Prunus angustifolia Prunus armeniaca Prunus avium Prunus caroliniana Prunus cerasifera Prunus cerasus Prunus domestica Prunus dulcis Prunus emarginata Prunus fasciculata Prunus fremontii Prunus fruticosa Prunus geniculata Prunus glandulosa Prunus gracilis Prunus grayana Prunus havardii Prunus hortulana Prunus ilicifolia Prunus japonica Prunus... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... statue in Akashicho (near Tsukiji), chuo-ku,Tokyo Japan Philipp Franz Balthasar von Siebold (February 17, 1796 in Würzburg - October 18, 1866 in Munich) was a German physician. ... Joseph Gerhard Zuccarini (10 August 1797 - 18 February 1848) was a German botanist, Professor of Botany at the University of München. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Species Prunus alabamensis Prunus alleghaniensis Prunus americana Prunus andersonii Prunus angustifolia Prunus armeniaca Prunus avium Prunus caroliniana Prunus cerasifera Prunus cerasus Prunus domestica Prunus dulcis Prunus emarginata Prunus fasciculata Prunus fremontii Prunus fruticosa Prunus geniculata Prunus glandulosa Prunus gracilis Prunus grayana Prunus havardii Prunus hortulana Prunus ilicifolia Prunus japonica Prunus... Subfamilies Rosoideae Spiraeoideae Maloideae Amygdaloideae or Prunoideae The Rosaceae or rose family is a large family of plants, with about 3,000-4,000 species in 100-120 genera. ... Korea (Korean: 한국 or ì¡°ì„ , see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... A Phalaenopsis flower Rudbeckia fulgida A flower, (<Old French flo(u)r<Latin florem<flos), also known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). ... Binomial name Prunus armeniaca L. For other uses, see Apricot (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Prunus salicina Lindl. ...


The tree flowers in late winter, typically late January or February in East Asia, before the leaves appear. Each flower has five petals and is 1-3 cm in diameter. The flowers are typically white, though cultivars may have rose or deep red flowers. The leaves appear shortly after the petals fall. The leaves are oval, with a pointed tip. The fruit ripens in early summer, typically June in East Asia. The ripening of the fruit coincides with Jiangnan's rainy season, meiyu (梅雨), called baiu or tsuyu in Japanese. Each fruit is round with a groove running from the stalk to the tip. The skin is green when unripe, and turns yellow, sometimes with a red blush, as it ripens. The flesh becomes yellow. East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... Village in Jiangnan Jiangnan or Jiang Nan (Chinese: ; Pinyin: Jiāngnán; Wade-Giles: Chiang nan; sometimes spelled Kiang-nan) is a geographic area referring to lands immediately to the south of the lowest reaches of the Yangtze River, including the southern part of the Yangtze Delta. ... Tsuyu is the Japanese name for the rainy season that lasts in Japan from the middle of June to near the end of July. ...

Contents

Varieties

Japan

In Japan, ornamental ume cultivars are classified into yabai (lit. "wild ume") types, hibai ("red ume") types, and bungo ("Bungo province") type. The bungo trees are also grown for fruit and supposed to be hybrids between ume and apricot. The hibai trees have red heartwood and most of them have red flowers. The yabai trees are also used as grafting stock. An ornamental plant is a plant that is grown for its ornamental qualities, rather than for its commercial or other value. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... Bungo (豊後国; Bungo no kuni) was a province of Japan in eastern Kyūshū. It bordered on Buzen, Hyuga, Higo, Chikugo, and Chikuzen Provinces. ... Trunks A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is a solid material derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... Grafted apple tree Malus sp. ...


China

In China, there are over 300 recorded cultivars of mei, which can be broadly divided by colour into white, pink, red, purple, and light green types. Some varieties are especially famed for their ornamental value, including the Dahong mei (lit. "big red mei"), Taige mei (lit. "pavilion mei"), Zhaoshui mei (lit. "reflecting water mei"), Lü'e mei (lit. "green calyx mei"), Longyou mei (lit. "swimming dragon mei"). This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... The word calyx has several possible meanings: Look up calyx in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


As the mei can usually grow for a long time, ancient mei trees are found throughout China. Huangmei county (lit. "Yellow Mei") in Hubei features a 1600-year-old mei tree from the Jin Dynasty which is still flowering. Huangmei County falls under the administration of Huanggang (黃冈) city municipality in eastern Hubei Province, and is adjacent to Anhui Province. ... Hubei (Chinese: 湖北; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hu-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hupeh) is a central province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Jin may refer to: Jin Dynasty (265-420) Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) (Jinn) Jin, a state in China during the Spring and Autumn Period Later Jin Dynasty, founded in 1616 by Nurhaci Jin, a ruler of the Xia dynasty The Jin state of late Bronze Age Korea Jin, Chinese American...


Uses

Culinary use

Ume juice is extracted by preserving the fruits in sugar. In China, sour plum juice (Chinese: 酸梅汤; Hanyu Pinyin: suānméitāng) is made from smoked ume (Chinese: 乌梅; Hanyu Pinyin: wūméi; literally "dark plum"). It ranges from light pinkish orange to purplish black in color and often has a smoky and slightly salty taste. It is traditionally flavoured with sweet osmanthus flowers, and is enjoyed chilled, usually in summer. The juice produced in Japan and Korea, made from green ume, tastes sweet and acidic, and is considered a refreshing drink, also often enjoyed in the summer. In Korea, maesil juice, which is marketed as a healthful tonic, is enjoying increasing popularity. It is commercially available in glass jars in sweetened, concentrated syrup form; it is reconstituted by stirring a small amount of syrup into a glass of water. The syrup may also be prepared at home by storing one part fresh maesil in a container with one part sugar (but no water). Pinyin (&#25340;&#38899;, P&#299;ny&#299;n) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hàny&#468; P&#299;ny&#299;n (&#27721;&#35821;&#25340;&#38899;, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of... Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Smoking Smoking is the process of flavoring, cooking, or preserving food by exposing it to the smoke from burning or smoldering plant materials, most often wood. ... Pinyin (&#25340;&#38899;, P&#299;ny&#299;n) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hàny&#468; P&#299;ny&#299;n (&#27721;&#35821;&#25340;&#38899;, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of... Binomial name Osmanthus fragrans Lour. ...


Ume liquor is popular in both Japan and Korea. Umeshu (梅酒, sometimes translated as "plum wine") is a Japanese alcoholic drink made by steeping green ume in shōchū (燒酎, clear liquor). It is sweet and smooth. The taste and aroma of umeshu can appeal to even those people who normally dislike alcohol. A similar liquor in Korea, called maesilju, is marketed under various brand names including Mae Hwa Su, Mae Chui Soon, and Seol Joong Mae. Both the Japanese and Korean varieties of ume liquor are available with whole ume fruits contained in the bottle. Umeboshi (梅干), or pickled ume, are a Japanese specialty. Flavoured with salt and purple shiso (perilla) leaves, they are red in color and quite salty and sour, and therefore eaten sparingly. Umeboshi are generally eaten with rice as part of a bento, although they may also be used in makizushi. Makizushi made with ume may made with either umeboshi or umeboshi paste, often in conjunction with green shiso leaves. A by-product of umeboshi production is umeboshi vinegar, a salty, sour condiment. Umeshu is a liqueur made from Japanese ume fruits, sugar and shochu. ... ShōchÅ« ) is a distilled alcoholic beverage popular in Japan. ... Spirits redirects here. ... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... Umeboshi Umeboshi (梅干, pickled ume) are a type of Japanese pickle. ... Perilla is a genus of annual herb that is a member of the mint family, Lamiaceae. ... Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa Brown basmati rice Terrace of paddy fields in Yunnan Province, southern China. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Front row, left to right: uramaki roll, inarizushi, and nigiri (two kinds). ...


Huamei (Chinese: 话梅; Hanyu Pinyin: huàméi; literally "talk plum"), or Chinese preserved plum, refers to any of a large number of Chinese foods involving plums pickled in sugar, salt, and herbs such as licorice. There are two general varieties: a dried variety, and a wet (pickled) variety. However, flavours and methods of preparation differ widely by region. Huamei are usually consumed as a snack. Pinyin (&#25340;&#38899;, P&#299;ny&#299;n) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to Hàny&#468; P&#299;ny&#299;n (&#27721;&#35821;&#25340;&#38899;, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of... Binomial name Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Liquorice or licorice (see spelling differences) (pronounced IPA: licorish) is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, from which a sweet flavour can be extracted. ...


A thick, sweet Chinese sauce called mei jiang (梅酱) or meizi jiang (梅子酱), usually translated as "plum sauce," is also made from ume, along with other ingredients such as sugar, vinegar, salt, ginger, chili, and garlic. Similar to duck sauce, it is used as a condiment for various Chinese dishes, including poultry dishes and egg rolls. Duck sauce 鸭子调味汁 is an orange hued Chinese condiment, also widely known as Plum sauce. ... Salt, sugar and pepper are the most essential condiments in Western cuisine. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Medicinal use

In traditional Chinese medicine, the smoked fruits, called wumei (乌梅), is used for medicinal purposes. They are generally black in color and are believed to be effective against parasites, as well as in stopping ulcers and promoting a strong digestive system and heart. Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... An ulcer (from Latin ulcus) is an open sore of the skin, eyes or mucous membrane, often caused by an initial abrasion and generally maintained by an inflammation and/or an infection. ...


Cultural significance

Ume flowers have been well loved and celebrated in both China and Japan. In China, they are most commonly used as decoration during the Chinese New Year. The blossoms are common subjects in Chinese art and are among the most beloved Chinese flowers. Unlike the Japanese, however, the Chinese see the blossoms as more of a symbol for winter rather than a harbinger of spring. It is precisely for this reason that the blossoms are so beloved, because they bloom most vibrantly amidst the winter snow while all other flowers have long since succumbed to the cold and died. Thus, they are seen as an example of resilience and perseverance in the face of adversity, and thus has also been used as a metaphor to symbolize revolutionary struggle. Because they blossom in winter, the ume, the pine, and the bamboo together have been called the "Three Friends of the Cold" (岁寒三友). Apart from that, the blossom is one of the "Four Junzi Flowers" (四君子) in China (the others being orchid, chrysanthemum, and bamboo) and symbolized nobleness. Chinese New Year (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ), or Spring Festival or the Lunar New Year (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ), is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. ... Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... Diversity Around 91 genera and 1,000 species Subtribes Arthrostylidiinae Arundinariinae Bambusinae Chusqueinae Guaduinae Melocanninae Nastinae Racemobambodinae Shibataeinae See the full Taxonomy of the Bambuseae. ... Junzi (君子) was a term coined by Confucius to describe his ideal human. ... Orchid re-directs here; for alternate uses see Orchid (disambiguation) Genera Over 800 See List of Orchidaceae genera. ... Species Chrysanthemum aphrodite Chrysanthemum arcticum Chrysanthemum argyrophyllum Chrysanthemum arisanense Chrysanthemum boreale Chrysanthemum chalchingolicum Chrysanthemum chanetii Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium Chrysanthemum coronarium Chrysanthemum crassum Chrysanthemum glabriusculum Chrysanthemum hypargyrum Chrysanthemum indicum Chrysanthemum japonense Chrysanthemum japonicum Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium Chrysanthemum mawii Chrysanthemum maximowiczii Chrysanthemum mongolicum Chrysanthemum morifolium Chrysanthemum morii Chrysanthemum okiense Chrysanthemum oreastrum Chrysanthemum ornatum Chrysanthemum...


The blossom has long been a floral symbol of the ancient Chinese city of Nanjing. In 1964, the Executive Yuan of the Republic of China adopted the five-petaled plum blossom ("prunus mei") as the national flower of the Republic of China[1](Taiwan). It also serves as the logo of China Airlines, the national carrier of the Republic of China(Taiwan). The flower features prominently on currency and other national symbols. In mainland China, the flower also features on currency and other important symbols.   (Chinese: 南京; Romanizations: NánjÄ«ng (Pinyin), Nan-ching (Wade-Giles), Nanking (Postal map spelling)) is the capital of Chinas Jiangsu Province and a city with a prominent place in Chinese history and culture. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... The Executive Yuan (&#34892;&#25919;&#38498;; literally executive court) is the executive branch of the government of the Republic of China. ... Motto Three Principles of the People (三民主義 San-min Chu-i) Anthem National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei (de facto)  Nanking (de jure)1  Largest city Taipei Official languages Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Chen Shui-bian  -  Vice President Annette Lu  -  Premier Chang Chun-hsiung... A national emblem is a symbol that represents a nation. ... Motto Three Principles of the People (三民主義 San-min Chu-i) Anthem National Anthem of the Republic of China Capital Taipei (de facto)  Nanking (de jure)1  Largest city Taipei Official languages Mandarin (GuóyÇ”) Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Chen Shui-bian  -  Vice President Annette Lu  -  Premier Chang Chun-hsiung... Not to be confused with Air China. ... National symbols are symbols of any entity considering itself and manifesting itself to the world as a national community (independent states, but also nations and countries in a state of colonialor other dependence, (con)federal integration, even an ethno-cultural community considered a nationality despite the absence of any political... ...


Ume blossoms are often mentioned in Japanese poetry as a symbol of spring. When used in haiku or renga, they are a kigo or season word for early spring. The blossoms are asscociated with the Japanese Bush Warbler, and they are depicted together as one of the twelve suits on hanafuda (Japanese playing cards). During the Nara period (8th century), the blossom of the ume tree was preferred over the sakura (cherry) blossom, which became popular after the Heian period (794-1185). Grave of the Japanese poet Yosa Buson The best-known forms of Japanese poetry (outside Japan) are haiku and senryu. ... Haiku )   is a mode of Japanese poetry, the late 19th century revision by Masaoka Shiki of the older hokku ), the opening verse of a linked verse form, haikai no renga. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Cherry trees from Japan around the Tidal Basin in Washington, DC. Kigo (season word(s), from the Japanese 季語, kigo) are words or phrases that are generally associated with a particular season. ... Binomial name Cettia diphone (Kittlitz, 1830) The Japanese Bush Warbler 鶯(ウグイス) (Cettia diphone) is a passerine bird more often heard than seen. ... The four French playing card suits used primarily in the English-speaking world: spades(â™ ), hearts(), diamonds() and clubs(♣). In playing cards, a suit is one of several categories into which the cards of a deck are divided. ... Hanafuda ) is Japanese flower cards, and a card game which evolved from Western playing cards. ... The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 784. ... (7th century &#8212; 8th century &#8212; 9th century &#8212; other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... “Cherry Blossom” redirects here. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ...


Etymology

In North America, the fruit and tree are generally known by the Japanese name, ume. The scientific name (Prunus mume) preserves an older, alternative Japanese pronunciation—possibly the original—of "mme" (んめ), which was written "mume" (むめ) as there was no special kana for a lone nasal at that time. These Japanese terms derive, as does the Korean name maesil (매실), from the Middle Chinese pronunciation of the character (梅), which is thought to have been muəi.[2] Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Manyogana 万葉仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Rōmaji ローマ字 For other meanings of Kana, see Kana (disambiguation). ... Middle Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 中古漢語; Pinyin: zhōnggÇ” HànyÇ”), or Ancient Chinese as used by linguist Bernhard Karlgren, refers to the Chinese language spoken during Northern and Southern Dynasties and the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties (6th century - 10th century). ...


See also

Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject:
Ume-shu
Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject:
Umeboshi
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Prunus mume
Wikispecies has information related to:

Notes

  1. ^ Goverment Information Office, Republic of China - National Flower
  2. ^ Yamaguchi, Y., ed.: "Kurashi no kotoba: Gogen Jiten", page 103. Kodansha, 1998

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Japanese Plum (ume) Blossoms (370 words)
The event is celebrated with plum festivals (ume matsuri) in public parks, shrines and temples across the country.
The actual ume fruit is more sour than the western plum or apricot, and is usually processed in various ways before eaten.
A ume matsuri is held from February 10 to March 4, 2007.
Ume - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (1081 words)
It is called ume (kanji: 梅; hiragana: うめ) in Japanese, méi (梅) in Chinese, and maesil (hangul: 매실; hanja: 梅實) in Korean.
Ume blossoms are often mentioned in Japanese poetry as a symbol of spring.
During the Nara period (8th century), the blossom of the ume tree was preferred over the sakura (cherry) blossom, which became popular after the Heian period (794-1185).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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