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Encyclopedia > Umbilical arteries
Artery: Umbilical artery
Fetal circulation; the umbilical vein is the large, red vessel at the far left. The umbilical arteries are purple and wrap around the umbilical vein.
Scheme of placental circulation.
Latin a. umbilicalis
Gray's subject #139 540
Source internal iliac artery
Branches superior vesical artery
artery of the ductus deferens
Vein umbilical vein
MeSH A07.231.114.929
Dorlands/Elsevier a_61/12156476

The umbilical artery is a paired artery (with one for each half of the body) that is found in the abdominal and pelvic regions. In the fetus, it extends into the umbilical cord. Fetal circulation; the umbilical vein is the large, red vessel at the far left The umbilical vein is a blood vessel present during fetal development that carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the growing fetus. ... Image File history File links Gray39. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The Internal iliac artery, formerly known as the hypogastric artery, supplies the walls and viscera of the pelvis, the buttock, the reproductive organs, and the medial compartment of the thigh. ... The superior vesical artery supplies numerous branches to the upper part of the bladder. ... Fetal circulation; the umbilical vein is the large, red vessel at the far left The umbilical vein is a blood vessel present during fetal development that carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the growing fetus. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo Elsevier, the worlds largest publisher of medical and scientific literature, forms part of the Reed Elsevier group. ... The umbilical cord develops from, and contains, remnants of the yolk sac and allantois. ...

Contents

Umbilical arteries in the fetus

Umbilical arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the fetus to the placenta in the umbilical cord. There are usually two umbilical arteries present together with one umbilical vein in the cord. The umbilical arteries are actually the latter of the internal iliac arteries that supply the hind limbs with blood in the foetus. The umbilical arteries surround the urinary bladder and then carry all the deoxygenated blood out of the fetus through the umbilical cord. A human fetus A fetus (or foetus, or fœtus – see below) is a developing mammal after the embryonic stage and before birth. ... The placenta is an ephemeral (temporary) organ present only in female placental vertebrates during gestation (pregnancy). ... The umbilical cord develops from, and contains, remnants of the yolk sac and allantois. ... Fetal circulation; the umbilical vein is the large, red vessel at the far left The umbilical vein is a blood vessel present during fetal development that carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the growing fetus. ... The internal iliac artery (formerly known as the hypogastric artery) is the main artery of the pelvis. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... In the anatomy of mammals, the urinary bladder is a hollow, muscular and distensible or elastic organ that sits on the pelvic floor. ...


Single Umbilical Artery

Occasionally, there is only the one single umbilical artery (SUA) present in the cord. This abnormality is typically more common in multiple births, but can appear with singletons as well. Babies with SUA may have a higher likelihood of having other congenital abnormalities. However, additional testing (high level ultrasound scans) can rule out these abnormalities prior to birth and alleviate parental anxiety. Genetic counseling may be useful, too, especially when weighing the pros and cons of more invasive procedures such as chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis. A congenital disorder is a medical condition that is present at birth. ... Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) is a form of prenatal diagnosis to determine genetic abnormalities in the fetus. ... Amniocentesis, or an Amniotic Fluid Test (AFT), is a medical procedure used for prenatal diagnosis, in which a small amount of amniotic fluid is extracted from the amnion around a developing fetus. ...


It is important to note that a diagnosis of SUA, while anxiety provoking, is in no way a guarantee that a fetus is at risk for other problems in utero or after birth. Especially encouraging are cases in which no other soft markers for congenital abnormalities are visible via ultrasound. In fact, medical literature suggests that 1 in 100 newborns have it, making it the most common umbilical abnormality. Prior to ultrasound technology, the only method for determining the presence of such a cord was at birth, following an examination of the placenta. Given that the vast majority of expectant mothers do nodoctors and midwives typically encourage parents to take the added precaution of having regular growth scans near term to rule out intrauterine growth restriction, which can happen on occasion and warrant intervention. Yet the majority of growth restricted infants with the abnormality also have other defects. Echocardiograms may be advised late in the pregnancy to ensure the heart is functioning properly. Finally, neonates with the finding may also have a higher occurrence of kidney problems, so close examination of the infant may be warranted shortly after birth. Among SUA infants, there is a slightly elevated risk for post-natal urinary infections. Midwifery is a blanket term used to describe a number of different types of health practitioners, other than doctors, who provide prenatal care to expecting mothers, attend the birth of the infant and provide postnatal care to the mother and infant. ... The echocardiogram is an ultrasound of the heart. ...


Umbilical artery in the adult

The umbilical artery is a branch of the anterior division of the internal iliac artery and represents the patent (open) part of the embryonic umbilical artery. (The non-patent obliterated part of the artery is the medial umbilical ligament.) The umbilical artery is found in the pelvis, and gives rise to the superior vesical arteries. In males, it also gives rise to the artery to the ductus deferens. The Internal iliac artery, formerly known as the hypogastric artery, supplies the walls and viscera of the pelvis, the buttock, the reproductive organs, and the medial compartment of the thigh. ... The pelvis (pl. ... The artery to the ductus deferens, as its name suggests, is an artery in males that provides blood to the ductus deferens. ...


Additional images

External links

Arteries of thorax, abdomen, and pelvis edit

pulmonary - aorta - ascending aorta
right coronary (sinuatrial nodal, atrioventricular nodal, atrial, right marginal, posterior interventricular)
left coronary (anterior interventricular, left circumflex, left marginal)
aortic arch - brachiocephalic - thyreoidea ima - common carotid | (Gray's s141-Gray's s143) GPnotebook is a British medical database for general practitioners (GPs. ... The State University of New York Health Science Center at Brooklyn, better known as SUNY Downstate Medical Center, is an academic medical center and is the only one of its kind in the Borough of Brooklyn in New York City. ... Section of an artery An artery or arterial is also a class of highway. ... The pulmonary arteries carry blood from the heart to the lungs. ... The largest artery in the human body, the aorta originates from the left ventricle of the heart and brings oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ... The arch of the aorta, and its branches. ... The coronary circulation consists of the blood vessels that supply blood to, and remove blood from, the heart. ... The sinuatrial nodal artery is an artery of the heart which supplies the sinoatrial node, and usually arises from either the right coronary artery or (less frequently) the circumflex branch of left coronary artery. ... The atrioventricular nodal branch most freqently arises as an early branch from the right coronary artery, but occasionally the atrioventricular node receives blood from the circumflex branch of left coronary artery. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with right coronary artery. ... The right marginal branch of right coronary artery (or right marginal artery) is a large marginal branch which follows the acute margin of the heart and supplies branches to both surfaces of the right ventricle. ... The posterior interventricular artery (or posterior descending branch) is a branch of the right coronary artery which runs in the posterior interventricular sulcus to the apex of the heart, where it meets with the anterior interventricular artery. ... The left coronary artery, also abbreviated LCA, arises from the aorta above the left cusp of the aortic valve. ... The LAD, or left anterior descending artery (or anterior interventricular branch of the left coronary artery, or anterior descending branch) passes at first behind the pulmonary artery and then comes forward between that vessel and the left auricula to reach the anterior interventricular sulcus, along which it descends to the... The LCX, or left circumflex artery (or circumflex artery, or circumflex branch of the left coronary artery) follows the left part of the coronary sulcus, running first to the left and then to the right, reaching nearly as far as the posterior longitudinal sulcus. ... The left marginal artery (or obtuse marginal artery) is a branch of the circumflex artery, originating at the posterior interventricular sulcus, traveling along the left margin of heart towards the apex of the heart. ... The arch of the aorta, and its branches. ... The brachiocephalic artery (or trunk) is an artery of the mediastinum that supplies blood to the right arm and the head. ... The thyreoidea ima ascends in front of the trachea to the lower part of the thyroid gland, which it supplies. ... Left Common Carotid Artery- One of three arteries that originate along the aortic arch. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body, commonly known as Grays Anatomy, is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body, commonly known as Grays Anatomy, is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ...


DESCENDING AORTA / THORACIC AORTA: bronchial - esophageal - posterior intercostal - subcostal | (Gray's s153) The descending aorta is divided into two portions, the thoracic and abdominal, in correspondence with the two great cavities of the trunk in which it is situated. ... The largest artery in the human body, the aorta originates from the left ventricle of the heart and brings oxygenated blood to all parts of the body in the systemic circulation. ... Bronchial Artery The bronchial arteries supply nutrients and oxygen to the root of the lungs, the supporting tissues of the lungs, and the visceral pleura of the lungs. ... The esophageal arteries four or five in number, arise from the front of the aorta, and pass obliquely downward to the esophagus, forming a chain of anastomoses along that tube, anastomosing with the esophageal branches of the inferior thyroid arteries above, and with ascending branches from the left inferior phrenic... The posterior intercostal arteries are arteries that supply blood to the intercostal spaces. ... The subcostal arteries, so named because they lie below the last ribs, constitute the lowest pair of branches derived from the thoracic aorta, and are in series with the intercostal arteries. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body, commonly known as Grays Anatomy, is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ...


ABDOMINAL AORTA: Anterior - celiac: left gastric AORTA can also mean always-on real-time access, referring to WAN computer networks. ... celiac artery ... The left gastric artery arises from the coeliac trunk, and runs along the superior portion of the lesser curvature of the stomach, while the right gastric artery supplies the inferior portion. ...


splenic: pancreatic branches (arteria pancreatica magna) - short gastric - left gastro-omental Branches of the celiac artery. ... The pancreatic branches are numerous small vessels derived from the lienal as it runs behind the upper border of the pancreas, supplying its body and tail. ... In human anatomy, the arteria pancreatica magna, also great pancreatic artery and greater pancreatic artery, is the largest blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the pancreas and arises from the splenic artery. ... The short gastric arteries (vasa brevia) consist of from five to seven small branches, which arise from the end of the lienal artery, and from its terminal divisions. ... The left gastro-omental artery (or left gastroepiploic artery), the largest branch of the splenic artery, runs from left to right about a finger’s breadth or more from the greater curvature of the stomach, between the layers of the greater omentum, and anastomoses with the right gastroepiploic. ...


common hepatic: proper hepatic (cystic), right gastric, gastroduodenal (right gastro-omental, superior pancreaticoduodenal) Branches of the celiac artery - stomach in situ. ... The hepatic artery proper (also proper hepatic artery), arises from the common hepatic artery and joins the portal vein and the common bile duct to form the portal triad. ... The cystic artery supplies oxygenated blood to the gallbladder and cystic duct. ... The right gastric artery (pyloric artery) arises from the hepatic, above the pylorus, descends to the pyloric end of the stomach, and passes from right to left along its lesser curvature, supplying it with branches, and anastomosing with the left gastric artery. ... Branches of the celiac artery. ... The right gastro-omental artery (or right gastroepiploic artery) runs from right to left along the greater curvature of the stomach, between the layers of the greater omentum, anastomosing with the left gastroepiploic branch of the splenic artery. ... The superior pancreaticoduodenal artery descends between the contiguous margins of the duodenum and pancreas. ...


superior mesenteric: inferior pancreaticoduodenal - intestinal - ileocolic (appendicular) - right colic - middle colic The superior mesenteric artery arises from the anterior surface of the aorta, just inferior to the origin of the celiac trunk, and supplies the intestine from the duodenum and pancreas to the left colic flexure. ... The inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery is given off from the superior mesenteric or from its first intestinal branch, opposite the upper border of the inferior part of the duodenum. ... The Intestinal Arteries (vasa intestini tenuis) arise from the convex side of the superior mesenteric artery. ... The Ileocolic Artery is the lowest branch arising from the concavity of the superior mesenteric artery. ... The appendicular artery descends behind the termination of the ileum and enters the mesenteriole of the vermiform process; it runs near the free margin of this mesenteriole and ends in branches which supply the vermiform process. ... The Right Colic Artery arises from about the middle of the concavity of the superior mesenteric artery, or from a stem common to it and the ileocolic. ... The middle colic artery is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery that mostly supplies the transverse colon. ...


inferior mesenteric: left colic - sigmoid - superior rectal In human anatomy, the inferior mesenteric artery, often abbreviated as IMA, supplies the large intestine from the left colic (or splenic) flexure to the upper part of the rectum, which includes the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and part of the rectum. ... The left colic artery runs to the left behind the peritoneum and in front of the psoas major muscle, and after a short, but variable, course divides into an ascending and a descending branch; the stem of the artery or its branches cross the left ureter and left internal spermatic... The Sigmoid Arteries, two or three in number, run obliquely downward and to the left behind the peritoneum and in front of the Psoas major, ureter, and internal spermatic vessels. ... The superior rectal artery (superior hemorrhoidal artery) is an artery that descends into the pelvis to supply blood to the rectum. ...


Posterior - Visceral: middle suprarenal - renal (inferior suprarenal) - testicular/ovarian - Parietal: inferior phrenic (superior suprarenal) - lumbar - median sacral
The middle suprarenal arteries (middle capsular arteries; suprarenal arteries) are two small vessels which arise, one from either side of the aorta, opposite the superior mesenteric artery. ... Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed The renal arteries normally arise off the abdominal aorta and supply the kidneys with blood. ... Each renal artery gives off some small inferior suprarenal branches to the suprarenal gland, the ureter, and the surrounding cellular tissue and muscles. ... The testicular artery (the male gonadal artery, also called the internal spermatic arteries in older texts) is a branch of the abdominal aorta that supplies blood to the testis. ... In human anatomy, the ovarian artery is a blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the ovary. ... The inferior phrenic arteries are two small vessels, which supply the diaphragm but present much variety in their origin. ... Each (left and right) superior suprarenal artery is a branch of the inferior phrenic artery on that side of the body. ... The lumbar arteries are in series with the intercostals. ... The median sacral artery (or middle sacral artery) is a small vessel, which arises from the back of the aorta, a little above its bifurcation. ...


Terminal branches: common iliac - marginal - internal iliac | (Gray's s154) Bifurcation of the aorta and the right iliac arteries - side view. ... Frontal view of the abdominal aorta and the territory supplied by the inferior mesenteric artery. ... The Internal iliac artery, formerly known as the hypogastric artery, supplies the walls and viscera of the pelvis, the buttock, the reproductive organs, and the medial compartment of the thigh. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body, commonly known as Grays Anatomy, is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ...


INTERNAL ILIAC: Anterior: umbilical (superior vesical, to ductus deferens) - inferior vesical - middle rectal - uterine (azygos of the vagina) - vaginal - obturator
internal pudendal: (inferior rectal, perineal, artery of the urethral bulb, urethral, deep artery of the penis, dorsal artery of the penis)
inferior gluteal (accompanying of ischiadic nerve, crucial anastomosis)
Posterior: iliolumbar - lateral sacral - superior gluteal | (Gray's s155) The Internal iliac artery, formerly known as the hypogastric artery, supplies the walls and viscera of the pelvis, the buttock, the reproductive organs, and the medial compartment of the thigh. ... The superior vesical artery supplies numerous branches to the upper part of the bladder. ... The artery to the ductus deferens, as its name suggests, is an artery in males that provides blood to the ductus deferens. ... The inferior vesical artery frequently arises in common with the middle hemorrhoidal, and is distributed to the fundus of the bladder, the prostate, and the vesiculæ seminales. ... The middle rectal artery usually arises with the inferior vesical artery, a branch of the internal iliac artery. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The uterine artery supplies branches to the cervix uteri and others which descend on the vagina; the latter anastomose with branches of the vaginal arteries and form with them two median longitudinal vessels—the azygos arteries of the vagina—one of which runs down in front of and the other... The vaginal artery usually corresponds to the inferior vesical in the male; it descends upon the vagina, supplying its mucous membrane, and sends branches to the bulb of the vestibule, the fundus of the bladder, and the contiguous part of the rectum . ... The obturator artery passes forward and downward on the lateral wall of the pelvis, to the upper part of the obturator foramen, and, escaping from the pelvic cavity through the obturator canal, it divides into an anterior and a posterior branch. ... Internal pudendal artery is the terminal branch of the anterior trunk of the internal iliac artery which supplies the external genitalia. ... The inferior rectal artery (inferior hemorrhoidal artery) is an artery that supplies blood the the rectum. ... The Perineal Artery (superficial perineal artery) arises from the internal pudendal, and turns upward, crossing either over or under the Transversus perinæi superficialis, and runs forward, parallel to the pubic arch, in the interspace between the Bulbocavernosus and Ischiocavernosus, both of which it supplies, and finally divides into several... The artery of the urethral bulb (artery of bulb of penis) is a short vessel of large caliber which arises from the internal pudendal between the two layers of fascia of the urogenital diaphragm; it passes medialward, pierces the inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm, and gives off branches which... The Urethral Artery arises a short distance in front of the artery of the urethral bulb. ... The Deep Artery of the Penis (a. ... The Dorsal Artery of the Penis ascends between the crus penis and the pubic symphysis, and, piercing the inferior fascia of the urogenital diaphragm, passes between the two layers of the suspensory ligament of the penis, and runs forward on the dorsum of the penis to the glans, where it... The inferior gluteal artery (sciatic artery), the larger of the two terminal branches of the anterior trunk of the hypogastric, is distributed chiefly to the buttock and back of the thigh. ... The accompanying artery of ischiadic nerve is a long, slender vessel, which accompanies the sciatic nerve for a short distance; it then penetrates it, and runs in its substance to the lower part of the thigh. ... The cruciate anastomosis is an anastomosis in the upper thigh of the inferior gluteal artery, the lateral and medial circumflex femoral arteries, and the first perforating artery of the profunda femoris artery. ... The iliolumbar artery, a branch of the posterior trunk of the hypogastric, turns upward behind the obturator nerve and the external iliac vessels, to the medial border of the Psoas major, behind which it divides into a lumbar and an iliac branch. ... The lateral sacral arteries arise from the posterior division of the hypogastric; there are usually two, a superior and an inferior. ... The superior gluteal artery (gluteal artery) is the largest branch of the hypogastric, and appears to be the continuation of the posterior division of that vessel. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body, commonly known as Grays Anatomy, is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ...


EXTERNAL ILIAC: inferior epigastric (cremasteric) - deep circumflex iliac | (Gray's s156) The external iliac arteries are large arteries that connect the femoral arteries to the common iliac arteries. ... Right inferior epigastric artery - view from inside of abdomen. ... The cremasteric artery (external spermatic artery) is a branch of the Inferior epigastric artery which accompanies the spermatic cord, and supplies the Cremaster and other coverings of the cord, anastomosing with the internal spermatic artery (in the female it is very small and accompanies the round ligament. ... The deep circumflex iliac artery (or deep iliac circumflex artery) is an artery in the pelvis that travels along the iliac crest of the pelvic bone. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body, commonly known as Grays Anatomy, is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ...

Mammalian development of embryo and development and fetus (some dates are approximate - see Carnegie stages) - edit - discuss

Week 1: Zygote | Morula | Blastula/Blastomere/Blastosphere | Archenteron/Primitive streak | Blastopore | Allantois | Trophoblast (Cytotrophoblast | Syncytiotrophoblast | Gestational sac) Mammalian embryogenesis is the process of cell division and cellular differentiation which leads to the development of a mammalian embryo. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Fetal (U.S. English; Foetal UK English) development is the process in which a fetus (U.S. English; Foetus UK English) develops during gestation, from the times of conception until birth. ... A human fetus A fetus (or foetus, or fœtus – see below) is a developing mammal after the embryonic stage and before birth. ... In embryology, Carnegie stages are a standardized system of 23 stages used to provide a unified developmental chronology of the embryo. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Morula is a stage of embryonic development in animals, including the 16-cell phase, the 32-cell phase, and the 64-cell phase. ... Blastulation. ... A blastomere is the structure which results from the divisions of a fertilised egg during embryonic development . ... Blastulation. ... The archenteron is an indentation that forms early on in a developing blastula. ... The primitive streak is a structure that forms during the early stages of avian, reptilian and mammalian embryonic development. ... A blastopore is an opening into the archenteron during the embryonic stages of an organism. ... Allantois is a part of a developing animal embryo. ... The trophoblast (from Greek threphein: to feed) is considered to be the first of all embryonic annexes. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Syncytiotrophoblasts are cells found in the placenta of human embryos. ... The gestational sac is the only available intrauterine structure that can be used to determine if an intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) exists, until the embryo is identified. ...


Week 2: Yolk sac | Vitelline duct | Bilaminar disc The yolk sac is the first element seen in the gestational sac during pregnancy, usually at 5 weeks gestation. ... At the end of the fourth week the yolk-sac presents the appearance of a small pear-shaped vesicle (umbilical vesicle) opening into the digestive tube by a long narrow tube, the vitelline duct. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ...


Week 3: Hensen's node | Gastrula/Gastrulation | Trilaminar embryo Branchial arch (1st) | Branchial pouch | Meckel's cartilage | Somite/Somitomere | Germ layer (Ectoderm, Endoderm, Mesoderm, Chordamesoderm, Paraxial mesoderm, Intermediate mesoderm, Lateral plate mesoderm) Hensens Node is the organizer for gastrulation in birds. ... 1 - blastula, 2 - gastrula; orange - ectoderm, red - endoderm. ... 1 - blastula, 2 - gastrula; orange - ectoderm, red - endoderm. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Embryogenesis. ... In the development of vertebrate animals, the branchial arches (or pharyngeal arches) develop during the fourth and fifth week in utero as a series of mesodermal outpouchings on the left and right sides of the developing pharynx. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into branchial arch. ... In the development of vertebrate animals, the branchial arches (or pharyngeal arches) develop during the fourth and fifth week in utero as a series of mesodermal outpouchings on the left and right sides of the developing pharynx. ... The cartilaginous bar of the mandibular arch is formed by what are known as Meckel’s cartilages (right and left) ; above this the incus is developed. ... In the developing vertebrate embryo, somites are masses of mesoderm distributed along the two sides of the neural tube and that will eventually become dermis (dermatome), skeletal muscle (myotome), and vertebrae (sclerotome). ... In the developing vertebrate embryo, the somitomeres are loose masses of paraxial mesoderm derived cells that form along each side of the neural tube towards the end of the third gestational week. ... It has been suggested that organogenesis be merged into this article or section. ... The ectoderm is outermost of the three germ layers of the developing embryo, the other two being the mesoderm and the endoderm. ... The endoderm, sometimes refered to as entoderm, is one of the three germ layers of the developing embryo, the other two being the ectoderm and the mesoderm. ... The mesoderm is one of the three germ layers in the early developing embryo, the other two layers being the ectoderm and the endoderm. ... Chordamesoderm is a type of mesoderm that lies along the central axis, under the neural tube. ... Paraxial mesoderm is the area of mesoderm that forms just lateral to the neural tube on both sides. ... Intermediate mesoderm is a type of mesoderm that is located between the paraxial mesoderm and the lateral plate. ... Lateral plate mesoderm (or hypomere) is a type of mesoderm that is found at the periphery of the embryo. ...

Histogenesis and Organogenesis

Circulatory system: Primitive atrium | Primitive ventricle | Bulbus cordis | Truncus arteriosus | Ostium primum | Foramen ovale | Ductus venosus | Ductus arteriosus | Aortic arches | Septum primum | Septum secundum | Cardinal veins An Introduction to Histogenesis Histogenesis is defined as the formation of tissues and organs from undifferentiated cells (Encarta Dictionary). ... Organogenesis is a stage of animal development where the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm are formed. ... Human circulatory system. ... The primitive atrium grows rapidly and partially encircles the bulbus cordis; the groove against which the bulbus cordis lies is the first indication of a division into right and left atria. ... The primitive ventricle becomes divided by a septum, the septum inferius or ventricular septum, which grows upward from the lower part of the ventricle, its position being indicated on the surface of the heart by a furrow. ... When the heart assumes its S-shaped form the bulbus cordis lies ventral to and in front of the primitive ventricle. ... For the medical condition with the same name, see Truncus arteriosus. ... In the developing heart, for a time the atria communicate with each other by an opening, the ostium primum of Born (interatrial foramen primum), below the free margin of the septum. ... In the fetal heart, the foramen ovale allows blood to enter the left atrium from the right atrium. ... In the fetus, the ductus venosus connects the left umbilical vein with the upper inferior vena cava. ... In the developing fetus, the ductus arteriosus (DA) is a shunt connecting the pulmonary artery to the aortic arch that allows much of the blood from the right ventricle to bypass the fetus fluid-filled lungs. ... This article focuses upon the multiple aortic arches present in the embryo. ... The cavity of the primitive atrium becomes subdivided into right and left chambers by a septum, the septum primum, which grows downward into the cavity. ... The septum secundum, semilunar in shape, grows downward from the upper wall of the atrium immediately to the right of the primary septum and foramen ovale. ... During development of the veins, the first indication of a parietal system consists in the appearance of two short transverse veins, the ducts of Cuvier, which open, one on either side, into the sinus venosus. ...


Nervous system: Neural development/Neurulation | Neurula | Neural folds | Neural groove | Neural tube | Neural crest | Neuromere (Rhombomere) | Notochord | Optic vesicles | Optic stalk | Optic cup The nervous system of an animal coordinates the activity of the muscles, monitors the organs, constructs and also stops input from the senses, and initiates actions. ... The study of neural development draws on both neuroscience and developmental biology to describe the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which complex nervous systems emerge during embryonic development and throughout life. ... Neurulation is a part of organogenesis in vertebrate embryos. ... A Neurula is an embryo at the early stage of development in which neurulation occurs. ... In front of the primitive streak two longitudinal ridges, caused by a folding up of the ectoderm, make their appearance, one on either side of the middle line. ... Between the neural folds is a shallow median groove, the neural groove. ... In the developing vertebrate nervous system, the neural tube is the precursor of the central nervous system, which comprises the brain and spinal cord. ... The neural crest, a component of the ectoderm, is one of several ridgelike clusters of cells found on either side of the neural tube in vertebrate embryos. ... Neuromeres are transient segments during the early development of the human brain. ... In the vertebrate embryo, a rhombomere is a segment of the developing rhombencephalon. ... The notochord is a flexible, rod-shaped body found in embryos of all chordates. ... The eyes begin to develop as a pair of diverticula from the lateral aspects of the forebrain. ... The optic vesicles project toward the sides of the head, and the peripheral part of each expands to form a hollow bulb, while the proximal part remains narrow and constitutes the optic stalk. ... The outer wall of the bulb of the optic vesicles becomes thickened and invaginated, and the bulb is thus converted into a cup, the optic cup (or ophthalmic cup), consisting of two strata of cells). ...


Digestive system: Foregut | Midgut | Hindgut | Proctodeum | Rathke's pouch | Septum transversum For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... The foregut is the anterior part of the alimentary canal, from the mouth to the intestine, or to the entrance of the bile duct. ... The midgut is the portion of the embryo from which most of the intestines are derived. ... Hindgut is the posterior (caudal) part of the alimentary canal. ... A proctoduem is the back ectodermal part of an alimentary canal. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The liver arises in the form of a diverticulum or hollow outgrowth from the ventral surface of that portion of the gut which afterward becomes the descending part of the duodenum. ...


Urinary/Reproductive system: Urogenital folds | Urethral groove | Urogenital sinus | Kidney development (Pronephros | Mesonephros | Ureteric bud | Metanephric blastema) | Fetal genital development (Wolffian duct | Müllerian duct | Gubernaculum | Labioscrotal folds) The urinary system is the organ system that produces, stores, and carries urine. ... A reproductive system is the ensembles and interactions of organs and/or substances within an organism that strictly pertain to reproduction. ... The urogenital folds are an embryological structure which give rise to a portion of the external genitalia. ... The urethral groove is a temporary linear indentation on the underside (ventral side) of the male penis during embryonic development. ... The urogenital sinus (also known as the persistent cloaca) is a part of the human body while it is an embryo. ... In humans, the metanephros (adult kidney) begins as an aggregate of mesenchymal cells that are detectable by the fifth gestational week as two small areas in the intermediate mesoderm close to the pelvic aorta. ... Pronephros the most primitive of the three excretory organs that develop in vertebrate, corresponding to the first stage of kidney development. ... The mesonephros (Latin for middle kidney) is one of three excretory organs that develop in vertebrates. ... The Ureteric bud is a portion of the mesonephric duct. ... The Metanephric blastema (or metanephric mesenchyme) is one of the two embryological structures that give rise to the kidney (the other is the ureteric bud. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Wolffian duct (also known as archinephric duct, Leydigs duct, and the mesonephric duct) is an paired organ found in mammals including humans during embryogenesis. ... The Müllerian ducts are paired ducts of the embryo which empty into the cloaca, and which in the female develop into the upper vagina, cervix, uterus and oviducts; in the male they disappear except for the vestigial vagina masculina and the appendix testis. ... The gubernaculum is a fold of peritoneum which attaches to the caudal end of the testes. ... The labioscrotal folds (or labioscrotal swellings) are paired embryonic structures that represent the final stage of development of the caudal end of the external genitals before sexual differentiation. ...


Glands: Thyroglossal duct A gland is an organ in an animals body that synthesizes a substance for release such as hormones, often into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland). ... The thyroglossal duct is an embryological anatomical structure which forms the connection between the initial area of development of the thyroid gland and its final position. ...


Uterine support: Placenta | Umbilical cord (Umbilical artery, Umbilical vein, Wharton's jelly) | Amniotic sac (Amnion, Chorion) The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ... The placenta is an ephemeral (temporary) organ present only in female placental vertebrates during gestation (pregnancy). ... The umbilical cord develops from, and contains, remnants of the yolk sac and allantois. ... Fetal circulation; the umbilical vein is the large, red vessel at the far left The umbilical vein is a blood vessel present during fetal development that carries oxygenated blood from the placenta to the growing fetus. ... Whartons jelly is a gelatinous substance within the umbilical cord. ... Amnion. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... Chorion can refer to the following things: Chorion is the outer membrane of the amniotic sac. ...


Limb development: Limb bud | Apical Ectodermal Ridge/AER The vertebrate limb arises out of a general morphogenetic area called a limb field. ... In embryology, the limb bud is a structure formed by the developing limb, derived from lateral plate mesoderm[citation needed]. It is intimately related with the apical ectodermal ridge, which secretes factors inducing the initial differentiation of the limb bud. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Pregnancy Institute - PUCP (13577 words)
Morphology and Pathology of the Equine Umbilical Cord.
Knotted umbilical cord as a cause of death in a Cercopithhecus aethiops fetus.
Stenosis of the umbilical cord and nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis.
AmnioNet : Umbilical Hernia (243 words)
Early in development, a portion of small bowel protrudes through the umbilicus alongside the two umbilical arteries that carry blood from the embryo to the placenta and the umbilical vein which is the single conduit for all of the blood flow from the placenta.
Umbilical hernia and nuchal translucency are easy to see early in pregnancy and account for the majority of simple ultrasound screening indications for an amnio.
Umbilical hernias may persist throughout pregnancy, requiring repair after delivery, or they may regress between 12 and 16 weeks GA. One of the cardinal features of trisomy 21 (Down's Syndrome) is that developmental events occur, but along a time scale that is delayed relative to the norm.
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