FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Umayyad tradition of cursing Ali

There was an Umayyad tradition of cursing Ali, that is said to have started with Marwan ibn al-Hakam, a practice put to end by Umar II. This is tradition is described in sources such as Sahih Muslim and is prominently mentioned by Shi'a when retelling the history of Islam. Marwan ibn al-Hakam (623 - 685) was the eight Sunni Caliph, an Umayyad, who took over the dynasty after Muawiya II gave up the title in 684. ... Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (c. ... Sahih Muslim is a collection of sayings and deeds of Prophet Muhammad (also known as the sunnah). ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first purported visions in the 7th century. ...


People who were told to curse Ali include: For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Atiyya ibn Sad belonged to the Judaila family of the tribe known as Qays and his patronymic appellation was Abdul Hasan according to al-Tabari. ... Hujr ibn Adi was a supporter of Ali, he and his companions were killed by Muawiya I for refusing to Curse Ali. ...

History

The cursing of 'Ali ibn Ali Talib features prominently in Shi'ite accounts of history. Mainstream history, however, recorded by Muslim and non-Muslims alike, does not record this practice as being restricted to anything further than pockets of Khawaarij and other dissidents, and by no means an order of Mu'awiyah ibn Abu Sufyan or the Umayyad Caliphate descended from him, and a practice started by the tyrant Marwan ibn al-Hakam.


Umar ibn Abdul Aziz, or Umar II, was successful in eradicating the pockets of dissidents and Umayyads who did curse 'Ali, and was all the more endeared to the Sunni masses for it.


Hadith

Another hadith from SAHIH MUSLIM is Marwan ibn al-Hakam (623 - 685) was an Umayyad caliph who took over the dynasty after Muawiya II gave up the title in 684. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sahl ibn Sad al-Saidi was one of the prominent Sahaba and early Muslim scholars. ... In Islam, one can pray for God to curse someone. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... Sunnis hold him in high respect as one of the Ahl al-Bayt and the last of the Four Righteously Guided Caliphs. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Sahih is a Islamic term that means authentic. ... Sahih Muslim is a collection of sayings and deeds of Prophet Muhammad (also known as the sunnah). ...


This hadith has been narrated. on the authority of Shu'ba with the same chain of transmitters. Amir b. Sa'd b. Abi Waqqas reported on the authority of his father that Muawiya b. Abi Sufyin appointed Sa'd as the Governor and said: What prevents you from abusing Abu Turab (Hadrat 'Ali), whereupon be said: It is because of three things which I remember Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) having said about him that I would not abuse him and even if I find one of those three things for me, it would be more dear to me than the red camelg. I heard Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) say about 'Ali as he left behind hrin in one of his campaigns (that was Tabuk). 'All said to him: Allah's Messenger, you leave me behind along with women and children. Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said to him: Aren't you satisfied with being unto me what Aaron was unto Moses but with this exception that there is no prophethood after me. And I (also) heard him say on the Day of Khaibar: I would certainly give this standard to a person who loves Allah and his Messenger and Allah and his Messenger love him too. He (the narrator) said: We have been anxiously waiting for it, when he (the Holy Prophet) said: Call 'Ali. He was called and his eyes were inflamed. He applied saliva to his eyes and handed over the standard to him, and Allah gave him victory. (The third occasion is this) when the (following) verse was revealed:" Let us summon our children and your children." Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) called 'Ali, Fitima, Hasan and Husain and said: O Allah, they are my family.|Sunni= as Sahih|SunniS=Sahih Muslim[2]}} Sahih is a Islamic term that means authentic. ... Sahih Muslim is a collection of sayings and deeds of Prophet Muhammad (also known as the sunnah). ...



Ali ibn al-Athir, a 13th century Sunni Islamic scholar writes: Abu al-Hasan Ali izz al-Din ibn al-Athir (May 12 1160–1233) was an Iranian/Persian historian born in Cizre in Northern Kurdistan province. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Ulema (Arabic: علماء) is the community of legal scholars of Islam and the Sharia. ...


This establishes Marwan as being the one who instituted cursing, and not Mu'awiyah. Marwan can refer to: Marwan I or Marwan ibn Hakam (623-685), Umayyad caliph Marwan II or Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan (688-750), Umayyad caliph This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Ali ibn Husayn, Zayn al-Abideen, (Arabic: علي بن حسين زين العابدين) ‎ (658 - 713) was the fourth Shia Imam (see Shia Imams). ...


Sunni view

The Sunni view holds that Mu'awiyah ibn Abu Sufyan never ordered the cursing of 'Ali, and that this is a myth of revisionist history created by opponents of the Companions and Mu'awiyah in particular, who included the Shi'a, and that this cursing started only with Al-Marwan bin Al-Hakam, known as a vicious tyrant who violated the sactity of Makkah by not just fighting in it but also by killing Companions therein.


Many present-day scholars, most prominently Mufti Taqi 'Uthmani, have made specific efforts to counter Shi'ite influence on Muslims regarding Mu'awiyah's integrity and position in Islam as a Companion of the Prophet and Scribe of the Qur'an, in addition to his stable and prosperous Caliphate. Mufti Taqi 'Uthmani's work, Mu'awiyah, in particular counters directly negative claims regarding Mu'awiyah made by self-styled scholar Syed Abul Ala Maududi (who also disparaged other figures Traditional and Orthodox Islam have considered as above reproach, including the Prophet Joseph), reminding Muslims that:



- Mu'awiyah, despite his father's previous violent opposition to Islam converted in secret to Islam at a young age and as such never fought against the Muslims in the battles of Badr and Uhud.


- Mu'awiyah was appointed as a scribe of the Qur'an by the Prophet. The Qur'an in SUrah an-Nazi'aat places the Scribes of the Qur'an above reproach in the verse Kiraaman Katibeen, which scholars of Tafsir have stated alos refers to those the Prophet appointed as Scribes.


- Mu'awiyah was a Companion.


The Qur'an states: "Allah is pleased with them, and they with Him".


This verse is unanimously agreed upon by scholars of Tafsir as being in specific reference to the Companions sans exception. Therefore, for anyone to disparage any of the Companions is tanatmount to expression displeasure with one with whom Allah is pleased, an act of disbelief.


Muhammed further clarifies in the authenticated Hadith: For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ...


"(Fear) Allah! (Fear) Allah! - regarding my Companions. Whosoever loves them, it is by my love that they love them; and whosoever hates them, it is by my hate thet they hate them."


- Umar ibn al-Khattab, it is established, was by far the most strict and uncompromising in matters of discipline and maintaining integrity of all the Caliphs.


Because of the Companion Hudhayfah's ability to keep a secret, Muhammed told him the names of the hypocrites, a trust not bestowed upon others. Hudhayfah was commissioned to watch their movements and follow their activities. The hypocrites, because their secrecy and intimate knowledge of the developments and plans of the Muslims, presented a greater threat to the community than external enemies. From this time onwards, Hudhayfah was called The Keeper of the Secret of the Messenger of Allah, remaining faithful to his pledge of secrecy.


After Muhammed's death, the Khalifah often sought his advice concerning their activities but he remained tight-lipped. Umar was only able to find out indirectly who the hypocrites were by monitoring Hudhafah’s attendance at the funeral prayer following the death of a Muslim. If Hudhayfah did not attend Umar refrained from performing the funeral prayer for that person. Once Umar asked Hudhayfah if any of his governors was a munafiq. Hudhayfah told him that one was but declined to inform whom. Hudhayfah later said that shortly after their conversation Umar dismissed the person as if he had been guided to him - and this person was not Mu'awiyah, whom Umar appointed and was generally pleased with as governor of Sham.



- al-Hasan, grandson of Muhammed, was predicted to be one who would cause peace and unity between 'two great factions of Muslims' - namely Ali and the Companions behind him, and Mu'awiyah and the Companions behind him. Here the faith and integrity of Mu'awiyah is confirmed by Muhammed himself, and further by Hasan ceding power to him.


- Muhammed stated , "The first Army that will fight a naval battle from my nation will have made Paradise incumbent upon themselves". This is related in the Sahih of Bukhari.


It is universally known that the first naval expedition in Islamic history was lead by Mu'awiyah.


Sunni scholarship thus establishes no man who ordered the cursing of 'Ali, beloved of Muhammed, could ever have been held in such esteem by Muhammed, nor have power ceded to him by his grandson, nor supported by a great many Companions, not least of which was 'Mother of the Believers', A'ishah, wife of Muhammed.


References

  1. ^ Sahih Muslim 31:5924
  2. ^ Sahih Muslim 31:5915
  3. ^ Baladhuri, AnsabII, 184-5 and ; Ibn Asakir, 'Ali, III, 98-9

Sahih Muslim is a collection of sayings and deeds of Prophet Muhammad (also known as the sunnah). ... Sahih Muslim is a collection of sayings and deeds of Prophet Muhammad (also known as the sunnah). ... Ahmad Ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri, Ahmad Bin Yahya Bin Jabir Al Biladuri. ...

External links

http://www.ansar.org/english/faq11.htm


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m