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Encyclopedia > Umayyad conquest of North Africa
Umayyad conquest of North Africa
Part of the Muslim conquests and the Byzantine-Arab Wars
Date 647-709
Location Egypt, North Africa
Result Muslim victory
Territorial
changes
North Africa annexed by Muslims
Combatants
Byzantine Empire Umayyad Caliphate
Byzantine-Arab Wars
Mu'tahTaboukDathinAjnadaynYarmoukNikiou1st Siege of ConstantinopleSyllaeum – That Al-Sawari – CarthageConstantinople

The Umayyad conquest of North Africa continued the century of rapid Arab Muslim expansion following the death of Mohammed in 632 CE. By 640 the Arabs controlled Mesopotamia, had invaded Armenia, and were concluding their conquest of Byzantine Syria. Damascus was the seat of the caliphate. And by the end of 641 all of Egypt was in Arab hands. Then, with the destruction of the Persian army at the battle of Nahavand (Nehawand) in 642, the conquest of the Persian Empire was essentially finished. The Muslim conquests represent a century of rapid Arab and Islamic expansion that took place from the death of Mohammed in 632 to the Battle of Tours in 732, during which time a vast Muslim empire and area of influence would come to stretch from India, across the Middle East... Combatants Byzantine Empire[1], Arab Ghassanids, Bulgarian Empire (later) Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) The Byzantine-Arab Wars was a long drawn-out war between the Byzantine Empire and the emerging Arab Empire. ... Events The Cheomseongdae astronomical observatory is constructed in Silla around this time. ... Events Saelred becomes king of Essex Ceolred becomes king of Mercia after his cousin Cenred abdicates to become a monk in Rome A storm separates the Channel Islands of Jethou and Herm Births Emperor Konin of Japan Deaths May 25 - Aldhelm, bishop and scholar Categories: 709 ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Caliph is the title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire[1], Arab Ghassanids, Bulgarian Empire (later) Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) The Byzantine-Arab Wars was a long drawn-out war between the Byzantine Empire and the emerging Arab Empire. ... Combatants Muslims Byzantine (Roman) Empire[1] and Ghassanids Commanders Zayd ibn Harithah Jafar ibn Abu Talib Abdullah ibn Rawahah[2] Khalid ibn al-Walid Theodorus Strength 3,000 [2] Unknown but in many reliable sources the count was(100,000sassinad-100,000easteren roman) Casualties Unknown Unknown The Battle of... According to the ,Ar-raheeq Al-makhtum( the sealed nectar) the prize winning Biography of the noble prophet Mohammad (peace be upon him), the battle of Tabouk in the 9th year of the Muslim calendar (which started when Mohammad peace be upon him , migrated from Makkah to Madinah). ... Battle of Dathin was a minor battle between the Muslims and the Byzantines in February of 634. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Arabs Commanders Theodorus Khalid ibn al-Walid, Shurahbil, Yazid, Amr Ibn al As Strength About 10,000 15-18,000 Casualties Heavy, more so than the Arabs Heavy, less than the Byzantines The Battle of Ajnadayn, fought on July 30, 634, was the first major pitched battle... Combatants Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs Commanders Theodore the Sacellarius Baänes Khalid ibn Walid Strength About 70, 000 About 45,000 Casualties Heavy 3000 The Battle of Yarmouk (also spelled Yarmuk, Yarmuq or Hieromyax) took place between the Muslim Arabs and the Byzantine Empire in 636. ... Battle between Arab Muslim troops under Amr ibn al-Aas, and Byzantine troops, in Egypt, in the Spring of 646. ... Combatants Roman (Byzantine) Empire Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Constantine IV Muawiyah I Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown The First Arab Siege of Constantinople in 674 was a major conflict of the Byzantine-Arab Wars, and only the second time Constantinoples defences were tested. ... The Battle of Syllaeum was a naval battle between the Arabs and the Byzantine Empire in 677, in coordination with a series of land battles in Anatolia and Syria. ... Battle of That Al-Sawari was a naval battle between the Muslims and the Byzantines in 34 AH [1]. References ^ http://www. ... Combatants Umayyad Caliphate Byzantine Empire Commanders Hassan bin al-Numan Ioannes the Patrician and Tiberius Apsimar Strength 40,000 Unknown Casualties Unknown total loss of a territory The Battle of Carthage was fought in 698 between the Byzantine Exarchate of Africa, and the armies of the Umayyad Caliphate. ... Combatants Umayyad Caliphate Roman (Byzantine) Empire, First Bulgarian Empire Commanders Maslama, Admiral Suleiman Leo III and Khan Tervel Strength Approximately 200,000 men, 1,800 ships 30,000 Byzantines, 50,000 Bulgarians Casualties Extremely high, estimates are 130,000-170,000 men, almost 1,795 ships Unknown The Second Arab... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب) are a heterogeneous ethnic group who are predominantly speakers of the Arabic language, mainly found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Turkish: Müslüman, Persian and Urdu: مسلمان, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of Islam. ... For other people named Muhammad, see Muhammad (disambiguation). ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... Events May 28 - Severinus becomes pope, but dies the same year. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Damascus at sunset Damascus ( translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ... The Caliphate (Arabic خلافة Khilafah) is an Islamic federal government which represents political leadership and unity of the Muslim world (Ummah) applying Islamic law (Shariah). ... Events Founding of the city of Fostat, later Cairo, in Egypt. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Nahavand (also spelled Nahawand in some texts) is a town in Hamadan Province in Iran. ... Events August 5 - In the Battle of Maserfield, Penda king of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald, king of Bernicia. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau (Irān - Land of the Aryans[1]) and beyond. ...


It was at this point that Arab military expeditions into North Africa were first launched by local initiative from Egypt, continuing for years and resulting in the spread of Islam.  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent. ...


In 644 at Damascus, Caliph Umar (Omar) was succeeded by Uthman ibn Affan (Othman), during whose twelve-year rule Armenia, Cyprus, and all of Iran, would be added to the growing Islamic empire; Afghanistan and North Africa would receive major invasions; and Muslim sea raids would range from Rhodes to the southern coasts of the Iberian Peninsula. The Byzantine navy would be defeated in the eastern Mediterranean. Events Births Deaths Paulinus of York, bishop of Northumbria November: Omar, Second caliph of Islam by assassination. ... `Umar ibn al-Khattāb (in Arabic, عمر بن الخطاب) (c. ... Leave this page if youre under 18!! - Page contains huge lies and hardly has any facts > it will surely misguide you! Uthman ibn Affan (Arabic: عثمان بن عفان) (c. ... Location map of Rhodes Rhodes, (Greek: Ρόδος (pron. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...

Contents

First invasion

The first incursion into North Africa ordered by the caliph was launched in 647. Marching from Medina, Arabia, 20,000 Arabs were joined in Memphis, Egypt, by another 20,000 and led into the Byzantine Exarchate of Africa by Abdallah ibn al-Sa’ad. Tripolitania in what is modern Libya was taken, followed by Sufetula, a city 150 miles south of Carthage. The campaign lasted fifteen months, with Abdallah's booty-laden force returning to Egypt in 648. Events The Cheomseongdae astronomical observatory is constructed in Silla around this time. ... Medina (Arabic: ‎ IPA: or المدينة IPA: ; also transliterated into English as Madinah) is a city in the Hejaz region of western Saudi Arabia. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Memphis, coordiates , , was the ancient capital of the first nome of Lower Egypt, and of the Old Kingdom of Egypt from its foundation until around 1300 BC. Its Ancient Egyptian name was Ineb Hedj (The White Walls). The name Memphis is the Greek deformation of the Egyptian name of Pepi... // Introduction Exarch is from the Latin; Exarchus, Greek; Exarchon; Meaning Leader, from the word exarchein to lead, to begin, to rule. ... Abdullah ibn al-Saad was the foster brother of Uthman and his father, Saad bin Abi Sarh, was one of the munafiqeen in Medina. ... Tripolitania is a historic region of western Libya, centered around the coastal city of Tripoli. ... Sbeitla is a small town in north-central Tunisia. ... Ruins of Roman-era Carthage The term Carthage (Greek: , Arabic: قرطاج also قرطاجة, Latin: Carthago) refers both to an ancient city in North Africa located in modern day Tunis and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Events Pope Theodore I excommunicates patriarch Paul II of Constantinople Births Emperor Kobun of Japan Categories: 648 ...


All Muslim conquests were soon interrupted, however, by a civil war between rival Arab factions that resulted in the murder of Caliph Uthman in 656. He was replaced by rival Ali Ibn Abi Talib, who in turn was murdered in 661. The Umayyad (Omayyad) Dynasty of largely secular and hereditary Arab caliphs then established itself at Damascus and Caliph Muawiya I began consolidating the empire from the Aral Sea to the western border of Egypt. He put a governor in place in Egypt at al-Fustat, creating a subordinate seat of power that would continue for the next two centuries. He then launched more efforts outward, attacking Sicily and Anatolia (Turkey) in 663. In 664 Kabul, Afghanistan, fell to the invading Muslims. Events Ali succeeds Uthman as Caliph Battle of Basrah (also known as Battle of the Camel) Oswiu of Northumbria annexes Mercia Births Deaths Uthman ibn Affan, Caliph (murdered) Peada, king of Mercia (murdered) Categories: 656 ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Events Caliph Ali Ben Abu Talib is assassinated. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the... Muawiyah I (602 - May 6, 680), early Muslim leader and founder of the great Umayyad Dynasty of caliphs. ... Map of area around the Aral Sea. ... Nickname: Al Qahirah (The Triumphant City) Cairos location in Egypt Coordinates: Governor Dr. Abdul Azim Wazir Area    - City 210 km²  - Metro 1,492 km² Population (2005)  - City 7,438,376  - Density 35,420/km²  - Urban 10,834,495  - Metro 15,200,000 Time zone EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian, Sicilian and Spanish, Σικελία in Greek) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 km² and 5 million inhabitants. ... Anatolia lies east of the Bosphorus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Anatolia is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... // Events Byzantine emperor Constans II invades south Italy (Part of) the city wall of Benevento is reconstructed The movement to restore Baekje is defeated by Silla and Tang Battle of Hakusukinoe An annonymous monk reaches the summit of mount Fuji Environmental change A brief outbreak of plague hits Britain Births... Events September, Synod of Whitby Births Deaths Xuanzang, famous Chinese Buddhist monk. ... Kabul, Kâbl (locally: کابل), is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan with a population of approximately 3 million people. ...


Second invasion

Then from 665 to 689 a new North African campaign was carried out. Events Swithelm succeeded by Sighere and Sebbi as king(s) of Essex Seongnam renamed Hansanju. ... Events Battle of Coronate: The army of Cunincpert, king of the Lombards, defeat the followers of the usurper Alahis on the Adda River. ...


It began, according to Will Durant, to protect Egypt "from flank attack by Byzantine Cyrene." So "an army of 40,000 Moslems advanced through the desert to Barca, took it, and marched to the neighborhood of Carthage." An army of 30,000 Byzantine Greeks was defeated in the process. William Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885–November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher, historian, and writer. ... Barca (Barqa) was a Byzantine province and city in medieval North Africa, occupying the coastal area of what is modern Libya. ...


Next came a force of 10,000 Arabs led by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi and enlarged by thousands of others. Departing from Damascus, the army marched into North Africa and took the vanguard. In 670 the city of Kairouan (roughly eighty miles or 160 kilometers south of modern Tunis) was established as a refuge and base for further operations. This would become the capital of the Islamic province of Ifriqiya, which would cover the coastal regions of what are today western Libya, Tunisia, and eastern Algeria. Uqba ibn Nafi (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) (also referred to as Uqba bin Nafe, Uqba Ibn al Nafia, or Akbah) (622–683) was an Arab general under the Umayyad dynasty, who began the Islamic conquest of the Maghreb, including present-day western Algeria and Morocco in North Africa. ... Events On the death of his brother Clotaire, Childeric II becomes king of all of the Frankish kingdoms -- Austrasia, Neustria and Burgundy. ... Mosque of Oqba Kairouan (Arabic القيروان) (variations include Kairwan, Kayrawan, Al Qayrawan) is a city in Tunisia, about 160 kilometres south of Tunis. ... In medieval history, Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah (Arabic: إفريقية) was the area comprising the coastal regions of what are today western Libya, Tunisia, and eastern Algeria. ...


After this, as Edward Gibbon writes, the fearless general "plunged into the heart of the country, traversed the wilderness in which his successors erected the splendid capitals of Fes and Morocco, and at length penetrated to the verge of the Atlantic and the great desert." In his conquest of the Maghreb (western North Africa) he took the coastal city of Bugia as well as Tingi or Tangier, overwhelming what had once been the Roman province of Mauretania Tingitana. Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... Bab Bou Jeloud, gate to the Old Medina of Fes Leather dyeing vats in Fes For specific travel tips, see the entry on Fez at http://wikitravel. ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... Satellite image The Sahara is the worlds largest hot desert, and second largest desert after Antarctica at over 9,000,000 km² (3,500,000 mi²), almost as large as the United States. ... The Algerian bay (view from the west). ... Bugia is either: A western (e. ... Tangier, Morocco Tangier (Tanja طنچة in Berber and Arabic, Tánger in Spanish, and Tanger in French), is a city of northern Morocco with a population of 669,685 (2004 census). ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... In the first century A.D., the Emperor Claudius divided the Roman province of Mauretania into Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Tingitana. ...


But here he was stopped and partially repulsed. Luis Garcia de Valdeavellano writes:

In their struggle against the Byzantines and the Berbers, the Arab chieftains had greatly extended their African dominions, and as early as the year 682 Uqba had reached the shores of the Atlantic, but he was unable to occupy Tangier, for he was forced to turn back toward the Atlas Mountains

by a man who became known to history and legend as Count Julian. With the rise of Roderic to the throne of the Visigoths in Hispania, and with the death in 710 CE of the previous king, Wittiza, the relatives and partisans of the latter fled to Ceuta (Septa), the Pillar of Hercules in North Africa on the northern shore of the Maghreb. ...


Moreover, as Gibbon writes, Uqba, "this Mahometan Alexander, who sighed for new worlds, was unable to preserve his recent conquests. By the universal defection of the Greeks and Africans he was recalled from the shores of the Atlantic." His forces were directed at putting down rebellion. In one such battle he was surrounded by insurgents and killed.


Then, adds Gibbon, "The third general or governor of Africa, Zuheir, avenged and encountered the fate of his predecessor. He vanquished the natives in many battles; he was overthrown by a powerful army, which Constantinople had sent to the relief of Carthage." Map of Constantinople. ...


Meanwhile, a new civil war among rivals of the monarchy was raging in Arabia and Syria. It resulted in a series of four caliphs between the death of Muawiya in 680 and the ascension of Abd-al-Malik (Abdalmalek) in 685 and didn't end until 692 with the death of the rebel leader. Events Umayyad caliph Marwan I (684-685) succeeded by Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685-705) Justinian II succeeds Constantine IV as emperor of the Byzantine Empire Sussex attacks Kent, supporting Eadrics claim to the throne held by Hlothhere Pope Benedict II succeeded by Pope John V Cuthbert consecrated... Events The Quinisext Council (also said in Trullo), held in Constantinople, laid the foundation for the Orthodox Canon Law The Arabs conquer Armenia. ...


Third invasion

This development brought about a return of domestic order that allowed the caliph to resume the conquest of North Africa. It began with the retaking of Ifrikquiya. Gibbon writes:

the standard was delivered to Hassan governor of Egypt, and the revenue of that kingdom, with an army of forty thousand men, was consecrated to the important service. In the vicissitudes of war, the interior provinces had been alternately won and lost by the Saracens. But the seacoast still remained in the hands of the Greeks; the predecessors of Hassan had respected the name and fortifications of Carthage; and the number of its defenders was recruited by the fugitives of Cabes and Tripoli. The arms of Hassan were bolder and more fortunate: he reduced and pillaged the metropolis of Africa; and the mention of scaling-ladders may justify the suspicion, that he anticipated, by a sudden assault, the more tedious operations of a regular siege.

But the Byzantine Empire responded with troops from Constantinople, joined by soldiers and ships from Sicily and a powerful contingent of Visigoths from Spain. This forced the Arab army to retreat to Kairouan. Then, writes Gibbon, "the Christians landed; the citizens hailed the ensign of the cross, and the winter was idly wasted in the dream of victory or deliverance". Hassan is a city and district in the Indian state of Karnataka. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... Migrations The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ...


The following spring, however, the Arabs launched an assault by sea and land, forcing the Byzantines and their allies to evacuate Carthage. The city was burned to the ground, leaving the area desolate for the next two centuries. Another battle was fought near Utica and the Arabs were again victorious, forcing the Byzantine forces to leave that part of North Africa for good. Utica was a Phoenician colony, on the African coast, near Carthage. ...


This was followed by a Berber rebellion against the new Arab overlords. Gibbon writes:

Under the standard of their queen Cahina, the independent tribes acquired some degree of union and discipline; and as the Moors respected in their females the character of a prophetess, they attacked the invaders with an enthusiasm similar to their own. The veteran bands of Hassan were inadequate to the defence of Africa: the conquests of an age were lost in a single day; and the Arabian chief, overwhelmed by the torrent, retired to the confines of Egypt.

Five years passed before Hassan received fresh troops from the caliph. Meanwhile the people of North Africa's cities chafed under a Berber reign of destruction. Thus Hassan was welcomed upon his return. Gibbon writes that "the friends of civil society conspired against the savages of the land; and the royal prophetess was slain in the first battle."


By 698 the Arabs had taken most of North Africa, one of the heartlands of western Christianity, and home of the most influential of Christian philosophers, St Augustine. The area was divided into three provinces: Egypt with its governor at al-Fustat, Ifrikquiya with its governor at Kairouan, and the Maghreb (modern Morocco and Mauritania) with its governor at Fes. Events Tiberius III deposes Leontius and becomes Byzantine Emperor. ... The Algerian bay (view from the west). ... Bab Bou Jeloud, gate to the Old Medina of Fes Leather dyeing vats in Fes For specific travel tips, see the entry on Fez at http://wikitravel. ...


Musa bin Nusair, a successful Yemeni general in the campaign, was made governor of Ifrikquiya and given the responsibility of putting down a renewed Berber rebellion and spreading the message of Islam. Musa and his two sons prevailed, netting 300,000 captives. The caliph's portion was 60,000 of them. These were sold into slavery, the proceeds from their sale going into the public treasury. Another 30,000 captives were pressed into military service. Musa bin Nusair (640—716) was a Yemeni Muslim governor and general under the Umayyads. ...


Musa also had to deal with constant harassment from the Byzantine navy. So he built a navy of his own which went on to conquer the islands of Ibiza, Majorca, and Minorca. Advancing into the Maghreb, his forces took Algiers in 700. Flag of Eivissa (Ibiza) Eivissa or Ibiza is one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea (), belonging to Spain. ... Majorca (Mallorca in Catalan and Spanish, sometimes also encountered in English),: from Latin insula maior, later Maiorica, (major island) is one of the Balearic Islands (Catalan: Illes Balears, Spanish: Islas Baleares), which are located in the Mediterranean Sea and are a part of Spain. ... Flag of Minorca This is a taula from the site of Talatì de Dalt about 4km west of Maó Minorca (Menorca both in Catalan and Spanish and increasingly in English usage; from Latin Balearis Minor, later Minorica minor island) is one of the Balearic Islands (Illes Balears Catalan official name... Nickname: al-Bahjah Location of Algiers within Algeria Algiers 944 A.D. Area    - City 273 km² Population    - City (2003) around 2. ... // Events Saint Adamnan convinces 51 kings to adopt Cáin Adomnáin defining the relationship between women and priests. ...


Completion of the conquest

By 709 all of North Africa was under the control of the Arab caliphate. The only possible exception was Ceuta at the African Pillar of Hercules. Gibbon declares: "In that age, as well as in the present, the kings of Spain were possessed of the fortress of Ceuta [...] Musa, in the pride of victory, was repulsed from the walls of Ceuta, by the vigilance and courage of Count Julian, the general of the Goths." Events Saelred becomes king of Essex Ceolred becomes king of Mercia after his cousin Cenred abdicates to become a monk in Rome A storm separates the Channel Islands of Jethou and Herm Births Emperor Konin of Japan Deaths May 25 - Aldhelm, bishop and scholar Categories: 709 ... Area  â€“ Total   28 km² Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ Density  75,276  2688. ... The Pillars of Hercules Monument at Jews Gate, Gibraltar The Pillars of Hercules is the ancient name given to the promontories that flank the entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar. ...


Other sources, however, maintain that Ceuta represented the last Byzantine outpost in Africa and that Julian, who the Arabs called Ilyan, was an exarch or Byzantine governor. Valdeavellano offers another possibility, that "as appears more likely, he may have been a Berber who was the lord and master of the Catholic tribe of Gomera." In any case, being an able diplomat who was adept in Visigothic, Berber, and Arab politics, Julian might well have surrendered to Musa on terms that allowed him to retain his title and command. This page is about negotiations; for the board game, see Diplomacy (game). ...


At this time the population of Ceuta included many refugees from a Visigothic civil war that had broken out in Hispania (modern Portugal and Spain). These included family and confederates of the late King Wittiza, Arian Christians fleeing forced conversions at the hands of the Visigothic Catholic church, and persecuted Jews. Perhaps it was they, through Count Julian, who appealed to the North African Muslims for help in overthrowing Roderic, the new king of the Visigoths. Roman theater at Mérida; the statues are replicas Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra and Gibraltar) and to two provinces created there in the period of the Roman Republic: Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior. ... Wittiza (Witiza) was son of Ergica, king of the Visigoths in Hispania, and ruled jointly with him from 693 to 701 CE. In the latter year Ergica died and Wittiza became sole ruler. ... Arian may refer to one of the following. ... Roderic (Roderick; Rodrigo in Spanish and Portuguese, see Rurik for etymology. ...


As Gibbon puts it, Musa received an unexpected message from Julian, "who offered his place, his person, and his sword" to the Muslim leader in exchange for help in the civil war. Though Julian's "estates were ample, his followers bold and numerous," he "had little to hope and much to fear from the new reign." And he was too feeble to challenge Roderic directly. So he sought Musa's aid.


For Musa, Julian, "by his Andalusian and Mauritanian commands, ... held in his hands the keys of the Spanish monarchy." And so Musa ordered some initial raids on the southern coast of the Iberian Peninsula in 710. In the spring of that same year Tariq ibn Ziyad—a Berber, a freed slave, and a Muslim general—took Tangier. Musa thereupon made him governor there, backed by an army of 1,700. For the Figure of speech, see Ellipsis (figure of speech). ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... // Events End of the Asuka period, the second and last part of the Yamato period and beginning of the Nara period in Japan. ... Tariq ibn Ziyad (d. ...


The next year, 711, Musa directed Tariq to invade Hispania. Disembarking from Ceuta aboard ships provided by Julian, Tariq plunged into the Iberian Peninsula, defeated Roderic, and went on to take the Visigothic capital of Toledo. He and his allies also took Córdoba, Ecija, Granada, Málaga, Seville, and other cities. By this process, Tariq was conquering Iberia for Islam rather than taking sides in a Visigothic civil war. And in so doing he established beyond all doubt that Ceuta, the last Christian stronghold in North Africa, was now part of the Arab empire. By this means the Umayyad conquest of Hispania brought to a close the Islamic conquest of North Africa. See also: phone number 711. ... [[ Image:Toledo, Spain Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain, about 70 kilometers south of Madrid. ... Location Coordinates : 37° 53’N , 4°46′0″W Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... Écija is a city belonging to the province of Seville, Spain. ... Granada – Greek: (Steph. ... Location of Málaga Municipality Málaga Mayor Francisco de la Torre Prados Area    - City 385,50 km²  - Land 385,50 km²  - Water 0. ... NO8DO (I was not abandoned) Location Coordinates : ( ) Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Sevilla (Spanish) Spanish name Sevilla Founded 8th-9th century BC Postal code 41001-41080 Website http://www. ... The Umayyad conquest of Hispania (711–718) commenced when an army of the Umayyad Caliphate consisting largely of Moors, the Muslim inhabitants of North and West Africa, invaded Visigothic Christian Hispania (Portugal and Spain) in the year 711 CE. Under the authority of the Umayyad caliph at Damascus, and led...


See also

Combatants Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire[1], Arab Ghassanids, Bulgarian Empire (later) Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) The Byzantine-Arab Wars was a long drawn-out war between the Byzantine Empire and the emerging Arab Empire. ... The Islamic conquest and domination of Sicily (as well as parts of southern Italy) is a process whose origin must be traced back in the general expansion of Islam from the 7th century onwards (see History of Islamic conquests for more details). ...

References

  • Will Durant, The History of Civilization: Part IV—The Age of Faith. 1950. New York: Simon and Schuster.
  • Edward Gibbon, History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, Chapter 51.
  • Charles Scott Kimball, A History of Europe. 2001. And A History of Africa. 2004. Published online at http://xenohistorian.faithweb.com/.
  • James Trager, editor, The People's Chronology. 1979. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. ISBN 0-03-017811-8
  • Luis Garcia de Valdeavellano, Historia de España. 1968. Madrid: Alianza. Quotes as translated from the Spanish by Helen R. Lane in Count Julian by Juan Goytisolo. 1974. New York: The Viking Press, Inc. ISBN 670-24407-4

Juan Goytisolo is a Spanish poet and novelist. ...

External links

  • A Brief History of al-Andalus
  • A Taste of Maghribi History

 
 

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