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Encyclopedia > Umayyad Mosque
The Umayyad Mosque in the center of Damascus by night
The Umayyad Mosque in the center of Damascus by night
St John's Shrine inside the Mosque
St John's Shrine inside the Mosque
The courtyard of the Mosque with the ancient Treasury (Beit al Mal)
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The courtyard of the Mosque with the ancient Treasury (Beit al Mal)

The Grand Mosque of Damascus, also known as the Umayyad Mosque (Arabic: جامع بني أمية الكبير, transl. Ğām' Banī 'Umīh al-Kabīr), is one of the largest and oldest mosques in the world. Located in the old city of Damascus, it is of great architectural importance. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2048, 3872 KB) Summary Umayyad Mosque, Damascus, Syria, 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3072x2048, 3872 KB) Summary Umayyad Mosque, Damascus, Syria, 2006. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 1230 KB) Summary St Johns Chapel inside the Ummayad mosque February 2005 M. Disdero Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Umayyad Mosque ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 1230 KB) Summary St Johns Chapel inside the Ummayad mosque February 2005 M. Disdero Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Umayyad Mosque ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 557 KB) en: Damascus, Syria - Umayyad Mosque: mosaic covered Dome of the Treasury. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 557 KB) en: Damascus, Syria - Umayyad Mosque: mosaic covered Dome of the Treasury. ... Omayyad Mosque in Damascus . ... Omayyad Mosque in Damascus . ... The Arabic language ( ), or simply Arabic ( ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew, Amharic and Aramaic. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals: A desire to stay consistent with traditional usage... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Damascus at sunset Damascus ( translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ...


The mosque holds a shrine which is said to contain the head of John the Baptist, honoured as a prophet by both Christians and Muslims. The head was supposedly found during the excavations for the building of the mosque. The tomb of Saladin stands in a small garden adjoining the north wall of the mosque. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (650x960, 395 KB) The dastardly British took the head of St John T Baptist back to their hameland, hoping that the world would now live in peace, for ever and ever. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... In religion, a prophet is a person who has directly encountered God, of whose intentions he can then speak. ... Artistic representation of Saladin (1137 - March 4, 1193), Kurdish: Selahedîn Ayûbî; ; Saladin or Salah al-Din (Arabic: صلاح الدين الأيوبي, Kurdish: صلاح الدین ایوبی) was a twelfth century Kurdish Muslim warrior from Tikrit, in present day northern Iraq. ...


In 2001 Pope John Paul II visited the mosque, primarily to visit the relics of John the Baptist. It was the first time a pope paid a visit to a mosque. 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Official papal image of John Paul II. His Holiness Pope John Paul II, né Karol Józef Wojtyła (born May 18, 1920 in Wadowice, Poland), is the current Pope — the Bishop of Rome and head of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


In an article titled “Syria: Crossroads of the Levant”, featured on Syria’s Ministry of Tourism website [1], Richard Moore reports that “the highlight to the Old City was the Umayyad Mosque, which after Mecca and Medina, is possibly the world's third most important mosque”. [1]


The mosque is located at 33 30'41"N 36 18'24"E.


History

The spot where the mosque now stands was a temple of Hadad in the Aramaean era. The Aramaean presence was attested by the discovery of a basalt orthostat depicting a sphinx, excavated in the north-east corner of mosque. The site was later temple of Jupiter in the Roman era, then a Christian church dedicated to John the Baptist in the Byzantine era. Haddad - בעל הדד - حداد (in Ugaritic Haddu) was a very important northwest Semitic storm god and rain god, cognate in name and origin with the Akkadian god Adad. ... The Arameans or Aramaeans (also called Syriacs) were a Semitic, nomadic people who dwelt in Aram-Naharaim or Aram of the two rivers, also known as Mesopotamia a region including modern Syria, Iraq, Jordan, Iran that is mentioned six times in the Hebrew Bible. ... Basalt Columnar basalt at Sheepeater Cliff in Yellowstone Basalt (IPA: ) is a common gray to black volcanic rock. ... An orthostat is a large stone set upright. ... The Great Sphinx of Giza, with the Pyramid of Khafre in the background For other uses, see Sphinx (disambiguation). ... Adjective Jovian Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 70 kPa Hydrogen ~86% Helium ~14% Methane 0. ... A Christian is a follower of Jesus of Nazareth, referred to as the Christ. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... What Up. ...


Initially, the Muslim conquest of Damascus in 636 did not affect the church, as the building was shared by Muslim and Christian worshippers. It remained a church although the Muslims built a mud brick structure against the southern wall so that they could pray. Under the Umayyad caliph Al-Walid I, however, the church was demolished and between 706 and 715 the current mosque built in its place; an indemnity was paid to the Christians in compensation. According to the legend, Al-Walid himself initiated the demolition by driving a golden spike into the church. At that point in time, Damascus was one of the most important cities in the Middle East and would later become the capital of the Umayyad caliphate. Events April 20 - Battle of Yarmuk - Byzantine Empire loses Syria to the Arabs The Arabs invade Persia Rothari marries queen Gundeparga, becomes king of the Lombards city of Basra Iraq founded by caliph Omar on a canal. ... Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (Arabic: ) or Al-Walid I (668 - 715) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 705 - 715. ... Events Umayyad Caliph al-Walid I begins the Great Mosque of Damascus Births Deaths Categories: 706 ... Events August 11 - Germanus is translated from the bishopric of Cyzicus to the Patriarch of Constantinople Umayyad caliph al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik succeeded by Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik End of the reign of Empress Gemmei of Japan, she is succeeded by Empress Gensho. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


Construction and Architecture

Construction of the mosque was based on the house of the Prophet in Medina, which had many functions: it was a place for personal and collective prayer, religious education, political meetings, administration of justice and relief of the sick and homeless. The caliph asked and obtained from the Emperor of the Byzantine Empire 200 skilled workers to decorate the mosque, as evidenced by the partly Byzantine style of the building. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... What Up. ...


The new mosque was the most impressive in the Islamic world at the time, and the interior walls were covered with fine mosaics, considered to depict paradise, or possibly the Ghouta which tradition holds so impressed the prophet Muhammad that he declined to enter it, preferring to taste paradise in the afterlife. The building was considered one of the marvels of the world, because it was one of the largest of its time. The exterior walls were based on the walls of the temple of Jupiter and measure 100 by 157,5 m. This article is becoming very long. ...


The prayer hall consists of three aisles, supported by column of the Corinthian order. It was the first mosque to have such a shape and this way, the visitors could see the mihrab, the alcove indicating the direction of Mecca (the qibla), and each other more easily. For other meanings of the term, see column (disambiguation). ... The Corinthian order as used for the portico of the Pantheon, Rome provided a prominent model for Renaissance and later architects, through the medium of engravings. ... Mihrab (in Persian مهراب or محراب, in Arabic ألمحراب pl. ... Mecca IPA: or Makkah IPA: (in full: Makkah al-Mukarramah; Arabic: ‎, Turkish: Mekke) is the capital city of Saudi Arabias Makkah province, in the historic Hejaz region. ... Facing the Qibla at a prayer in Damascus The geometrical calculation of Qibla Qibla () is an Arabic word for the direction that should be faced when a Muslim prays. ...


The interior of the mosque is reminiscent of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. It contains a large number of mosaics and geometric patterns. It is thought that the mosque used to have the largest golden mosaic in the world, at over 4.000 m². In 1893 a fire damaged the mosque extensively and many mosaics were lost, although some have been restored since. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Panoramic view from Mt. ... 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


References


  Results from FactBites:
 
Umayyad - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1308 words)
The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads.
The Umayyad clan had bitter rivalry with the Hashim clan (from which came the Abbasid clan), especially as Abu Sufian was the most determined and bitterest enemy of Muhammad, and sought to exterminate the adherents of the new religion, by waging a series of battles.
This established the Umayyad dynasty, and the capital of the caliphate was moved to Damascus.
Umayyad Mosque - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (628 words)
The Aramaean presence was attested by the discovery of a basalt orthostat depicting a sphinx, excavated in the north-east corner of mosque.
The new mosque was the most impressive in the Islamic world at the time, and the interior walls were covered with fine mosaics, considered to depict paradise, or possibly the Ghouta which tradition holds so impressed Muhammad that he declined to enter it, preferring to taste paradise in the afterlife.
The interior of the mosque is reminiscent of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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