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Encyclopedia > Umayyad
بنو أمية
Umayyad Caliphate

660 – 750

Flag of Umayyad The Islamic Empire (بلاد الإسلامية ) or Rashidun Empire or Rashidun Caliphate ( خلافت راشدہ) is the term conventionally used to describe the Empire controlled by the first four successors of Muhammad (the Rightly Guided caliphs). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Afghanistan_pre-1901. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Afghanistan_pre-1901. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ...


Flag

Umayyad Empire at its greatest extent
Capital Damascus
Capital-in-exile Córdoba
Language(s) Arabic
Religion Islam
Government Monarchy
History
 - Established 660
 - Disestablished 750
History of the Arab States

The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic,بنو أمية ) (Banu Umayyah), whose name derives from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of the first Umayyad caliph, was the first dynasty of the Muslim Caliphate, 660750. The Umayyad Arab Caliphate is historically the sixth largest empire, the third largest contiguous empire and the third largest empire by percentage of world population (29.5%). Damascus was the capital. Image File history File links Age_of_Caliphs. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Location Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Córdoba (Spanish) Spanish name Córdoba Founded 8th century BC Postal code 140xx Website http://www. ... Arabic redirects here. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... The Arab Caliphate could refer to: The Umayyad Caliphate The Abbasid Caliphate Category: ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to certain of the Caliphs. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... Mashriq or Mashreq is the region of Arabic-speaking countries to the east of Egypt. ... BCE redirects here. ... The Tulunids were the first independent dynasty in Islamic Egypt (868-905). ... The Hamdanid dynasty was a Muslim Arab dynasty of northern Iraq (Al-Jazirah) and Syria (890-1004). ... The Ikhshidid dynasty of Egypt (sometimes transliterated other ways) ruled Egypt from 935 to 969. ... The Uqaylids (or Uqaylids) were a Muslim dynasty in what today is Iraq and Syria. ... The Zengid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Seljuk Turkish origin, which ruled parts of Northern Iraq and Syria during the 12th and 13th centuries. ... The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish[1] origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for the Northern Mountains), Diyar Bakr, Mecca, Hejaz and northern Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Sultante المماليك البحرية was a Mamluk dynasty that ruled Egypt from 1250 to 1382 when they were succeeded by the Burji dynasty, another group of Mamluks. ... The Burji dynasty ruled Egypt from 1382 until 1517. ... This article is about the region. ... The Saadi Dynasty of Saadi Empire began with the reign of Sultan Mohammed I in 1554, and ended in 1659 with the end of the reign of Sultan Ahmad II. The Saadi family claimed descent from the Islamic prophet Muhammad, through the line of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatima... The Muhallabids were a dynasty of governers in Ifriqiya under the Abbasid Caliphate (771-793) Although subject to the Abbasids, they enjoyed a great deal of autonomy and were able to maintain Arab rule in the face of revolts by the Berbers. ... The Rustamid (or Rustumid, Rostemid) dynasty of Ibadi Kharijite imams ruled the central Maghreb for a century and a half from their capital Tahert, until destroyed by the Fatimids. ... The Idrisids were the first Arab dynasty in the western Maghreb, ruling from 788 to 985, and can be thought of as the originators of an independent Morocco. ... An Aghlabid cistern in Kairuan The Aghlabid dynasty of emirs, members of the Arab tribe of Bani Tamim, ruled Ifriqiya (northern Africa), nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids. ... Almoravid Dynasty in its Greatest Extent The Almoravids (In Arabic المرابطون al-Murabitun, sing. ... Capital Marrakech , Seville Language(s) Classical Arabic (predominant), Berber languages , Mozarabic language, Medieval Hebrew, African Romance Religion Sunni Islam (predominant), Roman Catholic, Judaism, Ibadi, Sufism Government Monarchy Caliph  - 1121-1130 Ibn Tumart  - 1266–1269 Idris II History  - Established 1121  - Disestablished 1269 Area 1,621,393. ... Hafsid dynasty in Ifriqiya (1229-1574) Significant Rulers: Abu Zakariyya Yahya I. (1229-1249) Muhammad I. al-Mustansir (1249-1277) Yahya II. al-Watiq (1277-1279) Ibrahim I. (1279-1283) Ibn Abi Umara (1283-1284) Abu Hafs Umar I. (1284-1295) Abu Bakr II. (1318-1346) Ishaq II. (1350-1369... Capital Fes, Language(s) Classical Arabic (predominant), Berber , Mozarabic, Hebrew, Ladino, African Romance, Andalusian Arabic Religion Sunni Islam (predominant), Roman Catholic, Judaism, Ibadi, Sufism Government Monarchy Sultan  - 1215-1217 Abd al-Haqq  - 1420-1465 Abu Muhammad Abd al-Haqq History  - Established 1215  - Disestablished 1465 Area 39,323,636 km² Currency... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  This map its complete wrong! The Wattassids (وطاسيون waṭāsÄ«yÅ«n) or Banû Watâs (بنو الوطاس banÅ« al-waṭās) were a dynasty and Kingdom in the north of Morocco and part of Spain. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... This person is among the Sahabas ancestors Umayya ibn Abd Shams is whom the clan of Banu Umayyad is named. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Events Childeric II proclaimed king of Austrasia. ... Events Last Umayyad caliph Marwan II (744-750) overthrown by first Abbasid caliph, Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Bold textItalic textLink title GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM GARY CANT SWIM... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... This article provides a list of the largest empires in world history. ... This article provides a list of the largest empires in world history. ... This article provides a list of the largest empires in world history. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Origins

According to tradition, the Umayyad family (also known as the Banu Abd-Shams) and the Islamic Prophet Muhammad both descended from a common ancestor, Abd Manaf ibn Qusai. Muhammad descended from Abd Munaf via his son Hashim, while the Umayyads descended from Abd Munaf via a different son, Abd-Shams, whose son was Umayya. The two families are therefore considered to be different clans (those of Hashim and of Umayya, respectively) of the same tribe (that of the Quraish). However Shia historians points out that Umayya is an adopted son of Abd Shams so they dont have any blood relation with Abd Manaf ibn Qusai. Umayya was later discarded from the noble family.[1] For other senses of this word, see Prophet (disambiguation). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Abd Manaf ibn Qusai (Arabic: ) is whom the clan of Banu Abd Manaf is named after. ... Hashim ibn Abd al-Manaf (Arabic: ) (died ca. ... Abd Shams ibn Manaf (Arabic: عبد شمس بن عبد مناف) was a prominent member of the Quraish tribe of Mecca in modern-day Saudi Arabia. ... This person is among the Sahabas ancestors Umayya ibn Abd Shams is whom the clan of Banu Umayyad is named. ... Banū Hāshim (Arabic: بنو هاشم) was a clan in the Quraish tribe. ... Quraish (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is the Meccan tribe that the Islamic prophet Muhammad belonged to before he received the revelations of Islam. ... This person is among the Sahabas ancestors Umayya ibn Abd Shams is whom the clan of Banu Umayyad is named. ... Abd Manaf ibn Qusai (Arabic: ) is whom the clan of Banu Abd Manaf is named after. ... This person is among the Sahabas ancestors Umayya ibn Abd Shams is whom the clan of Banu Umayyad is named. ...



The Umayyads and the Hashimites were bitter rivals. The rivalry stemmed from the initial opposition of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, the grandson of Umayya, to Muhammad and to Islam. Abu Sufyan sought to exterminate the adherents of the new religion by waging a series of battles. However, he eventually embraced Islam, as did his son (the future caliph Muawiyah I), and the two provided much-needed political and diplomatic skills for the management of the quickly expanding Islamic empire. Sakhr ibn Harb, (Arabic: صخر بن حرب ) more commonly known as Abu Sufyan, was a leading man of the Quraish of Mecca and a staunch opponent of Muhammad but later adopted Islam. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Muawiyah I (Arabic: ; Transliteration: ; 602-680) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and later the Umayyad caliph in Damascus. ... This article is about negotiations. ...


Most historians consider Caliph Muawiyah I (661-80) to have been the second ruler of the Umayyad dynasty, as he was the first to assert the Umayyads' right to rule on a dynastic principle. Caliph Uthman (644-56) was also descended from Umayya, and during his time had been criticized for placing members of his family within political positions. However, since Uthman never named an heir, he cannot be considered the founder of a dynasty. Uthman, Othman, Osman, Usman, or Ozman (Arabic: عثمان) is a male Arabic given name meaning the chosen one amongst the tribe of brave and noble people, honest, caring, sincere, genuine, and attractive. The following people share this name: Uthman Ibn Affan Osman I Uthman I, a Marinid caliph Usman dan Fodio...

Entry to the prayer hall of the Great Mosque of Damascus, built by caliph Al-Walid I.
Entry to the prayer hall of the Great Mosque of Damascus, built by caliph Al-Walid I.

The origins of Umayyad rule date back to the assassination of Uthman in 656. At this time Ali, a member of the Hashim clan and a cousin of Prophet Muhammad, became the caliph. He soon met with resistance from several factions, and moved his capital from Medina to Kufa. The resulting conflict, which lasted from 656 until 661, is known as the First Fitna ("time of trial"). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 538 KB) en: Damascus, Syria - Umayyad Mosque: golden mosaics at the central part of the southern side of the courtyard. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 538 KB) en: Damascus, Syria - Umayyad Mosque: golden mosaics at the central part of the southern side of the courtyard. ... The Umayyad Mosque in the center of Damascus by night St Johns Shrine inside the Mosque The courtyard of the Mosque with the ancient Treasury (Beit al Mal) The Grand Mosque of Damascus, also known as the Umayyad Mosque (Arabic: جامع بني أمية الكبير, transl. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... The Arab Empire in its greatest extent. ... Oswiu of Northumbria annexes Mercia // Battle of Bassorah (also known as Battle of the Camel) between Ali and Aisha, part of the first civil war in Islam; taken place in modern-day Basra, Iraq. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... The First Fitna, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ...


Ali was first opposed by an alliance led by Aisha, the widow of Muhammad, and Talhah and Al-Zubayr, two of the Companions of the Prophet. The two sides clashed at the Battle of the Camel in 656, where Ali won a decisive victory. For other uses, see Aisha (disambiguation). ... Talhah ibn Ubayd-Allah (d. ... Abu ‘Abd Allah Zubayr ibn al-Awwam (Arabic: ‎) was a Sahaba, or companion, of the prophet Muhammad. ... In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... Combatants Islamic Caliphate Rebel Arabs Commanders Ali Aisha bint Abu Bakr Strength About 10,000 About 10,000 Casualties About 5,000 About 5,000 The Battle of Bassorah, Battle of the Camel, or Battle of Jamal was a battle that took place at Basra, Iraq in 656 between forces...


Following the Battle of the Camel, Muawiyah, who had become governor of Syria, accused Ali of harboring the assassins of Uthman and demanded that they be handed over. The armies of Muawiyah and Ali met at the Battle of Siffin in 657. For reasons that remain obscure,[2] the battle was stopped before either side had achieved victory, and the two parties agreed to arbitrate their dispute. Both the terms and the result of the arbitration, however, are subjects of contradictory and sometimes confused reports. Combatants Ummayyad Dynasty; Muawiyah I Rashidun Dynasty; Ali ibn Abi Talib Commanders Amr ibn al-Aas Ali ibn Abi Talib Malik ibn Ashter Strength 120,000 (approx) 90,000 (approx) Casualties 45,000 (approx) 25,000 (approx) The Battle of Siffin (May-July 657 CE) occurred during the First Fitna...


Following the battle, a large group of Ali's soldiers, who resented his decision to submit the dispute to arbitration, broke away from Ali's force, rallying under the slogan, "arbitration belongs to God alone." This group came to be known as the Kharijites ("those who leave"). Kharijites (Arabic خوارج, literally Those who Go Out[1]) is a general term embracing various Muslims who, while initially supporting the caliphate of the fourth and final Rashidun Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib, later rejected him. ...


In 659 Ali's forces and the Kharijites met in the Battle of Nahrawan. Although Ali won the battle, the constant conflict had begun to affect his standing, and in the following years some Syrians seem to have acclaimed Muawiyah as a rival caliph. A battle between Ali and the khawarij See also Ibadi External links Shia http://playandlearn. ...


Ali was assassinated in 661, apparently by a Kharijite partisan. Muawiyah marched to Kufa, where he persuaded a number of Ali's supporters to acclaim him as caliph instead of Ali's son, Hasan. Following his elevation, Muawiyah moved the capital of the caliphate to Damascus. Syria would remain the base of Umayyad power until the end of the dynasty. Hasan ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib ()‎ (Fifteenth of Ramadan, 3 AH – Twenty-eighth of Safar, 50 AH) [6] was the grandson of Muhammad, and was the son of Ali ibn Abi Talib (fourth Sunni Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatima Zahra (a daughter of Muhammad). ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ...


History of the Umayyad Caliphate

The Sufyanids

The expansion of the caliphate under the Umayyads.      Expansion under the Prophet Mohammad, 622-632      Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661      Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750
The expansion of the caliphate under the Umayyads.      Expansion under the Prophet Mohammad, 622-632      Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661      Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750

Muawiyah's personal dynasty, the "Sufyanids" (descendants of Abu Sufyan), reigned from 661 to 684, until his grandson Muawiya II. The reign of Muawiyah I was marked by internal security and external expansion. On the internal front, only one major rebellion is recorded, that of Hujr ibn Adi in Kufa. Hujr ibn Adi supported the claims of the descendants of Ali to the caliphate, but his movement was easily suppressed by the governor of Iraq, Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan. Age of the Caliphs  Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622-632  Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661  Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750 The initial Muslim conquests (632–732), also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests,[1] began after the death of the Islamic prophet... Combatants Byzantine Empire,[1] Arab Ghassanids, Bulgarian Empire (later) Muslim Arabs (Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates) Syria was just the start of Arab expansion. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Umayyad Caliphate The Umayyad conquest of North Africa continued the century of rapid Arab Muslim expansion following the death of Mohammed in 632 CE. By 640 the Arabs controlled Mesopotamia, had invaded Armenia, and were concluding their conquest of Byzantine Syria. ... Belligerents Sassanid Persian Empire, Arab Christians Arab Muslims (Rashidun Caliphate) Commanders Yazdgerd III Rostam Farrokhzād Mahbuzan Huzail ibn Imran Hormuz Qubaz Anushjan Andarzaghar Bahman Karinz ibn Karianz Wahman Mardanshah Pirouzan Khalid ibn al-Walid Abu Ubaid Sad ibn Abi Waqqas al-Numan ibn al-Muqarrin al-Muzani... Belligerents Sassanid Persian Empire, Arab Christians Arab Muslims (Rashidun Caliphate) Commanders Yazdgerd III Rostam Farrokhzād Mahbuzan Huzail ibn Imran Hormuz Qubaz Anushjan Andarzaghar Bahman Karinz ibn Karianz Wahman Mardanshah Pirouzan Khalid ibn al-Walid Abu Ubaid Sad ibn Abi Waqqas al-Numan ibn al-Muqarrin al-Muzani... The Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent mainly took place from the 11th to the 17th centuries, though earlier Muslim conquests made limited inroads into the region, beginning during the period of the ascendancy of the Rajput Kingdoms in North India, from the 7th century onwards. ... Combatants Khazar Khaganate Muslim Arabs (Umayyad Caliphates) The Khazar Arab Wars were a series of battle that took place during two campaigns in the First and Second Khazar-Arab War between the armies of the Khazar Khaganate and the Umayyad Caliphate. ... The Umayyad conquest of Hispania (711–718) commenced when an army of the Umayyad Caliphate consisting largely of Moors, the Muslim inhabitants of Northwest Africa, invaded Visigothic Christian Hispania (Portugal and Spain) in the year 711. ... Combatants Abbasid Caliphate Tang Dynasty Commanders Ziyad ibn Salih (Persian)[3][4] Gao Xianzhi (Goguryeo)[3] Li Siye (Chinese)[3] Duan Xiushi (Chinese)[3] Strength The number of troops from Arab protectorates was not recorded by either side. ... Image File history File links Age_of_Caliphs. ... Image File history File links Age_of_Caliphs. ... The Ridda wars (also known as the Riddah wars and the Wars of Apostasy) were a set of military campaigns against apostasy and rebellion against the Caliph Abu Bakr during 632 and 633 AD, following the death of Muhammad(S). ... The First Fitna, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ... Ibn al-Zubairs revolt was directed against Yazid I following the Battle of Karbala. ... Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. ... The Second Fitna, or Second Islamic civil war, was a period of general political and military disorder that afflicted the Islamic world during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the caliph Muawiya I. There seems to be a lack of solid consensus on the exact range of years... The Great Berber Revolt of 122—25/740—43 took place during the reign of the Umayyad Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik and marked the first successful secession from the caliphate. ... Zayd ibn Ali (Arabic: , also spelled Zaid) (695-740 C.E.) He was given the title Zayd the Martyr (Zayd ash-Shahid) by his sympathizers. ... Combatants Abbasids Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Marwan II The Battle of the Zab took place on the banks of the Great Zab river in what is now Iraq on January 25, 750. ... Events Caliph Ali Ben Abu Talib is assassinated. ... Events Wu Ze Tian took power in China. ... Muawiyah II or Muāwiyya ibn YazÄ«d (‎) (661 - 684) was an Umayyad caliph for about four months after the death of his father YazÄ«d. ... Hujr ibn Adi was a supporter of Ali, he and his companions were killed by Muawiya I for refusing to Curse Ali. ... Ziyad ibn Abi Sufyan was born in Taif to a member of the Banu Fuqaim, of unknown parentage. ...


with the Christian communities of Syria, and one of his closest advisers was Sarjun, the father of John of Damascus. At the same time, he waged unceasing war against the Byzantine Empire. During his reign, Rhodes and Crete were occupied, and several assaults were launched against Constantinople. Muawiyah also oversaw military expansion in North Africa (the foundation of Kairouan) and in Central Asia (the conquest of Kabul, Bukhara, and Samarkand). For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Saint John of Damascus (Arabic: يحيى ابن منصور Yaḥyā ibn Manṣūr; Greek: Ιωάννης Δαμασκήνος/Ioannês Damaskinos; Latin: Iohannes Damascenus or Johannes Damascenus also known as John Damascene, Χρυσορρόας/Chrysorrhoas, streaming with gold—i. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Kairouan (Arabic القيروان) (also known as Kairwan, Kayrawan, Al Qayrawan) is a muslim holy city which ranks after Mecca and Medina as a place of pilgrimage. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... Bukhara (Tajik: Бухоро; Persian: , Buxârâ; Uzbek: ; Russian: ), from the Soghdian βuxārak (lucky place), is the fifth-largest city in Uzbekistan, and capital of the Bukhara Province (viloyat). ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ...


Following Muawiyah's death in 680, he was succeeded by his son, Yazid I. The hereditary accession of Yazid was opposed by a number of prominent Muslims, most notably Abd-Allah ibn al-Zubayr, son of one of the Companions of the Prophet, and Husayn ibn Ali, grandson of the Prophet and younger son of Ali. The resulting conflict is known as the Second Fitna. Yazid ibn Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) (July 23, 645 - 683) was the second Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty and ruled from CE 680 until his death in 683. ... Abd Allah al-Zubayr or Ibn Zubayr or Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr (624 - 692) (Arabic: عبد الله بن الزبير) was the son of Zubair, who was the nephew of Khadija, and Asma bint Abu Bakr. ... This article is about Husayn ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (626 – 680). ... The Second Fitna, or Second Islamic civil war, was a period of general political and military disorder that afflicted the Islamic world during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the caliph Muawiya I. There seems to be a lack of solid consensus on the exact range of years...


In 680 Ibn al-Zubayr and Husayn fled Medina for Mecca. While Ibn al-Zubayr would stay in Mecca until his death, Husayn decided to travel on to Kufa to rally support. However, an Umayyad army intercepted and routed his party at the Battle of Karbala. This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... For the battle in the Iraq War, see Battle of Karbala (2007). ...


Following the death of Husayn, Ibn al-Zubayr, although remaining in Mecca, was associated with two opposition movements, one centered in Medina and the other around Kharijites in Basra and Arabia. In 683, Yazid dispatched an army to subdue both. This army suppressed the Medinese opposition at the Battle of al-Harra, and continued on to lay siege to Mecca. At some point during the siege, the Kaaba was badly damaged in a fire. The destruction of the Kaaba became a major cause for censure of the Umayyads in later histories of the period. This article is about the city of Basra. ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ...


Yazid died while the siege was still in progress, and the Umayyad army returned to Damascus, leaving Ibn al-Zubayr in control of Mecca. Yazid was succeeded at first by his son, Muawiya II (683-84), but he seems never to have been recognized as caliph outside of Syria. Two factions developed within Syria: the Confederation of Qays, who supported Ibn al-Zubayr, and the Quda'a, who supported Marwan, a descendant of Umayya via Wa'il ibn Umayyah. The partisans of Marwan triumphed at a battle at Marj Rahit, near Damascus, in 684, and Marwan became caliph shortly thereafter. Muawiyah II or Muāwiyya ibn Yazīd (‎) (661 - 684) was an Umayyad caliph for about four months after the death of his father Yazīd. ... Marwan ibn al-Hakam (623 - 685) was an Umayyad caliph who took over the dynasty after Muawiya II gave up the title in 684. ...


The First Marwanids

Marwan's first task was to assert his authority against the rival claims of Ibn al-Zubayr, who was at this time recognized as caliph throughout most of the Islamic world. Marwan recaptured Egypt for the Umayyads, but died in 685, having reigned for only nine months.


Marwan was succeeded by his son, Abd al-Malik (685-705), who reconsolidated Umayyad control of the caliphate. The early reign of Abd al-Malik was marked by the revolt of Al-Mukhtar, which was based in Kufa. Al-Mukhtar hoped to elevate Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah, another son of Ali, to the caliphate, although Ibn al-Hanafiyyah himself may have had no connection to the revolt. The troops of al-Mukhtar engaged in battles both with the Umayyads (in 686, at the river Khazir near Mosul: an Umayyad defeat) and with Ibn al-Zubayr (in 687, at which time the revolt of al-Mukhtar was crushed). In 691 Umayyad troops reconquered Iraq, and in 692 the same army captured Mecca. Ibn al-Zubayr was killed in the attack. Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (646-705) (Arabic: عبد المالك بن مروان ) was an Umayyad caliph. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah was the son of the first Shi’a Imam (Ali ibn Abu Talib) but he was called Ibn Hanafiyyah after his mother. ...

The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, built during the reign of Abd al-Malik.
The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, built during the reign of Abd al-Malik.

The second major event of the early reign of Abd al-Malik was the construction of the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. Although the chronology remains somewhat uncertain, the building seems to have been completed in 692, which means that it was under construction during the conflict with Ibn al-Zubayr. This had led some historians, both medieval and modern, to suggest that the Dome of the Rock was built to rival the Kaaba, which was under the control of Ibn al-Zubayr, as a destination for pilgrimage. The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount The Dome of the Rock, (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة, translit. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (646-705) (Arabic: عبد المالك بن مروان ) was an Umayyad caliph. ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount The Dome of the Rock, (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة, translit. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


Abd al-Malik is credited with centralizing the administration of the caliphate, and with establishing Arabic as its official language. He also introduced a uniquely Muslim coinage, marked by its aniconic decoration, which supplanted the Byzantine and Sasanian coins that had previously been in use. Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ...


Following Abd al-Malik's death, his son, Al-Walid I (705-15) became caliph. Al-Walid was also active as a builder, sponsoring the construction of Al-Masjid al-Nabawi in Medina and the Great Mosque of Damascus. The Arab Empire in its greatest extent. ... Masjid al-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet) The Mosque of the Prophet ( Arabic: ) [IPA /mæsʤıd ænːæbæwı], in Medina, is the second holiest mosque in Islam. ... The Umayyad Mosque in the center of Damascus by night St Johns Shrine inside the Mosque The courtyard of the Mosque with the ancient Treasury (Beit al Mal) The Grand Mosque of Damascus, also known as the Umayyad Mosque (Arabic: جامع بني أمية الكبير, transl. ...


A major figure during the reigns of both al-Walid and Abd al-Malik was the Umayyad governor of Iraq, Al-Hajjaj bin Yousef. Many Iraqis remained resistant to Umayyad rule, and al-Hajjaj imported Syrian troops to maintain order, whom he housed in a new garrison town, Wasit. These troops became crucial in the suppression of a revolt led by an Iraqi general, Ibn al-Ash'ath, in the early eighth century. Al-Hajjaj bin Yousef (661 - June in Taif, 714 in Wasit, Iraq) (Arabic: الحجاج بن يوسف also known as Al Hajjaj bin Yousef Al saqafe) was an important Arab administrator during the Umayyad caliphate. ...


Al-Walid was succeeded by his brother, Sulayman (715-17), whose reign was dominated by a protracted siege of Constantinople. The failure of the siege marked the end of serious Arab ambitions against the Byzantine capital. However, the first two decades of the eighth century witnessed the continuing expansion of the caliphate, which pushed into Spain in the west, and into Central Asia and northern India in the east. Suleiman bin Abd al-Malik (c. ...


Sulyaman was succeeded by his cousin, Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (717-20), whose position among the Umayyad caliphs is somewhat unique. He is the only Umayyad ruler to have been recognized by subsequent Islamic tradition as a genuine caliph (khalifa) and not merely as a worldly king (malik). Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (c. ...


Umar is honored for his attempt to resolve the fiscal problems attendant upon conversion to Islam. During the Umayyad period, the majority of people living within the caliphate were not Muslim, but Christian, Jewish, Zoroastrian, or otherwise. These religious communities were not forced to convert to Islam, but were subject to a higher tax burden. This situation may actually have made widespread conversion to Islam undesirable from the point of view of state revenue, and there are reports that provincial governors actively discouraged such conversions. It is not clear how Umar attempted to resolve this situation, but the sources portray him as having insisted on like treatment of Arab and non-Arab (mawali) Muslims, and on the removal of obstacles to the conversion of non-Arabs to Islam. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... Mawali is a term in ancient Arabic used to address non-Arab Muslims. In the second half of the sixth century, the Malawi were considered the third class in society with the Sayyids at the top followed by the free tribesmen. ...


After the death of Umar, another son of Abd al-Malik, Yazid II (720-24) became caliph. Yazid is best known for his "iconoclastic edict," which ordered the destruction of Christian images within the territory of the caliphate. In 720, another major revolt arose in Iraq, this time led by Yazid ibn al-Muhallab. Yazid bin Abd al-Malik or Yazid II (687 - 724) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 720 until his death in 724. ... Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century. ... Yazid ibn al-Muhallab (672 - 720) was a provincial governor in the time of the Umayyad dynasty. ...


Hisham and the limits of military expansion

The final son of Abd al-Malik to become caliph was Hisham (723-43), whose long and eventful reign was above all marked by the curtailment of military expansion. Archaeological remains of a palace built in Hishams honor just north of present-day Jericho Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (691–6 February 743) (Arabic: هشام بن عبد الملك) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 723 until his death in 743. ...

North gate of the city of Resafa, site of Hisham's palace and court.
North gate of the city of Resafa, site of Hisham's palace and court.

Hisham established his court at Resafa in northern Syria, which was closer to the Byzantine border than Damascus, and resumed hostilities against the Byzantines, which had lapsed following the failure of the last siege of Constantinople. The new campaigns resulted in a number of successful raids into Anatolia, but also in a major defeat (the Battle of Akroinon), and did not lead to any significant territorial expansion. Arches in Resafa Resafa, known in Roman times as Sergiopolis, was a city located in what is now modern-day Syria. ... Arches in Resafa Resafa, known in Roman times as Sergiopolis, was a city located in what is now modern-day Syria. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... The Battle of Akroinon was fought at Akroinon (also known as Acroinon or Acroinum, near modern Afyon) in Phrygia, on the western edge of the Anatolian plateau, in 739 between an Umayyad Arab army of Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, led by his brother Sulayman, and Byzantine forces led by...


Hisham's reign furthermore witnessed the end of expansion in the west, following the defeat of the Arab army by the Franks at the Battle of Tours in 732. In 739 a major Berber Revolt broke out in North Africa, which was subdued only with difficulty. This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Combatants Carolingian Franks Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Charles Martel ‘Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi† Strength Possibly 20,000-30,000 Unknown, but the earliest Muslim sources, still after the era of the battle[1] mention a figure of 80,000. ... The Great Berber Revolt of 122—25/740—43 took place during the reign of the Umayyad Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik and marked the first successful secession from the caliphate. ...


Hisham suffered still worse defeats in the east, where his armies attempted to subdue both Tokharistan, with its center at Balkh, and Transoxiana, with its center at Samarkand. Both areas had already been partially conquered, but remained difficult to govern. Tokharistan is a name which was given to Bactria, following its settlement by various Central Asian people in the 2nd century BCE. The first literary mentions of Thokaristan appear at the end of the 4th century CE in Chinese Buddhist sources (the Vibhasa-sastra). ... Today Balkh (Persian: بلخ) is a small town in the Province of Balkh, Afghanistan, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazari Sharif, and some 74 km (46 miles) south of the Amu Darya, the Oxus River of antiquity, of which a tributary formerly flowed past Balkh. ... Map showing modern Transoxiana. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ...


Once again, a particular difficulty concerned the question of the conversion of non-Arabs, especially the Sogdians of Transoxiana. Ashras ibn 'Abd Allah al-Sulami, governor of Khorasan, promised tax relief to those Sogdians who converted to Islam, but went back on his offer when it proved too popular and threatened to reduce tax revenues. In 734, al-Harith ibn Surayj led a revolt on behalf of the Sogdians, capturing Balkh but failing to take Merv. After this defeat, al-Harith's movement seems to have been dissolved, but the problem of the rights of non-Arab Muslims would continue to plague the Umayyads. Sogdiana, ca. ... Map showing the pre-2004 Khorasan Province in Iran Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, anciently called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times is currently a region located in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire... Merv (Russian: Мерв, from Persian: مرو, Marv, sometimes transliterated Marw or Mary; cf. ...


The Third Fitna

Fresco from the palace of Qusayr Amra, possibly built by Al-Walid II, depicting a dancer.

Hisham was succeeded by Al-Walid II (743-44), the son of Yazid II. Al-Walid is reported to have been more interested in earthly pleasures than in religion, a reputation that may be confirmed by the decoration of the so-called "desert palaces" (including Qusayr Amra and Khirbat al-Mafjar) that have been attributed to him. He quickly attracted the enmity of many, both by executing a number of those who had opposed his accession, and by persecuting the Qadariyya. Walid ibn Yazid or Walid II (d. ... Qasr Amra (Arabic: قصر عمرة) is the best-known of the desert castles located in present-day eastern Jordan. ... Qadariyya (the name is based on the Arabic word قدر, qadar, meaning fate) was a theological movement in early Islam which held that man was endowed by God with free will. ...


In 744, Yazid III, a son of al-Walid I, was proclaimed caliph in Damascus, and his army tracked down and killed al-Walid II. Yazid III has received a certain reputation for piety, and may have been sympathetic to the Qadariyya. He died a mere six months into his reign. Yazid ibn Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik or Yazid III (701 - 744) (Arabic: يزيد ابن الوليد ابن عبد الملك) was an Umayyad caliph. ...


Yazid had appointed his brother, Ibrahim, as his successor, but Marwan II (744-50), the grandson of Marwan I, led an army from the northern frontier and entered Damascus in December of 744, where he was proclaimed caliph. Marwan immediately moved the capital north to Harran, in present-day Turkey. A rebellion soon broke out in Syria, perhaps due to resentment over the relocation of the capital, and in 746 Marwan razed the walls of Hims and Damascus in retaliation. Ibrahim ibn Al-Walid was an Umayyad caliph. ... The Califate in 750 From The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1923 Courtesy of The General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan or Marwan II (750-688) (Arabic: مروان ابن محمد ابن مروان) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 744 until 750 when he was killed. ... Harran, also known as Carrhae, is a district of Åžanlıurfa Province in the southeast of Turkey, near the border with Syria, 24 miles (44 kilometres) southeast of the city of Åžanlıurfa, at the end of a long straight road across the roasting hot plain of Harran. ... Homs (also Himş, Arabic, حمص, population 700,000) is an ancient city in Syria, dating back to 2300 B.C.. In Roman times it was known as Emesa. ...


Marwan also faced significant opposition from Kharijites in Iraq and Iran, who put forth first Dahhak ibn Qays and then Abu Dulaf as rival caliphs. In 747 Marwan managed to reestablish control of Iraq, but by this time a more serious threat had arisen in Khurasan.


Insurrection

Ivory (eighth century?) discovered in the Abbasid homestead in Humeima, Jordan. The style indicates an origin in north-eastern Iran, the base of Hashimiyya military power.
Ivory (eighth century?) discovered in the Abbasid homestead in Humeima, Jordan. The style indicates an origin in north-eastern Iran, the base of Hashimiyya military power.[3]

The movement that overthrew the Umayyad caliphate was known as the Hashimiyya, and led by the Abbasid family. The Abbasids were themselves members of the Hashim clan, the ancient rivals of the Umayyads, but the word "Hashimiyya" seems to refer specifically to Abu Hashim, a grandson of Ali and son of Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyya. According to certain traditions, Abu Hashim died in 717 in Humeima in the house of Muhammad ibn Ali, the head of the Abbasid family, and before dying named Muhammad ibn Ali as his successor. This tradition allowed the Abbasids to rally the supporters of the failed revolt of Mukhtar, who had represented themselves as the supporters of Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyya. Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... BanÅ« Hāshim (Arabic: بنو هاشم) was a clan in the Quraish tribe. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Mukhtar, meaning chosen in Arabic, refers to the head of a village or mahalle (urban district) in many Arab countries. ...


Beginning around 719, Hashimiyya missions began to seek adherents in Khurasan. Their campaign was framed as one of invitation (dawah), and was rather vaguely worded: they sought support for a "member of the family" of the Prophet, without making explicit mention of the Abbasids. These missions met with success both among Arabs and non-Arabs (mawali), although the latter may have played a particularly important role in the growth of the movement. This article is about the Muslim concept. ... Mawali is a term in ancient Arabic used to address non-Arab Muslims. In the second half of the sixth century, the Malawi were considered the third class in society with the Sayyids at the top followed by the free tribesmen. ...

Map of the world in 750 AD before the Battle of the Zab, which caused the fall of the dynasty.
Map of the world in 750 AD before the Battle of the Zab, which caused the fall of the dynasty.

Around 746, Abu Muslim assumed leadership of the Hashimiyya in Khurasan. In 747 he successfully initiated an open revolt against Umayyad rule, which was carried out under the sign of the black flag. He soon established control of Khurasan, and dispatched an army westwards. Kufa fell to the Hashimiyya in 749, and in November of the same year Abu al-Abbas was recognized as the new caliph in the mosque at Kufa. Combatants Abbasids Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Marwan II The Battle of the Zab took place on the banks of the Great Zab river in what is now Iraq on January 25, 750. ... Abu Muslim Abd al-Rahman ibn Muslim al-Khurasani (Persian:أبو مسلم خراساني)(Arabic:أبو مسلم عبد الرحمن بن مسلم الخراساني) (ca. ... Abu al-`Abbās `Abdullāh as-Saffāh ibn Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Abdullah ibn Abbas ibn Mutalib ibn Hashim (Arabic: أبو العباس عبد الله بن محمد السفاح, As-Saffah السفّاح literally means: the Slaughterer, in Arabic) ‎ (721 - 754) was the first Abbasid caliph. ...

Map of the beginning of Abassid revolt before the Battle of the Zab, which caused the fall of the dynasty.
Map of the beginning of Abassid revolt before the Battle of the Zab, which caused the fall of the dynasty.

At this point Marwan mobilized his troops from Harran and advanced toward Iraq. In January of 750 the two forces met in the Battle of the Zab, and the Umayyads were defeated. Damascus fell to the Abbasids in April, and in August Marwan was killed in Egypt. Abbasid provinces during the caliphate of Harun al-Rashid Abbasid (Arabic: العبّاسيّون, Abbāsīyūn) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Islamic empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... Combatants Abbasids Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Marwan II The Battle of the Zab took place on the banks of the Great Zab river in what is now Iraq on January 25, 750. ... Combatants Abbasids Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Abu al-Abbas al-Saffah Marwan II The Battle of the Zab took place on the banks of the Great Zab river in what is now Iraq on January 25, 750. ...


The victors dishonored the tombs of the Umayyads in Syria, sparing only that of Umar II, and most of the remaining members of the Umayyad family were tracked down and killed. One grandson of Hisham, 'Abd al-Rahman, survived and established a kingdom in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia), proclaiming his family to be the Umayyad Caliphate revived. Abd ar-Rahman I Arabic: (عبد الرحمن الداخل), (known as the Falcon of Andalus or The Falcon of the Quraish)[1] (born 731; ruled from 756 through his death circa 788) was the founder of a Muslim dynasty that ruled the greater part of Iberia for nearly three centuries. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... For other uses, see moor. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... The interior of the Great Mosque in Córdoba, now a Christian cathedral. ...


Previté-Orton argues that the reasons for the decline of the Ummayads was the rapid expansion of Islam. During Ummayad period, mass conversions brought Persians, Berbers, Copts, and Aramaics to Islam. These mawalis (clients) were often better educated and more civilised than their Arab masters. The new converts, on the basis of equality of all Muslims, transformed the political landscape. Previté-Orton also argues that the feud between Syria and Iraq, further weakened the empire.[4]


Legacy

Historical significance

History of the Levant
Stone Age

Kebaran · Natufian culture ·
Halafian culture · Jericho
This article deals with the general history of the Levant, which is an antiquated geographical term that refers to a large area in Southwest Asia, south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the west, the Arabian Desert in the north, and Mesopotamia to the east. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... Kebarans were the first anatomically modern humans to live in the eastern Mediterranean area (c. ... The Natufian culture existed in the Mediterranean region of the Levant. ... Hunting scene relief in basalt found at Tell Halaf, dated 850-830 BCE Tell Halaf is an archaeological site in the Al Hasakah governorate of northeastern Syria, near the Turkish border. ... This article is about the city in the West Bank. ...

Ancient History

Sumerians · Ebla · Akkadian Empire ·
Canaan · Phoenicians
Amorites · Aramaeans · Edomites · Hittites
Nabataeans ·Palmyra · Philistines ·Israel and Judah
Assyrian Empire · Babylonian Empire
Persian Empire · Seleucid Empire ·
Hasmonean kingdom
Roman Empire · Byzantine Empire
Ancient redirects here. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... Ebla is not to be confused with Elba. ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ... The Aramaeans, or Arameans, were a Semitic, semi-nomadic and pastoralist people who originated and had lived in upper Mesopotamia and Syria. ... Edom (אֱדוֹם, Standard Hebrew Edom, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔḏôm) sounds like the Biblical Hebrew word for red and is a vividly apposite designation for the red sandstones of Edom. ... Relief of Suppiluliuma II, last known king of the Hittite Empire The Hittites were an ancient people from KaneÅ¡ who spoke an Indo-European language, and established a kingdom centered at Hattusa (Hittite URU) in north-central Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite... Al Khazneh, Petra (the Nabataean capital) Shivta The Nabataeans, Arabic (الأنباط) Al-Anbaat, were an ancient trading people of southern Jordan, Canaan and the northern part of Arabia- whose oasis settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the borderland between Syria and Arabia, from the Euphrates... Early morning panorama of Palmyra. ... Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon Map of the southern Levant, c. ... For the pre-history of the region, see Pre-history of the Southern Levant. ... This article concerns the ancient Mesopotamian kingdom. ... Babylonia was an ancient state in Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Persia redirects here. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... The Hasmonean Kingdom (pronunciation) in ancient Judea and its ruling dynasty from 140 BC to 37 BC was established under the leadership of Simon Maccabaeus, two decades after Judah the Maccabee defeated the Seleucid army in 165 BC. Origin of the Hasmonean dynasty The origin of the Hasmonean dynasty is... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Byzantine redirects here. ...

The Middle Ages

Umayyad · Abbasid · Fatimid
Mamluks · Ottoman Empire
The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and Modern Times. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the Quraish. ... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for themselves. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...

Modern Times

British Mandate of Palestine
Syria · Lebanon · Jordan
Israel · Palestinian territories It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into modernity. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... This article is about the modern State of Israel, not History of Zionism. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ...

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The Umayyad caliphate was marked both by territorial expansion and by the administrative and cultural problems that such expansion created. Despite some notable exceptions, the Umayyads tended to favor the rights of the old Arab families, and in particular their own, over those of newly converted Muslims (mawali). Therefore they held to a less universalist conception of Islam than did many of their rivals. As G.R. Hawting has written, "Islam was in fact regarded as the property of the conquering aristocracy."[5]


According to one common view, the Umayyads transformed the caliphate from a religious institution (during the rashidun) to a dynastic one.[6] However, the Umayyad caliphs do seem to have understood themselves as the representatives of God on earth, and to have been responsible for the "definition and elaboration of God's ordinances, or in other words the definition or elaboration of Islamic law."[7] The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ...


During the period of the Umayyads, Arabic became the administrative language. State documents and currency was issued in the language. Mass conversions brought a large influx of Muslims to the caliphate. The Umayyads also constructed famous buildings such as the Dome of the Rock at Jerusalem, and the Umayyad Mosque at Damascus.[8] A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount The Dome of the Rock, (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة, translit. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Umayyad Mosque in the center of Damascus by night St Johns Shrine inside the Mosque The courtyard of the Mosque with the ancient Treasury (Beit al Mal) The Grand Mosque of Damascus, also known as the Umayyad Mosque (Arabic: جامع بني أمية الكبير, transl. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ...


The Umayyads have met with a largely negative reception from later Islamic historians, who have accused them of promoting a kingship (mulk, a term with connotations of tyranny) instead of a true caliphate (khilafa). In this respect it is notable that the Umayyad caliphs referred to themselves, not as khalifat rasul Allah ("successor of the messenger of God," the title preferred by the tradition) but rather as khalifat Allah ("deputy of God"). The distinction seems to indicate that the Umayyads "regarded themselves as God's representatives at the head of the community and saw no need to share their religious power with, or delegate it to, the emergent class of religious scholars."[9]


In fact, it was precisely this class of scholars, based largely in Iraq, that was responsible for collecting and recording the traditions that form the primary source material for the history of the Umayyad period. In reconstructing this history, therefore, it is necessary to rely mainly on sources, such as the histories of Tabari and Baladhuri, that were written in the Abbasid court at Baghdad. The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... Ahmad Ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri, Ahmad Bin Yahya Bin Jabir Al Biladuri. ...


Modern Arab Nationalism regards the period of the Umayyads as part of the Arab Golden Age which it sought to emulate and restore. This is particularly true of Syrian nationalists and the present-day state of Syria, centered like that of the Umayyads on Damascus. White, one of the four Pan-Arab colors which appear in various combinations on the flags of most Arab countries, is considered as representing the Umayyads. Arab nationalism refers to a common nationalist ideology in wider Arab world. ... Red, black, and white, sometimes with green, are the Pan-Arab colors and have their origins in the flag of the Arab Revolt. ...


Theological disputes concerning the Ommayads

Sunni opinions

Sunni opinions of the Umayyad dynasty after Muawiyah are typically dim, viewing many of the rulers as sinners and the cause of great tribulation in the Ummah. For example, in the section concerning Quran 60:17 [10] in the exegesis by al-Suyuti entitled Dur al-Manthur, the author writes that there exist traditions which describe the Umayyads as "the cursed tree". There are some exceptions to this -- Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz is commonly praised as one of the greatest Muslim rulers after the four Rightly Guided Caliphs. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... A tafsir ( (Arabic: تفسير) tafsīr, Arabic explanation) is Quranic exegesis or commentary. ... Imam Al-Suyuti (c. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ... Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (c. ... The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam and in general around the world to refer to the first four caliphs who are seen as being model leaders. ...


Shi'a opinions

The negative view of the Omayyads of Shiites is briefly expressed in the Shi'a book "Sulh al-Hasan" [11] [12] According to some sources Ali described them as the worst Fitna.[13] The Umayyad dynasty (Banu Umayyah), deriving its name from Umayya ibn Abd Shams, the great-grandfather of Muawiyah I, was the first great dynasty of the Muslim Caliphate, 661–750. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ...


Bahá'í standpoint

In Some Answered Questions, `Abdu'l-Bahá asserts that the Umayyad dynasty was the "great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns, and seven crowns upon his heads" referred to in the Book of Revelation and that the Umayyads "rose against the religion of Muhammad and against the reality of Ali".[14] Some Answered Questions was first published in 1908. ... `Abdul-Bahá `Abdul-Bahá `Abbás Effendí (May 23, 1844 - November 28, 1921) commonly known as `Abdul-Bahá (abdol-ba-haa Arabic: ‎), was the son of Baháulláh, the Prophet-Founder of the Baháí Faith. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ...


Leaders

Political

Umayyad Caliphs at Damascus

  • Muawiyah I ibn Abi Sufyan, 661–680
  • Yazid I ibn Muawiyah, 680–683
  • Muawiyah II ibn Yazid, 683–684
  • Marwan I ibn al-Ḥakam, 684–685
  • Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan, 685–705
  • al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik, 705–715
  • Suleiman ibn Abd al-Malik, 715–717
  • Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz, 717–720
  • Yazid II ibn Abd al-Malik, 720–724
  • Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, 724–743
  • al-Walid II ibn Yazid II, 743–744
  • Yazid III ibn al-Walid, 744
  • Ibrahim ibn al-Walid, 744
  • Marwan II ibn Muhammad (ruled from Harran in the Jazira) 744–750

For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Muawiyah I (Arabic: ; Transliteration: ; 602-680) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and later the Umayyad caliph in Damascus. ... Yazid ibn Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) (July 23, 645 - 683) was the second Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty and ruled from CE 680 until his death in 683. ... Muawiyah II or Muāwiyya ibn YazÄ«d (‎) (661 - 684) was an Umayyad caliph for about four months after the death of his father YazÄ«d. ... Marwan ibn al-Hakam (623 - 685) was an Umayyad caliph who took over the dynasty after Muawiya II gave up the title in 684. ... Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (646-705) (Arabic: عبد المالك بن مروان ) was an Umayyad caliph. ... The Arab Empire in its greatest extent. ... Suleiman bin Abd al-Malik (c. ... Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (c. ... Yazid bin Abd al-Malik or Yazid II (687 - 724) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 720 until his death in 724. ... Archaeological remains of a palace built in Hishams honor just north of present-day Jericho Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (691–6 February 743) (Arabic: هشام بن عبد الملك) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 723 until his death in 743. ... Walid ibn Yazid or Walid II (d. ... Yazid ibn Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik or Yazid III (701 - 744) (Arabic: يزيد ابن الوليد ابن عبد الملك) was an Umayyad caliph. ... Ibrahim ibn Al-Walid was an Umayyad caliph. ... The Califate in 750 From The Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1923 Courtesy of The General Libraries, The University of Texas at Austin Marwan ibn Muhammad ibn Marwan or Marwan II (750-688) (Arabic: مروان ابن محمد ابن مروان) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 744 until 750 when he was killed. ... Harran, also known as Carrhae, is a district of Åžanlıurfa Province in the southeast of Turkey, near the border with Syria, 24 miles (44 kilometres) southeast of the city of Åžanlıurfa, at the end of a long straight road across the roasting hot plain of Harran. ... Al-Jazira (Arabic, الجزيرة) is the traditional Arabic name for the region of northeastern modern-day Syria and northwestern modern-day Iraq. ...

Umayyad Emirs of Córdoba

  • Abd ar-Rahman I, 756–788
  • Hisham I, 788–796
  • al-Hakam I, 796–822
  • Abd ar-Rahman II, 822–852
  • Muhammad I of Córdoba, 852-886
  • Al-Mundhir, 886 - 888
  • Abdallah ibn Muhammad, 888–912
  • Abd ar-Rahman III, 912–929

Abd ar-Rahman I Arabic: (عبد الرحمن الداخل), (known as the Falcon of Andalus or The Falcon of the Quraish)[1] (born 731; ruled from 756 through his death circa 788) was the founder of a Muslim dynasty that ruled the greater part of Iberia for nearly three centuries. ... Hisham I was the second Umayyad emir of Cordoba, ruling from 788 to 796. ... Al-Hakam Ibn Hisham Ibn Abd-ar-Rahman I was an Umayyad Emir of Cordoba. ... Abd-ar-rahman II (822 - 852) was one of the weaker of the Spanish Umayyads. ... Muhammad I (Arabic: ) was the Umayyad Emir of Córdoba from 852 – 886 in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia). ... Al-Mundhir (Arabic: المنذر ), (c. ... Abdallah ibn Muhammad, of the Umayyad dynasty, was Emir of Cordoba from 888 to 912. ... Abd-ar-Rahman III, Emir and Caliph of Cordoba (912 - 961) was the greatest and the most successful of the princes of the Ummayad dynasty in Spain. ...

Umayyad Caliphs at Córdoba

  • Abd ar-Rahman III, as caliph, 929–961
  • Al-Hakam II, 961–976
  • Hisham II, 976–1008
  • Mohammed II, 1008–1009
  • Suleiman, 1009–1010
  • Hisham II, restored, 1010–1012
  • Suleiman, restored, 1012–1017
  • Abd ar-Rahman IV, 1021–1022
  • Abd ar-Rahman V, 1022–1023
  • Muhammad III, 1023–1024
  • Hisham III, 1027–1031

... Abd-ar-Rahman III, Emir and Caliph of Cordoba (912 - 961) was the greatest and the most successful of the princes of the Ummayad dynasty in Spain. ... Al-Hakam II was Caliph of Cordoba, in Al-Andalus, and son of Abd_ar_rahman III (al_Nasir). ... Hisham II was the third Caliph of Cordoba, of the Umayyad dynasty. ... Mohammed II was the fourth Caliph of Cordoba, of the Umayyad dynasty. ... Suleiman II was the fifth Caliph of Cordoba, of the Umayyad dynasty. ... Hisham II was the third Caliph of Cordoba, of the Umayyad dynasty. ... Suleiman II was the fifth Caliph of Cordoba, of the Umayyad dynasty. ... Abd ar-Rahman IV Mortada was the Caliph of Cordoba in the Umayyad dynasty in Spain, succeeding Suleiman II, in 1017. ... In the agony of the Umayyad dynasty in Spain, two princes of the house were proclaimed Caliph of Cordoba for a very short time, Abd-ar-Rahman IV Mortada (1017), and Abd-ar-Rahman V Mostadir (1023-1024). ... Muhammad III was an Umayyad Caliph of Cordoba. ... Hisham III was the last Umayyad ruler in Spain, and the last person to hold the title Caliph of Cordoba. ...

Religious

Umayyad Sahaba

In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... Marwan ibn al-Hakam (623 - 685) was an Umayyad caliph who took over the dynasty after Muawiya II gave up the title in 684. ... Muawiyah I (Arabic: ; Transliteration: ; 602-680) was a companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and later the Umayyad caliph in Damascus. ... Abu Sufiyan ibn Harb was the leader of the Banu Abd Shams clan of the Quraish tribe, and was the chieftain of the entire Quraish tribe, making him one of, if not the most powerful men in Mecca during the lifetime of Muhammad. ...

Umayyad Taba'een

The Tabaeen (or Followers) are the generation of Muslims that came after the Sahaba. ... Yazid ibn Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan (Arabic: يزيد بن معاوية بن أبي سفيان) (July 23, 645 - 683) was the second Caliph of the Umayyad dynasty and ruled from CE 680 until his death in 683. ... Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (646 - 705) was an Umayyad caliph. ...

See also

This person is among the Sahabas ancestors Umayya ibn Abd Shams is whom the clan of Banu Umayyad is named. ... The History of Islam involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion and as a social institution. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Muslim Congress. Retrieved on 2008-06-30.
  2. ^ G.R. Hawting, The first dynasty of Islam (London, 2000), p.28.
  3. ^ R.M. Foote et al., Report on Humeima excavations, in V. Egan and P.M. Bikai, "Archaeology in Jordan," American Journal of Archaeology 103 (1999), p. 514.
  4. ^ Previté-Orton (1971), vol. 1, pg. 239
  5. ^ G.R. Hawting, The first dynasty of Islam: the Umayyad caliphate, AD 661-750 (London, 2000), 4.
  6. ^ Previté-Orton (1971), pg 236
  7. ^ P. Crone and M. Hinds, God's caliph: religious authority in the first centuries of Islam (Cambridge, 1986), p. 43.
  8. ^ Previté-Orton (1971), pg 236
  9. ^ G.R. Hawting, The first dynasty of Islam: the Umayyad caliphate, AD 661-750 (London, 2000), 13.
  10. ^ http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/quran/017.qmt.html. Comment: (THE LINK TAKES YOU TO CHAPTER 17 AND NOT CHAPTER 60)
  11. ^ Sulh al-Hasan
  12. ^ [1] Chapter 24
  13. ^ Sermon 92
  14. ^ `Abdu'l-Bahá [1908] (1990). Some Answered Questions. Wilmette, Illinois: Bahá'í Publishing Trust,, 69. ISBN 0-87743-190-6. 

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... `Abdul-Bahá `Abdul-Bahá `Abbás Effendí (May 23, 1844 - November 28, 1921) commonly known as `Abdul-Bahá (abdol-ba-haa Arabic: ‎), was the son of Baháulláh, the Prophet-Founder of the Baháí Faith. ...

References

  • Previté-Orton, C. W (1971). The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Further reading

  • A. Bewley, Mu'awiya, Restorer of the Islamic Faith (London, 2002)
  • P. Crone, Slaves on horses (Cambridge, 1980).
  • P. Crone and M.A. Cook, Hagarism (Cambridge, 1977).
  • F.M. Donner, The early Islamic conquests (Princeton, 1981).
  • G.R. Hawting, The first dynasty of Islam: the Umayyad caliphate, AD 661-750 (London, 2000).
  • H. Kennedy, The Prophet and the age of the caliphates: the Islamic Near East from the sixth to the eleventh century (London, 1986).
  • J. Wellhausen, The Arab Kingdom and its fall (London, 2000).

External links

  • Ummayad Lineage Chart
  • Ummayads
  • Umayyads - First caliphate dynasty
A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ...

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The Umayyads were the descendants of Ummayya ibn Abdi sh-Shams, a member of the Quraysh family of Mecca.
The time of the Umayyads was not a time of conversion to Islam, as people converting to Islam, were exempted from certain taxes, like the jizya, the tax of the dhimmis.
The Umayyads were overthrown in 750 by the Abbasids.
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