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Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (c. 682 - February, 720 [1] (Arabic: عمر بن عبد العزيز) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 717 to 720. Unlike previous Umayyad caliphs, he was not a hereditary successor to the former caliph, but was appointed. But he was also a cousin of the former caliph, being the son of Abd al-Malik's younger brother Abd al-Aziz. // Events Leo II elected pope. ... Events Umayyad caliph Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz succeeded by Yazid II ibn Abd al-Malik The Nihonshoki (日本書紀), one of the oldest history books in Japan, is completed Births Bertrada, wife of Pippin III (d. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... For main article see: Caliphate Caliph is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... March 21 - Battle of Vincy between Charles Martel and Ragenfrid. ... Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (646-705) (Arabic: عبد المالك بن مروان ) was an Umayyad caliph. ...

Contents

Biography

Family

His mother was Umm Asim bint Asim and his father was Abd al-Aziz, the governor of Egypt and younger brother of caliph Abd al-Malik. Umar was a great-grandson of the second Rightly Guided Caliph (a title Shia muslims do not apply to the first three) Umar ibn al-Khattab, whom the Sunnis regard as one of the Prophet's closest and most prominent companions. Umm Asim bint Asim was the daughter of Asim ibn Umar, the son of Umar, the second Sunni Caliph. ... The Four Righteously or Rightly Guided Caliphs or Khulifa Rashidoon in Arabic refers to the first four caliphs in the Sunni tradition of Islam who are seen as being model leaders. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


Lineage

Umar was born around 682. Some traditions state that he was born in Medina while others claim that he was born in Egypt. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


According to a Sunni Muslim tradition, Umar's lineage to Umar ibn al Khattab stems from a famous event during the second Caliph's rule. During one of his frequent disguised journeys to survey the condition of his people, Umar overheard a milkmaid refusing to obey her mother's orders to sell adulterated milk. He sent an officer to purchase milk from the girl the next day and learned that she had kept her resolve; the milk was unadultered. Umar summoned the girl and her mother to his court and told them what he had heard. As a reward, he offered to marry the girl to his son Asim. She accepted, and from this union was born a girl that would in due course become the mother of Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz.


682 – 715: Early Life

Umar would grow up in Medina and live there until the death of his father, after which he was summoned to Damascus by Abd al-Malik and married to his daughter Fatima. His father-in-law would die soon after, and he would serve as governor of Medina under his cousin Al-Walid I. Damascus at sunset Damascus ( translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the largest city of Syria and is also the capital. ... Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (Arabic: ) or Al-Walid I (668 - 715) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 705 - 715. ...


715 – 715: Al-Walid I's era

Unlike most rulers of that era, Umar formed a council with which he administered the province. His time in Medina was so notable that official grievances sent to Damascus all but ceased. In addition, many people emigrated to Medina from Iraq seeking refuge from their harsh governor, Al-Hajjaj bin Yousef. This angered Al-Hajjaj, and he pressed al-Walid to remove Umar. Much to the dismay of the people of Medina, al-Walid bowed to Hajjaj's pressure and dismissed Umar from his post. By this time, Umar had developed an impeccable reputation across the Islamic empire. Al-Hajjaj bin Yousef (661 - June in Taif, 714 in Wasit, Iraq) (Arabic: الحجاج بن يوسف also known as Al Hajjaj bin Yousef Al saqafe) was an important Arab administrator during the Umayyad caliphate. ...


715 – 717: Sulayman's era

Umar continued to live in Medina through the remainder of al-Walid's reign and that of Walid's brother Suleiman. Suleiman, who was Umar's cousin and had always admired him, ignored his own brothers and son when it came time to appoint his successor and instead nominated Umar. Umar reluctantly accepted the position after trying unsuccessfully to dissuade Suleiman, and he approached it unlike any other Ummayad caliph before him. Suleiman bin Abd al-Malik (c. ...


717 – 720: His own era

Disdainful of luxuries

Umar was extremely pious and disdainful of worldly luxuries. He preferred simplicity to the extravagance that had become a hallmark of the Umayyad lifestyle, depositing all assets and finery meant for the caliph into the public treasury. He abandoned the caliphal palace to the family of Suleiman and instead preferred to live in modest dwellings. He wore rough linens instead of royal robes, and often went unrecognized.


According to a Muslim tradition, a female visitor once came to Umar's house seeking charity and saw a raggedly-dressed man patching holes in the building's walls. Assuming that the man was a servant of the caliph, she asked Umar's wife, "Don't you fear God? Why don't you veil in the presence of this man?" The woman was shocked to learn that the "servant" was in fact the caliph himself.


Though he had the people's overwhelming support, he publicly encouraged them to elect someone else if they were not satisfied with him (an offer no one ever took him up on). Umar confiscated the estates seized by Ummayad officials and redistributed them to the people, while making it a personal goal to attend to the needs of every person in his empire. Fearful of being tempted into bribery, he rarely accepted gifts, and when he did he promptly deposited them in the public treasury. He even pressured his own wife--who had been daughter, sister and wife to three caliphs in their turn--to donate her jewelry to the public treasury.


At one point he almost ordered the Great Umayyad Mosque in Damascus to be stripped of its precious stones and expensive fixtures in favor of the treasury but he desisted on learning that the Mosque was a source of envy to his Byzantine rivals in Constantinople. These moves made him unpopular with the Umayyad court, but endeared him to the masses, so much so that the court could not move against him in the open. The Umayyad Mosque in the center of Damascus by night St Johns Shrine inside the Mosque The courtyard of the Mosque with the ancient Treasury (Beit al Mal) The Grand Mosque of Damascus, also known as the Umayyad Mosque (Arabic: جامع بني أمية الكبير, transl. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Map of Constantinople. ...


Halt to the cursing of Ali

In an effort to bring the empire into greater conformity with the standards set by the Prophet Muhammad, Umar made a number of important religious reforms. He abolished the long-standing Umayyad and Khawaarij custom of cursing Ali ibn Abi Talib(the fourth Caliph), instituted by Marwan ibn al-Hakam, at the end of Friday sermons and ordered the following Qu'ranic verse be recited instead: There was an Umayyad tradition of cursing Ali, that is said to have started with Marwan ibn al-Hakam, a practice put to end by Umar II. This is tradition is described in sources such as Sahih Muslim and is prominently mentioned by Shia when retelling the history of...


- Surely God enjoins justice, doing of good and giving to kinsfolk


Sharia

In addition, Umar was keen to enforce the Sharia, pushing to end drinking and bathhouses where men and women would mix freely. He continued the welfare programs of the last few Umayyad caliphs, expanding them and including special programs for orphans and the destitute. He would also abolish the Jizya tax for converts to Islam, who were former dhimmis, who used to be taxed even after they had converted under other Umayyad rulers. It has been suggested that Rule of sharia be merged into this article or section. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on free non-Muslim adult males who are neither old nor sick nor monks [1], in exchange for being allowed to live, practice their faith, subject to certain conditions, and to...


Generally, Umar II is credited with having ordered the first collection of hadith material in an official manner, fearing that some of it might be lost. Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Hazm and Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, are among those who compiled hadiths at `Umar II’s behest. [2]. Hadith collection a Hadith collection is a book that includes several hadith. ... Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Hazm (d. ... Muhammad ibn Muslim ibn Shihab al-Zuhri (d. ...


Military

Though Umar did not place as much an emphasis on expanding the Empire's borders as his predecessors had, he was not passive. Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari states that he sent Ibn Hatim ibn al-Nu'man to repel Turks invading Azerbaijan (v. 24 pp. 74-75). He faced Kharijite uprising and preferred negotiations to armed conflict, personally holding talks with two Kharijite envoys shortly before his death (v. 24, p. 77-78). He recalled the troops beseiging Constantinople (p. 74). These were led by his cousin Maslama. This Second Arab siege of Constantinople had seen Muslim troops courageously fighting Byzantines and Slavs, though at some cost. Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. ... Maslama bin Abdul-Malik (685–738), (Arabic: مَسلَمة بن عبد الملك), was a famous Muslim military commander of the Arabs heralding from the Umayyad Dynasty. ... Combatants Umayyad Caliphate Byzantine Empire, Bulgarians Commanders Maslama Leo III Strength 160,000-200,000 men, 2,000 ships Unkown Casualties 130,000-170,000 men, 2,000 ships Unknown The Second Arab siege of Constantinople (717-718), was a combined land and sea effort by the Arabs to take...


Death

His reforms in favor of the people greatly angered the nobility of the Umayyads, and they would eventually bribe a servant into poisoning his food. Umar learned of this on his death bed and pardoned the culprit, collecting the punitive payments he was entitled to under Islamic Law but depositing them in the public treasury. He died in February, 720, probably the 10th and probably forty years old (v. 24, pp. 91-92) in Aleppo. Old Town viewed from Aleppo Citadel Aleppo (or Halab Arabic: ‎, ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ...


He was succeeded by his cousin Yazid II. Yazid bin Abd al-Malik or Yazid II (687 - 724) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 720 until his death in 724. ...


Quote

Rulers usually appoint people to watch over their subjects. I appoint you a watcher over me and my behaviour. If you find me at fault in word or action guide me and stop me from doing it.

-Umar Ibn Abd al-Aziz


Legacy

While Umar's reign was very short, he is very highly regarded in the Shi'a and Sunni Muslim memory.


Views

Sunni view

He is considered one of the finest rulers in Muslim History, second only to the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs. In fact, in some circles, he is affectionately referred to as the Fifth and last Rightly Guided Caliph. Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first purported visions in the 7th century. ...


Shah Waliullah, a 18th century Sunni Deobandi Islamic scholar stated [3]: It has been suggested that Wali Allah Dahlawi be merged into this article or section. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Deobandi (Hindi: देवबन्दि, Urdu: دیو بندی) is an Islamic revivalist movement in South Asia which has more recently also spread to other countries, such as Afghanistan, South Africa and the United Kingdom. ... Ulema (Arabic: علماء) is the community of legal scholars of Islam and the Sharia. ...

A Mujadid appears at the end of every century: The Mujtahid of the 1st century was Imam of Ahlul Sunnah, Umar bin Abdul Aziz. The Mujadid of the 2nd century was Imam of Ahlul Sunnah Muhammad Idrees Shaafi the Mujadid of the 3rd century was Imam of Ahlul Sunnah Abu Hasan Ashari the Mujadid of the 4rth century was Abu Abdullah Hakim Nishapuri.

A Mujaddid (Arabic: مجدد), in Islamic tradition, refers to a person who, Muslims believe, is sent by God in the first half of every century of the Islamic calendar. ... ijtihad is a technical term of the Islamic law and means the process of making a legal decision by independent interpretation of the sources of the law, the Quran and the Sunna. ... 2nd century AH is a year in the Islamic calendar that corresponds to X – X CE. Battle of Badr Dhu al-Qidah: Treaty of Hudaybiyyah[1]. Safar: Battle of Khaybar [citation needed] Dhu al-Qidah: The first pilgrimage [2] Jumada al-awwal: Battle of Mutah [3] Jumada... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... 2nd century AH is a year in the Islamic calendar that corresponds to X – X CE. 158 AH Yahya ibn Main [1] 161 AH Ali ibn al-Madini [citation needed] 164 AH Ahmad ibn Hanbal [citation needed] 194 AH Shawal 13 Muhammad al-Bukhari [citation needed] 117 AH Abu... Al-Shafii, Arabic jurist (150 AH/767 AD - 204 AH/820 AD). ... 3rd century AH is a year in the Islamic calendar that corresponds to X – X CE. 209 AH Al-Tirmidhi [citation needed] 206 AH Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj [citation needed] 233 AH Yahya ibn Main [1] 234 AH Ali ibn al-Madini [2] 241 AH Ahmad ibn Hanbal [citation... Abu al-Hasan bin Ismael al-Ashari (Arabic ابو الحسن بن إسماعيل اﻷشعري) (c. ... 5th century AH is a year in the Islamic calendar that corresponds to 912 – 1009 CE. 370 AH Avicenna[1] 392 AH Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi [2] 320 AH Ibn Sad[3] 321 AH Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Tahaawee[4] ^ [1] [2] ^ http://www. ... Abu Abd-Allah Muhammad ibn Abd-Allah al-Hakim al-Nishaburi (d. ...

Shi'a view

He is regarded by Shi'a Muslims as having only reformed to some degree the 'Umayyad policies in order to consolidate his own rule and save the Umayyad Dynasty from eradication.


Bibliography

Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari v. 24 "The Empire in Transition," transl. David Stephan Powers, SUNY, Albany, 1989. Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian...


See also

Preceded by
Suleiman
Caliph
717–720
Succeeded by
Yazid II

Suleiman bin Abd al-Malik (c. ... For main article see: Caliphate Caliph is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... Yazid bin Abd al-Malik or Yazid II (687 - 724) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 720 until his death in 724. ...

References

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ http://people.uncw.edu/bergh/par246/L21RHadithCriticism.htm
  3. ^ Izalat al-Khafa p. 77 part 7

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Umar was a great-grandson of the second Rightly Guided Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab, whom the Sunnis regard as one of the Prophet's closest and most prominent companions.
Umar continued to live in Medina through the remainder of al-Walid's reign and that of Walid's brother Suleiman.
Umar learned of this on his death bed and pardoned the culprit, collecting the punitive payments he was entitled to under Islamic Law but depositing them in the public treasury.
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