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Encyclopedia > Umar
Umar
Caliph of the Muslim Ummah
Reign 634 CE – 644 CE
Full name `Umar ibn al-Khattāb
Titles Amir al-Mu'minin
Al-Farooq (The Distinguisher between Truth and Falsehood)
Born 581 CE
Mecca, Saudi Arabia
Died 7 November 644
Medina, Saudi Arabia
Buried Al-Masjid al-Nabawi, Medina
Predecessor Abu Bakr
Successor Uthman Ibn Affan
Father Khattab ibn Nufayl
Mother Hantamah bint Hisham

Umar (Arabic: عمر بن الخطابTransliteration: `Umar ibn al-Khattāb, c. 581 CE – 7 November 644), also known as Umar the Great or Omar the Great was a Muslim convert from the Banu Adi clan of the Quraysh tribe,[1] and a righteous companion of Muhammad. He became the second Sunni Caliph (634644) following the death of Abu Bakr, and is thus regarded by Sunni Muslims as one of the Rashidun (four righteously guided Caliphs). Umar (full name Umar ibn al-Khattāb) was a companion of Muhammad and for the sunnis became the second Caliph (634 – 644); also known in English as Omar. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ... The Tang dynasty of China begins invasion of Koguryo. ... It has been suggested that Amir-al-Muminin be merged into this article or section. ... Events The Sui Dynasty replaces the Northern Zhou Dynasty, the last of the Northern Dynasties in China. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Tang dynasty of China begins invasion of Koguryo. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Masjid al-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet) The Mosque of the Prophet ( Arabic: ) [IPA /mæsʤıd ænːæbæwı], in Medina, is the second holiest mosque in Islam. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... Events The Sui Dynasty replaces the Northern Zhou Dynasty, the last of the Northern Dynasties in China. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Tang dynasty of China begins invasion of Koguryo. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Banu Adi is a clan of the Quraish tribe. ... Quraish (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is the Meccan tribe that the Islamic prophet Muhammad belonged to before he received the revelations of Islam. ... http://www. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ... The Tang dynasty of China begins invasion of Koguryo. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ...

Contents

Name

Umer,Umar, Omer, Omar is an Arabic word which is directly corresponding to the English word "Life", thus Umer means "Life" `Umar ibn al khataab is also referred to as `Umar al-Farūq (meaning: Umar the Distinguisher [between Truth and Falsehood]). He is regarded by Sunni Muslims as the second of the four Khulafā' ar-Rashīdīn (meaning: rightfully-guided caliphs). In English, his name has also been spelled as Omar or Omer. The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs (Urdu: خلفأے راشدین, khalifa-e-rashidoon) refers to the first four caliphs in the Sunni tradition of Islam who are seen as being model leaders. ...


Life

Early life

Part of a series on
Sunni Islam:
Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


Umar


The Rashidun Caliph The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ...




Views: This is a sub-article to Umar `Umar ibn al-Khattāb (c. ... The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ... A famous recorded oral tradition among Muslims (Arabic: hadith) is about the succession to Abu Bakr, the second Sunni Caliph. ... Umar was the second Sunni Caliph and reigned during 634 to 644. ... Umar was the second Sunni Caliph and reigned during 634 to 644 CE. This article details the reforms of Umars era. ... The Pact (Covenant) of Umar (c. ... Umar was the second Sunni Caliph and reigned during 634 to 644 CE. This article details the relation between Umar and the Sahaba. ...

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Umar was born in Makkah. In his earlier years, he worked as a shepherd and a merchant, growing up in humble surroundings.[2] His father was Khattab ibn Nufayl, who is said to have been an emotional polytheist [3]belonging to a middle class family. Umar was literate, which by some accounts was uncommon in those times, and he was also well known for his physical strength, being a champion warrior. Although Umar was a very well respected and honourable man, and came from a family of noble descent, he was just like the rest of Quraysh.‘Omar was like most of Quraysh before Islam, yet after Islam he became one of the greatest men to walk this earth[4] abu bakr was a person who used to be muhammeds friend but he betrayed him at the time then at the end was sorry but it was too late This is a sub-article to [[Umar Umar (died 644) was the second Sunni caliph, regarded by Sunnis as the second... Some recorded oral tradition among Muslims (Arabic: hadith) are about Umar and the Quran. ... This is a sub-section of Sunni view of Umar. ... A famous recorded oral tradition among Muslims (Arabic: Hadith) is about a comment made by Muhammad. ... AS SALAM AU ALIKUM, not to mistaken, this salam was not for shias its only for muslims. ... This is a sub-article to Umar. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... In psychology and common terminology, emotion is the language of a persons internal state of being, normally based in or tied to their internal (physical) and external (social) sensory feeling. ... Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ...


When Muhammad began preaching Islam, `Umar ibn al-Khattāb resolved to defend the traditional, polytheistic religion of Arabia. He was most adamant in opposing Muhammad and very prominent in persecuting the Muslims. In those days the early Muslims lived in fear of their life and often did not openly pray in the kaaba. To overcome this oppression Muhammad explicitly prayed, 'to strengthen the religion with Umar' [1] According to an early story, recounted in Ibn Ishaq's Sīrah, `Umar resolved to assassinate Muhammad. [5] On the way to assassinate Muhammad. Umar met a Muslim who told him to set his own house in order first, as his sister and her husband had converted to Islam. Upon arriving at her house, `Umar found her reciting verses of the Qur'an. This so infuriated him that he began to beat her husband. His sister tried to defend her husband, but in the process, Umar mistakenly hit her. When he saw her bleeding, he regretted what he had done. In order to reconcile himself with her, he promised to read the Ta-Ha sūrah, which she had just been reading. So struck was he by the sūrah's verses, that he accepted Islam that very day. When `Umar later went to inform the chief of Quraish, Abu Jahl, about his acceptance of Islam. Full of jealousness, according to one account, Umar, thereafter prayed openly in Ka'abah as the Quraish chiefs, Abu Jahl and Abu Sufyan were said to have watched in anger. [6] According to the same account, this further helped the Muslims to gain their confidence in practicing Islam openly, since no one dared to interfere with Umar when he was openly praying. Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Polytheism is belief in, or worship of, multiple gods or divinities. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Yasar, or simply Ibn Ishaq (Arabic: , meaning the son of Isaac) (died 767, or 761 (Robinson 2003, p. ... assassin, see Assassin (disambiguation) Jack Ruby assassinated Lee Harvey Oswald in a very public manner. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Sura Ta-Ha is the 20th sura of the Quran. ... Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ... Quraish (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is the Meccan tribe that the Islamic prophet Muhammad belonged to before he received the revelations of Islam. ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Religion stubs ... The Kaaba or Kaabah, is a building located inside the mosque known as Masjid al Haram in Mecca (Makkah). ... Categories: Wikipedia cleanup | Religion stubs ... Abu Sufyan ibn Harb was the leader of the Banu Abd Shams clan of the Quraish tribe, and was the chieftain of the entire Quraish tribe, making him one of, if not the most powerful men in Mecca during the lifetime of Muhammad. ...


Migration to Medina

`Umar was part of the first migration (Hijrah) to Yathrib (later renamed Medīnat an-Nabī, or simply Medina, which means "the city," in 622. [7] where he was one of two chief advisors to Muhammad, the other being Abu Bakr. For other uses, see Hijra. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Events Hijra - Muhammad and his followers withdraw from Mecca to Medina - year one of the Islamic calendar. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


In the following years, he participated at the battles of Badr, Uhud, Khaybar, and the raid on Syria, as well as many other engagements. He was one of Muhammad's companions. In 625, `Umar's daughter Hafsah was married to Muhammad. Combatants Muslims of Medina Quraish of Mecca Commanders Muhammad Amr ibn Hishām Strength 300-350 <900-1000 Casualties 14 killed 50-70 killed 43-70 captured The Battle of Badr (Arabic: ), fought March 17, 624 CE (17 Ramadan 2 AH in the Islamic calendar) in the Hejaz of western... Combatants Muslims Quraysh-led Coalition Commanders Muhammad Abu Sufyan Strength 700 3,000 Casualties 70 dead 22 The Battle of Uhud was fought on 23 March, 625, between a force from the small Muslim community of Medina, in what is now north-western Arabia, and a force from Mecca, the... Combatants Muslim army Jews of Khaybar oasis Commanders Muhammad  ? Strength 1,600  ? Casualties 16  ? The Battle of Khaybar was fought in the year 629 between Muhammad and his followers against the Jews living in the oasis of Khaybar, located 150 kilometers (95 miles) from Medina in the north-western part... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Hafsa bint Umar was the daughter of Umar ibn al-Khattab and wife of Muhammad. ...


Caliphate of Abu Bakr

Abu Bakr was chosen as the new leader, the Khalifah, of the community by a group of men gathered in Saqeefah Bani Saadah, in Medina. The Muslims who were natives of Medina, the Ansar, had met separately and were planning to elect their own leader. This would have split the community between the natives of Medinas and the immigrants from Mecca, known as the Muhajirs. Finally, both Abu Bakr and Umar arrived at the meeting, and, after a day of deliberations, Umar took the initiative by publicly giving his allegiance to Abu Bakr. The Ansar followed suit, and swore allegiance to Abu Bakr, pointing to various hints given by Muhammad that Abu Bakr should be his successor. Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Ansar is A Islamic term that literally means helper and denotes the Medinan citizens that helped Muhammad and the Muhajirun on the arival to the city after the Migration to Medina // Abd-Allah ibn Ubaiy — chief [1] Sad ibn Ubadah, the chief of the Khazraj[2] Hassan ibn Thabit... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


Abu Bakr was Caliph for only a short time. Most of his caliphate was occupied with the Ridda Wars, in which tribes who tried to desert the Muslim alliance were brought to heel. Umar was one of his chief advisors. Just before his death in 634, Abū Bakr appointed Umar as his successor. Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... The Ridda wars (also known as the Riddah wars and the Wars of Apostasy) were a set of military campaigns against apostasy and rebellion against the Caliph Abu Bakr during 632 and 633 AD, following the death of Muhammad(S). ... Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ... For other people named Abu Bakar, see Abu Bakr (name). ...


Umar's Reign as a caliph

Main article: Reforms of Umar's era

During Umar's reign, the Islamic empire grew at an unprecedented rate, taking Mesopotamia and parts of Persia from the Sassanids (effectively ending that empire), and taking Egypt, Palestine, Syria, North Africa and Armenia from the Byzantines. Many of these conquests followed major battles on both the western and eastern fronts. The Battle of Yarmūk, fought near Damascus in 636, saw a small Muslim army defeat a much larger Byzantine force, permanently ending Byzantine rule south of Asia Minor. A Muslim army achieved victory over a larger force in the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah (c. 636), near the banks of the Euphrates River. During the course of the battle, Muslim general Sa'ad bin Abu Waqqas routed the Sassanid army and killed the Persian general Rostam Farrokhzād. Umar was the second Sunni Caliph and reigned during 634 to 644 CE. This article details the reforms of Umars era. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Persia redirects here. ... The Sassanid Empire in the time of Shapur I; the conquest of Cappadocia was temporary Official language Pahlavi (Middle Persian) Dominant Religion Zoroastrianism Capital Ctesiphon Sovereigns Shahanshah of the Iran (Eranshahr) First Ruler Ardashir I Last Ruler Yazdegerd III Establishment 224 AD Dissolution 651 AD Part of the History of... A 2003 satellite image of the region. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs Commanders Theodore the Sacellarius Baänes Khalid ibn Walid Strength About 200,000 About 24,000 Casualties Very Heavy,About 50,000 Unknown,Relativly low The Battle of Yarmuk (also spelled Yarmuq or Hieromyax) took place between the Muslim Arabs and the Byzantine Empire in... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Events April 20 - Battle of Yarmuk - Byzantine Empire loses Syria to the Arabs The Arabs invade Persia Rothari marries queen Gundeparga, becomes king of the Lombards city of Basra Iraq founded by caliph Omar on a canal. ... The battle of Qādisiyyah (Qadisiyya, Qadisiyyah, Kadisiya) was the decisive engagement between the Arab Muslim army and the Sāsānian Persian army during the first period of Islamic expansion which resulted in the Islamic conquest of Iran. ... Events April 20 - Battle of Yarmuk - Byzantine Empire loses Syria to the Arabs The Arabs invade Persia Rothari marries queen Gundeparga, becomes king of the Lombards city of Basra Iraq founded by caliph Omar on a canal. ... The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name for the river, which is in Old Persian Ufrat, Aramaic Prâth/Frot, in Arabic الفرات, in Turkish Fırat and in ancient Assyrian language Pu-rat-tu) is the westernmost of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (Bethnahrin in Aramaic), the other being the... Sa`d ibn AbÄ« Waqqās (in Arabic: سعد بن أبي وقاص) was an early convert to Islam from the BanÅ« Zuhrah clan of the Quraysh tribe. ... Rostam Farrokhzād (رستم فرّخزاد in Persian) was the commander of the Sāsānian Empires armed forced under the reign of Yazdgird III, r. ...


The Treaty of `Umar

Part of a series on
Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...


Schools of Law

HanafiShafi`iMalikiHanbali This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... The Shāfi‘ī madhab () is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam. ... This page deals with Islamic thought. ... Hanbali (Arabic: حنبلى ) is one of the four schools (Madhhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ...

Schools of Theology

MaturidiAsh'ariAthariMu'tazili Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... In Islam, one who follows Abu Mansur Al Maturidis theology, which is a close variant of Ashari school of thought. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Athari ((al-Athariyya), the textualists, from the word Athar, report) is the smallest of the four schools of Sunni Islamic theology. ... Mutazilah (Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is a theological school of thought within Islam. ...

Movements

DeobandiBarelwiSalafi The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ... The Deobandi (Urdu: دیو بندی devbandī) is a Sunni Islamic revivalist movement which started in South Asia and has more recently spread to other countries, such as Afghanistan, South Africa and the United Kingdom. ... Barelvi (Hindi: बरेलवी, Urdu: بریلوی) is a movement of Sufism in South Asia that was founded by Ahmed Raza Khan of Bareilly, India (hence the term Barelvi). ... This article is on the beliefs of the followers of the Salaf. ...

Five Pillars

ShahadaSalah
ZakahSawmHajj Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... , // Shāhāda is a town in the northwest corner of Maharashtra state in India, now in Nandurbār District (formerly in Dhule District). ... Salat redirects here. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ...

Rightly Guided Caliphs

Abu Bakr • Umar ibn al-Khattab
Uthman ibn AffanAli ibn Abi Talib The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs (Arabic: ‎ transliterated: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam and in general around the world to refer to the first four caliphs who are seen as being model leaders. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... For other uses of the name, see Umar (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ... Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ...

Hadith Collections
The Six major Hadith collections are the works of some individuals Islamic scholars who by their own initiative started collecting sayings that people attributed to Muhammad approximately 200 years after his death. ...

Sahih BukhariSahih Muslim
Al-Sunan al-Sughra
Sunan Abi Dawood
Sunan al-Tirmidhi
Sunan ibn Maja • Al-Muwatta
Sunan al-Darami
The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... as-Sunan as-Sughra (Arabic: السنن الصغرى), also known as Sunan an-Nasai (Arabic: سنن النسائي) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, and was collected by Al-Nasai. ... Sunan Abu Daud (Arabic: ‎) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections , collected by Abu Daud. ... Jami al-Tirmidhi (Arabic: ‎), popularly Sunan al-Tirmidhi (Arabic: ‎) is one of the Sunni Six major Hadith collections collected by al-Tirmidhi. ... Sunan Ibn Maja is the last compiled of Sunni Islams six canonical hadith collections, compiled by Ibn Maja. ... The Muwatta is a collection of hadith of the Muhammad that form the basis for the jurisprudence of the Maliki school. ... Sunan al-Darami is a Hadith collection consider by some Sunnis to be the sixth of the Six major Hadith collections. ...

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In 637, after a prolonged siege of Jerusalem, the Muslims finally entered the city peacefully following the signing of a treaty by the Patraich of Elya Al-Quds (i.e. Jerusalem) and Umar himself. Several years earlier, the Patriach had announced that he would not sign a treaty with anyone other than the Caliph himself. For this reason, `Umar personally came to Jerusalem after Muslims had established control of all the surrounding territory. According to both Muslim and Christian accounts, `Umar entered the city humbly, walking beside a donkey upon which his servant was sitting. He is said to have been given the keys to the city by the Orthodox Christian Patriarch Sophronius, after conducting the peace treaty known as the Treaty of Umar, the English translation of which is provided below: Events Arabs take Jerusalem Arabs take Aleppo Battle of al-Qadisiyah: Arabs defeat Persian army, take Persian capital of Ctesiphon Battle of Mag Rath: Dalriada influence in Ulster greatly reduced Births Deaths Categories: 637 ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Sophronius of Jerusalem Sophronius (born 560 in Damascus - died March 11, 638 in Jerusalem) was the Patriarch of Jerusalem from 634 until his death. ...

In the name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Beneficent.

This is what the slave of Allah, Umar b.Al-Khattab, the Amir of the believers, has offered the people of Illyaa’[1] of security granting them Amaan (protection) for their selves, their money, their churches, their children, their lowly and their innocent, and the remainder of their people. Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ...


Their churches are not to be taken, nor are they to be destroyed, nor are they to be degraded or belittled, neither are their crosses or their money, and they are not to be forced to change their religion, nor is any one of them to be harmed. This article is about the Christian buildings of worship. ...


No Jews are to live with them in Illyaa’ and it is required of the people of Illyaa’ to pay the Jizya, like the people of the cities. It is also required of them to remove the Romans from the land; and whoever amongst the people of Illyaa’ that wishes to depart with their money together with the Romans, leaving their trading goods and children behind, then they selves, their trading goods and their children are secure until they reach their destination. In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish: cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ...


Upon what is in this book is the word of Allah, the covenant of His Messenger, of the Khulafaa’ and of the believers if they (the people of Illyaa’) gave what was required of them of Jizya.


The witnesses upon this were Khalid ibn Al-Walid, 'Amr ibn al-'As, Abdur Rahman bin Awf and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan. Written and passed on the 15th year (after Hijrah) Khālid ibn al-Walīd (592-642) (Arabic: خالد بن الوليد) also known as Sayf-ullah al-Maslul (the Drawn Sword of God, Gods Withdrawn Sword, or simply Sword of Allah), was one of the two famous Arab generals of the Rashidun army during the Muslim conquests of the 7th Century. ... ˤAmr ibn al-ˤĀs (Arabic: عمرو بن العاص) (born c. ... Abdur Rahman bin Awf, (Arabic: عبد الرحمن بن عوف) (d. ... Mu‘āwīyah ibn Abī Sufyān (Arabic: )‎ (602-680) was a companion of Muhammad and later the Umayyad caliph in Damascus. ...

Then Umar asked the Patriach to lead him to the place of the old Jewish Temple. Umar was shocked to find the site covered in rubbish, as the Romans had initiated the custom of using it as a dung heap. `Umar imemdiately knelt down immediately, and began to clear the area with his hands. When the Muslims saw what he was doing, they followed his example, and soon the entire area of al-Aqsa, approximately 35 acres, was cleaned up. Thereafter, commissioned the construction of a wooden mosque on the southern end of the site, exactly where the present-day mosque of Al-Aqsa stands. Jewish temple: Jewish temple or The Jewish Temple, may refer to the original two ancient Jewish Temples in Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Al-aqsa (disambiguation). ... This article is about the unit of measure known as the acre. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ...


`Umar was then led to the sites of the Foundation Stone by a rabbi, Ka'ab al-Ahbar, who had converted to Islam. The rock was surrounded it by a fence, and several years later an Umayyad Khalif built the Dome of the Rock over the site. the Stone - south is towards the top of the image For the foundation-stone of a building, see Cornerstone. ... Kaab al-Ahbar was a prominent Jewish Rabbi from Yemen, from the clan of Thee Ra-een or Thee al-Kila [2]. He is counted among the Tabi‘in and narrated many Israiliyat [3]. His full name was Abu Ishaq Kaab ibn Mati` al-Humyari al-Ahbar... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount The Dome of the Rock, (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة, translit. ...


Upon taking Jerusalem, `Umar demonstrated the utmost respect for members of the other faiths living in the city. For the first time in 500 years since their expulsion from the Holy Land, Jews were allowed to practice their religion freely and live in the vicinity of Jerusalem. According to the Encyclopedia Judaica, seventy Jewish families took up residence in the city. `Umar also agreed to several pacts, called the Umariyya Covenant, with the local Christian population, determining their rights and obligations under Muslim rule. Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... The Encyclopaedia Judaica is a 26-volume English-language encyclopedia of the Jewish people and their faith, Judaism. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


As a conqueror, `Umar undertook many administrative reforms and closely oversaw public policy. He established an advanced administration for the newly conquered lands, including several new ministries and bureaucracies, and ordered a census of all the Muslim territories. During his rule, the garrison cities (amsar) of Basra and Kufa were founded or expanded. In 638, he extended and renovated the Grand Mosque in Mecca and the Mosque of the Prophet in Medina. He also began the process of codifying Islamic law. At the same time, `Umar also ordered the expulsion of the Christian and Jewish communities of Najran and Khaibar and forbade non-Muslims to reside in the Hijaz for longer than three days. (G. Levi DellaVida and M. Bonner, Encyclopedia of Islam, and Madelung, The Succession to Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him), p. 74) This article is about the city of Basra. ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ... Events Islamic calendar introduced The Muslims capture Antioch, Caesarea Palaestina and Akko Births Deaths October 12 - Pope Honorius I Categories: 638 ... Masjid al Haram Al-Masjid al-Haram (Arabic: ) is a very large mosque in the city of Makkah (Mecca). ... Masjid al-Nabawi (Mosque of the Prophet), Medina Masjid al-Nabawi or Mosque of the Prophet is the second holiest mosque in the Islamic world. ... Shariah (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the body of Islamic religious law. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


As a leader, `Umar was known for his simple, austere lifestyle. Rather than adopt the pomp and display affected by the rulers of the time, he continued to live much as he had when Muslims were poor and persecuted. In 639, his fourth year as caliph and the seventeenth year 17 since the Hijra, he decreed that the years of the Islamic era should be counted from the year of the Hijra. Events Dagobert I succeeded by Clovis II as king of the Franks in Neustria and Burgundy During the Islamic conquest of Persia, Susa is destroyed Births Deaths Pippin I of Landen, father of Gertrude of Nivelles Categories: 639 ...


Narratives from Sunni Islamic literature

According to Sunni tradition, after the siege of Jerusalem, Sophronius welcomed `Umar because, according to biblical prophecies allegedly known to the church in Jerusalem, "a poor, but just and powerful man" will rise as a be a protector and an ally to the Christians of Jerusalem. Sophronius believed that `Umar, a great warrior who led an austere life, was a fulfilment of this prophecy. Sophronius of Jerusalem Sophronius (born 560 in Damascus - died March 11, 638 in Jerusalem) was the Patriarch of Jerusalem from 634 until his death. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


In the account by the Patriarch of Alexandria, Eutichius, it is said that `Umar paid a visit to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and sat in its courtyard. When the time for prayer arrived, however, he left the church and prayed outside the compound, in order to avoid having future generations of Muslims use his prayer there as a pretext for converting the church into a mosque. Eutichius adds that `Umar also wrote a decree which he handed to the Patriarch, in which he prohibited that Muslims gather in prayer at the site. [8] It has been suggested that Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the church building in Jerusalem. ...


Another story tells of the meeting between `Umar and Hurmuzan, a Persian leader who fought against the Muslims, but later converted to Islam.[9] He found `Umar sleeping on the ground after he had sought him out for battle, and was amazed at his humility and austere lifestyle. The story continues that Hurmuzan declared: "You ruled by justice, therefore you became safe; only because of that, you are now able to sleep peacefully anywhere."[10] Persia redirects here. ...

Tombstone of Caliph Umar. The first window from the right gives a view of Umar's grave.
Tombstone of Caliph Umar. The first window from the right gives a view of Umar's grave.

Image File history File links Tombstone_of_Umar_(r. ... Image File history File links Tombstone_of_Umar_(r. ...

Death

Umar died in 644, the victim of an assassin's dagger. His murderer, Abu-Lu'lu'ah, was a Persian slave who is said to have held a personal grudge against Umar. When `Umar ruled in his master's favor, the slave swore to take his revenge. One day when the caliph was leading prayers in the mosque, Abu-Lu'lu'ah walked over to him and stabbed him six times. `Umar died two days later, and was buried alongside Muhammad and Abū Bakr. Uthman ibn Affan was chosen as his successor, by a group of people appointed by Umar before his death. Abu-Luluah (Arabic: أبو لؤلؤة) was a Persian slave who assassinated the Muslim ruler, or caliph, Umar al-Khattab in 23 AH (644–645) CE. His original name was PÄ«rÅ«z (Arabicized: FÄ«rÅ«z, the victorious; other transliterations of his name include Feroz, Firouz, Abu-Loloa... Persia redirects here. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For other people named Abu Bakar, see Abu Bakr (name). ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ... When `Umar was wounded by Abu Luluah and he saw that it was difficult for him to survive because of the deep wound, he formed a consultative committee and nominated for it `Ali ibn Abi Talib, `Uthman ibn `Affan, `Abd ar-Rahman ibn `Awf, az-Zubayr ibn al...


Shi'a view

Main article: Shi'a view of Umar

The Shi'a regard `Umar as an usurper, brute, citing his repudiation of Ali as Muhammad's heir, his role as a fugitive from the battles of Uhud and Hunayn, and his threat of violence against Ali, to induce him to submit to Abu Bakr (see for instance Tabari, I, 1819-20). `Umar is said to have caused the death of Muhammad's daughter Fatima Zahra and her unborn child Muhsen. AS SALAM AU ALIKUM, not to mistaken, this salam was not for shias its only for muslims. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... This article is about Muhammads daughter. ...


Sunni views

Main article: Sunni view of Umar

Sunnis remember Umar as a Farooq, meaning "leader, jurist and statesman", and the second of the rightly-guided Caliphs. He did not seek advancement for his own family, but rather sought to advance the interests of the Muslim community, the ummah. The general Sunni sentiment for Umar is summarized by one of Muhammad's companions, Abdullah ibn Masud: abu bakr was a person who used to be muhammeds friend but he betrayed him at the time then at the end was sorry but it was too late This is a sub-article to [[Umar Umar (died 644) was the second Sunni caliph, regarded by Sunnis as the second... Some recorded oral tradition among Muslims (Arabic: hadith) are about Umar and the Quran. ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Abd-Allah ibn Masud (Arabic: ‎) (d. ...

Omar's submission to Islam was a conquest, his migration was a victory, his Imamate (period of rule) was a blessing, I have seen when we were unable to pray at the Kaabah until Umar submitted, when he submitted to Islam, he fought them (the pagans) until they left us alone and we prayed. [11]

The Kaaba or Kaaba, in the mosque known as Masjid al Haram in Mecca (Makkah), is the holiest place in Islam. ...

Non-Muslim View

Main article: Non-Muslim view of Umar

There has been some criticism that at times Umar treated his wives harshly (he had seven) and one hadith on the permissibility of wife-beating is attributed to him (Sunan Abu-Dawud, Marriage (Kitab Al-Nikah), Book 11, Number 2142 ). He also had his son lashed to the point of death for drinking alcohol (Makiya 2001: 147). On the other hand, he also narrated a hadith that if a master beats a slave for no just cause he must set him free (Sahih Muslim, The Book of Oaths (Kitab Al-Aiman), Book 015, Number 4079). Indeed Umar was very just to prohibit unnecessary SLAVE beatings, peace be upon him. Slavery must be conducted with professionalism only according to him and not to be abused for personal psychotic tendencies. This is a sub-article to Umar. ...



Non-Muslim scholars generally treat Umar as a pivotal figure in the history of Islam, since it was under his aegis that the Muslims expanded outwards from the Syro-Arabian steppe to conquer the Sassanid (Persian) empire and to capture much of the Byzantine Empire's territory in Asia and Northern Africa. They analyze his decisions primarily in military and political terms, while some praise his religious and character judgments. For example, in speaking about his devotedness to Islam, the academic David Norcliffe, stated: Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent The Sassanid dynasty (also Sassanian) was the name given to the kings of Persia during the era of the second Persian Empire, from 224 until 651, when the last Sassanid shah, Yazdegerd III, lost a 14-year struggle to drive out the Umayyad Caliphate... Byzantine redirects here. ... Plato is credited with the inception of academia: the body of knowledge, its development and transmission across generations. ...

Umar was a very pious individual who applied the laws of Islam sternly both to himself and others, and no Muslim would stand against him. [12]

In making reference to Umar's political skills, the Italian orientalist Laura Veccia Vaglieri, was quoted as stating: For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Orientalism is the study of Near and Far Eastern societies and cultures, by Westerners. ... Laura Veccia Vaglieri (1893 - 1989) was an Italian orientalist. ...

if an isolated episode in Arab history, such as Islam was before the death of Muhammad, was transformed into an event of world-wide importance, and the foundations of a Muslim empire which civil wars, lack of unity, and attacks from abroad might shake, but could not destroy, the chief credit for these things must be attributed to the political gifts of Umar.[13]

Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...

See also

The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... The Pact (Covenant) of Umar (c. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... Al-Faruq (R) [1] or Al-Farooq: The Life of Umar The Great [2] is a book written by Islamic scholar Shibli Nomani about Umar. ... In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... The Succession to Muhammad concerns the different viewpoints and beliefs that are held in relation to the succession to the leadership of the Muslim community after the death of Muhammad. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Ahmed, Nazeer, Islam in Global History: From the Death of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) to the First World War, American Institute of Islamic History and Cul, 2001, p. 34. ISBN 073885963X.
  2. ^ Ahmed, p. 35.
  3. ^ Armstrong, Karen, Muhammad (PBUH): A Biography of the Prophet, HarperCollins, 1992, pg. 120. ISBN 0062508865.
  4. ^ Numani, Shibli (2004). `Umar, I.B. Tauris Publishers. ISBN 1850436703. p. 4
  5. ^ Armstrong, p. 128.
  6. ^ Armstrong, p. 35.
  7. ^ Armstrong, p. 151.
  8. ^ The Holy Sepulchre - first destructions and reconstructions
  9. ^ See Occupation of Khuzestan by Muslims
  10. ^ Fatwa pertaining to the authenticity of the story
  11. ^ as-Suyuti, The History of the Khalifas Who Took the Right Way, p. 112
  12. ^ Norcliffe, David, Islam: Faith and Practice, Sussex Academic Press, 1999. p. 48. ISBN 1898723869.
  13. ^ Norcliffe, p. 48.

Mawlana Shibli Numani (in Arabic: شبلي نعماني) was an Indian Muslim scholar (1857 - 1914). ... I.B. Tauris is a publishing house based in London and specializing in non-fiction. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

References

  • Donner, Fred, The Early Islamic Conquests, Princeton University Press, 1981
  • Guillaume, A., The Life of Muhammad, Oxford University Press, 1955
  • Madelung, Wilferd, The Succession to Muhammad, Cambridge University Press, 1997
  • "G.LeviDellaVida and M.Bonner "Umar" in Encyclopedia of Islam CD-ROM Edition v. 1.0, Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands 1999"
  • Previte-Orton, C. W (1971). The Shorter Cambridge Medieval History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

External links

  • Excerpt from The History of the Khalifahs by Jalal ad-Din as-Suyuti
  • Sirah of Amirul Muminin Umar Bin Khattab (r.a.a.) by Shaykh Sayyed Muhammad bin Yahya Al-Husayni Al-Ninowy.
  • [http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=634151545562458477&q=farooq lecture by Syed Muhamemd Irfan Shah Sahib Mashadi on shahadat of Hazrat Umar Farooq (RA)
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Abū Bakr
Rashidun Caliph
634644
Succeeded by
`Uthmān
Imam Al-Suyuti (c. ... Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Abu Bakr As Siddiq (Arabic ابو بكر الصديق, alternative spellings, Abubakar, Abi Bakr, Abu Bakar) (c. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Events The Arabs invade Palestine. ... The Tang dynasty of China begins invasion of Koguryo. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman. ...

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