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Encyclopedia > Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant

In office
March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1877
Vice President Schuyler Colfax (1869-1873),
Henry Wilson (1873-1875),
None (1875-1877)
Preceded by Andrew Johnson
Succeeded by Rutherford B. Hayes

Born April 27, 1822(1822-04-27)
Point Pleasant, Ohio
Died July 23, 1885 (aged 63)
Mount McGregor, New York
Nationality American
Political party Republican
Spouse Julia Dent Grant
Children Jesse Grant, Ulysses S. Grant, Jr., Nellie Grant, Frederick Grant, and Erin Anderson
Alma mater United States Military Academy at West Point
Occupation General-in-Chief
Religion Methodist[1]
Signature Ulysses S. Grant's signature
Military service
Nickname(s) "Unconditional Surrender" Grant
Service/branch United States Army
Years of service 1839-1854, 1861-1869
Rank General of the Army of the United States
Commands Army of the Tennessee, Military Division of the Mississippi, Armies of the United States, United States Army (postbellum)
Battles/wars Mexican-American War

American Civil WarErin's Favorite Thing to Study Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 657 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Ulysses S. Grant Grant Categories: U.S. history images ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other persons named Henry Wilson, see Henry Wilson (disambiguation). ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Categories: Unincorporated communities in Ohio | Clermont County, Ohio | Stub ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Wilton is a town in Saratoga County, New York, USA. The population was 12,511 at the 2000 census. ... GOP redirects here. ... Julia Grant Julia Boggs Dent Grant (January 26, 1826 – December 14, 1902), wife of Ulysses S. Grant, was First Lady of the United States from 1869 to 1877. ... Jesse Grant with his parents Ulysses and Julia Grant in 1872. ... Ulysses S. Grant Jr. ... Nellie Ellen Wrenshall Grant (July 4, 1855 - August 30, 1922), was the third child and only daughter of General of the Army and President of the United States, Ulysses S. Grant and Julia Grant. ... Frederick Dent Grant (May 30, 1850 – April 12, 1912) was a soldier and United States minister to Austria. ... For other uses, see Alma mater (disambiguation). ... USMA redirects here. ... General-in-Chief (Russian: , probably originating from général en chéf), was a full General rank in the Russian Imperial army, the second top in Russian military ranks (the 2nd grade of Table of Ranks). ... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Us_army_general_insignia_1866. ... The Army of the Tennessee was a Union army in the American Civil War, named for the Tennessee River. ... The Military Division of the Mississippi was an administrative division of the United States Army during the American Civil War that controlled all military operations in the Western Theater. ... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... At the Battle of Resaca de la Palma, one of the early engagements of the Mexican-American War, Zachary Taylor engaged the retreating forces of the Mexican Army of the North under Gen. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Mariano Arista Strength 2,400 infantry 2,300 infantry, 1,100 cavalry and 160 artillery 12 guns Casualties 5 killed 43 wounded 102 killed 129 wounded 26 missing The Battle of Palo Alto was the first major battle of the Mexican-American War... The Battle of Monterrey (September 21–September 23, 1846) was an engagement in the Mexican-American War in which General Pedro de Ampudia and the Mexican Army of the North managed to fight US troops to a standstill at the important fortress town of Monterrey. ... Battle of Veracruz Conflict Mexican-American War Date March 9-29, 1847 Place Veracruz, Veracruz, Mexico Result U.S. victory The Battle of Veracruz was a 20-day siege of the key Mexican seaport of Veracruz, Veracruz, during the Mexican-American War. ... The Battle of Molino del Rey turned out to be one of the bloodiest fights of the Mexican-American War. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Nicolás Bravo #, Mariano Monterde School Commandant, Juan N. Perez commander Remants Leon Brigade) Strength 13,000 876 cadets, 4000 regulars Casualties 130 killed 703 wounded 29 missing 862 total 1,800 killed and wounded 823 captured 2,623 Total Gen. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...

Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War. Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Andrew H. Foote John B. Floyd Gideon J. Pillow Simon B. Buckner # Strength 24,531 District of Cairo & Western Flotilla 16,171 Casualties 2,691 (507 killed, 1,976 wounded, 208 captured/missing) 13,846 (327 killed... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Ulysses S. Grant, Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston â€ , P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894), Army of the Ohio (17,918)[1] Army of Mississippi (44,699)[1] Casualties and losses 13,047: 1,754 killed, 8,408... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant John C. Pemberton Strength 77,000[1] ~30,000 Casualties 4,855[2] 32,697 (29,495 surrendered)[2] The Battle of Vicksburg, or Siege of Vicksburg, was the final significant battle in the Vicksburg Campaign of... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Braxton Bragg Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (56,359 effectives)[1] Army of Tennessee (44,010)[1] Casualties 5,824 (753 killed, 4,722 wounded, 349 missing)[1] 6,667 (361 killed, 2,160 wounded, 4... Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee, opposing commanders in the Overland Campaign The Overland Campaign, also known as Grants Overland Campaign and the Wilderness Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June 1864, in the American Civil War. ... Troops in the Siege of Petersburg faced the usual siege armaments — projectiles of all shapes and sizes and attacks on fortifications — but the Union added underground explosives to the mix. ... Eastern Theater operations in 1865 The Appomattox Campaign (March 29 – April 9, 1865) was a series of battles fought in Virginia that culminated in the surrender of Robert E. Lees Army of Northern Virginia and the effective end of the American Civil War. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Animated map of secession, Civil War and re-admission:  States of the Union  Territories of the Union (including occupied territory)  States of the Confederacy  Territories claimed by Confederacy During the American Civil War, the Union was a name used to refer to the twenty-three states of the United States... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Grant first reached national prominence by taking Forts Henry and Donelson in 1862 in the first Union victories of the war. The following year, his brilliant campaign ending in the surrender of Vicksburg secured Union control of the Mississippi and—with the simultaneous Union victory at Gettysburg—turned the tide of the war in the North's favor. Named commanding general of the Federal armies in 1864, he implemented a coordinated strategy of simultaneous attacks aimed at destroying the South's ability to carry on the war. In 1865, after conducting a costly war of attrition in the East, he accepted the surrender of his Confederate opponent Robert E. Lee at Appomattox Court House. Grant has been described by J.F.C. Fuller as "the greatest general of his age and one of the greatest strategists of any age." His Vicksburg Campaign in particular has been scrutinized by military specialists around the world. Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant John C. Pemberton Strength 77,000[1] ~30,000 Casualties 4,855[2] 32,697 (29,495 surrendered)[2] The Battle of Vicksburg, or Siege of Vicksburg, was the final significant battle in the Vicksburg Campaign of... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... McLean house, April 1865. ... Major-General John Frederick Charles Fuller, CB, CBE, DSO, commonly J.F.C. Fuller, (September 1, 1878–February 10, 1966), was a British major-general, military historian and strategist, notable as an early theorist of modern armoured warfare, including categorising principles of warfare. ... Lithograph of the Mississippi River Squadron running the Confederate blockade at Vicksburg on April 16, 1863. ...


In 1868, Grant was elected president as a Republican. Grant was the first president to serve for two full terms since Andrew Jackson forty years before. He led Radical Reconstruction and built a powerful patronage-based Republican party in the South, with the adroit use of the army. He took a hard line that reduced violence by groups like the Ku Klux Klan. Although Grant was personally honest,[citation needed] he not only tolerated financial and political corruption among top aides but also protected them once exposed. The Republican Party of the United States was established in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Reconstruction. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ...


Presidential experts typically rank Grant in the lowest quartile of U.S. presidents, primarily for his tolerance of corruption. In recent years, however, his reputation as president has improved somewhat among scholars impressed by his support for civil rights for African Americans.[3] Unsuccessful in winning a third term in 1880, bankrupted by bad investments, and terminally ill with throat cancer, Grant wrote his Memoirs, which were enormously successful among veterans, the public, and the critics. Sculptor Gutzon Borglum and Presidents Calvin Coolidge selected Washington, Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Lincoln to appear on Mount Rushmore. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... African American history is the portion of American history that specifically discusses the African American or Black American ethnic group in the United States. ... are an autobiography of Ulysses S. Grant, focused mainly on the generals actions during the American Civil War. ...

Contents

Birth and early years

Ulysses Grant Birthplace, Point Pleasant, Ohio
Ulysses Grant Birthplace, Point Pleasant, Ohio

Grant was born in a log cabin in Point Pleasant, Clermont County, Ohio, 25 miles (40 km) east of Cincinnati on the Ohio River. He was the eldest of the six children of Jesse Root Grant (1794–1873) and Hannah Simpson Grant (1798–1883). His father, a tanner from Pennsylvania, was descended from English immigrant to Massachusetts Matthew Grant (1601-1681);[citation needed] his mother was born in Horsham Township, Pennsylvania. In the fall of 1823, they moved to the village of Georgetown in Brown County, Ohio. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1728 × 1152 pixel, file size: 878 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Birthplace of Ulysses Grant in Point Pleasant, Ohio taken by Greg Hume on 5/19/07. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1728 × 1152 pixel, file size: 878 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Birthplace of Ulysses Grant in Point Pleasant, Ohio taken by Greg Hume on 5/19/07. ... Categories: Unincorporated communities in Ohio | Clermont County, Ohio | Stub ... Image File history File links USGrant-Childhoodhome. ... Image File history File links USGrant-Childhoodhome. ... Georgetown is a village located in Brown County, Ohio. ... Georgetown is a village in Brown County, Ohio, United States. ... For other uses, see Log cabin (disambiguation). ... Categories: Unincorporated communities in Ohio | Clermont County, Ohio | Stub ... Clermont County is a county located in the state of Ohio, just east of Cincinnati. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Cincinnati redirects here. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Horsham Township is a township located in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. ... Georgetown is a village in Brown County, Ohio, United States. ... Brown County is a county located in the state of Ohio. ...


Family and friends

On August 22, 1848, Grant married Julia Boggs Dent (1826–1902), the daughter of a slave owner. They had four children: Frederick Dent Grant, Ulysses S. Grant, Jr. (Buck), Ellen Wrenshall Grant (Nellie), and Jesse Root Grant. is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Julia Grant Julia Dent Grant (January 26, 1826 - December 14, 1902), wife of Ulysses S. Grant, was First Lady of the United States. ... Frederick Dent Grant (May 30, 1850 - April 12, 1912) was a soldier and U.S. minister to Austria. ... Ulysses S. Grant Jr. ... Jesse Root Grant (1858 - 1934), the youngest son of President of the United States Ulysses S. Grant and Julia Boggs Dent, was a miner and entrepreneur. ...


Military career

At the age of 17, Grant entered the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, after securing a nomination through his U.S. Congressman, Thomas L. Hamer. Hamer erroneously nominated him as "Ulysses S. Grant of Ohio,"[4] knowing Grant's mother's maiden name was Simpson and forgetting that Grant was referred to in his youth as "H. Ulysses Grant" or "Lyss." Grant wrote his name in the entrance register as "Ulysses Hiram Grant" (concerned that he would otherwise become known by his initials, H.U.G.), but the school administration refused to accept any name other than the nominated form. Grant adopted the form of his new name with middle initial only.[5] Because "U.S." also stands for "Uncle Sam," Grant's nickname became "Sam" among his army colleagues. He graduated from West Point in 1843, ranking 21st in a class of 39. At the academy, he established a reputation as a fearless and expert horseman. Although this made him seem a natural for cavalry, he was assigned to duty as a regimental quartermaster, managing supplies and equipment. USMA redirects here. ... West Point painting West Point is a federal military base (and a census-designated place) located in the Town of Highlands in Orange County, New York. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... Thomas Lyon Hamer (July 1800—December 2, 1846) was a United States congressman and soldier. ... An academic administration is a branch of university or college employees responsible for the maintenance and supervision of the institution and separate from the faculty or academics, although some personnel may have joint responsibilities. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ...


Mexican-American War

Lieutenant Grant served in the Mexican-American War (1846–1848) under Generals Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott, where, despite his assignment as a quartermaster, he got close enough to the front lines to see action, taking part in the battles of Resaca de la Palma, Palo Alto, Monterrey (where he volunteered to carry a dispatch on horseback through a sniper-lined street), and Veracruz. Once Grant saw his friend, Fred Dent, later becoming his brother-in-law, lying in the middle of the battlefield; he had been shot in the leg. Grant ran furiously into the open to rescue Dent; as they were making their way to safety, a Mexican was sneaking up behind Grant, but the Mexican was shot by a fellow U.S soldier. Grant was twice brevetted for bravery: at Molino del Rey and Chapultepec. He was a remarkably close observer of the war, learning to judge the actions of colonels and generals. In the 1880s he wrote that the war was unjust, accepting the theory that it was designed to gain land open to slavery. He wrote in his memoirs about the war against Mexico: "I was bitterly opposed to the measure, and to this day, regard the war, which resulted, as one of the most unjust ever waged by a stronger against a weaker nation".[6] Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... This article is about the twelfth President of the United States. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... At the Battle of Resaca de la Palma, one of the early engagements of the Mexican-American War, Zachary Taylor engaged the retreating forces of the Mexican Army of the North under Gen. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Mariano Arista Strength 2,400 infantry 2,300 infantry, 1,100 cavalry and 160 artillery 12 guns Casualties 5 killed 43 wounded 102 killed 129 wounded 26 missing The Battle of Palo Alto was the first major battle of the Mexican-American War... The Battle of Monterrey (September 21–September 23, 1846) was an engagement in the Mexican-American War in which General Pedro de Ampudia and the Mexican Army of the North managed to fight US troops to a standstill at the important fortress town of Monterrey. ... Battle of Veracruz Conflict Mexican-American War Date March 9-29, 1847 Place Veracruz, Veracruz, Mexico Result U.S. victory The Battle of Veracruz was a 20-day siege of the key Mexican seaport of Veracruz, Veracruz, during the Mexican-American War. ... The Battle of Molino del Rey turned out to be one of the bloodiest fights of the Mexican-American War. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Nicolás Bravo #, Mariano Monterde School Commandant, Juan N. Perez commander Remants Leon Brigade) Strength 13,000 876 cadets, 4000 regulars Casualties 130 killed 703 wounded 29 missing 862 total 1,800 killed and wounded 823 captured 2,623 Total Gen. ...


Between wars

After the Mexican-American war ended in 1848, Grant remained in the army and was moved to several different posts. He was sent to Fort Vancouver in the Washington Territory in 1853, where he served as quartermaster of the 4th U.S. Infantry regiment. His wife, eight months pregnant with their second child, could not accompany him because his salary could not support a family on the frontier. In 1854, Grant was promoted to captain (one of only 50 still on active duty) and assigned to command Company F, 4th Infantry, at Fort Humboldt, California. However, he still could not afford to bring his family out West. He tried some business ventures, but they failed. Grant resigned from the Army with little advance notice on July 31, 1854, offering no explanation for his abrupt decision. Rumors persisted in the Army for years that his commanding officer, Bvt. Lt. Col. Robert C. Buchanan, found him drunk on duty as a pay officer and offered him the choice between resignation or court-martial.[7] Some biographers discount the rumors and suggest Grant's resignation, and his drinking, were both prompted by profound depression. According to this view, Buchanan hated Grant and concocted the drunkenness story years later to protect Buchanan's action in removing the man who became one of the most famous generals in history. The War Department stated, "Nothing stands against his good name."[8] Fort Vancouver Fort Vancouver was a 19th century fur trading outpost along the Columbia River that served as the headquarters of the Hudsons Bay Company in the companys Columbia District (known to Americans as the Oregon Country). ... Categories: Historical stubs | Washington history | U.S. historical regions and territories ... The 1st Battalion, 4th Infantry has served in the defense of the United States for over two hundred years. ... Fort Humboldt State Historic Park, is a California State Park located on the south of Eureka, California just off Highway 101. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Robert Christie Buchanan (March 1, 1811 – November 29, 1878) was an American general who served in wars including the Mexican-American War and the American Civil War. ...


A civilian at age 32, Grant struggled through seven lean years. From 1854 to 1858 he labored on a family farm near St. Louis, Missouri, using slaves owned by his father-in-law, but it did not prosper. Grant owned one slave (whom he set free in 1859); his wife owned four slaves (two women servants and their two small boys).[9] In 1858-59 he was a bill collector in St. Louis. Failing at everything, in humiliation he asked his father for a job, and in 1860 was made an assistant in the leather shop owned by his father and run by his younger brother in Galena, Illinois. Grant & Perkins sold harnesses, saddles, and other leather goods and purchased hides from farmers in the prosperous Galena area.[10] St. ... , Country State County Township Elevation 633 ft (193 m) Coordinates , Area 3. ...


Although Grant was essentially apolitical, his father-in-law was a prominent Democrat in St. Louis (a fact that lost Grant the good job of county engineer in 1859). In 1856 he voted for Democrat James Buchanan for president to avert secession and because "I knew Frémont" (the Republican candidate). In 1860, he favored Democrat Stephen A. Douglas but did not vote. In 1864, he allowed his political sponsor, Congressman Elihu B. Washburne, to use his private letters as campaign literature for Abraham Lincoln[11] and the Union Party, which combined both Republicans and War Democrats. He refused to announce his political affiliation until 1868, when he finally declared himself a Republican.[12]. For other persons named James Buchanan, see James Buchanan (disambiguation). ... John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813 – July 13, 1890), was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery. ... Stephen Arnold Douglas (nicknamed the Little Giant because he was short but was considered by many a giant in politics) was an American politician from the western state of Illinois, and was the Democratic Party nominee for President in 1860. ... Elihu Benjamin Washburne (September 23, 1816–October 22/23, 1887) was one of seven brothers that played a prominent role early in the formation of the United States Republican Party and the Lincoln and Grant administrations. ... War Democrats were those who broke with the majority of the Democratic Party and supported the military policies of President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War of 1861-1865. ...


Civil War

Western Theater: 1861–63

The home of President Grant while he lived in Galena, Illinois.
The home of President Grant while he lived in Galena, Illinois.

Shortly after Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter, President Abraham Lincoln put out a call for 75,000 volunteers. Grant helped recruit a company of volunteers and accompanied it to Springfield, the capital of Illinois. Grant accepted a position offered by Illinois Governor Richard Yates to recruit and train volunteers, which he accomplished with efficiency. Grant pressed for a field command; Yates appointed him colonel of the undisciplined and rebellious 21st Illinois Infantry in June 1861. Image File history File linksMetadata USGrantHomeGalena. ... Image File history File linksMetadata USGrantHomeGalena. ... The Ulysses S. Grant Home, Galena, Illinois. ... , Country State County Township Elevation 633 ft (193 m) Coordinates , Area 3. ... Fort Sumter, a Third System masonry coastal fortification located in Charleston harbor, South Carolina, was named after General Thomas Sumter. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... : Home of President Abraham Lincoln United States Illinois Sangamon 60. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Richard Yates (January 18, 1818 - November 27, 1873) was wartime governor of Illinois. ... The 21st Regiment Illinois Volunteer Infantry was an infantry regiment that served in the Union Army during the American Civil War. ...


Grant was deployed to Missouri to protect the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad. Under pro-Confederate Governor Claiborne Jackson, Missouri had declared it was an armed neutral in the conflict and would attack troops from either side entering the state. By the first of August the Union army had forcibly removed Jackson and Missouri was controlled by Union forces, who had to deal with numerous southern sympathizers. Hannibal and St. ... Claiborne Fox Jackson (April 4, 1806 – December 6, 1862) was a lawyer, soldier, politician, and Governor of Missouri in 1861, then governor-in-exile for the Confederacy during the American Civil War. ...


In August, Grant was appointed brigadier general of volunteers by Lincoln, who had been lobbied by Congressman Elihu Washburne. At the end of August, Grant was selected by Western Theater commander Major General John C. Frémont to command the critical District of Southeast Missouri. John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813 – July 13, 1890), was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery. ...


Battles of Belmont, Henry, and Donelson

Grant's first important strategic act of the war was to take the initiative to seize the Ohio River town of Paducah, Kentucky, immediately after the Confederates violated the state's neutrality by occupying Columbus, Kentucky. He fought his first battle, an indecisive action against Confederate Brig. Gen. Gideon J. Pillow, at Belmont, Missouri, in November 1861. Three months later, aided by Andrew H. Foote's Navy gunboats, he captured two major Confederate fortresses, Fort Henry on the Tennessee River and Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River. At Donelson, his army was hit by a surprise Confederate attack (once again by Pillow) while he was temporarily absent. Displaying the cool determination that would characterize his leadership in future battles, he organized counterattacks that carried the day. Both General Floyd and Pillow, the two senior Confederate commanders fled. The Confederate commander, Brig. Gen. Simon B. Buckner, an old friend of Grant's and a West Point classmate, and senior commander with Floyd and Pillow fleeing, yielded to Grant's hard conditions of "no terms except unconditional and immediate surrender." Buckner's surrender of over 12,000 men made Grant a national figure almost overnight, and he was nicknamed "Unconditional Surrender" Grant. The captures of the two forts with over 12,000 prisoners were the first major Union victories of the war, gaining him national recognition. Desperate for generals who could fight and win, Lincoln promoted him to major general of volunteers. Although Grant's new-found fame did not seem to affect his temperament, it did have an impact on his personal life. At one point during the Civil War, a picture of Grant with a cigar in his mouth was published. He was then inundated with cigars from well wishers. Before that he had smoked only sporadically, but he could not give them all away, so he took up smoking them, a habit which may have contributed to the development of throat cancer later in his life; one story after the war claimed that he smoked over 10,000 in five years. View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... Paducah is a city in McCracken County, Kentucky at the confluence of the Tennessee River and the Ohio River. ... A group of Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government during the American Civil War. ... Columbus is a city located in Hickman County, Kentucky. ... Gideon Johnson Pillow (June 8, 1806 – October 8, 1878) was an American lawyer, politician, and Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Charleston defenses, Belmont battlefield by Julius Bien & Co. ... Andrew Hull Foote (12 September 1806 _ 26 June 1863) was an admiral in the United States Navy who served during the Civil War. ... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Andrew H. Foote Lloyd Tilghman # Strength 15,000 plus the 7 ships of the Western Flotilla 3,000–3,400 Casualties and losses 40 129[1] The Battle of Fort Henry was fought February 6, 1862, in western Tennessee, during... A riverboat passing under the Henley Street Bridge on the Tennessee River. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Andrew H. Foote John B. Floyd Gideon J. Pillow Simon B. Buckner # Strength 24,531 District of Cairo & Western Flotilla 16,171 Casualties 2,691 (507 killed, 1,976 wounded, 208 captured/missing) 13,846 (327 killed... The Cumberland River is an important waterway in the southern United States. ... Simon Bolivar Buckner Simon Bolivar Buckner (April 1, 1823 – January 8, 1914) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War, the officer who yielded to Ulysses S. Grants famous demand for unconditional surrender at the Battle of...


Despite his significant victories (or perhaps because of them), Grant fell out of favor with his superior, Major General Henry W. Halleck. Halleck had a particular distaste for drunks and, believing Grant was an alcoholic, was biased against him from the beginning. After Grant visited Nashville, Tennessee, where he met with Halleck's rival, Don Carlos Buell, Halleck used the visit as an excuse to relieve Grant on March 2 of field command of a newly launched expedition up the Tennessee River. Personal intervention from President Lincoln caused Halleck to restore Grant to field command of the expedition, and on March 17 he joined his army at Savannah, Tennessee. At this juncture, Grant's command was known as the Army of West Tennessee; soon, however, it would acquire its more famous name as the Army of the Tennessee. Henry Wager Halleck (1815 - 1872) was an American soldier and politician. ... Nashville redirects here. ... Don Carlos Buell Don Carlos Buell (March 23, 1818 – November 19, 1898) was a career U.S. Army officer who fought in the Seminole War, the Mexican-American War, and the Civil War. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Army of West Tennessee was a Union army commanded by Major General Ulysses S. Grant which was to become the famous Army of the Tennessee. ... The Army of the Tennessee was a Union army in the American Civil War, named for the Tennessee River. ...


Shiloh

General Grant at Cold Harbor, photographed by Mathew Brady in 1864

In early April 1862, Grant was surprised by Generals Albert Sidney Johnston and P.G.T. Beauregard at the Battle of Shiloh. The sheer violence of the Confederate attack sent the Union forces reeling. Nevertheless, Grant refused to retreat. With grim determination, he stabilized his line. Then, on the second day, with the help of timely reinforcements, Grant counterattacked and turned a serious reverse into a victory. Ulysses S. Grant by Mathew Brady This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Ulysses S. Grant by Mathew Brady This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 108,000 62,000 Casualties 13,000 2,500 The Battle of Cold Harbor, the final battle of Union Lt. ... Mathew B. Brady, circa 1875 For other persons named Matthew Brady, see Matthew Brady (disambiguation). ... Albert Sidney Johnston Albert Sidney Johnston (February 2, 1803 – April 6, 1862) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard Pierre Gustave Toutant de Beauregard (BO-rih-gahrd) (May 28, 1818 – February 20, 1893), best known as a general for the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was also a writer, civil servant, and inventor. ... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Ulysses S. Grant, Don Carlos Buell Albert Sidney Johnston â€ , P.G.T. Beauregard Strength Army of West Tennessee (48,894), Army of the Ohio (17,918)[1] Army of Mississippi (44,699)[1] Casualties and losses 13,047: 1,754 killed, 8,408...


The victory at Shiloh came at a high price; with over 23,000 casualties, it was the bloodiest battle in the history of the United States up to that time. Halleck responded to the surprise and the disorganized nature of the fighting by taking command of the army in the field himself, on April 30 relegating Grant to the powerless position of second-in-command for the campaign against Corinth, Mississippi. Despondent over his awkward position, Grant explored the possibility of obtaining an assignment elsewhere and might have left the army altogether after the Union forces occupied Corinth on May 30. However, the intervention of his subordinate and good friend, William T. Sherman, caused him to remain. He was thus in position to play an increasingly important role in the West when, in July 1862, Halleck was promoted to general-in-chief of the Union Army and called to Washington. Grant commanded the Army of the Tennessee for the battles of Corinth and Iuka that fall. is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Henry W. Halleck P.G.T. Beauregard Strength roughly 120,000 nearly 65,000 Casualties 1,000 1,000 {{{notes}}} The First Battle of Corinth (also known as the Siege of Corinth) was a United States Civil War battle fought... Portrait of William Tecumseh Sherman by Mathew Brady William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, and author. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders William S. Rosecrans Earl Van Dorn Strength approximately 23,000 approximately 22,000 Casualties 2,359 4,838 {{{notes}}} The Battle of Corinth II was a United States Civil War battle fought from October 3 - October 4, 1862 in Corinth... The Battle of Iuka was a United States Civil War battle fought from October 3 - September 19, 1862 in Iuka, Mississippi. ...


Vicksburg

In an attempt to capture the Mississippi River fortress of Vicksburg, Mississippi, Grant spent the winter of 1862–1863 conducting a series of operations to gain access to the city through the region's bayous. These attempts failed. For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... Lithograph of the Mississippi River Squadron running the Confederate blockade at Vicksburg on April 16, 1863. ...


However, his strategy to take Vicksburg in 1863 is considered one of the most masterful in military history. Grant marched his troops down the west bank of the Mississippi and crossed the river by using U.S. Navy ships that had run the guns at Vicksburg. There, he moved inland and—in a daring move that defied conventional military principles—cut loose from most of his supply lines.[13] Operating in enemy territory, Grant moved swiftly, never giving the Confederates, under the command of John C. Pemberton, an opportunity to concentrate their forces against him. Grant's army went eastward, captured the city of Jackson, Mississippi, and severed the rail line to Vicksburg. The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... John C. Pemberton John Clifford Pemberton (August 10, 1814 – July 13, 1881), was a career U.S. Army officer and Confederate general in the American Civil War, noted for his defeat and surrender in the critical Battle of Vicksburg. ... This article is about Jackson, the city and related subjects within the city. ...

Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant

Knowing that the Confederates could no longer send reinforcements to the Vicksburg garrison, Grant turned west and won the Battle of Champion Hill. The Confederates retreated inside their fortifications at Vicksburg, and Grant promptly surrounded the city. Finding that assaults against the impregnable breastworks were futile, he settled in for a six-week siege. Cut off and with no possibility of relief, Pemberton surrendered to Grant on July 4, 1863. It was a devastating defeat for the Southern cause, effectively splitting the Confederacy in two, and, in conjunction with the Union victory at Gettysburg the previous day, is widely considered the turning point of the war. For this victory, President Lincoln promoted Grant to the rank of major general in the regular army, effective July 4. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (558x778, 54 KB) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (558x778, 54 KB) http://hdl. ... Grants Operations against Vicksburg The Battle of Champion Hill, or Bakers Creek, fought May 16, 1863, was the pivotal battle in the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant John C. Pemberton Strength 77,000[1] ~30,000 Casualties 4,855[2] 32,697 (29,495 surrendered)[2] The Battle of Vicksburg, or Siege of Vicksburg, was the final significant battle in the Vicksburg Campaign of... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing... There is widespread disagreement over the turning point of the American Civil War. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


A distinguished British historian has written that "we must go back to the campaigns of Napoleon to find equally brilliant results accomplished in the same space of time with such a small loss." Lincoln said after the capture of Vicksburg and after the lost opportunity after Gettysburg, "Grant is my man and I am his the rest of the War."


Chattanooga

After the Battle of Chickamauga Union general William S. Rosecrans retreated to Chattanooga, Tennessee. Confederate Braxton Bragg followed to Lookout Mountain, surrounding the Federals on three sides. On October 17, Grant was placed in command of the Military Division of Mississippi, which included Chattanooga. He immediately relieved Rosecrans and replaced him with George H. Thomas. Devising a plan known as the "Cracker Line", Thomas' chief engineer, William F. "Baldy" Smith opened a new supply route to Chattanooga, helping to better supply the Army of the Cumberland. Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders William S. Rosecrans George H. Thomas Braxton Bragg James Longstreet Strength Army of the Cumberland (56,965) Army of Tennessee (70,000) Casualties and losses 16,170 (1,657 killed, 9,756 wounded, 4,757 captured/missing) 18,454 (2,312 killed, 14... William Starke Rosecrans (September 6, 1819 - March 11, 1898), nicknamed Old Rosy, served as an American military officer. ... Chattanooga redirects here. ... Braxton Bragg (March 22, 1817 – September 27, 1876) was a career U.S. Army officer and a general in the Confederate States Army, a principal commander in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... View from the top of Lookout Mountain, February, 1864, by George N Barnard Lookout Mountain, actually a plateau, is located at the northwest corner of Georgia, the northeast corner of Alabama, and along the southern border of Tennessee near Chattanooga. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... General George H. Thomas George Henry Thomas (July 31, 1816 – March 28, 1870), the Rock of Chickamauga, was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general during the American Civil War. ... William F. Baldy Smith William Farrar Smith (February 17, 1824 – February 28, 1903), was a civil engineer, a police commissioner, and Union general in the American Civil War. ...


Upon reprovisioning and reinforcing, the morale of Union troops lifted. In late November, they went on the offensive. The Battle of Chattanooga started out with Sherman's failed attack on the Confederate right. He not only attacked the wrong mountain but committed his troops piecemeal, allowing them to be defeated by one Confederate division. In response, Grant ordered Thomas to launch a demonstration on the center, which could draw defenders away from Sherman. Thomas waited until he was certain that Hooker, with reinforcements from the Army of the Potomac, was engaged on the Confederate left before he launched the Army of the Cumberland at the center of the Confederate line. Hooker's men broke the Confederate left, while Thomas' men made an unexpected but spectacular charge straight up Missionary Ridge and broke the fortified center of the Confederate line. Grant was initially angry at Thomas that his orders for a demonstration were exceeded, but the assaulting wave sent the Confederates into a head-long retreat, opening the way for the Union to invade Atlanta, Georgia, and the heart of the Confederacy. Grant reportedly said afterward, "Damn, I had nothing to do with this battle," according to Hooker. Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Braxton Bragg Strength Military Division of the Mississippi (56,359 effectives)[1] Army of Tennessee (44,010)[1] Casualties 5,824 (753 killed, 4,722 wounded, 349 missing)[1] 6,667 (361 killed, 2,160 wounded, 4... Missionary Ridge is a geographic feature in Chattanooga, Tennessee, site of the Battle of Missionary Ridge, a battle in the American Civil War, fought on November 25, 1863. ... Atlanta redirects here. ...


Grant's willingness to fight and ability to win impressed President Lincoln, who appointed him lieutenant general in the regular army—a rank not awarded since George Washington (or Winfield Scott's brevet appointment), recently re-authorized by the U.S. Congress with Grant in mind—on March 2, 1864. On March 12, Grant became general-in-chief of all the armies of the United States. US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... For other uses of Winfield Scott, see Winfield Scott (disambiguation). ... In the US military, brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank. ... Congress in Joint Session. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


General-in-Chief and strategy for victory

In March 1864, Grant put Major General William T. Sherman in immediate command of all forces in the West and moved his headquarters to Virginia where he turned his attention to the long-frustrated Union effort to destroy the Army of Northern Virginia; his secondary objective was to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia, but Grant knew that the latter would happen automatically once the former was accomplished. He devised a coordinated strategy that would strike at the heart of the Confederacy from multiple directions: Grant, George G. Meade, and Benjamin Franklin Butler against Lee near Richmond; Franz Sigel in the Shenandoah Valley; Sherman to invade Georgia, defeat Joseph E. Johnston, and capture Atlanta; George Crook and William W. Averell to operate against railroad supply lines in West Virginia; and Nathaniel Banks to capture Mobile, Alabama. Grant was the first general to attempt such a coordinated strategy in the war and the first to understand the concepts of total war, in which the destruction of an enemy's economic infrastructure that supplied its armies was as important as tactical victories on the battlefield. General Sherman redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... George Gordon Meade (December 31, 1815 - November 6, 1872) was an American military officer during the American Civil War. ... Benjamin Franklin Butler (November 5, 1818 – January 11, 1893) was an American lawyer and politician who represented Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives and later served as its governor. ... Franz Sigel Franz Sigel (November 18, 1824 – August 21, 1902) was a German military officer and immigrant to the United States who was a teacher, newspaperman, politician, and served as a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Canoeing on the Shenandoah River near Winchester, VA. The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia, from Winchester to Staunton, is bounded by the Blue Ridge mountains to the East and the Allegheny mountains to the West. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... George Crook (September 8, 1828 – March 21, 1890) was a career U.S. Army officer, most noted for his distinguished service during the American Civil War and the Indian Wars. ... William Woods Averell, (November 5, 1892 - February 3, 1900) United States army officer. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Nathaniel Prentice Banks [sometimes spelled incorrectly Prentiss] (January 30, 1816–September 1, 1894), American politician and soldier, was born at Waltham, Massachusetts. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Mobile Founded 1702 Incorporated 1814 Government  - Mayor Sam Jones Area  - City 412. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ...


Overland Campaign, Petersburg, and Appomattox

The Overland Campaign was the military thrust needed by the Union to defeat the Confederacy. It pitted Grant against the great commander Robert E. Lee in an epic contest. It began on May 4, 1864, when the Army of the Potomac crossed the Rapidan River, marching into an area of scrubby undergrowth and second growth trees known as the Wilderness. It was such difficult terrain that the Army of Northern Virginia was able to use it to prevent Grant from fully exploiting his numerical advantage. Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee, opposing commanders in the Overland Campaign The Overland Campaign, also known as Grants Overland Campaign and the Wilderness Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during May and June 1864, in the American Civil War. ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... The Rapidan River is the largest tributary of the Rappahannock River in North-central Virginia. ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ...


The Battle of the Wilderness was a stubborn, bloody two-day fight, resulting in advantage to neither side, but with heavy casualties on both. After similar battles in Virginia against Lee, all of Grant's predecessors had retreated from the field. Grant ignored the setback and ordered an advance around Lee's flank to the southeast, which lifted the morale of his army. Grant's strategy was not just to win individual battles, it was to fight constant battles in order to wear down and destroy Lee's army. Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 101,895 61,025 Casualties 18,400 11,400 For the French and Indian War battle, see Battle of the Wilderness 1755. ...

Poster of "Grant from West Point to Appomattox."
Poster of "Grant from West Point to Appomattox."

Sigel's Shenandoah campaign and Butler's James River campaign both failed. Lee was able to reinforce with troops used to defend against these assaults. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (860x1166, 420 KB)[edit] Summary TITLE: Grant from West Point to Appomattox / Thulstrup. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (860x1166, 420 KB)[edit] Summary TITLE: Grant from West Point to Appomattox / Thulstrup. ...


The campaign continued, but Lee, anticipating Grant's move, beat him to Spotsylvania, Virginia, where, on May 8, the fighting resumed. The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House lasted 14 days. On May 11, Grant wrote a famous dispatch containing the line "I propose to fight it out along this line if it takes all summer". These words summed up his attitude about the fighting, and the next day, May 12, he ordered a massive assault by Hancock's 2nd Corps that broke a portion of Lee's line, captured 30 artillery pieces, took 4,000 prisoners, and broke forever the famous Stonewall Division. In spite of mounting Union casualties, the contest's dynamics changed in Grant's favor. Most of Lee's great victories in earlier years had been won on the offensive, employing surprise movements and fierce assaults. Now, he was forced to continually fight on the defensive without a chance to regroup or replenish against an opponent that was well supplied and had superior numbers. The next major battle, however, demonstrated the power of a well-prepared defense. Cold Harbor was one of Grant's most controversial battles, in which he launched on June 3 a massive three-corps assault without adequate reconnaissance on a well-fortified defensive line, resulting in horrific casualties (3,000–7,000 killed, wounded, and missing in the first 40 minutes, although modern estimates have determined that the total was likely less than half of the famous figure of 7,000 that has been used in books for decades; as many as 12,000 for the day, far outnumbering the Confederate losses). Grant said of the battle in his memoirs "I have always regretted that the last assault at Cold Harbor was ever made. I might say the same thing of the assault of the 22nd of May, 1863, at Vicksburg. At Cold Harbor no advantage whatever was gained to compensate for the heavy loss we sustained." But Grant moved on and kept up the pressure. He stole a march on Lee, slipping his troops across the James River. Spotsylvania County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 100,000 52,000 Casualties 18,000 12,000 The Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, sometimes simply referred to as the Battle of Spotsylvania, was the second battle in Lieut. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 108,000 62,000 Casualties 13,000 2,500 The Battle of Cold Harbor, the final battle of Union Lt. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The James River at Cartersville The James River in the U.S. state of Virginia is 660 km (410 miles) long including its Jackson River source and drains a watershed comprising 27,019 km² (10,432 square miles). ...


Arriving at Petersburg, Virginia, first, Grant should have captured the rail junction city, but he failed because of the overly cautious actions of his subordinate William Smith. Over the next three days, a number of Union assaults to take the city were launched. But all failed, and finally on June 18, Lee's veterans arrived. Faced with fully manned trenches in his front, Grant was left with no alternative but to settle down to a siege. Nickname: Location in the State of Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States State Virginia County Independent city Founded December 17, 1748 Government  - Mayor Annie M. Mickens Area  - City  23. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee Strength 67,000 – 125,000 average of 52,000 Casualties 53,386 ~32,000 The Richmond-Petersburg Campaign was a series of battles around Petersburg, Virginia, fought from June 15, 1864, to March...


As the summer drew on and with Grant's and Sherman's armies stalled, respectively in Virginia and Georgia, politics took center stage. There was a presidential election in the fall, and the citizens of the North had difficulty seeing any progress in the war effort. To make matters worse for Abraham Lincoln, Lee detached a small army under the command of Lieutenant General Jubal A. Early, hoping it would force Grant to disengage forces to pursue him. Early invaded north through the Shenandoah Valley and reached the outskirts of Washington, D.C.. Although unable to take the city, Early embarrassed the Administration simply by threatening its inhabitants, making Abraham Lincoln's re-election prospects even bleaker. General Sherman redirects here. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Jubal Anderson Early (November 3, 1816 – March 2, 1894) was a lawyer and Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Canoeing on the Shenandoah River near Winchester, VA. The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia, from Winchester to Staunton, is bounded by the Blue Ridge mountains to the East and the Allegheny mountains to the West. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The term Administration, as used in the context of government, differs according to jurisdiction. ...


In early September, the efforts of Grant's coordinated strategy finally bore fruit. First, Sherman took Atlanta. Then, Grant dispatched Philip Sheridan to the Shenandoah Valley to deal with Early. It became clear to the people of the North that the war was being won, and Lincoln was re-elected by a wide margin. Later in November, Sherman began his March to the Sea. Sheridan and Sherman both followed Grant's strategy of total war by destroying the economic infrastructures of the Valley and a large swath of Georgia and the Carolinas. Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 – August 5, 1888) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Eastern Theater operations in 1864 The Valley Campaigns of 1864 were American Civil War operations and battles that took place in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia from May to October, 1864. ... This article is about the historical event. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... Sherman in South Carolina: The burning of McPhersonville. ...


At the beginning of April 1865, Grant's relentless pressure finally forced Lee to evacuate Richmond, and after a nine-day retreat, Lee surrendered his army at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865. There, Grant offered generous terms that did much to ease the tensions between the armies and preserve some semblance of Southern pride, which would be needed to reconcile the warring sides. Within a few weeks, the American Civil War was effectively over; minor actions would continue until Kirby Smith surrendered his forces in the Trans-Mississippi Department on June 2, 1865. McLean house, April 1865. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Portrait of Edmund Kirby Smith during the Civil War Edmund Kirby Smith (1824–1893) was a general in the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, notable for his command of the western Confederacy after the fall of Vicksburg. ... The Trans-Mississippi Department, also known as the Trans-Mississippi Theater or Trans-Mississippi District, was the Confederate military designation for the geographic area of operations west of the Mississippi River during the American Civil War. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1865 (MDCCLXV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Immediately after Lee's surrender, Grant had the sad honor of serving as a pallbearer at the funeral of his greatest champion, Abraham Lincoln. Lincoln had been quoted after the massive losses at Shiloh as saying, "I can't spare this man. He fights." It was a two-sentence description that completely caught the essence of Ulysses S. Grant.


Grant's fighting style was what one fellow general called "that of a bulldog". The term accurately captures his tenacity, but it oversimplifies his considerable strategic and tactical capabilities. Although a master of combat by out-maneuvering his opponent (such as at Vicksburg and in the Overland Campaign against Lee), Grant was not afraid to order direct assaults, often when the Confederates were themselves launching offensives against him. Such tactics often resulted in heavy casualties for Grant's men, but they wore down the Confederate forces proportionately more and inflicted irreplaceable losses. Many in the North denounced Grant as a "butcher" in 1864, an accusation made both by Northern civilians appalled at the staggering number of casualties suffered by Union armies for what appeared to be negligible gains, and by Copperheads, Northern Democrats who either favored the Confederacy or simply wanted an end to the war, even at the cost of recognizing Southern independence. Grant persevered, refusing to withdraw as had his predecessors, and Lincoln, despite public outrage and pressure within the government, stuck by Grant, refusing to replace him. Although Grant lost battles in 1864, he won all his campaigns. The Copperheads were a group of Northern Democrats who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic...


Despite his reputation, deserved or not, as an uncaring butcher, Grant was always concerned about the sufferings of the wounded. Horace Porter who served with him, described a scene of a soldier dying beside a roadside during the battle of Spotsylvania Courthouse, and Grant's reaction as the dying young man was splattered with mud by a passing rider:

The general, whose eyes were at that moment turned upon the youth, was visibly affected. He reined in his horse, and seeing from a motion he made that he was intending to dismount to bestow some care upon the young man, I sprang from my horse, ran to the side of the soldier, wiped his face with my handerchief, spoke to him, and examined his wound; but in a few minutes the unmistakeable death rattle was heard, and I found he had breathed his last. I said to the general, who was watching the scene intently, 'The poor fellow is dead,' remounted my horse, and the party rode on. ... There was a painfully sad look upon the general's face, and he did not speak for some time. While always sensitive to the sufferings of the wounded, this pitiful sight seemed to affect him more than usual.[14]

Historian Michael Korda explained his strategic genius:[15]

Grant understood topography, the importance of supply lines, the instant judgment of the balance between his own strengths and the enemy's weaknesses, and above all the need to keep his armies moving forward, despite casualties, even when things had gone wrong—that and the simple importance of inflicting greater losses on the enemy than he can sustain, day after day, until he breaks. Grant the boy never retraced his steps. Grant the man did not retreat—he advanced. Generals who do that win wars.

After the war, on July 25, 1866, Congress authorized the newly created rank of General of the Army of the United States, the equivalent of a full (four-star) general in the modern U.S. Army.[16] Grant was appointed as such by President Andrew Johnson on the same day. is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with General of the Army (USA). ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... For other persons of the same name, see Andrew Johnson (disambiguation). ...


Reconstruction: Grant and Johnson

As commanding general of the army, Grant had a difficult relationship with President Johnson. Although he accompanied Johnson on a national stumping tour during the 1866 elections, he did not appear to be a supporter of Johnson's moderate policies toward the South. Johnson tried to use Grant to defeat the Radical Republicans by making Grant the Secretary of War in place of Edwin M. Stanton, whom he could not remove without the approval of Congress under the Tenure of Office Act. Grant refused but kept his military command. That made him a hero to the Radicals, who gave him the Republican nomination for president in 1868. He was chosen as the Republican presidential candidate at the Republican National Convention in Chicago in May 1868, with no real opposition. In his letter of acceptance to the party, Grant concluded with "Let us have peace," which became the Republican campaign slogan. In the general election that year, he won against former New York governor Horatio Seymour with a lead of 300,000 out of a total of 5,716,082 votes cast but by a commanding 214 Electoral College votes to 80. He ran about 100,000 votes ahead of the Republican ticket, suggesting an unusually powerful appeal to veterans. When he entered the White House, he was politically inexperienced and, at age 46, the youngest man yet elected president. The Running Machine An 1864 cartoon featuring Stanton, William Fessenden, Abraham Lincoln, William Seward and Gideon Welles takes a swing at the Lincoln administration. ... The Tenure of Office Act, passed in 1867 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson, denied the President of the United States the power to remove from office anyone who had been appointed or approved by Congress, unless the removal was also approved by Congress. ... The Republican Party of the United States was established in 1854 and is one of the two dominant parties today. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Governor Horatio Seymour Horatio Seymour (May 31, 1810 - February 12, 1886) was an American politician. ...


Presidency 1869–1877

The second president from Ohio, Grant was the 18th President of the United States and served two terms from March 4, 1869, to March 4, 1877. In the 1872 election he won by a landslide against the breakaway Liberal Republican party that nominated Horace Greeley. is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Summary Incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant was easily elected to a second term in office despite a split within the Republican Party that resulted in a defection of many key Republicans to opponent Horace Greeley. ... The Liberal Republican Party of the United States was a political party formed in 1872 to oppose the administration of then-President Ulysses S. Grant. ... Horace Greeley (February 3, 1811 – November 29, 1872) was an American editor of a leading newspaper, a founder of the Liberal Republican Party, reformer and politician. ...


Reconstruction

Grant presided over the last half of Reconstruction, watching as the Democrats (called Redeemers) took the control of every state away from his Republican coalition. When urgent telegrams from state leaders begged for help, Grant and his attorney general replied that "the whole public is tired of these annual autumnal outbreaks in the South," saying that state militias should handle the problems, not the Army. He supported amnesty for Confederate leaders and protection for the civil rights of African-Americans. He favored a limited number of troops to be stationed in the South—sufficient numbers to protect rights of Southern blacks, suppress the violent tactics of the Ku Klux Klan, and prop up Republican governors, but not so many as to create resentment in the general population. In 1869 and 1871, Grant signed bills promoting voting rights and prosecuting Klan leaders. The Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, establishing voting rights, was ratified in 1870. Recent historians have emphasized Grant's commitment to protecting Unionists and freedmen in the South until 1876. Grant's commitment to black civil rights was demonstrated by his address to Congress in 1875 and by his attempt to use the annexation of Santo Domingo as leverage to force white supremacists to accept blacks as part of the Southern political polity. For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... We dont have an article called Redeemers Start this article Search for Redeemers in. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... Voting rights refers to the right of a person to vote in an election. ... Amendment XV in the National Archives 1870 celebration of the 15th amendment as a guarantee of African American rights 1867 drawing depicting the first vote by African Americans Amendment XV (the Fifteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution provides that governments in the United States may not prevent a citizen... Not to be confused with Dominica. ...


Grant confronted an apathetic Northern public, violent Ku Klux Klan organizations in the South, and a factional Republican Party. He was charged with bringing order and equality to the South without being armed with the emergency powers that Lincoln and Johnson employed[citation needed]. GOP redirects here. ... A state of emergency is a governmental declaration that may suspend certain normal functions of government, may work to alert citizens to alter their normal behaviors, or may order government agencies to implement emergency preparedness plans. ...


Grant signed a bill into law that created Yellowstone National Park (America's first National Park) on March 1, 1872.[17] Grant also signed into law making Christmas a federal holiday in 1870.[18] Yellowstone redirects here. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... In the United States, a Federal holiday is a holiday recognized by the United States Government. ...


Panic of 1873

The Panic of 1873 hit the country hard during his presidency, and he never attempted decisive action, one way or the other, to alleviate distress. The first law that he signed, in March 1869, established the value of the greenback currency issued during the Civil War, pledging to redeem the bills in gold. In 1874, he vetoed a bill to increase the amount of a legal tender currency, which defused the currency crisis on Wall Street but did little to help the economy as a whole. The depression led to Democratic victories in the 1874 off-year elections, as that party took control of the House for the first time since 1856. Run on the Fourth National Bank, No. ...


By 1875 the Grant administration was in disarray and on the defensive on all fronts other than foreign policy. With the Democrats in control of the House, Grant was unable to pass legislation. The House discovered gross corruption in the Interior, War, and Navy Departments; they did much to discredit the Department of Justice, forced the resignation of Robert Schenck, the Minister to Britain, and cast suspicion upon Blaine's conduct while Speaker.[19] Historian Allan Nevins concludes:[20] Paul Chaim Benedicta Schenck, along with his twin brother, Robert born in 1958 in Glen Ridge, New Jersey, are clergy and pro-life activitists. ...

Various administrations have closed in gloom and weakness ... but no other has closed in such paralysis and discredit as (in all domestic fields) did Grant's. The President was without policies or popular support. He was compelled to remake his Cabinet under a grueling fire from reformers and investigators; half its members were utterly inexperienced, several others discredited, one was even disgraced. The personnel of the departments was largely demoralized. The party that autumn appealed for votes on the implicit ground that the next Administration would be totally unlike the one in office. In its centennial year, a year of deepest economic depression, the nation drifted almost rudderless.

In 1876, Grant helped to calm the nation over the Hayes-Tilden election controversy; he made clear he would not tolerate any march on Washington, such as that proposed by Tilden supporter Henry Watterson . Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was an American politician, lawyer, military leader and the nineteenth President of the United States (1877–1881). ... Samuel Jones Tilden (February 9, 1814 - August 4, 1886) was the Democratic candidate for the US presidency in the disputed election of 1876, the most controversial American election of the 19th century. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Henry Watterson (also known as Marse Henry) (February 16, 1840 - December 22, 1921) was a famous United States journalist who founded the Louisville Courier-Journal. ...


Economic affairs

The Grant administration's first economic accomplishment was the signing of the Act to Strengthen the Public Credit which the GOP Congress had passed after Grant's inaugural in March 1869. The act had the effect that the gold price on New York exchange fell to $310 dollars an ounce — the lowest point since the suspension of specie payment in 1862. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ...


As Jean Edward Smith notes in his 2002 biography on Grant, the presidential treasury secretary Boutwell reorganized the Treasury by discharging unnecessary employees, started sweeping changes in Bureau of Printing and Engraving to protect the currency from counterfeiters and revitalized tax collections to hasten the collection of revenue. These changes soon led the Treasury having a monthly surplus.


The Grant administration reduced the debt by approximately 435 million dollars. That was achieved by selling the growing gold surplus at weekly auctions for greenbacks and buying back wartime bonds with the currency. With this Grant's treasury secretary Boutwell had established a policy which if continued would had paid off the national debt in a quarter of a century. Newspapers like the New York Tribune wanted the Government to buy more bonds and Greenbacks and the New York Times praised the Grant administration `s debt policy.


On other economic fronts Grant administration had several other accomplishments. Under Grant the nation's credit was substantially raised. Taxes were reduced by 300 million dollars. Annual interest rates were reduced by approximately 30 million dollars. The U . S balance of trade was changed from 130 million dollars against the United States to 120 million dollar in favor of the United States. He also reduced inflation and to 1873 bolstered economic recovery. He also promoted economy in federal expenditures. His veto of the Inflation Bill in 1874 saved the aftermath of the Panic of 1873 to get worse and the veto was praised by the financial community and many newspapers.


The Resumption of Species Act of 1875 which was signed by Grant helped to end the crisis in 1879 when the law came in to effect.


He also pressed for internal improvements coupled with increased shipbuilding and foreign trade. He also wanted to enhance and improve the commercial marine.


Foreign affairs

Grant/Wilson campaign poster
Grant/Wilson campaign poster

In foreign affairs, a notable achievement of the Grant administration was the 1871 Treaty of Washington, negotiated by Secretary of State Hamilton Fish. It settled American claims against Britain concerning the wartime activities of the British-built Confederate raider CSS Alabama. He also proposed to annex the independent, largely black nation of Santo Domingo. Not only did he believe that the island would be of use to the navy tactically, but he sought to use it as a bargaining chip. By providing a safe haven for the freedmen, Grant believed that the exodus of black labor would force Southern whites to realize the necessity of such a significant workforce and accept their civil rights. At the same time he hoped that U.S. ownership of the island would urge nearby Cuba to abandon slavery. The Senate refused to ratify it because of (Foreign Relations Committee Chairman) Senator Charles Sumner's strong opposition. Grant helped depose Sumner from the chairmanship, and Sumner supported Horace Greeley and the Liberal Republicans in 1872. Another notable foreign policy action under Grant was the settlement of the Liberian-Grebo War of 1876 through the dispatchment of the USS Alaska to Liberia where US envoy James Milton Turner negotiated the incorporation of Grebo people into Liberian society and the ousting of foreign traders from Liberia.[21] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The American Commission to the Treaty of Washington of 1871. ... Hamilton Fish Hamilton Fish, (3 August 1808–7 September 1893), born in New York City, was an American statesman who served as Governor of New York, United States Senator and United States Secretary of State. ... For other ships named Alabama, see USS Alabama. ... Not to be confused with Dominica. ... U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee of the United States Senate. ... For other persons named Charles Sumner, see Charles Sumner (disambiguation). ... Horace Greeley (February 3, 1811 – November 29, 1872) was an American editor of a leading newspaper, a founder of the Liberal Republican Party, reformer and politician. ... The Liberal Republican Party of the United States was a political party formed in 1872 to oppose the administration of then-President Ulysses S. Grant. ...


Scandals

The first scandal to taint the Grant administration was Black Friday, a gold-speculation financial crisis in September 1869, set up by Wall Street manipulators Jay Gould and James Fisk. They tried to corner the gold market and tricked Grant into preventing his treasury secretary from stopping the fraud. However, Grant eventually released large amounts of gold back onto the market, causing a large-scale financial crisis for many gold investors. Jay Gould had already prepared and quietly sold out while Fisk denied many agreements and hired thugs to intimidate his creditors. Black Friday, September 24, 1869, also known as the Fisk-Gould Scandal, was a financial panic in the United States caused by two speculators efforts to corner the gold market on the New York Gold Exchange. ... Jay Gould (1836-1892) Jason Gould (May 27, 1836 – December 2, 1892) was an American financier. ... James Fisk, Jr. ...


The most famous scandal was the Whiskey Ring of 1875, exposed by Secretary of the Treasury Benjamin H. Bristow, in which over 3 million dollars in taxes were stolen from the federal government with the aid of high government officials. Orville E. Babcock, the private secretary to the President, was indicted as a member of the ring but escaped conviction because of a presidential pardon. Grant's earlier statement, "Let no guilty man escape" rang hollow. Secretary of War William W. Belknap was discovered to have taken bribes in exchange for the sale of Native American trading posts. Grant's acceptance of the resignation of Belknap allowed Belknap, after he was impeached by Congress for his actions, to escape conviction, since he was no longer a government official. In the United States, the Whiskey Ring was a scandal, exposed in 1875, involving diversion of tax revenues in a conspiracy among government agents, politicians, whiskey distillers, and distributors. ... Benjamin Helm Bristow (June 20, 1832–June 22, 1896) was an American lawyer and politician who served as the first Solicitor General of the United States and as a U.S. Treasury Secretary. ... Orville E. Babcock Orville Elias Babcock (December 25, 1835 in Franklin, Vermont - June 2, 1884 in Mosquito Inlet, Florida) was an American Civil War general. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... William Worth Belknap (September 22, 1829 – October 13, 1890) was a United States Army general, government administrator, and United States Secretary of War. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... A trading post is a place where trading of goods takes place. ...


Other scandals included the Sanborn Incident involving Treasury Secretary William Adams Richardson and his assistant John D. Sanborn. Another was a problem with U.S. Attorney Cyrus I. Scofield. The Crédit Mobilier of America scandal also ruined the political career of his first vice president, Schuyler Colfax, who was replaced on the Republican ticket in the 1872 election with Henry Wilson, who was also involved in the scandal. The Sanborn Incident is the name applied to an American political scandal which occurred in 1874. ... William Adams Richardson (November 2, 1821–October 19, 1896) was an American judge and politician. ... Cyrus Ingerson Scofield (1843-1921) was an American lawyer and Bible scholar. ... The Crédit Mobilier of America scandal of 1872 involved the Union Pacific Railroad and the Crédit Mobilier of America construction company. ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Summary Incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant was easily elected to a second term in office despite a split within the Republican Party that resulted in a defection of many key Republicans to opponent Horace Greeley. ... For other persons named Henry Wilson, see Henry Wilson (disambiguation). ...

President Grant with his wife, Julia, and son, Jesse, in 1872.
President Grant with his wife, Julia, and son, Jesse, in 1872.

Although Grant himself did not profit from corruption among his subordinates, he did not take a firm stance against malefactors and failed to react strongly even after their guilt was established. When critics complained, he vigorously attacked them. He was weak in his selection of subordinates, favoring colleagues from the war over those with more practical political experience. He alienated party leaders by giving many posts to his friends and political contributors rather than supporting the party's needs. His failure to establish working political alliances in Congress allowed the scandals to spin out of control. At the conclusion of his second term, Grant wrote to Congress that "Failures have been errors of judgment, not of intent." Image File history File links Grants_U-J-J.jpg‎ http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Grants_U-J-J.jpg‎ http://hdl. ... Julia Grant Julia Boggs Dent Grant (January 26, 1826 – December 14, 1902), wife of Ulysses S. Grant, was First Lady of the United States from 1869 to 1877. ... Jesse Root Grant (1858 - 1934), the youngest son of President of the United States Ulysses S. Grant and Julia Boggs Dent, was a miner and entrepreneur. ...


Anti-semitism

Grant's legacy has been marred by charges of anti-Semitism. The most frequently cited example is the infamous General Order No. 11, issued by Grant's headquarters in Oxford, Mississippi, on December 17, 1862, during the early Vicksburg Campaign. The order stated in part: "The Jews, as a class, violating every regulation of trade established by the Treasury Department, and also Department orders, are hereby expelled from the Department (comprising areas of Tennessee, Mississippi, and Kentucky)." The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... General Order No. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Lithograph of the Mississippi River Squadron running the Confederate blockade at Vicksburg on April 16, 1863. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ...


The order was rescinded by President Lincoln on January 3, 1863 and issued on January 7, 1863.[22] Grant maintained that he was unaware that a staff officer issued it in his name. Grant's father Jesse Grant was involved; General James H. Wilson later explained, "There was a mean nasty streak in old Jesse Grant. He was close and greedy. He came down into Tennessee with a Jew trader that he wanted his son to help, and with whom he was going to share the profits. Grant refused to issue a permit and sent the Jew flying, prohibiting Jews from entering the line." Grant, Wilson felt, could not strike back directly at the "lot of relatives who were always trying to use him" and perhaps struck instead at what he maliciously saw as their counterpart — opportunistic traders who were Jewish.[23] It has been largely considered as being outside the normal inclinations and character of Grant, but individuals such as Bertram Korn have suggested that the order was part of a consistent pattern. "This was not the first discriminatory order [Grant] had signed [...] he was firmly convinced of the Jews' guilt and was eager to use any means of ridding himself of them."[24] Portrait of James Wilson during the Civil War James Harrison Wilson (September 2, 1837 – February 23, 1925) was a U.S. Army topographic engineer, a Union Army general in the American Civil War and later wars, a railroad executive, and author. ... Bertram Wallace Korn, 1918-1979, was an historian and rabbi. ...


The issue of anti-Semitism was raised during the 1868 presidential campaign, and Grant consulted with several Jewish community leaders, all of whom said they were convinced that Order 11 was an anomaly, and he was not an anti-Semite. He maintained good relations with the community throughout his administration, on both political and social levels. Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Administration and Cabinet

Grant's second inauguration as President by Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase on March 4, 1873.
Grant's second inauguration as President by Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase on March 4, 1873.
The Grant Cabinet
OFFICE NAME TERM
President Ulysses S. Grant 1869 – 1877
Vice President Schuyler Colfax 1869 – 1873
Henry Wilson 1873 – 1875
None 1875 – 1877
Secretary of State Elihu B. Washburne 1869
Hamilton Fish 1869 – 1877
Secretary of Treasury George S. Boutwell 1869 – 1873
William A. Richardson 1873 – 1874
Benjamin H. Bristow 1874 – 1876
Lot M. Morrill 1876 – 1877
Secretary of War John A. Rawlins 1869
William W. Belknap 1869 – 1876
Alphonso Taft 1876
J. Donald Cameron 1876 – 1877
Attorney General Ebenezer R. Hoar 1869 – 1870
Amos T. Akerman 1870 – 1871
George H. Williams 1871 – 1875
Edwards Pierrepont 1875 – 1876
Alphonso Taft 1876 – 1877
Postmaster General John A. J. Creswell 1869 – 1874
James W. Marshall 1874
Marshall Jewell 1874 – 1876
James N. Tyner 1876 – 1877
Secretary of the Navy Adolph E. Borie 1869
George M. Robeson 1869 – 1877
Secretary of the Interior Jacob D. Cox 1869 – 1870
Columbus Delano 1870 – 1875
Zachariah Chandler 1875 – 1877


Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (756x875, 132 KB) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (756x875, 132 KB) http://hdl. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Senator from Ohio, Governor of Ohio, as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... The Vice President of the United States[1] (sometimes referred to as VPOTUS,[2] Veep, or VP) is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other persons named Henry Wilson, see Henry Wilson (disambiguation). ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... Elihu Benjamin Washburne (September 23, 1816–October 22/23, 1887) was one of seven brothers that played a prominent role early in the formation of the United States Republican Party and the Lincoln and Grant administrations. ... Hamilton Fish Hamilton Fish, (3 August 1808–7 September 1893), born in New York City, was an American statesman who served as Governor of New York, United States Senator and United States Secretary of State. ... The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and, until 2003, some issues of national security and defense. ... George Sewall Boutwell (January 28, 1818–February 27, 1905) was an American statesman who served as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Ulysses S. Grant. ... William Adams Richardson (November 2, 1821–October 19, 1896) was an American judge and politician. ... Benjamin Helm Bristow (June 20, 1832–June 22, 1896) was an American lawyer and politician who served as the first Solicitor General of the United States and as a U.S. Treasury Secretary. ... Lot Myrick Morrill (May 13, 1813 – January 10, 1883) was an American statesman who served as Governor of Maine, and in the United States Senate and as Secretary of the Treasury. ... The Secretary of War was a member of the United States Presidents Cabinet, beginning with George Washingtons administration. ... John Aaron Rawlins (February 13, 1831–September 6, 1869) was an American military man and U.S. Secretary of War. ... William Worth Belknap (September 22, 1829 – October 13, 1890) was a United States Army general, government administrator, and United States Secretary of War. ... Alphonso Taft (November 5, 1810 – May 21, 1891) was the Attorney General and Secretary of War under President Ulysses S. Grant and the founder of an American political dynasty. ... James Donald Cameron (May 14, 1833–August 30, 1918) was an American politician. ... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Ebenezer Rockwood Hoar (February 21, 1816–January 31, 1895) was an American politician. ... Amos Tappan Akerman (February 23, 1821 - December 21, 1880) served as United States Attorney General under President Ulysses S. Grant from 1870-1872. ... George Henry Williams (March 23, 1823–April 4, 1910) was an American judge and statesman. ... Edwards Pierrepont (March 4, 1817 – March 6, 1892) was an American statesman, jurist and lawyer. ... Alphonso Taft (November 5, 1810 – May 21, 1891) was the Attorney General and Secretary of War under President Ulysses S. Grant and the founder of an American political dynasty. ... The United States Postmaster General is the executive head of the United States Postal Service. ... John Angel James Creswell (November 18, 1828 – December 23, 1891) was an American politician. ... James William Marshall (August 14, 1822 – February 5, 1910) was a United States Postmaster General under President Ulysses S. Grant. ... Marshall Jewell (1825–1883) was a U.S. political figure. ... James Noble Tyner (1826 - 1904) was a significant U.S. administrator. ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... Adolph Edward Borie (1809-1880) was a United States politician who briefly served (1869) as Secretary of the Navy in the Grant administration. ... George Maxwell Robeson (1829–1897) was a New Jersey lawyer and politician who served as a Union general during the Civil War, and then as Secretary of the Navy during the Grant administration. ... The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior, concerned with such matters as national parks and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... Jacob Dolson Cox (October 27, 1828 - August 4, 1900) was an officer in the Union Army during the Civil War and later a Republican politician from Ohio. ... Columbus Delano, born June 4, 1809 Shoreham, Vermont, United States – died October 23, 1896 in Mount Vernon, Ohio, was a lawyer and a statesman, and a member of the prominent Delano family. ... Zachariah Chandler (December 10, 1813 – November 1, 1879) was Mayor of Detroit (1851–52), a four-term U.S. Senator from the state of Michigan (1857–75, 1879), and Secretary of the Interior under U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant (1875–77). ...

Supreme Court appointments

Grant appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States: The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ...

The Running Machine An 1864 cartoon featuring Stanton, William Fessenden, Abraham Lincoln, William Seward and Gideon Welles takes a swing at the Lincoln administration. ... Justice William Strong William Strong (May 6, 1808 - August 19, 1895) was an American jurist and politician. ... Joseph Philo Bradley (March 14, 1813-January 22, 1892), was an American jurist. ... Ward Hunt (June 14, 1810-March 24, 1886), was an American jurist and politician. ... Categories: People stubs | Chief Justices of the U.S. | 1816 births | 1888 deaths ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial...

States admitted to the Union

Official language(s) English Demonym Coloradan Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th in the US  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ...

Government agencies instituted

Ulysses S. Grant in his postbellum.
Ulysses S. Grant in his postbellum.

Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building, Washington, D.C. For animal rights group, see Justice Department (JD) The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the... The United States Solicitor General is the individual appointed to argue for the Government of the United States in front of the Supreme Court of the United States, when the government is party to a case. ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the 21st President of the United States. ... -1... US Public Health Service US Public Health Service Collar Device US Public Health Service Cap Device The Surgeon General of the United States is the head of the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC) and thus the leading spokesperson on matters of public health in the U.S... The National Weather Service (NWS) is one of the six scientific agencies that make up the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States government. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (587x930, 90 KB) http://hdl. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (587x930, 90 KB) http://hdl. ...

Post presidency

World Tour 1877-1879

After the end of his second term in the White House, Grant spent over two years traveling the world with his wife. He visited Ireland, Scotland, and England; the crowds were huge. The Grants dined with Queen Victoria at Windsor Castle and with Prince Bismarck in Germany. They also visited Russia, Egypt, the Holy Land, Siam(Thailand), and Burma. In Japan, they were cordially received by Emperor Meiji and Empress Shōken at the Imperial Palace. Today in the Shibakoen section of Tokyo, a tree still stands that Grant planted during his stay. Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... Alternate meanings: See Bismarck (disambiguation). ... Emperor Meiji ) (November 3, 1852 — July 30, 1912) was the 122nd emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from February 3, 1867 until his death. ... Empress Shōken in Western garb, a sign of the reform taken under the Meiji era Empress Shōken ) (28 May 1849 - 19 April 1914) was empress consort of Japan as the wife of Emperor Meiji. ... Places Kokyo the Japanese Imperial palace in the Chiyoda ward of Tokyo; The Forbidden City in Beijing; Hofburg Imperial Palace in Vienna; Imperial Palace hotel and casino on the Las Vegas Strip; Imperial Palace from Star Wars. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ...


In 1879, the Meiji government of Japan announced the annexation of the Ryukyu Islands. China objected, and Grant was asked to arbitrate the matter. He decided that Japan's claim to the islands was stronger and ruled in Japan's favor. The Meiji period ), or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running, in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July 1912. ... Location of Ryukyu Islands The Ryukyu Islands, in Japanese called the Nansei Islands ) are a chain of Japanese islands in the western Pacific Ocean at the eastern limit of the East China Sea. ...


That same year, Grant was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Wisconsin Medical School.


Third Term attempt in 1880

In 1879, the "Stalwart" faction of the Republican Party led by Senator Roscoe Conkling sought to nominate Grant for a third term as president. He counted on strong support from the business men, the old soldiers, and the Methodist church. Publicly Grant said nothing, but privately he wanted the job and encouraged his men.[25] His popularity was fading however, and while he received more than 300 votes in each of the 36 ballots of the 1880 convention, the nomination went to James A. Garfield. Grant campaigned for Garfield, who won by a very narrow margin. Grant supported his Stalwart ally Conkling against Garfield in the terrific battle over patronage in spring 1881 that culminated in Garfield's assassination. The Stalwarts were a faction of the United States Republican Party, towards the end of the 19th century. ... Roscoe Conkling (October 30, 1829–April 18, 1888) was a United States politician from New York. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For his son, also a prominent politician, see James Rudolph Garfield. ...


Bankruptcy

Grant writing his memoirs.
Grant writing his memoirs.

In 1881, Grant purchased a house in New York City and placed almost all of his financial assets into an investment banking partnership with Ferdinand Ward, as suggested by Grant's son Buck (Ulysses, Jr.), who was having success on Wall Street. Ward swindled Grant (and other investors who had been encouraged by Grant) in 1884, bankrupted the company, Grant & Ward, and fled. Image File history File links Grant-1885. ... Image File history File links Grant-1885. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... There are several people called Ferdinand Ward: Ferdinand Ward (fraudster), a 19th century financial fraudster, who profited from association with ex-President Ulysses S. Grant. ... Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ...


Last days

Grant appears on the U.S. $50 bill.
Grant appears on the U.S. $50 bill.

Grant learned at the same time that he was suffering from throat cancer. Grant and his family were left destitute; at the time retired U.S. Presidents were not given pensions, and Grant had forfeited his military pension when he assumed the office of President. It was not until 1958 that Congress, feeling it inappropriate that a former president or his wife might be poverty-stricken, passed a bill granting a pension to such individuals, a practice that continues to this day. Grant first wrote several articles on his Civil War campaigns for The Century Magazine, which were warmly received. Mark Twain offered Grant a generous contract for the publication of his memoirs, including 75% of the book's sales as royalties. Downloaded from U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing | New Money | Media Center: http://www. ... Downloaded from U.S. Bureau of Engraving and Printing | New Money | Media Center: http://www. ... 2004 Federal Reserve Note - Obverse 2004 Federal Reserve Note - Reverse The United States fifty-dollar bill ($50) is a denomination of United States currency. ... Esophageal cancer is malignancy of the esophagus. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Century Magazine was first published in the United States in 1881 by The Century Company of New York City as a successor to Scribners Monthly Magazine. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ...


Terminally ill, Grant finished the book just a few days before his death. The Memoirs sold over 300,000 copies, earning the Grant family over $450,000. Twain promoted the book as "the most remarkable work of its kind since the Commentaries of Julius Caesar," and Grant's memoirs are also regarded by such writers as Matthew Arnold and Gertrude Stein as among the finest ever written. are an autobiography of Ulysses S. Grant, focused mainly on the generals actions during the American Civil War. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ...


Ulysses S. Grant died at 8:06 a.m. on Thursday, July 23, 1885, at the age of 63 in Mount McGregor, Saratoga County, New York. His last word was a request, "Water." His body lies in New York City's Riverside Park, beside that of his wife, in Grant's Tomb, the largest mausoleum in North America. is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Wilton is a town in Saratoga County, New York, USA. The population was 12,511 at the 2000 census. ... Saratoga County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Riverside Park is a scenic waterfront public park on the Upper West Side of Manhattan in New York City, consisting of a narrow four-mile strip of land between the Hudson River and the gently curving rise-and-fall of Riverside Drive. ... Grants Tomb, circa 1909 Grants Tomb, 2004 Grants Tomb is a mausoleum containing the bodies of Ulysses S. Grant (1822-1885), an American Civil War General and the 18th President of the United States, and his wife, Julia Dent Grant (1826-1902). ... St. ... North American redirects here. ...

Statue of Grant astride his favorite mount, "Cincinnati", at Vicksburg, Mississippi
Statue of Grant astride his favorite mount, "Cincinnati", at Vicksburg, Mississippi

Statue of General Grant at Vicksburg National Military Park. ... Statue of General Grant at Vicksburg National Military Park. ...

In memoriam

  • Grant Avenue, a nine block long, north-south street in the Bronx, New York, is named after Grant. It is parallel and adjacent to Sherman Avenue.
  • Dupont Street, the main thoroughfare in San Francisco's Chinatown, was renamed Grant Avenue in his honor. The famous dragon gate at the entrance to the district is at the corner of Grant and Bush Street.
Monument to Grant on the National Mall
Monument to Grant on the National Mall

Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The M3 Lee was an American tank used during World War II. The British modified version of this tank was called the Grant. ... 2004 Federal Reserve Note - Obverse 2004 Federal Reserve Note - Reverse The U.S. fifty dollar bill ($50) is a denomination of United States currency. ... The Ulysses S. Grant Memorial is a monument in Washington, D.C., honoring American Civil War General and United States President Ulysses S. Grant. ... Capitol Hill is the name of a district in the following cities: Capitol Hill, Denver, Colorado Capitol Hill, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Capitol Hill, Seattle, Washington Capitol Hill, Washington, DC It is also a common nickname for the United States Congress and the politicians who serve it (e. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... The Taste of Chicago is held in Grant Park annually around Independence Day. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Bronx redirects here. ... This article is about the state. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... Looking north from Grant Avenue and Sacramento Street in Chinatown, San Francisco. ... Bedford Avenue is the longest[1] street in Brooklyn, New York, stretching 10. ... Crown Heights is a neighborhood in Brooklyn in New York City. ... For other meanings, see Brooklyn (disambiguation). ... The original U.S. Grant Bridge was a suspension bridge. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... Portsmouth is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Scioto County. ... U.S. Highway 52 is an unusual United States highway. ... United States of America, showing states, divided into counties. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Grant County is a county in the U.S. state of Arkansas. ... Grant County (standard abbreviation: GT) is a county located in the state of Kansas. ... Grant County is a county located in the state of Minnesota. ... Grant County is a county located in the state of Nebraska. ... Grant County is a county located in the state of New Mexico. ... Grant County is a county located in the U.S. state of North Dakota. ... Grant County is a county located in the state of Oklahoma. ... Grant County is a county located in the state of Washington. ... Grant County is a county located in the state of West Virginia. ... Grant Parish is a parish located in the state of Louisiana. ... Facing east across the Mall with ones back towards the Lincoln Memorial. ...

Ancestry

For other uses, see Mayflower (disambiguation). ... Richard Warren, among 10 passengers in the landing party, when the Mayflower arrived at Cape Cod, November 11, 1620 On November 21, 1620, Richard Warren cosigned the Mayflower Compact, covenant of equal laws for the Colony Richard Warren (c. ... John Lothropp[1] (born Etton, Yorkshire, 1584; died 1653) was an English Anglican clergyman, who became a Congregationalist minister and emigrant to New England. ... This article is about the American political figure. ...

Anecdotes from Grant's life

Grant Memorial Statue in Grant Park, Galena, Illinois. Julia Grant remarked that it was the best likeness of her husband, as his hands were thrust into his pockets.
Grant Memorial Statue in Grant Park, Galena, Illinois. Julia Grant remarked that it was the best likeness of her husband, as his hands were thrust into his pockets.
  • As a young man, Grant's father, Jesse, taught him the trade of tanning. Jesse Grant had been taught how to tan by Owen Brown, the father of known abolitionist John Brown.[26]
  • When Grant was promoted to Lieutenant General in 1864, he agreed to sit down for photographer Mathew Brady. As the sun had begun to set by the time Grant arrived, Brady instructed one of his assistants to open the shades of the skylight in Brady's studio. The assistant slipped and shattered the skylight, causing two-inch-thick shards of glass to rain down around Grant, who had taken his seat as requested. He was unharmed, and showed "the most remarkable display of nerve" that Brady had ever seen.[27]
  • Grant was known to visit the Willard Hotel to escape the stress of the White House. A long-standing story is that he referred to the people who approached him in the lobby as "those darn lobbyists," implying that he was the source for the term lobbyist. This story is unlikely to be true since there are examples of the term being used in U.S. and British magazines and newspapers before Grant's presidency.[28]
  • While in California, Grant tried selling ice to San Francisco, but failed when it melted in the warm weather aboard the ship.[29]. This anecdote is disputed by Edward G. Longacre in "General Ulysses S. Grant: The Soldier and the Man" (2006) in which he says -- in a referenced statement -- that the ice venture had failed because of "an unexpected glut of [ice] imports from Alaska."
  • In 1883, Grant was elected the eighth president of the National Rifle Association.
  • Grant suffered from tone deafness. He disliked music intensely and would go out of his way to avoid having to hear any other than patriotic songs. In Jeffrey Shaara's The Last Full Measure - which is set after the Battle of Gettysburg, the subject of his father Michael's 1974 bestseller The Killer Angels - Grant is portrayed as saying, "I know only two songs. One is Yankee Doodle. The other isn't." Whether he actually said this is unclear.[30]
  • Grant's wife, First Lady Julia Grant, was cross-eyed. When it was suggested to her that she have an operation to have it corrected, President Grant replied that he liked her that way.[31]
  • Grant's favorite brand of bourbon whiskey was Old Crow.
  • Grant enjoyed eating cucumbers soaked in vinegar for breakfast.[32]

Image File history File linksMetadata Grant_statue. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Grant_statue. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... John Brown (May 9, 1800 – December 2, 1859) was a white American abolitionist who advocated and practiced armed insurrection as a means to abolish all slavery. ... Mathew B. Brady, circa 1875 For other persons named Matthew Brady, see Matthew Brady (disambiguation). ... The main facade of the Willard InterContinental The Willard InterContinental Washington is a historic and expensive hotel located equidistant from the White House and the National Mall in Washington, DC. Among its facilities are numerous luxurious guest rooms, several restaurants, the famed Round Robin Bar, and voluminous function rooms. ... Lobbying is the practice of private advocacy with the goal of influencing a governing body, in order to ensure that an individuals or organizations point of view is represented in the government. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... This article concerns the National Rifle Association of the USA. For the UK organisation, see National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom The National Rifle Association, or NRA, is a non-profit group for the promotion of marksmanship, firearm safety, and the protection of hunting and personal protection firearm rights... A person who is tone deaf lacks relative pitch, the ability to discriminate between musical notes. ... Jeffrey M. Shaara (born 1952) is an American novelist, the son of Pulitzer Prize winner Michael Shaara. ... The Last Full Measure (published May 19, 1998 by Ballantine Books; ISBN 0345404912) is the sequel to The Killer Angels and Gods and Generals. ... Michael Shaara (June 23, 1928 - May 5, 1988) was an American writer of science fiction, sports fiction, and historical fiction. ... The Killer Angels (1974) is a historical novel by Michael Shaara that was awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1975. ... Yankee Doodle is a well-known US song, often sung patriotically today. ... First Lady Laura Bush and former first ladies (from left to right) Rosalynn Carter, Sen. ... Julia Grant Julia Boggs Dent Grant (January 26, 1826 – December 14, 1902), wife of Ulysses S. Grant, was First Lady of the United States from 1869 to 1877. ... Strabismus (from Greek: στραβισμός strabismos, from στραβίζειν strabizein to squint, from στραβός strabos squinting, squint-eyed[1]) is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. ... Bourbon bottle, 19th century Oak casks in ricks used store and age bourbon. ... Old Crow is a brand of Kentucky bourbon whiskey, distilled by Fortune Brands which also produces Jim Beam and several other brands of whiskey Old Crow is supposedly named in honor of Dr. James C. Crow, the Scottish chemist who is said to have invented the sour mash process now... Binomial nomenclature Cucumis sativus Ref: ITIS 22364 The cucumber is the edible fruit of the cucumber plant Cucumis sativus, which belongs to the gourd family Cucurbitaceae, as do melons and squash. ... Vinegar is sometimes infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... Breakfast is the first meal of the day, eaten in the morning. ...

Popular culture references

  • An apocryphal story about Grant's drinking has the general's critics going to President Lincoln, charging the military man with being a drunk. Lincoln is supposed to have replied, "I wish some of you would tell me the brand of whiskey that Grant drinks. I would like to send a barrel of it to my other generals."
  • The question "Who's buried in Grant's Tomb?" was used by Groucho Marx in his radio and TV quiz show, the correct answer to which resulted in a consolation prize to contestants who had won no money. Some contestants thought it was a trick question. Grant's grandson, Ulysses S. Grant IV (a professor of geology at the University of California, Los Angeles) appeared on the program on March 12, 1953.
    • This was also featured on an episode of the 1980s sitcom The Golden Girls, in which in a dream sequence Dorothy competes on Jeopardy against a scholar and her roommate Rose. When asked the question, Dorothy replies Ulysses and is wrong, while Rose replies Cary Grant and is correct.
  • A dispute between Grant and his commanding officer Henry Wager Halleck is the subject of a pivotal question in the film Quiz Show.
  • Captain Ulysses S. Grant is the eponymous character in "The Stranger", a Grizzly Adams episode.
  • In the film Wild Wild West, President Grant is a minor character that must deal with the Loveless Alliance.
  • Once while in office he was arrested for speeding his horse and buggy and fined $20 and had to walk back to the White House.

Major General Wolfe. ... The French and Indian Wars is a name used in the United States for a series of conflicts in North America that represented the actions there that accompanied the European dynastic wars. ... George II King of Great Britain and Ireland George II (George Augustus) (10 November 1683–25 October 1760) was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Hanover) and Archtreasurer and Prince-Elector of the Holy Roman Empire from 11 June 1727 until his death. ... Groucho redirects here. ... You Bet Your Life is an American radio and television quiz show. ... Ulysses S. Grant IV (May 23, 1893 - March 11, 1977), the son of Ulysses S. (Buck) Grant, Jr. ... The University of California, Los Angeles (generally known as UCLA) is a public research university located in Los Angeles, California, United States. ... For the Hong Kong film, see The Golden Girls (1995 film). ... For the vocal coach, see Carrie Grant. ... Henry Wager Halleck (1815 - 1872) was an American soldier and politician. ... Quiz Show is a 1994 film which tells the true story of the Twenty One quiz show scandal of the 1950s. ... Theatrical release poster of Life and Times of Grizzly Adams Grizzly Adams is the main character from The Life and Times of Grizzly Adams, a 1974 film. ... This article is about the 1999 film. ...

See also

Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Summary Incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant was easily elected to a second term in office despite a split within the Republican Party that resulted in a defection of many key Republicans to opponent Horace Greeley. ... // Era Overview At the end of the Civil War, the United States was still bitterly divided. ... Western Theater Overview (1861 – 1865) This article presents an overview of major military and naval operations in the Western Theater of the American Civil War. ... The Ulysses S. Grant Memorial is a monument in Washington, D.C., honoring American Civil War General and United States President Ulysses S. Grant. ... The Ulysses S. Grant Home, Galena, Illinois. ... Grants Farm is a historic farm in St. ...

References

Military of the United States Portal
  • Catton, Bruce, Grant Takes Command, Little, Brown and Company, 1968, Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 69-12632.
  • Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
  • Fuller, Maj. Gen. J. F. C., Grant and Lee, A Study in Personality and Generalship, Indiana University Press, 1957, ISBN 0-253-13400-5.
  • Garland, Hamlin, Ulysses S. Grant: His Life and Character, Macmillan Company, 1898.
  • Grant, Ulysses S., Personal Memoirs of U. S. Grant, Charles L. Webster & Company, 1885–86, ISBN 0-914427-67-9.
  • Hesseltine, William B., Ulysses S. Grant: Politician 1935.
  • Lewis, Lloyd, Captain Sam Grant, Little, Brown, and Co., 1950, ISBN 0-316-52348-8.
  • McFeely, William S., Grant: A Biography, W. W. Norton & Co, 1981, ISBN 0-393-01372-3.
  • McPherson, James M., Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (Oxford History of the United States), Oxford University Press, 1988, ISBN 0-19-503863-0.
  • Simpson, Brooks D., Ulysses S. Grant: Triumph Over Adversity, 1822-1865, Houghton Mifflin, 2000, ISBN 0-395-65994-9.
  • Smith, Jean Edward, Grant, Simon and Shuster, 2001, ISBN 0-684-84927-5.
  • Woodworth, Steven E., Nothing but Victory: The Army of the Tennessee, 1861 – 1865, Alfred A. Knopf, 2005, ISBN 0-375-41218-2.
  • Official Ulysses Simpson Grant biography from the US Army Center for Military History

Image File history File links Naval_Jack_of_the_United_States. ... Bruce Catton (October 9, 1899 — August 28, 1978) was a journalist and a notable historian of the American Civil War. ... J.F.C. Fuller (September 1, 1878 – February 10, 1966), full name John Frederick Charles Fuller, was a British Major General, military historian and strategist, notable as an early theorist of modern armoured warfare, including categorising principles of warfare. ... For the Civil War General of a similar name see James B. McPherson James M. McPherson (born October 11, 1936) is an American Civil War historian, and is the George Henry Davis 86 Professor Emeritus of United States History at Princeton University. ... Jean Edward Smith is an accomplished educator and biographer having authored such works as Grant, John Marshall: Definer of a Nation, and Presently he is the John Marshall Professor of Political Science at Marshall University. ...

Notes

  1. ^ List of United States Presidential religious affiliations.
  2. ^ See military career for a discussion of Grant's middle initial.
  3. ^ See Skidmore (2005); Bunting (2004), Scaturro (1998), Smith (2001) and Simpson (1998)
  4. ^ Smith, Grant, p. 24.
  5. ^ Smith, Grant, p. 83. In a letter to his wife Julia dated March 31, 1853, Grant wrote, "Why did you not tell me more about our dear little boys ? ... What does Fred. call Ulys. ? What does the S stand for in Ulys.'s name? In mine you know it does not stand for anything!" McFeely, p. 524, n. 2: "Grant himself never used more than 'S.'; others converted the single letter to 'Simpson.'
  6. ^ Ulysses S Grant Quotes on the Military Academy and the Mexican War
  7. ^ According to Smith, pp. 87-88, and Lewis, pp. 328-32, two of Grant's lieutenants corroborated this story and Buchanan himself confirmed it to another officer in a conversation during the Civil War. Years later, Grant told educator John Eaton, "the vice of intemperance had not a little to do with my decision to resign."
  8. ^ McFeely, p. 55-56; Simpson, Triumph, pp. 60-61. Buchanan tolerated drunkenness in other officers, and in Grant's successor, and surprised fellow officers by forcing Grant's resignation. Garland, p. 126, notes that at the time the War Department made clear that Grant did not leave under a cloud.
  9. ^ His wife's slaves were leased in St. Louis in 1860 after Grant gave up farming. The land and cabin where Grant lived is now an animal conservation reserve, Grant's Farm, owned and operated by the Anheuser-Busch Company.
  10. ^ McFeely, ch. 5.
  11. ^ The Abraham Lincoln Papers at the Library of Congress. Retrieved April 28, 2007.
  12. ^ Hesseltine, chapter 6.
  13. ^ One of the enduring myths about Grant is that he dispensed with all of his supply lines and lived entirely off the land. This story was first propagated by former journalist Charles A. Dana and years later, Grant wrote the same in his memoirs. However, supply requisitions show that, while the men and animals of the Army of the Tennessee foraged for much of their food, staples such as coffee, salt, hardtack, ammunition, and medical supplies kept a large fleet of wagons moving inland from Grand Gulf throughout the campaign. This supply train was a target of Pemberton until Champion Hill.
  14. ^ Porter, Horace, Campaigning with Grant, Konecky & Konecky, New York, NY 1992 ISBN 0-914427-70-9
  15. ^ Korda, (2004)
  16. ^ Eicher, Civil War High Commands, p. 264.
  17. ^ General Grant National Memorial by the National Park Service. Retrieved March 29, 2006.
  18. ^ Federal Holidays: Evolution and Application, CRS Report for Congress, 98-301 GOV, updated February 8, 1999, by Stephen W. Stathis
  19. ^ Nevins, Hamilton Fish 2:811ff.
  20. ^ Nevins, Fish 2:811
  21. ^ Liberian-Grebo War of 1876
  22. ^ Markens, Isaac (1909), Abraham Lincoln and the Jews, self-published, pp. 12-13, <http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=EkI8AAAAMAAJ&dq=abraham+lincoln+and+the+jews+by+isaac+markens&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=-Stsut-n7h&sig=vndlGlP7n2z5iCydmb3VxqFGlJs>. Retrieved on 9 January 2008 
  23. ^ McFeely, p 124.
  24. ^ Bertram Korn, American Jewry and the Civil War, p. 143). Korn cites Grant's order of November 9 and 10, 1862, "Refuse all permits to come south of Jackson for the present. The Israelites especially should be kept out," and "no Jews are to be permitted to travel on the railroad southward from any point. They may go north and be encouraged in it; but they are such an intolerable nuisance that the department must be purged of them."
  25. ^ Hesseltine (2001) pp 432-39
  26. ^ Paletta, Lu Ann and Worth, Fred L. (1988). "The World Almanac of Presidential Facts".
  27. ^ O'Brien, Cormac (2007). "Secret Lives of the Civil War: What Your Teachers Never Told You About the War Between the States".
  28. ^ World Wide Words.
  29. ^ Smith, Grant, p. 81.
  30. ^ Shaara, Jeffrey M. (1998). "The Last Full Measure".
  31. ^ Paletta, Lu Ann and Worth, Fred L. (1988). "The World Almanac of Presidential Facts".
  32. ^ 6.3. Presidential Lists

This is a list of the religious affiliations of Presidents of the United States. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... John Eaton (1829-1906) was born at Thetford, Vermont. ... Grants Farm is a historic farm in St. ... Anheuser-Busch Companies, Inc. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Charles Anderson Dana (August 8, 1819 – October 17, 1897) was an American journalist, author, and government official, best known for his association with Ulysses S. Grant during the American Civil War and his aggressive political advocacy after the war. ... A preserved hardtack at a museum display in Denmark. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ...

Bibliography

Biographical, political

  • Bunting III, Josiah. Ulysses S. Grant (2004) ISBN 0-8050-6949-6
  • William Dunning, Reconstruction Political and Economic 1865-1877 (1905), vol 22
  • Hesseltine, William B. Ulysses S. Grant, Politician (2001) ISBN 1-931313-85-7 online edition
  • Mantell, Martin E., Johnson, Grant, and the Politics of Reconstruction (1973) online edition
  • Nevins, Allan, Hamilton Fish: The Inner History of the Grant Administration (1936) online edition
  • Rhodes, James Ford., History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850 to the McKinley-Bryan Campaign of 1896. Volume: 6 and 7 (1920) vol 6
  • Scaturro, Frank J., President Grant Reconsidered (1998).
  • Schouler, James., History of the United States of America: Under the Constitution vol. 7. 1865-1877. The Reconstruction Period (1917) online edition
  • Simpson, Brooks D., Let Us Have Peace: Ulysses S. Grant and the Politics of War and Reconstruction, 1861-1868 (1991).
  • Simpson, Brooks D., The Reconstruction Presidents (1998)
  • Skidmore, Max J. "The Presidency of Ulysses S. Grant: a Reconsideration." White House Studies (2005) online

Joseph Allan Nevins (May 20, 1890 - March 5, 1971) was an educator, historian, and author and journalist. ...

Military studies

  • Badeau, Adam. Military History of Ulysses S. Grant, from April, 1861, to April, 1865. 3 vols. 1882.
  • Ballard, Michael B., Vicksburg, The Campaign that Opened the Mississippi, University of North Carolina Press, 2004, ISBN 0-8078-2893-9.
  • Bearss, Edwin C., The Vicksburg Campaign, 3 volumes, Morningside Press, 1991, ISBN 0-89029-308-2.
  • Carter, Samuel III, The Final Fortress: The Campaign for Vicksburg, 1862-1863 (1980)
  • Catton, Bruce, Grant Moves South, 1960, ISBN 0-316-13207-1; Grant Takes Command, 1968, ISBN 0-316-13210-1; U. S. Grant and the American Military Tradition (1954)
  • Cavanaugh, Michael A., and William Marvel, The Petersburg Campaign: The Battle of the Crater: "The Horrid Pit," June 25-August 6, 1864 (1989)
  • Conger, A. L. The Rise of U.S. Grant (1931)
  • Davis, William C. Death in the Trenches: Grant at Petersburg (1986).
  • Fuller, Maj. Gen. J. F. C., Grant and Lee, A Study in Personality and Generalship, Indiana University Press, 1957, ISBN 0-253-13400-5.
  • Gott, Kendall D., Where the South Lost the War: An Analysis of the Fort Henry-Fort Donelson Campaign, February 1862, Stackpole Books, 2003, ISBN 0-8117-0049-6.
  • Korda, Michael. Ulysses S. Grant: The Unlikely Hero (2004) 161 pp
  • McWhiney, Grady, Battle in the Wilderness: Grant Meets Lee (1995)
  • McDonough, James Lee, Shiloh: In Hell before Night (1977).
  • McDonough, James Lee, Chattanooga: A Death Grip on the Confederacy (1984).
  • Maney, R. Wayne, Marching to Cold Harbor. Victory and Failure, 1864 (1994).
  • Matter, William D., If It Takes All Summer: The Battle of Spotsylvania (1988)
  • Miers, Earl Schenck., The Web of Victory: Grant at Vicksburg. 1955.
  • Mosier, John., "Grant", Palgrave MacMillan, 2006 ISBN 1-4039-7136-6.
  • Rhea, Gordon C., The Battle of the Wilderness May 5–6, 1864, Louisiana State University Press, 1994, ISBN 0-8071-1873-7.
  • Rhea, Gordon C., The Battles for Spotsylvania Court House and the Road to Yellow Tavern May 7–12, 1864, Louisiana State University Press, 1997, ISBN 0-8071-2136-3.
  • Rhea, Gordon C., To the North Anna River: Grant and Lee, May 13–25, 1864, Louisiana State University Press, 2000, ISBN 0-8071-2535-0.
  • Rhea, Gordon C., Cold Harbor: Grant and Lee, May 26 – June 3, 1864, Louisiana State University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-8071-2803-1.
  • Miller, J. Michael, The North Anna Campaign: "Even to Hell Itself," May 21-26, 1864 (1989).
  • Simpson, Brooks D., "Continuous Hammering and Mere Attrition: Lost Cause Critics and the Military Reputation of Ulysses S. Grant," in Cad Gallagher and Alan T. Nolan, eds., The Myth of the Lost Cause and Civil War History, (2000)
  • Steere, Edward, The Wilderness Campaign (1960)
  • Sword, Wiley, Shiloh: Bloody April. 1974.
  • Williams, T. Harry, McClellan, Sherman and Grant. 1962.

Ed Bearss leading a tour in 2005 Edwin Cole Bearss (born June 26, 1923), U.S. Marine Corps veteran of World War II, is a military historian and author notable for his work on the American Civil War and World War II eras and is a popular tour guide of... Bruce Catton (October 9, 1899 — August 28, 1978) was a journalist and a notable historian of the American Civil War. ... J.F.C. Fuller (September 1, 1878 – February 10, 1966), full name John Frederick Charles Fuller, was a British Major General, military historian and strategist, notable as an early theorist of modern armoured warfare, including categorising principles of warfare. ...

Primary sources

  • Grant, Ulysses S. Memoirs (1885) online edition
  • Grant, Ulysses S. Memoirs and Selected Letters (Mary Drake McFeely & William S. McFeely, eds.) (The Library of America, 1990) ISBN 978-0-94045058-5
  • Wilson, Edmund. Patriotic Gore: Studies in the Literature of the American Civil War (1962) pp 131-73, on the Memoirs
  • Johnson, R. U., and Buel, C. C., eds., Battles and Leaders of the Civil War. 4 vols. New York, 1887-88; essays by leading generals of both sides; online edition
  • Porter, Horace, Campaigning with Grant (1897, reprinted 2000)
  • Sherman, William Tecumseh, Memoirs of General William T. Sherman. 2 vols. 1875.
  • Simon, John Y., ed., The Papers of Ulysses S. Grant, Southern Illinois University Press (1967- ) multivolume complete edition of letters to and from Grant. As of 2006, vol 1-28 covers through September 1878.

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Military offices
New title Commander of the Army of the Tennessee
1862 – 1863
Succeeded by
William T. Sherman
Commander of the Military Division of the Mississippi
1863 – 1864
Preceded by
Henry W. Halleck
Commanding General of the United States Army
1864 – 1869
Political offices
Preceded by
Andrew Johnson
President of the United States
March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1877
Succeeded by
Rutherford B. Hayes
Party political offices
Preceded by
Abraham Lincoln
Republican Party presidential candidate
1868, 1872
Succeeded by
Rutherford B. Hayes
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Andrew Johnson
Oldest U.S. President still living
July 31, 1875 – July 23, 1885
Succeeded by
Rutherford B. Hayes
Persondata
NAME Grant, Ulysses S.
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Hiram Ulysses Grant
SHORT DESCRIPTION American soldier and politician who was elected the 18th President of the United States
DATE OF BIRTH April 27, 1822
PLACE OF BIRTH Point Pleasant, Clermont County, Ohio
DATE OF DEATH July 23, 1885
PLACE OF DEATH Mount McGregor, Saratoga County, New York

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