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Encyclopedia > Ultras
Varvari choreography at a Montenegrin First League home match
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Ultras

Ultras are a specific type of sports team supporter group. They are mostly European and South American supporters of football teams. Ultras may refer to: Ultras, certain organised football (soccer) supporters groups Ultras (UK politics), a section of the Tory party that broke away after Catholic Relief Act 1829 Ultra (disambiguation) Category: ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 600 pixel, file size: 128 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of Varvari at Stadion Pod Goricom, Montenegro I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 600 pixel, file size: 128 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of Varvari at Stadion Pod Goricom, Montenegro I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Varvari are supporters of Budućnost footbal club from Podgorica, Montenegro. ... The First League of Montenegro (Serbian: Prva crnogorska fudbalska liga) is the top football league in Montenegro. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Soccer redirects here. ...


This particular fan subgroup appeared strongly in Italy during the late 1960s when football teams reduced ticket prices in certain areas of the stadiums.[1] The word ultra is Latin, which means beyond in English, the implication being that their enthusiasm is 'beyond' the normal. Since the early 1990s, the ultras subculture has increasingly become similar in style to the hooligan firm and casual cultures.[2] Violent acts of hooliganism by groups of ultras have led to some deaths,[3] as have police reprisals.[4] The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1958 to the end of 1974. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Beyond can refer to: Beyond, a Hong Kong rock band. ... In sociology, anthropology and cultural studies, a subculture is a set of people with a set of behaviors and beliefs, culture, which could be distinct or hidden, that differentiate them from the larger culture to which they belong. ... This is a list of recognized hooligan firms or football firms, which are groups that have been verified as participating in football hooliganism or other sports-related hooliganism. ... This article is about the hooligan subculture. ... Hooligan redirects here. ...


"The longest standing ultra group is Milan's Fossa dei Leoni - the Lion's Den - founded in 1968, which takes the name of the black-and-red's old ground and finds home in the stadium's cheaper sectors at ramp 17. However, some date back further, like the "Fedelissimi Granata" founded in Turin as early as 1951, and still present in the ultra line-up on the Maratona curve. The Sampdoria Ultras appeared in 1969 (the first to call itself "Ultras"), followed by 'the Boys' from Inter."[5] Even earlier, in 1950 in Central/Eastern Europe (now Croatia, then part of Yugoslavia), the ultras group Torcida supporting the club Hajduk Split was founded.


Ultra groups are usually based around a core group (who tend to have executive control over the whole group), with smaller subgroups organized by location, friendship or political stance. Ultras tend to use various styles and sizes of banners and flags with the name and symbols of the group. Some ultra groups sell their own merchandise such as scarves, hats and jackets. The ultra culture is a mix of several supporting styles, such as scarf-waving and chanting. An ultra group can number from a handful of fans to hundreds, and often claim entire sections of a stadium for themselves.


The four core points of the ultra mentality are:

  • never stop singing or chanting during a match, no matter what the result
  • never sit down during a match
  • attend as many games as possible (home and away), regardless of cost or distance
  • loyalty to the stand in which the group is located (also known as the Curva or Kop).

Ultra groups usually have a representative who liaises with the club owners on a regular basis, mostly regarding tickets, seat allocations and storage facilities. Some clubs provide the groups cheaper tickets, storage rooms for flags and banners, and early access to the stadium before matches in order to prepare the displays. Some non-ultras have criticized these types of favoured relationship. Some spectators criticize ultras for never sitting during matches and for displaying banners and flags, which hinder the view of those sitting behind. Others criticize ultras for physical assaults or intimidation of non-ultra fans. Spion Kop (or Kop for short) is the name for a number of terraces and stands at football stadia; so named due to their steep nature, resembling a hill in Natal, South Africa that was the scene of a battle in the Second Boer War where a majority of the... In politics, representation describes how residents of a country are empowered in the government. ...

Contents

Match Day

Fans of Derry City display a flag depicting Che Guevara.

Before big matches, most ultra groups choreograph a large display, (sometimes known as Tifo) for when the teams enter. Ranging in size, based on financial capabilities of the group, the tifo has been displayed just in the section of the stadium where the group is located or the entire stadium. Sometimes small sheets of plastic or paper are held aloft to form a pattern or to colour the stadium. Other materials used include balloons, streamers, huge banners, flares, smoke bombs, and more recently, giant dolls (as used by Sampdoria's ultras in 2002). Pop culture icons are often used on banners, such as Alex DeLarge (from the movie A Clockwork Orange), bulldogs, or Che Guevara. Galatasaray SK's ultrAslan use large lion figures around the stadium in reference to them considering the club to be the king of Turkish football teams with the team name coming from the word saray, meaning the palace of Galata. Corporate brand logos and catchphrases are also often used. The displays, which can be expensive to make, often take months to prepare. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Derry City Football Club (Irish: , IPA: ) is an Irish football club based in Derry, Northern Ireland. ... Ernesto Guevara de la Serna Lynch (May 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara, el Che, or simply Che, was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, political figure, author, military theorist, and leader of Cuban and internationalist guerrillas. ... Tifo consisting of a large blanket and fireworks at FC Twente - SC Heerenveen in 2002. ... Categories: Football (soccer) stubs | Italian football clubs ... Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in a modern society. ... Alex at the Korova Milkbar Alex is the narrator and antihero of Anthony Burgess novel A Clockwork Orange and the movie adaptation, in which he is played by Malcolm McDowell. ... Clockwork Orange redirects here. ... For other uses, see Bulldog (disambiguation). ... Ernesto Guevara de la Serna Lynch (May 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara, el Che, or simply Che, was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, political figure, author, military theorist, and leader of Cuban and internationalist guerrillas. ... Galatasaray Spor Kulübü (in English: Galatasaray Sports Club) or Galatasaray SK is a Turkish sports club based in İstanbul which is most famous for its football section. ... ultrAslan is a fan group of Turkish football team Galatasaray SK. Founded in 2001, it is the biggest and the most internationally known football fan organization in Turkey. ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... Sarai is a New media initiative of CSDS Centre for the Study of Developing Societies. ...


Some ultra groups, particularly in Italy, have animosity toward so-called modern football, which refers to all-seater stadiums, more expensive tickets, matches being played at non-traditional times (particularly evening matches), players being bought and sold like merchandise, and the excessive commercialization of football in general. Banners stating "No al Calcio Moderno" (Against modern football) are commonly seen in Italian stadiums, and have also appeared in other parts of Europe.


Ultra groups tend to be highly vocal at matches, with each group having several football chants. The melodies are mostly taken from popular songs, such as "Guantanamera" and "7 Nation Army". Other popular songs, sung in their entirety include "Bella Ciao", "You'll Never Walk Alone" and "ACAB (All Cops Are Bastards)." In most cases, a group leader, often using a megaphone, coordinates the various activities of the entire group, including chants, songs, and banner drops. Fanzines and websites play a big part in the ultra movement. As printing costs decrease and publishing software improves, fanzines have become increasingly more professional-looking. Football crowds chant Football chants. ... Guantanamera (girl from Guantánamo) is perhaps the best known Cuban song and that countrys most noted patriotic song. ... Seven Nation Army is the first track on the album Elephant by American rock band The White Stripes. ... Bella ciao is an Italian partisan song of World War II. The origins of the song are uncertain. ... Youll Never Walk Alone is a song written by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II for their 1945 musical, Carousel. ... ). ACAB is an acronym often integrated into prison tattoos in the United Kingdom, it is most commonly rendered with one letter between the knuckle and first joint of each finger, sometimes as symbolic small dots with or without the accompanying letters. ... A fanzine (see also: zine) is a nonprofessional publication produced by fans of a particular cultural phenomenon (such as a literary or musical genre) for the pleasure of others who share their interest. ...


Hooliganism

Although ultra groups can become violent, the vast majority of matches go ahead with no violent incidents. Unlike hooligan firms, whose main aim is to fight fans of other clubs, the main focus of ultras is to support their own team. Hooligans usually try to be inconspicuous when they travel; usually not wearing team colours, in order to avoid detection by the police. Ultras tend to be more conspicuous when they travel and like to arrive en masse, which allows the police to keep a close eye on their movements. When trouble involving ultras does break out, it usually takes the form of a political riot similar to the ones in Italy in the 1970s when the Carabinieri used the same tactics with the ultras as they did with the political activists. This is a list of recognized hooligan firms or football firms, which are groups that have been verified as participating in football hooliganism or other sports-related hooliganism. ... Teamsters, armed with pipes, riot in a clash with riot police in the Minneapolis Teamsters Strike of 1934. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The Carabinieri are the military police of Italy. ...


However, there does appear to be a crossover in some countries between ultras and hooligans. In Italy, when English club Middlesbrough F.C. played a match against AS Roma in March 2006, three Middlesbrough fans were stabbed in an attack that was blamed on Roma-supporting ultras.[6] Roma-supporting ultras were also blamed for an incident related to the club's match against English club Manchester United in Rome in April 2007, which resulted in 11 Manchester fans and two Italian fans being taken to hospital.[7] Spanish authorities have been concerned about ultra-related violence against supporters of other clubs, such as the murder of a Real Sociedad fan. Middlesbrough Football Club (commonly known as Boro) are an English football club based in Middlesbrough. ... A.S. Roma (Associazione Sportiva Roma) is a Italian football club. ... Manchester Uniteds emblem Manchester United F.C. (often abbreviated to Man United or just Man U, pronounced man-yoo) is an English football club based at Old Trafford in Greater Manchester. ... Real Sociedad is a Spanish football club from the Basque city of San Sebastián/Donostia in Guipúzcoa/Gipuzkoa. ...


Politics

Some ultra groups are associated with specific political factions, which results in rivalries and alliances based on political allegiances. Some extremist groups distribute propaganda to members of ultra groups, to various degrees of success. Some ultra groups reject political symbols and national flags and forbid their members to display them within the context of the group. 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ...


Ultra groups that are politically leftist, antiracist or antifascist are referred to as Antifa Ultras. They often take an active and aggressive stance against discrimination inside and outside football stadiums, which they perceive as being deliberately ignored by club management, the police and the state. The annual Mondiali Antirazzisti (Anti-Racist World Cup) held in Northern Italy is the largest gathering of Antifa Ultras in the world. In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Anti-racism refers to beliefs, actions, movements, and policies adopted or developed to oppose racism. ... Anti-fascism is the opposition to fascist ideology, organization, or government, on all levels. ... The word Antifa derives from Antifaschismus, German for anti-fascism. It refers to individuals and groups that are dedicated to fighting fascism. ...


Ultra groups such as Livornos Brigate Autonome Livornesi, Carrarese, A.C. Arezzo's Fossa, Pisa Calcio's Ultras, Olympique de Marseilles Curva-Massilia, Celtic's Green Brigade, St.Pauli's Sankt Pauli , Hapoel Tel-Aviv's Ultras Hapoel, AEK Athens's Gate 21 are known for displaying flags with red stars, hammer and sickles, the anarchy symbol or images of Che Guevara. Fans of Ajax Amsterdam often display the Star of David and Israeli flags, and regularly chant "Joden! Joden!" (Dutch for "Jews! Jews!") in reference to the club's Jewish roots. In Turkey, Beşiktaş JK's ultra group Çarşı has an A in its logo that is similar to the anarchy symbol and have taken up a political left wing view. Associazione Sportiva Livorno Calcio is a football club based in Livorno, Tuscany. ... Associazione Calcio Arezzo is an Italian football club based in Arezzo, Tuscany. ... Pisa Calcio is an Italian football club, based in Pisa, Tuscany. ... Olympique de Marseille (also known as lOM or Marseille) is a football team that plays in Ligue 1, the top level of the French Football League, based in Marseille. ... Celtic F.C. (pronounced seltic, not keltic) is perhaps the most famous Scottish football club. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Dror Kashtan, an old-new manager Hapoel Tel Avivs Fans Shimon Gershon Hapoel Tel Aviv is an israeli football club. ... Current season AEK F.C., (Greek: – Athlitiki Enosis Konstantinoupoleos), the Athletic Union of Constantinople, known in European competitions as AEK Athens, is a Greek association football club based in the city of Athens, Greece. ... For other uses, see Hammer and sickle (disambiguation). ... This article discusses various anarchist symbols, including the circle-A and the black flag. ... Ernesto Guevara de la Serna Lynch (May 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara, el Che, or simply Che, was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, political figure, author, military theorist, and leader of Cuban and internationalist guerrillas. ... Amsterdamsche Football Club Ajax (Euronext: AJAX) also referred to as Ajax Amsterdam, AFC Ajax, or simply Ajax (pronounced /ˈʌɪjaks/), is a professional football club from Amsterdam, Netherlands. ... This article is about a Jewish symbol. ... The flag of Israel was adopted on October 28, 1948, five months after the countrys establishment. ... Beşiktaş logo Beşiktaş is a Turkish football club from İstanbul. ...


Lazio's Irriducibili, Roma's Boys Roma and TDR, Inter's Boys San,Paris Saint Germain's Boulogne Boys, Real Madrids Ultras Sur, Hellas Verona's Hooligans Espanyol's blanguizula, Hajduk Split's Torcida and Dinamo Zagreb's Bad Blue Boys are known for displaying Celtic crosses and Swastikas. In Spain the term ultra is understood primarily as ultraderechista (far rightist), and some Spanish ultra groups use Nazi symbols such as the runic SS logo. S.S. Lazio (Italian: Società Sportiva Lazio SpA) is an Italian football club based in Rome. ... A.S. Roma (Associazione Sportiva Roma) is a Italian football club. ... Football Club Internazionale Milano, commonly referred to as simply Internazionale, Inter or Inter Milan[1], is an Italian professional football club based in Milan, Lombardy, founded in 1908. ... F.C. Paris Saint-Germain (PSG) are a French football club based in Paris. ... Real Madrid Club de Fútbol is a Spanish sports club most widely known for its professional football team based in Madrid. ... Hellas Verona Football Club S.p. ... RCD Espanyol de Barcelona (Catalan: ) is a Spanish sports club based in Barcelona. ... Hajduk is one of the most famous and successful Croatian football clubs. ... Torcida Split is a football supporters group, founded in 1950, who follow Croatian club Hajduk Split. ... Dinamo is one of the most famous and successful Croatian football clubs. ... Dinamo is a football club from Zagreb, the capital city of Croatia. ... For the band, see Celtic Cross (band). ... This article is about the symbol. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into far right. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... In Norse mythology, Sol was the goddess of the sun, a daughter of Mundilfari and Glaur and the wife of Glen. ... SS redirects here. ...


Rivalries

Fierce rivalries between ultra groups can be found all over the world, although most of the larger rivalries are found in Europe and South America. The rivalries are often based around a basic animosity toward the rival team, mostly in derbies (e.g. Sampdoria vs. Genoa, Roma vs. Lazio, Torino vs. Juventus, Inter vs. Milan), and some rivalries are based on politics in addition to team difference (e.g. Livorno vs. Lazio). There have also been rivalries between ultra groups that support the same team; based on personal and/or leadership disputes. Sometimes ultra groups try to capture banners and flags of a rival groups; losing a banner or flag to a rival group is considered a big humiliation and the faction losing the banner is required to disband. Categories: Football (soccer) stubs | Italian football clubs ... Genoa Cricket and Football Club (IPA: , pronounced JEH-noa) is a professional football club based in the city of Genoa in Italy. ... Associazione Sportiva Roma (ISE: IT0001008876) is a major professional football club both in Italy’s Serie A and in European football. ... Società Sportiva Lazio, commonly referred to SS Lazio or simply Lazio, is an Italian professional sports club most noted for its football section, founded in 1900 and based in Rome. ... Torino Calcio is one of the most popular Italian football clubs, based in Turin. ... Juventus Football Club (Latin for Youth, pronounced yoo-VEHN-toos) is one of Italys oldest and most successful football clubs, based in Turin. ... Internazionale Milano Football Club is an Italian football club based in Milan, which plays in the Serie A (first division). ... Associazione Calcio Milan, commonly referred to by the abbreviation AC Milan or simply Milan, is an Italian professional football club based in Milan, Lombardy. ... Associazione Sportiva Livorno Calcio is a football club based in Livorno, Tuscany. ... For the football club, see S.S. Lazio Lazio (Latium in Latin) is a regione of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzi, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ...


In his book, How Soccer Explains The World, Franklin Foer describes the rivalry between Serb and Croat teams as,"The new, or rather old, enmity could be seen visibly at the soccer stadium... fans sang about their respective slaughters."[8] The Ultras of FC Red Star Belgrade, the Delije or heroes, and the Grobari or Gravediggers from FK Partizan Belgrade formed the base of Arkan's Tigers, a Serbian paramilitary force who were later implicated in multiple acts of genocide during the Wars in Yugoslavia. The Tigers made a dramatic appearance during the Belgrade derby game of 22 March 1992, played between Red Star and Partizan, where they held up road signs saying: '20 miles to Vukovar'; '10 miles to Vukovar'; 'Welcome to Vukovar'. More signs followed, each named for a Croatian town that had fallen to the Serbian army. Arkan was then director of the Red Star supporters' association. [9] When Bosnia-Herzegovina played a friendly game against Croatia in August of 2007, "Croatian fans formed a human U symbol representing the fascist Ustase movement responsible for mass killings of Serbs, Jews and the Roma during World War II". Although in this instance, the Croats used the fascist symbol U as a sign of nationalism, amid new rising of ethnic tensions in Bosnia between the Croats and the Bosnian muslims. [10] Franklin Foer is an American political journalist and the current editor of The New Republic. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina (where theyre one of the constitutive nations). ... Delije (Serbian Cyrillic: Делије) is the name given to supporters of The Sports Association Red Star Belgrade. ... Grobari (Serbian Cyrillic: Гробари) are supporters of the Belgrade football club Partizan Belgrade. ... Željko Ražnatović or in Serbian Cyrillic writing Жељко Ражњатовић, (April 17, 1952 - January 15, 2000), widely known as Arkan or Аркан, was a Serbian paramilitary leader, nationalistic politician, assembly representative, folk hero, owner of a soccer club, shady businessman, mafia boss and war profiteer. ... ... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ... Combatants See below See below Commanders See below See below Casualties 140,000+ dead; thousands missing; over 1,000,000 left homeless The Yugoslav Wars were a series of violent conflicts in the territory of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) that took place between 1991 and 2001. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Crvena zvezda redirects here. ... Fudbalski Klub Partizan (Serbian Cyrillic: ФК Партизан, English: Football Club Partizan) is a football club from Belgrade, Serbia. ... Vukovars main street Vukovar Vukovar (Serbian: Вуковар, Croatian: Vukovar, Hungarian: Vukovár) is a city and municipality in eastern Croatia, and the biggest river port in Croatia located at the confluence of the Vuka river into the Danube. ... Arms of Armed Forces of Serbia The Military of Serbia (Serbian: Војска Србије - Vojska Srbije) is the successor to the Military of Serbia and Montenegro, which ceased to exist after Montenegro voted to end the union of Serbia and Montenegro. ... Bosnia and Herzegovina (also variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ... Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... The Ustaše (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular Ustaša or Ustasha) was a Croatian far-right organisation put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Footnotes

  1. ^ Untitled Document
  2. ^ Football, blood and war | Sport | The Observer
  3. ^ New Statesman - The sound and the fury. The white working-class British male football fan has no defenders in our culture. John King on why the liberal left is wrong about the so-called hooligan abroad
  4. ^ BBC NEWS | World | Europe | Italian police kill football fan
  5. ^ Untitled Document
  6. ^ BBC NEWS | England | Tees | English fans are stabbed in Rome
  7. ^ BBC NEWS | World | Europe | Fans in hospital after violence
  8. ^ "How Soccer Explains the World" by Franklin Foer"
  9. ^ Football, blood and war | Sport | The Observer
  10. ^ Football Against Racism in Europe, FAREnet.org

See also

This article is about the hooligan subculture. ... Hooligan redirects here. ... This is a list of recognized hooligan firms or football firms, which are groups that have been verified as participating in football hooliganism or other sports-related hooliganism. ... This article deals with major football (soccer) rivalries around the world. ... Torcida is the organisation of football supporters of the club Hajduk Split. ...

External links


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