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Encyclopedia > Ultimate fate of the universe
Physical cosmology
Key topics
Universe · Big Bang
Age of the universe
Timeline of the Big Bang
Ultimate fate of the universe
Early universe
Inflation · Nucleosynthesis
GWB · Neutrino Background
Cosmic microwave background
Expanding universe
Redshift · Hubble's law
Metric expansion of space
Friedmann equations
FLRW metric
Structure formation
Shape of the universe
Structure formation
Galaxy formation
Large-scale structure
Components
Lambda-CDM model
Dark energy · Dark matter
History
Timeline of cosmology...
Cosmology experiments
Observational cosmology
2dF · SDSS
CoBE · BOOMERanG · WMAP
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The ultimate fate of the universe is a topic in physical cosmology. Many possible fates are predicted by rival scientific theories, including futures of both finite and infinite duration. Once the notion that the universe started with a Big Bang became accepted by a consensus of scientists, the ultimate fate of the universe became a valid cosmological question, one depending upon the physical properties of the mass/energy in the universe, its average density, and the rate of expansion. By extension, the fate of the universe is also a significant theme in science fiction. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... This article is about the physics subject. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 411 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,237 × 635 pixels, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). ... The age of the universe, in Big Bang cosmology, refers to the time elapsed between the Big Bang and the present day. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In cosmology, Big Bang nucleosynthesis (or primordial nucleosynthesis) refers to the production of nuclei other than H-1, the normal, light hydrogen, during the early phases of the universe, shortly after the Big Bang. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Cosmic Neutrino Background (CNB) is the background particle radiation composed of neutrinos. ... CMB redirects here. ... This article is about the physical phenomenon. ... Hubbles law is the statement in physical cosmology that the redshift in light coming from distant galaxies is proportional to their distance. ... The metric expansion of space is a key part of sciences current understanding of the universe, whereby space itself is described by a metric which changes over time. ... The Friedmann equations relate various cosmological parameters within the context of general relativity. ... // The Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric is an exact solution of the Einstein field equations of general relativity and which describes a homogeneous, isotropic expanding/contracting universe. ... The shape of the Universe is an informal name for a subject of investigation within physical cosmology. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Large-scale structure of the cosmos. ... In astrophysics, the questions of galaxy formation and evolution are: How, from a homogeneous universe, did we obtain the very heterogeneous one we live in? How did galaxies form? How do galaxies change over time? A spectacular head-on collision between two galaxies is seen in this NASA Hubble Space... Astronomy and cosmology examine the universe to understand the large-scale structure of the cosmos. ... A pie chart indicating the proportional composition of different energy-density components of the universe. ... In physical cosmology, dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to increase the rate of expansion of the universe. ... For other uses, see Dark matter (disambiguation). ... This lists a timeline of cosmological theories and discoveries. ... Observational cosmology is the study of the structure, the evolution and the origin of the universe through observation, using instruments such as telescopes and cosmic ray detectors. ... In astronomy, the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (Two-degree-Field Galaxy Redshift Gurvey), or 2dFGRS is a redshift survey conducted by the Anglo-Australian Observatory in the 1990s. ... SDSS Logo The Sloan Digital Sky Survey or SDSS is a major multi-filter imaging and spectroscopic redshift survey using a dedicated 2. ... The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), also referred to as Explorer 66, was the first satellite built dedicated to cosmology. ... The Telescope being readied for launch The BOOMERanG experiment (Balloon Observations Of Millimetric Extragalactic Radiation and Geophysics) measured the cosmic microwave background radiation of a part of the sky during three sub-orbital (high altitude) balloon flights. ... Artist depiction of the WMAP satellite at the L2 point The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) is a NASA satellite whose mission is to survey the sky to measure the temperature of the radiant heat left over from the Big Bang. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA, (born 8 January 1942) is a British theoretical physicist. ... Alexander Alexandrovich Friedman or Friedmann (Александр Александрович Фридман) (June 16, 1888 – September 16, 1925) was a Russian cosmologist and mathematician. ... Monsignor Georges Lemaître, priest and scientist. ... Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889 – September 28, 1953) was an American astronomer. ... Arno Allan Penzias (born April 26, 1933) is an American physicist and winner of the 1978 Nobel Prize in physics. ... Robert Woodrow Wilson Robert Woodrow Wilson (born January 10, 1936) is an American physicist. ... George Gamow (pronounced GAM-off) (March 4, 1904 – August 19, 1968) , born Georgiy Antonovich Gamov (Георгий Антонович Гамов) was a Ukrainian born physicist and cosmologist. ... Robert Henry Dicke (May 6, 1916 – March 4, 1997) was an American experimental physicist, who made important contributions to the fields of astrophysics, atomic physics, cosmology and gravity. ... Yakov Borisovich Zeldovich (Russian:Яков Борисович Зельдович) (March 8, 1914 – December 2, 1987) was a prolific Soviet physicist. ... John Cromwell Mather (b. ... George Fitzgerald Smoot III (born February 20, 1945) is an American astrophysicist and cosmologist awarded the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physics with John C. Mather for their discovery of the black body form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation. This work helped cement the big-bang theory of... This is a list of cosmologists. ... This article is about the physics subject. ... For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ...

Contents

Emerging scientific basis

See also: Timeline of cosmology and Timeline of the Big Bang

The theoretical scientific exploration of the ultimate fate of the universe became possible with Albert Einstein's 1915 theory of general relativity. General relativity can be employed to describe the universe on the largest possible scale. There are many possible solutions to the equations of general relativity, and each solution implies a possible ultimate fate of the universe. Alexander Friedmann proposed a number of such solutions in 1922. In some of these the universe has been expanding from an initial singularity; this is, essentially, the Big Bang. This lists a timeline of cosmological theories and discoveries. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to general relativity. ... Alexander Alexandrovich Friedman (June 16, 1888 – September 16, Russian cosmologist and mathematician. ... The Friedmann equations relate various cosmological parameters within the context of general relativity. ... The metric expansion of space is a key part of sciences current understanding of the universe, whereby space itself is described by a metric which changes over time. ... For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). ...


Observational evidence was not long in coming. In 1929, Edwin Hubble published his conclusion, based on his observations of Cepheid variable stars in distant galaxies, that the universe was expanding. From then on, the beginning of the universe and its possible end have been the subjects of serious scientific investigation. In 1931, Georges-Henri Lemaître set out a theory that has since come to be called the Big Bang theory of the origin of the universe. In 1948, Fred Hoyle set out his opposing steady state theory in which the universe continually expanded but remained statistically unchanged as new matter is constantly created. These two theories were active contenders until the 1965 discovery, by Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson, of the cosmic microwave background radiation, a fact that is a straightforward prediction of the Big Bang theory, and one that the Steady State theory cannot account for. The Big Bang theory immediately became the most widely held view of the origin of the universe. Edwin Powell Hubble (November 20, 1889 – September 28, 1953) was an American astronomer. ... Cepheid in the Spiral Galaxy M100 A Cepheid variable or Cepheid is a member of a particular class of variable stars, notable for a fairly tight correlation between their period of variability and absolute luminosity. ... Georges-Henri Lemaître (July 17, 1894 – June 20, 1966) was a Belgian Roman Catholic priest and astronomer. ... For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). ... Sir Frederick Hoyle, FRS, (born on June 24, 1915 in Gilstead, Yorkshire, England – August 20, 2001 in Bournemouth, England)[1] was a British astronomer, he was educated at Bingley Grammar School and notable for a number of his theories that run counter to current astronomical opinion, and a writer of... In cosmology, the steady state theory (also known as the Infinite Universe Theory or continuous creation) is a model developed in 1948 by Fred Hoyle, Thomas Gold, Hermann Bondi and others as an alternative to the Big Bang theory (known, usually, as the standard cosmological model). ... Arno Allan Penzias (born April 26, American physicist. ... Robert Woodrow Wilson Robert Woodrow Wilson (born January 10, 1936) is an American physicist. ... CMB redirects here. ...


When Einstein formulated general relativity, he and his contemporaries believed in a static universe. When Einstein found that his equations could easily be solved in such a way as to allow the universe to be expanding now, and to contract in the far future, he added to those equations what he called a cosmological constant, essentially a constant energy density unaffected by any expansion or contraction, whose role was to offset the effect of gravity on the universe as a whole in such a way that the universe would remain static. After Hubble announced his conclusion that the universe was expanding, Einstein wrote that his cosmological constant was his "greatest blunder". For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to general relativity. ... In physical cosmology, the cosmological constant (usually denoted by the Greek capital letter lambda: Λ) was proposed by Albert Einstein as a modification of his original theory of general relativity to achieve a stationary universe. ...


An important parameter in fate of the universe theory is the density parameter, Omega (Ω), defined as the average matter density of the universe divided by a critical value of that density. This selects one of three possible geometries depending on whether Ω is equal to, less than, or greater than 1. These are called, respectively, the flat, open and closed universes. These three adjectives refer to the overall geometry of the universe, and not to the local curving of spacetime caused by smaller clumps of mass (for example, galaxies and stars). If the primary content of the universe is inert matter, as in the dust models popular for much of the 20th century, there is a particular fate corresponding to each geometry. Hence cosmologists aimed to determine the fate of the universe by measuring Ω, or equivalently the rate at which the expansion was decelerating. Alexander Friedmann The Friedmann equations are a set of equations in cosmology that govern the expansion of space in homogeneous and isotropic models of the universe within the context of general relativity. ... The shape of the Universe is an informal name for a subject of investigation within physical cosmology. ... For other uses of this term, see Spacetime (disambiguation). ... This article is about a celestial body. ... STARS can mean: Shock Trauma Air Rescue Society Special Tactics And Rescue Service, a fictional task force that appears in Capcoms Resident Evil video game franchise. ... In general relativity, a dust solution is an exact solution of the Einstein field equation in which the gravitational field is produced entirely by the mass, momentum, and stress density of a perfect fluid which has positive mass density but vanishing pressure. ...


Starting in 1998, observations of supernovae in distant galaxies have been interpreted as consistent with a universe whose rate of expansion is accelerating. Subsequent cosmological theorizing has been designed so as to allow for this possible acceleration, nearly always by involving dark energy, which in its simplest form is just a positive cosmological constant. In general dark energy is a catch-all term for any hypothesised field with negative pressure, usually with a density that changes as the universe expands. For other uses, see Supernova (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Galaxy (disambiguation). ... In physical cosmology, dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to increase the rate of expansion of the universe. ...


Role of the shape of the universe

See also: Shape of the universe

The current scientific consensus of most cosmologists is that the ultimate fate of the universe depends on its overall shape, how much dark energy it contains, and on the equation of state which determines how the dark energy density responds to the expansion of the universe. [citation needed] Recent observations have shown that, from 7.5 billion years after the Big Bang onwards, the expansion rate of the universe has actually been increasing, concurrent with the Open Universe theory, and marked 'Accelerating' on the graph. The shape of the Universe is an informal name for a subject of investigation within physical cosmology. ... In physical cosmology, dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to increase the rate of expansion of the universe. ... In cosmology, the equation of state of a perfect fluid is characterized by a dimensionless number w, equal to the ratio of its pressure p to its energy density ρ: . It is closely related to the thermodynamic equation of state and ideal gas law. ... This timeline of the Big Bang shows the sequence of events as predicted by the Big Bang theory, from the beginning of the Planck Epoch to the end of the Epoch of Nucleosynthesis (and beginning of the Epoch of Galaxies). ... For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). ...

The ultimate fate of an expanding universe is determined by whether Ω is greater than, less than, or equal to 1.

Image File history File links Universes. ... Image File history File links Universes. ...

Closed universe

If Ω>1, then the geometry of space is closed like the surface of a sphere. The sum of the angles of a triangle exceeds 180 degrees and there are no parallel lines; all lines eventually meet. The geometry of the universe is, at least on a very large scale, elliptic. The shape of the Universe is an informal name for a subject of investigation within physical cosmology. ... Elliptic geometry (sometimes known as Riemannian geometry) is a non-Euclidean geometry, in which, given a line L and a point p outside L, there exists no line parallel to L passing through p. ...


In a closed universe lacking the repulsive effect of dark energy, gravity eventually stops the expansion of the universe, after which it starts to contract until all matter in the universe collapses to a point, a final singularity termed the "Big Crunch," by analogy with Big Bang. However, if the universe has a large amount of dark energy (as suggested by recent findings), then the expansion of the universe can continue forever - even if Ω>1. This article is about the cosmological theory. ... For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). ...


Open universe

If Ω<1, the geometry of space is open, i.e., negatively curved like the surface of a saddle. The angles of a triangle sum to less than 180 degrees, and lines that do not meet are never equidistant; they have a point of least distance and otherwise grow apart. The geometry of the universe is hyperbolic. The shape of the Universe is an informal name for a subject of investigation within physical cosmology. ... Lines through a given point P and asymptotic to line l. ...


Even without dark energy, a negatively curved universe expands forever, with gravity barely slowing the rate of expansion. With dark energy, the expansion not only continues but accelerates. The ultimate fate of an open universe is either universal heat death, the "Big Freeze", or the "Big Rip," where the acceleration caused by dark energy eventually becomes so strong that it completely overwhelms the effects of the gravitational, electromagnetic and weak binding forces. The heat death is a possible final state of the universe, in which it has run down to a state of no free energy to sustain motion or life. ... scenario in which the universe becomes too cold to sustain life due to continued expansion and the decay of free energy due to the action of entropy. ... The Big Rip is a cosmological hypothesis about the Ultimate fate of the universe, in which the matter of the universe, from stars and galaxies to atoms and subatomic particles, are progressively torn apart by the expansion of the universe at a certain time in the future. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ... The weak nuclear force or weak interaction is one of the four fundamental forces of nature. ...


Conversely, a negative cosmological constant, which would correspond to a negative energy density and positive pressure, would cause even an open universe to recollapse to a big crunch. This option is ruled out by observations, unless the universe undergoes an unexpected phase transition at some point in the future. In physical cosmology, the cosmological constant (usually denoted by the Greek capital letter lambda: Λ) was proposed by Albert Einstein as a modification of his original theory of general relativity to achieve a stationary universe. ...


Flat universe

If the average density of the universe exactly equals the critical density so that Ω=1, then the geometry of the universe is flat: as in Euclidean geometry, the sum of the angles of a triangle is 180 degrees and parallel lines never meet. Euclid Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to the Greek mathematician [[Euclid]] of Alexandria. ...


Absent dark energy, a flat universe expands forever but at a continually decelerating rate, the rate of expansion asymptotically approaching zero. [citation needed] With dark energy, the expansion rate of the universe initially slows down, due to the effect of gravity, but eventually increases. The ultimate fate of the universe is the same as an open universe. In 2005, the Fermion-boson fate of universe theory was proposed,[citation needed] positing that much of the universe would ultimately be occupied by Bose-Einstein condensate and the fermion quasiparticle analog, perhaps resulting in an implosion. A Bose–Einstein condensate is a phase of matter formed by bosons cooled to temperatures very near to absolute zero (0 kelvins or -273. ... In particle physics, fermions are particles with half-integer spin, such as protons and electrons. ... In physics, a quasiparticle refers to a particle-like entity arising in certain systems of interacting particles. ...


Theories about the end of universe

The fate of the universe is determined by the density of the universe. The preponderance of evidence to date, based on measurements of the rate of expansion and the mass density, favors a universe that will not collapse.


Big Freeze or Heat Death

Main articles: Big Freeze and Heat death of the universe

The Big Freeze is a scenario under which continued expansion results in a universe that is too cold to sustain life. It could, in the absence of dark energy, occur only under a flat or hyperbolic geometry, because such geometries then are a necessary condition for a universe that expands forever. With a positive cosmological constant, it could also occur in a closed universe. A related scenario is Heat Death, which states that the universe goes to a state of maximum entropy in which everything is evenly distributed, and there are no gradients — which are needed to sustain information processing, one form of which is life. The Heat Death scenario is compatible with any of the three spatial models, but requires that the universe reach an eventual temperature minimum. scenario in which the universe becomes too cold to sustain life due to continued expansion and the decay of free energy due to the action of entropy. ... The heat death is a possible final state of the universe, in which it has run down to a state of no free energy to sustain motion or life. ... For other uses, see: information entropy (in information theory) and entropy (disambiguation). ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ... This article is about life in general. ...


Big Rip: Finite Lifespan

Main article: Big Rip

In the special case of phantom dark energy, which has even more negative pressure than a simple cosmological constant, the density of dark energy increases with time, causing the rate of acceleration to increase, leading to a steady increase in the Hubble constant. As a result, all material objects in the universe, starting with galaxies and eventually (in a finite time) all life forms, no matter how small, will disintegrate into unbound elementary particles and radiation, ripped apart by the phantom energy force and shooting apart from each other. The end state of the universe is a singularity, as the dark energy density and expansion rate becomes infinite. For a possible timeline based on current physical theories, see 1 E19 s and more. The Big Rip is a cosmological hypothesis about the Ultimate fate of the universe, in which the matter of the universe, from stars and galaxies to atoms and subatomic particles, are progressively torn apart by the expansion of the universe at a certain time in the future. ... Phantom energy is a hypothetical form of dark energy with equation of state . ... Hubbles law is the statement in astronomy that the redshift in light coming from distant galaxies is proportional to their distance. ... In particle physics, an elementary particle is a particle of which other, larger particles are composed. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times, this page lists times longer than 1019 seconds (317 billion years) See also times of other orders of magnitude. ...


Big Crunch

The Big Crunch. The vertical axis can be considered as either plus or minus time.
The Big Crunch. The vertical axis can be considered as either plus or minus time.
Main article: Big Crunch

The Big Crunch theory is a symmetric view of the ultimate fate of the universe. Just as the Big Bang started a cosmological expansion, this theory postulates that the average density of the universe is enough to stop its expansion and begin contracting. The end result is unknown; a simple extrapolation would have all the matter and space-time in the universe collapse into a dimensionless singularity, but at these scales unknown quantum effects need to be considered (See Quantum gravity). According to the Big Crunch theory, the universe will end in an infinitely dense singularity. ... According to the Big Crunch theory, the universe will end in an infinitely dense singularity. ... This article is about the cosmological theory. ... For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). ... A gravitational singularity (sometimes spacetime singularity) is, approximately, a place where quantities which are used to measure the gravitational field become infinite. ... Quantum gravity is the field of theoretical physics attempting to unify quantum mechanics, which describes three of the fundamental forces of nature, with general relativity, the theory of the fourth fundamental force: gravity. ...


This scenario allows the Big Bang to have been immediately preceded by the Big Crunch of a preceding universe. If this occurs repeatedly, we have an oscillatory universe. The universe could then consist of an infinite sequence of finite universes, each finite universe ending with a Big Crunch that is also the Big Bang of the next universe. Theoretically, the oscillating universe could not be reconciled with the second law of thermodynamics: entropy would build up from oscillation to oscillation and cause heat death. Other measurements suggested the universe is not closed. These arguments caused cosmologists to abandon the oscillating universe model. A somewhat similar idea is embraced by the cyclic model, but this idea evades heat death, because of an expansion of the branes that dilutes entropy accumulated in the previous cycle. For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). ... This article is about the cosmological theory. ... The oscillatory universe is a cosmological model, originally derived by Alexander Friedman in 1922 and developed by Richard Tolman from 1934, in which the universe undergoes a series of oscillations, each beginning with a big bang and ending with a big crunch. ... The second law of thermodynamics is an expression of the universal law of increasing entropy. ... For other uses, see: information entropy (in information theory) and entropy (disambiguation). ... The heat death is a possible final state of the universe, in which it has reached maximum entropy. ... The shape of the Universe is an informal name for a subject of investigation within physical cosmology. ... The cyclic model is a brane cosmology model of the creation of the universe, derived from the earlier ekpyrotic model. ...


Big Bounce

Main article: Big Bounce

The Big Bounce is a theorized scientific model related to the creation of the known Universe. It derives from the oscillatory universe or cyclic repetition interpretation of the Big Bang where the first cosmological event was the result of the collapse of a previous universe. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


According to one version of the Big Bang theory of cosmology, in the beginning the universe had infinite density. Such a description seems to be at odds with everything else in physics, and especially quantum mechanics and its uncertainty principle.[citation needed] It is not surprising, therefore, that quantum mechanics has given rise to an alternative version of the Big Bang theory. Also, if the universe is closed, this theory would predict that once this incarnation of the universe collapses it will spawn another universe in an event similar to the Big Bang after a universal singularity is reached or a repulsive quantum force causes re-expansion.


Multiverse: no complete end

Main article: Multiverse (science)

The multiverse hypothesis states that our universe is but one universe among infinite parallel universes, possibly with different physical laws. Whatever the ultimate fate of our universe may be, almost all parallel universes will have different fates. And while many universes may be closed, many others may be open. The multiverse as a whole may never end completely. A multiverse (or meta-universe) is the hypothetical set of multiple possible universes (including our universe) that together comprise all of physical reality. ... The many-worlds interpretation or MWI (also known as relative state formulation, theory of the universal wavefunction, many-universes interpretation, Oxford interpretation or many worlds), is an interpretation of quantum mechanics that claims to resolve all the paradoxes of quantum theory by allowing every possible outcome to every event to...


False vacuum

If the vacuum is not in its lowest energy state (a false vacuum), it could collapse into a lower energy state. [citation needed] This is called the vacuum metastability event. This has the potential to fundamentally alter our universe; in more audacious scenarios even the various physical constants could have different values, severely affecting the foundations of matter, energy, and spacetime. A false vacuum is a metastable sector of a quantum field theory which appears to be a perturbative vacuum but is unstable to instanton effects which tunnel to a lower energy state. ... A false vacuum is a metastable sector of a quantum field theory which appears to be a perturbative vacuum but is unstable to instanton effects which tunnel to a lower energy state. ... In physics, a physical constant is a physical quantity of a value that is generally believed to be both universal in nature and not believed to change in time. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... For other uses of this term, see Spacetime (disambiguation). ...


Cosmic uncertainty

Each possibility described so far is based on very simple form for the dark energy equation of state. But as the name is meant to imply, we know almost nothing of the real physics of the dark energy. If the theory of inflation is true, the universe went through an episode dominated by a different form of dark energy in the first moments of the big bang; but inflation ended, indicating an equation of state much more complicated than those assumed so far for present-day dark energy. It is possible that the dark energy equation of state could change again resulting in an event that would have consequences which are extremely difficult to parametrize or predict.


Observational constraints on theories

Choosing among these rival scenarios is done by 'weighing' the universe, i.e. measuring the relative contributions of matter, radiation, dark matter and dark energy to the critical density. More concretely, competing scenarios are evaluated against data on galaxy clustering and distant supernovae, and on the anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background. This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... For other uses, see Radiation (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dark matter (disambiguation). ... In physical cosmology, dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to increase the rate of expansion of the universe. ... In cosmology, the Big Crunch is a hypothesis that states the universe will stop expanding and start to collapse upon itself; a counterpart to the Big Bang. ... ... For other uses, see Supernova (disambiguation). ... WMAP image of the CMB anisotropy,Cosmic microwave background radiation(June 2003) The cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) is a form of electromagnetic radiation that fills the whole of the universe. ...


Life in a mortal universe

Dyson's eternal intelligence hypothesis proposes that an advanced civilization could survive for an effectively infinite period of time while consuming only a finite amount of energy. Such a civilization would alternate brief periods of activity with ever longer periods of hibernation. In 1979, Freeman Dyson published a paper in which he argued that in an open universe, it would be possible for an intelligent being to think an infinite number of thoughts. ...


John Barrow and Frank J. Tipler (1986) propose a Final anthropic principle: the emergence of intelligent life is inevitable, and once such life comes into being somewhere in the universe, it will never die out. Barrow and Tipler go even further: the eventual fate of intelligent life is to permeate and control the entire universe in all respects but one: intelligence cannot halt the Big Crunch. Moreover, it will not want to do so because the main source of energy in a universe undergoing a Big Crunch will be a hot spot in the sky arising from an asymmetrical contraction of the universe. They speculate that the required asymmetry will be engineered by some form of intelligent life. Frank J. Tipler (born in 1947 in Andalusia, Alabama) is a professor of mathematical physics at Tulane University in New Orleans, Louisiana. ... The final anthropic principle (FAP) is defined by physicists John D. Barrow and Frank J. Tiplers 1986 book The Anthropic Cosmological Principle as a generalization of the anthropic principle as follows: Final anthropic principle (FAP): Intelligent information-processing must come into existence in the Universe, and, once it comes... This article is about the cosmological theory. ...


Tipler's Omega point scenario (Tipler 1994) concludes that the reverse of the eternal intelligence scenario would be the case for a civilization caught in the final stages of a Big Crunch. Such a civilization would, in effect, experience an infinite amount of "subjective" time during the remaining finite life of the universe, using the enormous energy of the Crunch to accelerate information processing faster than the approach of the final singularity. The Omega Point is a term used by Tulane University professor of mathematics and physics Frank J. Tipler to describe what he maintains is a necessary cosmological state in the far future of the universe. ... In general, information processing is the changing (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. ...


Though possible in theory, it is not obvious whether there will ever exist technologies that will make either of these scenarios feasible. Moreover, effective solutions may be indistinguishable from the present state of our universe. In other words, if beings cannot stop the universe from collapsing, at least they can use the energy of the collapse to simulate future universes (roughly reminiscent of the Matrix movies) that resemble the ending universe, but with artificial or compressed time scales. The Matrix series consists primarily of three films, The Matrix, The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions. ...


Recent work in inflationary cosmology, string theory, and quantum mechanics has moved the discussion of the ultimate fate of the universe in directions distinct from the scenarios set out by Dyson and Tipler. Theoretical work by Eric Chaisson and David Layzer finds that an expanding spacetime gives rise to an increasing "entropy gap", casting doubt on the heat death hypothesis. Invoking Ilya Prigogine's work on far-from-equilibrium thermodynamics, their analysis suggests that this entropy gap may contribute to information, and hence to the formation of structure. In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation is the idea that the nascent universe passed through a phase of exponential expansion that was driven by a negative-pressure vacuum energy density. ... Interaction in the subatomic world: world lines of pointlike particles in the Standard Model or a world sheet swept up by closed strings in string theory This box:      String theory is a model of fundamental physics, whose building blocks are one-dimensional extended objects called strings, rather than the zero... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to quantum mechanics. ... Eric Chaisson at his home near Walden Pond in Concord, Massachusetts Eric J. Chaisson is an American astrophysicist and science educator best known for his research, teaching and writing on the interdisciplinary science of cosmic evolution. ... For other uses of this term, see Spacetime (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see: information entropy (in information theory) and entropy (disambiguation). ... The heat death is a possible final state of the universe, in which it has run down to a state of no free energy to sustain motion or life. ... Ilya Prigogine (January 25, 1917 – May 28, 2003) was a Belgian physicist and chemist noted for his work on dissipative structures, complex systems, and irreversibility. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ...


Meanwhile, Andrei Linde, Alan Guth, Edward Harrison, and Ernest Sternglass argue that inflationary cosmology strongly suggests the presence of a multiverse, and that it would be practical even with today's knowledge for intelligent beings to generate and transmit de novo information into a distinct universe. Alan Guth has speculated that a civilization at the top of the Kardashev scale might create fine-tuned universes in a continuation of the evolutionary drive to exist, grow, and multiply. This has been further developed by the Selfish Biocosm Hypothesis, and by the proposal that the existence of the fundamental physical constants may be subject to a Darwinian evolution of Universes.[1] Moreover, recent theoretical work on the unresolved quantum gravity problem and the Holographic Principle suggests that traditional physical quantities may possibly themselves be describable in terms of exchanges of information, which in turn raises questions about the applicability of older cosmological models. Andrei Linde is an American physicist and professor of Physics at Californias Stanford University. ... Alan Harvey Guth (born February 27, 1947) is a physicist and cosmologist. ... Edward Hardy Ted Harrison (1926–) is a Canadian artist notable for his paintings of the Yukon. ... Ernest J. Sternglass (born 1923, Berlin) is a Ph. ... A multiverse (or meta-universe) is the hypothetical set of multiple possible universes (including our universe) that together comprise all of physical reality. ... Alan Harvey Guth (born February 27, 1947) is a physicist and cosmologist. ... Kardashev scale projections ranging from 1900 to 2100. ... The deepest visible-light image of the cosmos. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... James N. Gardner, professional lobbyist and graduate of Yale Law School, is the author of the Biocosm Hypothesis, which argues that intelligent life eventually emerges as the architect of the Universe. ... Quantum gravity is the field of theoretical physics attempting to unify quantum mechanics, which describes three of the fundamental forces of nature, with general relativity, the theory of the fourth fundamental force: gravity. ... The holographic principle is a speculative conjecture about quantum gravity theories, proposed by Gerard t Hooft and improved and promoted by Leonard Susskind, claiming that all of the information contained in a volume of space can be represented by a theory which lives in the boundary of that region. ...


Religious perspective

Virtually every major religion has an end-of-the-universe narrative. The theological study of the ultimate fate of the universe and/or ultimate destiny of mankind is known as eschatology. Many religious groups are torn as to whether their theological beliefs about the end of the world can be made compatible with the scientific theories of the end of the universe. [citation needed] For example, a text that reads "and all the stars fell from the sky" might on the one hand show a misunderstanding of what stars are (as merely points of light). But if that text has actual true implications from a divine intelligence, it might reference any one of a number of modern secular theories about the end of the universe. For the eschatological beliefs of various religions, see End Times. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ...


The end of the universe in science fiction

Scientific speculation about the ultimate fate of life in the universe merges almost seamlessly into science fiction. Many works describe the end of the universe—occasionally purely educational exercises describing theories of the day, more often exploiting its potential as the ultimate sense of wonder plot device, or satirising the pretensions of humanity in general and cosmologists in particular. At its best (and sometimes at its most bombastic) science fiction can try to suggest a scientific eschatology that searches for meaning in the face of the new knowledge. Countless sci-fi and fantasy works use the threatened destruction of the universe as their plot device, usually with an evil supervillain and/or the incompetence of humanity as the cause, and usually with human ingenuity saving the day. Frequently invoked in discussions of science fiction, the sense of wonder is that experience unique to the genre. ... For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ...


The topic of heat death was explored in science fiction as early as 1895 in H G Wells' The Time Machine, which includes an evocation of the heat death of the universe as imagined by scientists like Lord Kelvin at that time. In the absence of a modern dynamic cosmology, this consisted of the fading out of the Sun to an exhausted red ember, and a vision of Earth as a cold and bland eroded desert. As the understanding of cosmology increased, so too did the scope of science fiction. Isaac Asimov's short story, "The Last Question" was published in 1959, and posits a universe experiencing heat death, and a future human computer technology so powerful that it finally discovers how to reverse the process by igniting what is, in effect, a new Big Bang. When Asimov published this story, in 1959, heat death was still the only scenario discussed in this entry to have been articulated. The heat death is a possible final state of the universe, in which it has reached maximum entropy. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... H. G. Wells at the door of his house at Sandgate Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 - August 13, 1946) was an English writer best known for his science fiction novels such as The War of the Worlds and The Time Machine. ... The Time Machine is a novel by H. G. Wells, first published in 1895, later made into two films of the same title. ... William Thomson, Archbishop of York, has the same name as this man. ... Sol redirects here. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American Jewish author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... The Last Question is a science fiction short story by Isaac Asimov. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). ...


The Big Crunch as the fate of the Universe was explored in science fiction as early as Poul Anderson's 1970 novel Tau Zero which posits a cyclic universe where the big crunch will be surrounded by a cloud of hydrogen, and that a starship could navigate a course to avoid the singularity and emerge into the new universe after the subsequent big bang. This article is about the cosmological theory. ... Poul William Anderson (November 25, 1926–July 31, 2001) was an American science fiction author of the genres Golden Age. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tau Zero is a science fiction novel by Poul Anderson. ...


Religion is not wholly excluded from science fiction's explorations of the end of our universe. Arthur C. Clarke's short story "The Nine Billion Names of God" takes non-scientific eschatology seriously. Its famous last line ominously chronicles the end of the universe as observed by mankind: Overhead, without any fuss, the stars were going out. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Arthur C. Clarke Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (born 16 December 1917) is a British science-fiction author and inventor, most famous for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, and for collaborating with director Stanley Kubrick on the film of the same... The Nine Billion Names of God is the name of a famous short story by Arthur C. Clarke, and of a collection of his short stories in which it was published in New York by Harcourt, Brace & World in 1967. ...


Not only a source of fear or hope, the end of the universe has been used for satirical and comedic effect. Milliways, The Restaurant at the End of the Universe, is a fictional location in Douglas Adams's science-fiction series The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. The entire restaurant and its patrons are projected through time via a "time bubble" to the point at which the Universe ends. The ceiling is made of glass so the restaurant guests can watch the universe end as dinner entertainment. The Restaurant at the End of the Universe (1980, ISBN 0345391810) is the second book in the Hitchhikers Guide to the Galaxy comedy science fiction series by Douglas Adams. ... Douglas Noël Adams (11 March 1952 – 11 May 2001) was an English author, comic radio dramatist, and musician. ... The cover of the first novel in the Hitchhikers series, from a late 1990s printing. ...


The concept of an end to the universe has inspired some authors to explore the more human-centric topics of fate and free will, In Kurt Vonnegut's classic novel Slaughterhouse Five, the primary character is a war veteran who is contacted by aliens from the planet Tralfamadore who claim that one of their scientists will accidentally destroy the universe while testing a new type of spaceship fuel. Tralfamadorians are aware of this event because they perceive all of time instantaneously, in a similar way to how someone would observe an entire range of mountains in one instant. Look up fate, Fates in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. ... Slaughterhouse-Five; or, The Childrens Crusade: A Duty-Dance With Death is a 1969 novel by Kurt Vonnegut. ...


See also

Scientists In physics and cosmology, the anthropic principle states that we should take into account the constraints that our existence as observers imposes on the sort of universe that we could observe. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Big Bang (disambiguation). ... This article is about the cosmological theory. ... scenario in which the universe becomes too cold to sustain life due to continued expansion and the decay of free energy due to the action of entropy. ... The Big Rip is a cosmological hypothesis about the Ultimate fate of the universe, in which the matter of the universe, from stars and galaxies to atoms and subatomic particles, are progressively torn apart by the expansion of the universe at a certain time in the future. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cosmology, from the Greek: κοσμολογία (cosmologia, κόσμος (cosmos) order + λογια (logia) discourse) is the study of the Universe in its totality, and by extension, humanitys place in it. ... The cyclic model is a brane cosmology model of the creation of the universe, derived from the earlier ekpyrotic model. ... Deep ecology is a recent branch of ecological philosophy (ecosophy) that considers humankind as an integral part of its environment. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... In 1979, Freeman Dyson published a paper in which he argued that in an open universe, it would be possible for an intelligent being to think an infinite number of thoughts. ... Esoteric cosmology is cosmology that is an intrinsic part of an esoteric or occult system of thought. ... A false vacuum is a metastable sector of a quantum field theory which appears to be a perturbative vacuum but is unstable to instanton effects which tunnel to a lower energy state. ... The final anthropic principle (FAP) is defined by physicists John D. Barrow and Frank J. Tiplers 1986 book The Anthropic Cosmological Principle as a generalization of the anthropic principle as follows: Final anthropic principle (FAP): Intelligent information-processing must come into existence in the Universe, and, once it comes... For a less technical and generally accessible introduction to the topic, see Introduction to general relativity. ... The heat death is a possible final state of the universe, in which it has run down to a state of no free energy to sustain motion or life. ... Kardashev scale projections ranging from 1900 to 2100. ... A multiverse (or meta-universe) is the hypothetical set of multiple possible universes (including our universe) that together comprise all of physical reality. ... Omega point is a term invented by French Jesuit Pierre Teilhard de Chardin to describe the ultimate maximum level of complexity-consciousness, considered by him the aim towards which consciousness evolves. ... The shape of the Universe is an informal name for a subject of investigation within physical cosmology. ... This lists a timeline of cosmological theories and discoveries. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

John David Barrow FRS (born November 29, 1952, London) is an English cosmologist, theoretical physicist, and mathematician. ... Freeman John Dyson FRS (born December 15, 1923) is an English-born American theoretical physicist and mathematician, famous for his work in quantum mechanics, solid-state physics, nuclear weapons design and policy, and for his serious theorizing in futurism and science fiction concepts, including the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. ... Alan Harvey Guth (born February 27, 1947) is a physicist and cosmologist. ... Andrei Linde is an American physicist and professor of Physics at Californias Stanford University. ... Frank J. Tipler (born in 1947 in Andalusia, Alabama) is a professor of mathematical physics at Tulane University in New Orleans, Louisiana. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.universetoday.com/am/publish/printer_advanced_civilization_become.html

Further reading

Nonfiction

  • Adams, Fred; Gregory Laughlin (2000). The Five Ages of the Universe: Inside the Physics of Eternity. Simon & Schuster Australia. ISBN 0-684-86576-9. 
  • John D. Barrow and Frank Tipler, 1986. The Anthropic Cosmological Principle. Oxford Uni. Press. ISBN 0-19-282147-4
  • Chaisson, Eric (2001). Cosmic Evolution: The Rise of Complexity in Nature. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-00342-X. 
  • Davies, Paul (1997). The last Three Minutes: Conjectures About the Ultimate Fate of the Universe. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-03851-4. 
  • Dyson, Freeman (2004). Infinite in all directions (the 1985 Gifford Lectures). Harper Perennial. 
  • Gardner, James N., 2005, "The Physical Constants as Biosignature: An anthropic retrodiction of the Selfish Biocosm Hypothesis," International Journal of Astrobiology.
  • Goldstein, Martin, and Inge F., 1993. The Refrigerator and the Universe. Harvard Univ. Press. Esp. chpt. 15.
  • Guth, Alan (1998). Inflationary Universe: Quest for a New Theory of Cosmic Origins. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-32840-2. 
  • Harrison, Edward (2003). Masks of the Universe: Changing Ideas on the Nature of the Cosmos. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-77351-2. 
  • Hawking, Stephen (1998). A Brief History of Time. Bantam. ISBN 0-553-38016-8. 
  • Layzer, David (1991). Cosmogenesis: The Growth of Order in the Universe. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-506908-0. 
  • Linde, Andrei (1990). Particle Physics and Inflationary Cosmology. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 3-7186-0490-6. 
  • Malm T.M., Spiral Rotation Model 1999, Realis Pub. [1]
  • Malm T.M., Modified Set Model 2001, Realis Pub. [2]
  • Penrose, Roger (2004). The Road to Reality. Alfred A. Knopf. 
  • Prigogine, Ilya; Isabelle Stengers (1984). Order out of Chaos: Man's New Dialogue with Nature. Random House. ISBN 0-394-54204-5. 
  • Prigogine, Ilya (2003). Is Future Given?. World Scientific Publishing. ISBN 981-238-508-8. 
  • Smolin, Lee (1993). The Life of the Cosmos. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-512664-5. 
  • Smolin, Lee (2001). Three Roads to Quantum Gravity: A New Understanding of Space, Time and the Universe. Phoenix. ISBN 0-7538-1261-4. 
  • Tipler, Frank (1994). The Physics of Immortality. Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-46799-0. 
  • Davies, Paul (1992). The Mind of God. Simon & Schuster UK. ISBN 0-671-71069-9. 

John David Barrow FRS (born November 29, 1952, London) is an English cosmologist, theoretical physicist, and mathematician. ... Frank J. Tipler is a professor of mathematical physics at Tulane University, New Orleans, physicist, theologian and cornucopian philosopher. ... For the member of the National Assembly for Wales, see Paul Davies (Welsh politician). ... Freeman John Dyson FRS (born December 15, 1923) is an English-born American theoretical physicist and mathematician, famous for his work in quantum mechanics, solid-state physics, nuclear weapons design and policy, and for his serious theorizing in futurism and science fiction concepts, including the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. ... The Gifford Lectures were established by the will of Adam Lord Gifford (d. ... Alan Harvey Guth (born February 27, 1947) is a physicist and cosmologist. ... Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA, (born 8 January 1942) is a British theoretical physicist. ... Andrei Linde is an American physicist and professor of Physics at Californias Stanford University. ... Sir Roger Penrose, OM, FRS (born 8 August 1931) is an English mathematical physicist and Emeritus Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics at the Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford and Emeritus Fellow of Wadham College. ... Ilya Prigogine (January 25, 1917 – May 28, 2003) was a Belgian physicist and chemist noted for his work on dissipative structures, complex systems, and irreversibility. ... Ilya Prigogine (January 25, 1917 – May 28, 2003) was a Belgian physicist and chemist noted for his work on dissipative structures, complex systems, and irreversibility. ... Lee Smolin at Harvard. ... Lee Smolin at Harvard. ... Frank J. Tipler is a professor of mathematical physics at Tulane University, New Orleans, physicist, theologian and cornucopian philosopher. ... For the member of the National Assembly for Wales, see Paul Davies (Welsh politician). ... The Mind of God is a 1992 non-fiction book by Paul Davies. ...

Fiction

Poul William Anderson (November 25, 1926–July 31, 2001) was an American science fiction author of the genres Golden Age. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), IPA: , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов) was a Russian-born American Jewish author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful and exceptionally prolific writer best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... The Last Question is a science fiction short story by Isaac Asimov. ... John David Barrow FRS (born November 29, 1952, London) is an English cosmologist, theoretical physicist, and mathematician. ... Stephen Baxter (born in Liverpool, 13 November 1957) is a British hard science fiction author. ... Exultant is the second novel of Stephen Baxters Destinys Children series. ... L. E. (Leland Exton) Modesitt, Jr was born in 1943 in Denver, Colorado. ... now. ...

External links

  • Baez, J., 2004, "The End of the Universe."
  • Caldwell, R. R., Kamionski, M., and Weinberg, N. N., 2003, "Phantom Energy and Cosmic Doomsday," Physical Review Letters 91.
  • Hjalmarsdotter, Linnea, 2005, "Cosmological parameters."
  • Malm T. M., Spiral Rotation Model.
  • Vaas, R., 2006, "Dark Energy and Life's Ultimate Future," in Burdyuzha, V. (ed.) The Future of Life and the Future of our Civilization. Springer: 231-247.
  • An in depth look at what the future holds for the universe.
  • A Brief History of the End of Everything, a BBC Radio 4 series.
  • Cosmology at Caltech.


old Radio 4 logo BBC Radio 4 is a UK domestic radio station which broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history. ...


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