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Encyclopedia > Ultimate (sport)

Ultimate (often called Ultimate Frisbee in reference to the trademarked brand name) is a non-contact team sport played with a 175 gram flying disc. The object of the sport is to score points by passing the disc to a player in the opposing end zone, similar to an end zone in American football or rugby. Players may not run while holding the disc. Ultimate is distinguished by its spirit of the game—the principles of fair play, sportsmanship, and the joy of play. A Wham-O Professional Frisbee For the amusement ride, see Frisbee (ride). ... Tackles like this one (Womens Australian rules football) are used in contact sports including many varieties of Football. ... Womens Australian rules football is a team sport. ... Frisbee redirects here. ... Latrell loves him some MIRACLE WHIP!! sho nuff and mashmell The end zone is a term in both Canadian football and American football. ... Latrell loves him some MIRACLE WHIP!! sho nuff and mashmell The end zone is a term in both Canadian football and American football. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... It is sporting to shake the hand of ones opponent after the end of a game. ...

UNC-Wilmington's Jarret Bowen (TO) lays out for the disc.

While originally called "Ultimate Frisbee," the sport is often simply called "Ultimate." This is because "Frisbee" is the trademark for the line of discs made by the Wham-O toy company. In fact, discs made by Wham-O competitor Discraft are the standard discs for the sport. For this reason, the sport has also been called "Ultimate Disc" by many teams and clubs. Today, the sport is simply known as "Ultimate." Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A Wham-O Professional Frisbee For the amusement ride, see Frisbee (ride). ... Wham-O Inc. ... Discraft is a company founded by Jim Kenner and located in Wixom, Michigan that manufactures flying discs. ...



In the autumn of 1967, Silver proposed that the Student Council form a Frisbee team. Suggested as a joke, the motion was seconded and then passed. Discussion of Frisbee continued in the Council throughout the year and into the spring, but it remained tongue-in-cheek.

"It was not a serious thing at all, it was a lark of Council," Silver later said. Yet by the end of the school year, Silver and other members of the Council began to organize a game during their lunch period. Members of The Colombian had already been tossing a disc -- a black 150-gram Wham-O, Master Tournament Model -- during lunch on the east lawn of the school. That spring, members of both the newspaper and the Council began to play Frisbee Football. The first games were played on a small field that was later torn up and replaced with the school�s B-wing.

"It was a chance for The Colombian core -- the intelligentsia (sic) and non-athletes of the school -- to play a sport," Silver has said. Many of the original players were in the upper ranks of the school academically, future Ivy Leaguers who weren�t exactly your Bo Jacksons and Kobe Bryants. "The core of us were largely among the better students," Summers said. "There were also some druggie types. We were about evenly split between the better students and the half who smoked dope."

The game was freeform early on, with no limits as to how many players should be on each side. As many as 20 to 30 players were allowed per team. The original game allowed running with the disc and included lines of scrimmage and a series of downs, but as they played, Silver, Hellring, and Hines began to modify the rules. Conceptualizing basketball, hockey, and soccer, they experimented, gradually eliminating running with the disc and the system of downs, and establishing rules for the defense. Unable to satisfactorily define a foul, one player came up with the phrase that a foul constituted "any action sufficient to arouse the ire of your opponent."

There was no specific provision made for what is today called "Spirit of the Game" because it was viewed by those at Columbia as a "gentleman�s sport, a collegial game,�� said Hines, who went on to found the Princeton team and is now a New York City-based attorney. "Even my Princeton jock-ringers of the time (football recruits from Texas and Missouri) were gentlemen, relatively speaking, on the Frisbee field. Hines, the most athletic of the trio of founding fathers, said the players liked the game�s athleticism. "There was very graceful running and jumping," he said. Graceful by some, not so graceful by others. "There was a mix of athletes and some uncoordinated, overweight people playing," he said. "The former could run and jump like gazelles; the latter evoked other analogies." Some players came in sneakers and sweats, others in stiff jeans and walking shoes. "If there weren�t enough people, you�d grab somebody, some kid going by," Leiwant said. "Originally we would play as long as we felt like it -- till the sun went down, till people got tired and had to leave."

In 1968 Hellring decided to turn The Colombian from a weekly into a daily, but needed more articles to justify the change. When Frisbee play during lunch grew, he figured it would give him something to write about. When Silver was ejected from the newspaper�s staff, a mock rivalry developed between The Colombian and the Council. The newspaper had also been critical of the Council, which fed the rivalry.

In the fall of 1968, the newspaper challenged the Council to a game of Frisbee to settle their differences. In a matchup that featured two large, co-ed teams, The Colombian won the first game in front of the high school, 11-7.

By the summer of 1969, the now famous Columbia parking lot had been built. Down the hill from the school, the lot is bounded on the east by a 12-foot drop that descends into the Rahway River and on the west by a railroad embankment. Because the lot was lit by mercury vapor lights, the students could play there at night, after the day�s activities. Games at the parking lot included teams of 20 or more per side, but that was eventually whittled to seven because "that was the most you could fit in the parking lot," Leiwant said. Soon, it became known that a regular game could be found on the "field" almost every weekend night and during vacations. "I used to spend so many weekend nights at the Frisbee field during my junior and senior high school years that my parents would kid and lament that my �only girlfriend was a Frisbee� or that I would �marry a Frisbee,�" Hines said.

The sport was first publicized in a June 1969 Newark Evening News article, written by Silver, entitled "Frisbee Flippers Form Teams" and appearing above a story called "John and Yoko Croon Again." On the first day of school that fall, the Frisbee squad played its first game on the school�s new parking lot.

As the weeks and months passed, everything was not rosy in the lot, however. Local toughs and troublemakers would sometimes drive through the lot at high speeds � hassling the players and forcing them to scatter. Summers recalled one night when a "real big bruiser" � about 6-foot-2, 240-pounds � and a smaller guy got out of their car and attacked the No. 2 student in the class. "He was a very gentle, unassuming guy who wouldn�t have hurt a fly," Summers said. "I went over to them and the smaller guy took a swing at me. I knew I could�ve decked him, but the big guy was standing right there." (It is believed by some that the attackers went on to found Ultimate in North Carolina.)

Despite receiving abuse for their anti-establishment, countercultural game, the Frisbee players carried on. In February, 1970, the players adopted the name The Columbia High School Varsity Frisbee Squad, a tongue-in-cheek reference because the team had no official connection with the school. One player designed "CHS Varsity Frisbee" sweatshirts, Silver�s mother paid to have them made up and the players proudly wore them in the first team photo. In the picture of the "Original Ultimate squad," a school custodian appeared as "Head Coach," the school security director was the "General Manager" and a fictitious player, Arnold Tzoltic, was listed as a member.

According to Hellring�s sister, Heidi, Hellring got Wham-O to send the team a box of Frisbees because the discs kept cracking in the 15-25 degree Fahrenheit air; one green 120-gram "moonlighter" was lost in the brook by the lot, The Colombian reported. Silver and Hellring also took the International Frisbee Association�s test, passing it as masters. The IFA was then the sport�s governing body.

Hellring continued to write tongue-in-cheek Frisbee stories and place ads for the team in the paper. In one, the paper reported that "the rise of Frisbee in Columbia high school is merely indicative of a world-wide trend, according to major national periodicals." The story went on to cite a Time magazine article which recommended that the U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. take their cue and henceforth "settle all disputes between the two with Frisbees instead of missiles."

Before going off to college in 1970, Silver, Hellring, and Hines decided to print the rules and bring them up to date. Though many of the original rules are still in place today, some have changed dramatically. The only limit to the size of the field was that "The two goal lines must be parallel and should be somewhere between 40 and 60 yards apart, depending on the number of players." Games continued to be played with as many as 20 or 30 players per side. And the end zones were unlimited. A player standing a foot from the goal line could score with a fifty yard bomb. The booklet was entitled "Official Rules of Ultimate Frisbee" and cost 10 cents.

In the summer of 1970, a group of younger Columbia students � including Summers, Larry Schindel, Irv Kalb, and others known as the Richmond Avenue Gang or RAG � challenged the CHS team to a game. RAG lost 47-28 but played with the varsity for the rest of the summer, and Kalb was selected as new varsity captain when the original players went on to college. An annual Thanksgiving match between the Columbia team and the alumnus was established � a tradition that still exists today.

The RAG members sent the rules to many other high schools in northern New Jersey, asking them to form Ultimate Frisbee teams. Millburn High School responded and on Nov. 7, 1970, the first interscholastic game pitted Millburn against the more experienced Columbia varsity. CHS won 43-10 in the Columbia parking lot. The game was covered by the Newark Evening News, and copies of the rules were subsequently requested by other schools. When the New Jersey Frisbee Conference was formed in the spring of 1971, it had five teams: Columbia, Dumont, Millburn, Mountain (now West Orange), and Nutley. "We wanted to spread it throughout the world," said Summers, who recalled a 24-hour road trip to the International Frisbee Tournament in Upper Peninsula, Mich. "We were really spreading the gospel." Summers and his cohorts were the forerunners to generations of high school and college kids who load up for road trips � poor, smelly, and hungover � every weekend.

Meanwhile, Columbia graduates were organizing teams at their colleges and universities. In addition to Hines� efforts at Princeton, Leiwant co-founded the Yale squad, and Summers the Tufts team. Hellring died in a tragic car accident during his freshman year, 1971, at Princeton.

Twenty-five people showed up for the first practice at Rutgers University, seven of them former New Jersey high school players. The first intercollegiate competition was held between Rutgers and Princeton on Nov. 6, 1972, the 103rd anniversary of the first intercollegiate football game, and at the same site on the Rutgers New Brunswick campus. That game and the rematch a year later were the only two intercollegiate games Hines played his entire career.

Hines arranged for the game to be videotaped by a national network and for former Yankees pitcher and sports commentator Jim Bouton to cover it. "It was a thrill and a half," Hines said. "I felt nervous and dead serious about winning. It was an incredibly close game, from beginning to end, and Bouton was very surprised at what a good game Ultimate was."

Collegiate clubs

The first collegiate ultimate club was formed by Silver when he arrived at Lafayette College in 1970.[1] Lafayette College is a private coeducational liberal arts and engineering college located in Easton, Pennsylvania, USA. The school, founded in 1826 by citizens of Easton, first began holding classes in 1832. ...

The first intercollegiate competition was held at Rutgers' New Brunswick campus between Rutgers and Princeton on November 6, 1972, the 103rd anniversary of the first intercollegiate game of American football featuring the same schools competing in the same location. Rutgers redirects here. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An early American football team, from the turn of the twentieth century The history of American football, a spectator sport in the United States,[1] can be traced to early versions of rugby football. ...

By 1975, dozens of colleges had teams, and in April 1975, players organized the first ultimate tournament, an eight-team invitational called the "Intercollegiate Ultimate Frisbee Championships," to be played at Yale. Rutgers beat Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 26-23, in the finals. Yale redirects here. ... Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, or RPI, is a nonsectarian, coeducational private research university in Troy, New York, a city lying just outside the state capital of Albany. ...

By 1976, teams were organizing in areas outside the Northeast. A 16-team single elimination tournament was set up at Amherst, Massachusetts, to include 13 East Coast teams and 3 Midwest teams. Rutgers again took the title, beating Hampshire College in the finals. Penn State and Princeton were the other semi-finalists. While it was called the "National Ultimate Frisbee Championships", ultimate was starting to appear in the Los Angeles and Santa Barbara area. Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Nickname: Location in Hampshire County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Hampshire Settled 1703 Incorporated 1775 Government  - Type Representative town meeting Area  - Total 27. ... Midwest redirects here. ... Hampshire College is an experimenting private liberal arts college in Amherst, Massachusetts. ... The Pennsylvania State University The Pennsylvania State University (commonly known as Penn State) is a state-related land-grant university in Pennsylvania, with over 80,000 students at 24 campuses throughout the state. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Nickname: Location in Santa Barbara County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Barbara Government  - Mayor Marty Blum Area  - Total 41. ...

Penn State hosted the first five-region National Ultimate Championships in May 1979. There were five regional representatives: three college and two club teams. They were as follows: Cornell University-(Northeast), Glassboro State-(Middle Atlantic), Michigan State-(Central), Orlando Fling-(South), Santa Barbara Condors-(West). Each team played the other in a round robin format to produce a Glassboro-Condors final. The Condors had gone undefeated up to this point; however Glassboro prevailed 19-18 to become the 1979 national champions. They repeated as champions in 1980 as well. Cornell redirects here. ... Rowan University is a public university located in Glassboro, New Jersey comprising 49 buildings. ... Michigan State University is a university in East Lansing, Michigan near the state capital of Lansing. ... The term round-robin describes correspondence authored or signed by numerous individuals to a single addressee. ...

Club and international play

In California clubs were sprouting in the Los Angeles - Santa Barbara area, while in the east, where the sport developed at the high school and college level, the first college graduates were beginning to found club teams, such as the Philadelphia Frisbee Club, the Washington Area Frisbee Club, the Knights of Nee in New Jersey, the Hostages in Boston and so forth. Arkansas also has a few formidable teams located in the towns of Pocahontas, Newport, and Batesville. This article is about the U.S state. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ...

In the same year, ultimate arrived in the United Kingdom, with the UK's first clubs forming at the University of Warwick and the University of Cambridge, and Purley high school[2], by the late 1970s and early 1980s there were also clubs at the University of Southampton, University of Leicester, and University of Bradford. The University of Warwick is a British campus university located on the outskirts of Coventry, West Midlands, England and is regarded as one of the countrys leading universities. ... Athletics: The Sporting Blue Affiliations: Russell Group Coimbra Group EUA LERU IARU Website: http://www. ... The University of Southampton is a university situated in the city of Southampton, on the south coast of Great Britain. ... University of Leicester seen from Victoria Park - Left to right: the Department of Engineering, the Attenborough tower, the Charles Wilson building. ... The University of Bradford is a university in Bradford, West Yorkshire in the United Kingdom. ...

Players associations

In 1979 and 1980 the Ultimate Players Association (UPA) was formed. The UPA organized regional tournaments and has crowned a national champion every year since 1979. The Ultimate Players Association, founded in 1979, is a not-for-profit organization that serves as the governing body of the sport of Ultimate in the United States. ...

The popularity of the sport quickly spread, taking hold as a free-spirited alternative to traditional organized sports. In recent years college ultimate has attracted a greater number of traditional athletes, raising the level of competition and athleticism and providing a challenge to its laid back, free-spirited roots.

In 1981 the European Flying Disc Federation (EFDF) was formed.[3] In 1984 the World Flying Disc Federation was formed by the EFDF to be the international governing body for disc sports.[4] The World Flying Disc Federation (WFDF) is the sanctioning body for an annual series of overall flying disc sports competions. ...

Founded in 1986, incorporated in 1993 the Ottawa-Carleton Ultimate Association based in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, has the largest summer league in the world with 354 teams and over 5000 players as of 2004.[5]-1... This article is about the Canadian province. ...

In 2006 ultimate became a BUCS accredited sport at UK universities for both indoor and outdoor open division events. BUSA redirects here. ...

Rules of play

There are two sets of nearly identical rules in common use: the Ultimate Players Association rules used in North America and the World Flying Disc Federation rules used in all other parts of the world. The two rule sets are mostly the same with some minor differences. This section provides an overview of the rules that are common between both sets. North American redirects here. ...


The objective of ultimate is to score points by receiving a teammate's pass in the opponent's end zone. The outcome of a match is usually determined by one team achieving a predetermined number of points first. This ensures that a team can only win by scoring, rather than by running the clock down. There are many kinds of Frisbee throws. ...


Regulation ultimate is played between two teams of seven players. In informal "pick-up" games, the number of players varies. Substitutions are allowed between points, and teams are usually able to have around 20 players on their roster in a major tournament. A shortage of players may force teams to play the entire game without substitutions, a condition known as savage.


The sport is played using a 175 gram disc; for some national and international tournaments, only discs that have been approved by the governing body responsible for that tournament may be used.


Soccer as well as football cleats are often worn. While soccer cleats are used more commonly, football cleats are preferred by some for their arch support, ankle support, and extra padding. Ultimate-specific cleats are produced by ultimate equipment manufacturer and retailer Gaia, although only a minority of players wear their footwear. Care must be taken to select the correct shoe depending on the players feet and field conditions. Ultimate Cleats gives tips for choosing shoes depending on playing conditions. A cleat is a type of shoe designed especially for sports played on grass or dirt, such as soccer. ...


The UPA outdoor ultimate field

Regulation games are played on a field of 70 yards (64 meters) by 40 yards (37 meters). Under UPA rules, endzones are 25 yards (23 meters) deep, while under WFDF rules, endzones are 19.5 yards (18 metres) deep. Normally, ultimate is played outdoors on grass. Boundaries are marked by chalklines and cones. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x483, 23 KB)A schematic representation of an Ultimate field. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x483, 23 KB)A schematic representation of an Ultimate field. ... This derivation of the Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci, depicts nine historical units of measurement: the Yard, the Span, the Cubit, the Flemish Ell, the English Ell, the French Ell, the Fathom, the Hand , and the Foot. ... metre or meter, see meter (disambiguation) The metre is the basic unit of length in the International System of Units. ...


Pull or throw-off

The players line up at the edge of their respective endzones, and the defensive team throws, or pulls, the disc to the offensive team to begin play. Pulls are the first throws in a game. Pulls are normally long, hanging throws, giving the defense an opportunity to move up the field. In many team sports, defense or defence (see spelling differences) is the action of preventing an opponent from scoring. ...

The pull is often started by a member of the defending team raising one arm with the disc to show that they are ready to pull the disc and begin play. The team that pulls to start the game is usually decided in a manner similar to a coin toss. One popular way to decide which team pulls involves a player from both teams flipping a disc into the air while a third player calls "same" or "different" depending on how the discs land. If the player guesses correctly, his/her team gets to decide if they want to start on offense or defense or choose a side that they wish to start on. In sport, offense (American English) and offence (British English and Canadian English) is the action of attacking or engaging an opposing team with the objective of scoring points or goals. ...

Movement of the disc

The disc may be moved in any direction by completing a pass to a teammate. After catching a pass, a player is required to come to a stop as quickly as possible, and then can only move their non-pivot foot. A common misconception is that a player must setup a pivot foot before they can throw the disc. In fact, the player can throw the disc before stopping within the first couple of steps after they gain possession of the disc. It is this fact that makes the "Greatest" rule possible. A "Greatest" occurs when a player jumps from within bounds to catch a disc that has passed out-of-bounds, this is also known as an "ultimate play". The player must then throw the disc back in-bounds before his feet or any other part of his body touches the ground. The thrower may only catch their own throw if another player touches it in the air.

Upon receiving the disc, a player has ten seconds to pass it. This period is known as the "stall", and each second is counted out (a stall count) by a defender (the marker), who must be standing within three meters of the thrower. A player may keep the disc for longer than ten seconds if no marker is within three meters, or if the marker is not counting the stall; if there is a change of marker, the new marker must restart the stall from zero.


A point is scored when a player catches a pass in the endzone his team is attacking. In older versions of the rules, only offensive players could score. However, current UPA and WFDF rules allow a defensive team to score by intercepting a pass in the endzone they are defending. This play is referred to as a Callahan goal or simply a Callahan. It is named after well-known ultimate player Henry Callahan. Henry Callahan (1958–1982) was a player and ambassador of Ultimate and helped bring the sport to the University of Oregon, formally establishing a team in 1978. ...

After a point is scored, the teams exchange ends. The team who just scored remains in that end zone, and the opposing team takes the opposite end zone. This can be commonly referred to in the phrase: "Losers walk." Play is re-initiated with a pull by the scoring team.

Change of possession

An incomplete pass results in a change of possession. When this happens the defense immediately becomes the offense and gains possession of the disc where it comes to a stop on the field of play, or where it first traveled out of bounds. Play does not stop because of a turnover.

Reasons for turnovers:

  • Throw-away — the thrower misses his target and the disc falls to the ground.
  • Drop — the receiver is not able to catch the disc.
  • Block — a defender deflects the disc in mid flight, causing it to hit the ground.
  • Interception — a defender catches a disc thrown by the offense.
  • Out of bounds — the disc lands out of bounds, hits an object out of bounds or is caught by a player who lands out of bounds or leaps from outside the playing field.
  • Stall — a player on offense does not release the disc before the defender has counted out ten seconds.

Stoppage of play

Play may stop for the following reasons:

A player gets fouled by an opponent.
A player gets fouled by an opponent.

Image File history File links Foul. ... Image File history File links Foul. ...


A foul is the result of contact between players, although incidental contact (not affecting the play) does not constitute a foul. When a foul disrupts possession, the play resumes as if the possession were retained. If the player committing the foul disagrees with ("contests") the foul call, the disc is returned to the last thrower.


A violation occurs when a player violates the rules but does not initiate physical contact. Common violations include traveling with the disc, double teaming, and picking (moving in a manner so as to obstruct the movement of any player on the defensive team).

Time outs and half-time

By Eleventh Edition rules, each team is allowed two time outs per half. The halftime break occurs when one team reaches the half-way marker in the score. Since most games are played to odd numbers, the number for half-time is rounded up. For instance, if the game is to 13, half comes when one team scores 7. A break may also occur if an injury occurs.


Play stops whenever a player is injured—this is considered an injury time-out. During the duration, it is customary for players on the field to kneel or sit to ensure that they stay in their original positions. The injured person must then leave the field, and a substitute may come in. If an injured player is substituted for, the opposing team may also substitute a player.


While Ultimate may be played in a myriad of weather conditions including heavy rain and deep snow, nearby lightning should result in stoppage of play with players seeking shelter.


Teams are allowed to substitute players after a point is scored or for injured player after an injury time out. In the case of an injury substitution, the opposing team is allowed to make a substitution for a non-injured player.


Players are responsible for foul and line calls. Players resolve their own disputes. This creates a spirit of honesty and respect on the playing field. It is the duty of the player who committed the foul to speak up and admit his infraction. Occasionally, official observers are used to aid players in refereeing, known as observers.


Some additional rules have been introduced in the United States and Canada which can optionally overlay the standard rules and allow for referees called observers. An observer can only resolve a dispute if the players involved ask for his judgment. Although in some cases, observers have the power to make calls without being asked: such as line calls (to determine out of bounds or goals) and off-sides calls (players crossing their end zone line before the pull is released). Misconduct fouls can also be given by an observer for violations such as aggressive taunting, fighting, cheating, etc., and are reminiscent of the Yellow/Red card system in football; however, misconduct fouls are rare, and their ramifications not well defined. Observers are also charged with enforcing time limits for the game itself and many parts within the game, such as the amount of time defense has to set up after a time out or the time allowed between pulls, are honored. Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

The introduction of observers is, in part, an attempt by the UPA to allow games to run more smoothly and become more spectator-friendly. Because of the nature of play and the unique nature of self-refereeing, ultimate games are often subject to regular and long stoppages of play. This effort and the intensity that has arisen in the highest levels of competition have led many members of the ultimate community to lament the loss of the Spirit of the Game. This article is about refereeing in sports. ...

Indoor and beach ultimate

Indoor ultimate

Ultimate is sometimes played on an indoor football field, or the like. If the field has indoor football markings on it, then the outer most goal box lines are used for endzone lines. Playing off the walls or ceiling is usually not permitted. Since indoor venues tend to be smaller, the number of players per side is often decreased. Depending of the size of the field, two types of game can be played : 4 on 4 or 5 on 5.

In some indoor leagues play Speedpoint, also known as Quebec City rules (4 on 4), in order to speed up play:

  • Only 2 pulls every game: at the beginning of the game and after halftime. Each team pulls once.
  • After a point is scored, play resumes from the point in the end zone where the point was scored.
  • Maximum 20 second delay between the scoring of a point and the beginning of the next one.
  • Players may only substitute between points.
  • Each team is allowed one timeout per game.
  • Timeouts cannot be called in the last 5 minutes of the game.
  • In 5 on 5, substitution are allowed on the fly (while playing)

Indoor ultimate is played widely in Northern Europe during the winter because of frigid weather conditions. In North America, indoor ultimate tends to be played in venues that can accommodate a field of regular or near-regular size and the playing surface is AstroTurf or some other kind of artificial grass. In Europe, on the other hand, such facilities are rarely available, and indoor ultimate is usually on a handball or basketball court. In northern European and Scandinavian countries handball courts are the norm, whereas in the UK, Russia, and Southern Europe, basketball courts are more commonly used. Players often wear protection such as knee, elbow and wrist pads, much like in volleyball to avoid bruises and cuts when laying out. This article is about artificial grass. ... Handball player leaps towards the goal prior to throwing the ball, while the goalkeeper extends himself trying to stop it. ... This article is about the sport. ... For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ...

European indoor ultimate has evolved as a variant of standard outdoor ultimate. Because of the small size of the court and of the absence of wind, several indoor-specific offensive and defensive tactics have been developed. Moreover, throws such as scoobers, blades, hammers, and push-passes are rarely used or discouraged outdoors because even a little wind makes them inaccurate or because they are effective only at short range, but they are common in the small and wind-free indoor courts. The stall count is reduced to 8 seconds because of the faster nature of the indoor game.

There are regular indoor tournaments and championships and stable indoor teams. The best-known and longest-running indoor tournament is the Skogshyddan's Vintertrofén held in Gothenburg, Sweden, every year. For other uses, see Gothenburg (disambiguation). ...

Beach ultimate
Beach Ultimate

Beach ultimate is a variant of this activity. It is played in teams of four or five players on small fields. It is played on sand and, as the name implies, normally at the beach. Players are barefoot. The Beach Ultimate Lovers Association (BULA) is the international governing body for Beach Ultimate. Image File history File links Hothands1. ... Image File history File links Hothands1. ... For other uses, see Beach (disambiguation). ... Walking barefoot Going barefoot means not wearing shoes, socks, or other foot covering. ... The Beach Ultimate Lovers Association (BULA) is the worldwide organization that helps organizers and players further develop the sport of Beach Ultimate. ...

Most beach ultimate tournaments are played according to BULA rules, which are based on WFDF rules with a few modifications.

Strategy and tactics

Offensive strategies

Information graphic showing the standard configuration for a vertical stack (offense and force/one-to-one defense).
Information graphic showing the standard configuration for a vertical stack (offense and force/one-to-one defense).

Teams employ many different offensive strategies with different goals. Most basic strategies are an attempt to create open lanes on the field for the exchange of the disc between the thrower and the receiver. Organized teams assign positions to the players based on their specific strengths. Designated throwers are called handlers and designated receivers are called cutters. The amount of autonomy or overlap between these positions depends on the make-up of the team. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1227x1561, 170 KB) Summary A diagram of a vertical stack in Wikipedia:Ultimate. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1227x1561, 170 KB) Summary A diagram of a vertical stack in Wikipedia:Ultimate. ... An Information graphic or infographic is a visual representation of information, data or knowledge. ...

One of the most common offensive strategies is the vertical stack. In this strategy, the offense lines up in a straight line along the length of the field. From this position, players in the stack make cuts (sudden sprints out of the stack) towards or away from the handler in an attempt to get open and receive the disc. The stack generally lines up in the middle of the field, thereby opening up two lanes along the sidelines for cuts, although a captain may occasionally call for the stack to line up closer to one sideline, leaving open just one larger cutting lane on the other side.

Another popular offensive strategy is the horizontal stack. In the most popular form of this offense, three handlers line up across the width of the field with four cutters upfield, also lined up across the field. It is the handler's job to throw the disc upfield to the cutters. If no upfield options are available, the handlers swing the disc side to side in an attempt to reset the stall count while also getting the defense out of position.

Many advanced teams develop specific offenses that are variations on the basics in order to take advantage of the strengths of specific players. Frequently, these offenses are meant to isolate a few key players in one-on-one situations, allowing them more freedom of movement and the ability to make most of the plays, while the others play a supporting role.

Players making cuts have two major options in how they cut. They may cut in towards the disc and attempt to find an open avenue between defenders for a short pass, or they may cut away from the disc towards the deep field. The deep field is usually sparsely defended but requires the handler to throw a huck (a long downfield throw).

A variation on the horizontal stack offense is called a feature. In this offensive strategy three of the cutters line up deeper than usual (roughly 5 yards farther downfield) while the remaining cutter lines up closer to the handlers. This closest cutter is known as the "feature." The idea behind this strategy is that it opens up space for the feature to cut, and at the same time it allows handlers to focus all of their attention on only one cutter. This maximizes the ability for give-and-go strategies between the feature and the handlers. It is also an excellent strategy if one cutter is superior to other cutters, or if he is guarded by someone slower than him. While the main focus is on the handlers and the feature, the remaining three cutters can be used if the feature cannot get open, if there is an open deep look, or for a continuation throw from the feature itself. Typically, however, these three remaining cutters do all they can to get out of the feature's way.

The coaching manuals Ultimate Techniques & Tactics[6] and Fundamentals of Ultimate[7] have more information about Ultimate strategy.

Defensive strategies

The force

Information graphic showing how to mark with a force.
Information graphic showing how to mark with a force.

One of the most basic defensive principles is the force. The marker effectively cuts off the handler's access to half of the field, by aggressively blocking only one side of the handler and leaving the other side open. The unguarded side is called the force side because the thrower is generally forced to throw to that side of the field. The guarded side is called the break-force side because the thrower would have to "break" the force in order to throw to that side. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1381x1223, 167 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ultimate (sport) ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1381x1223, 167 KB) Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ultimate (sport) ... An Information graphic or infographic is a visual representation of information, data or knowledge. ...

This is done because, assuming evenly matched players, the advantage is almost always with the handler and against the marker. It is relatively easy for the handler to fake out or outmaneuver a marker who is trying to block the whole field. On the other hand, it is generally possible to effectively block half of the field.

The marker calls out the force side ("force home" or "force away") before starting the stall count in order to alert the other defenders which side of the field is open to the handler. The team can choose the force side ahead of time, or change it on the fly from throw to throw. Aside from forcing home or away, other forces are "force sideline" (force towards the closest sideline), "force center" (force towards the center of the field), and "force up" (force towards either sideline but prevent a throw straight up the field). Another common tactic is to "force forehand" (force the thrower to use their forehand throw) since most players, especially at lower levels of play, have a stronger backhand throw. "Force flick" refers to the forehand; "force back" refers to the backhand.

When the marker calls out the force side, the team can then rely on the marker to block off half the field and position themselves to aggressively cover just the open/force side. If they are playing one-to-one defense, they should position themselves on the force side of their marks, since that is the side that they are most likely to cut to.

The opposite of the "force" is the "straight-up" mark (also called the "no-huck" mark). In this defense, the player marking the handler positions himself directly between the handler and the end zone and actively tries to block both forehands and backhands. Although the handler can make throws to either side, this is the best defense against long throws ("hucks") to the center of the field.

One-on-one defense

The simplest and often most effective defensive strategy is the one-on-one defense (also known as man-on-man or just man), where each defender guards a specific offensive player, called their "mark". The one-on-one defense emphasizes speed, stamina, and individual positioning and reading of the field. Often players will mark the same person throughout the game, giving them an opportunity to pick up on their opponent's strengths and weaknesses as they play. One-on-one defense can also play a part role in other more complex zone defense strategies.

Zone defense

With a zone defense strategy, the defenders cover an area rather than a specific person. The area they cover moves with the disc as it progresses down the field. Zone defense is frequently used when the other team is substantially more athletic (faster) making one-on-one difficult to keep up with, because it requires less speed and stamina. It is also useful in a long tournament to avoid tiring out the team, or when it is very windy and long passes are out of the question.

A zone defense usually has two components. The first is a group of players close to the handlers who attempt to contain the disc and prevent forward movement, called the "wedge", "cup", "wall", or "clam" (depending on the specific play). These close defenders always position themselves relative to the disc, meaning that they have to move quickly as it passes from handler to handler.

The wedge is a configuration of two close defenders. One of them marks the handler with a force, and the other stands away and to the force side of the handler, blocking any throw or cut on that side. The wedge allows more defenders to play up the field but does little to prevent cross-field passes.

The cup involves three players, arranged in a semi-circular cup-shaped formation, one in the middle and back, the other two on the sides and forward. One of the side players marks the handler with a force, while the other two guard the open side. Therefore the handler will normally have to throw into the cup, allowing the defenders to more easily make blocks. With a cup, usually the center cup blocks the up-field lane to cutters, while the side cup blocks the cross-field swing pass to other handlers. The center cup usually also has the responsibility to call out which of the two sides should mark the thrower, usually the defender closest to the sideline of the field.

The wall involves four players in the close defense. One players is the marker, also called the "rabbit" or "chaser" because they often have to run quickly between multiple handlers spread out across the field. The other three defenders form a horizontal "wall" or line across the field in front of the handler to stop throws to cuts and prevent forward progress. The players in the second group of a zone defense, called "mids" and "deeps", position themselves further out to stop throws that escape the cup and fly upfield. Because a zone defense focuses defenders on stopping short passes, it leaves a large portion of the field to be covered by the remaining mid and deep players. Assuming that there are seven players on the field, and that a cup is in effect, this leaves four players to cover the rest of the field. In fact, usually only one deep player is used to cover hucks (the "deep-deep"), with two others defending the sidelines and possibly a single "mid-mid".

Alternately, the mids and deeps can play a one-to-one defense on the players who are outside of the cup or cutting deep, although frequent switching might be necessary.

Junk defense

A junk defense is a defense using elements of both zone and man defenses; the most famous is known as the "clam" or "chrome wall". In clam defenses, defenders cover cutting lanes rather than zones of the field or individual players. The clam can be used by several players on a team while the rest are running a man defense. This defensive strategy is often referred to as "bait and switch". In this case, when the two players the defenders are covering are standing close to each other in the stack, one defender will move over to shade them deep, and the other will move slightly more towards the thrower. When one of the receivers makes a deep cut, the first defender picks them up, and if one makes an in-cut, the second defender covers them. The defenders communicate and switch their marks if their respective charges change their cuts from in to deep, or vice versa. The clam can also be used by the entire team, with different defenders covering in cuts, deep cuts, break side cuts, and dump cuts.

Spirit of the game

Ultimate is known for its "Spirit of the Game", often abbreviated SOTG. Ultimate's self-officiated nature demands a strong spirit of sportsmanship and respect. The following description is from the official ultimate rules established by the Ultimate Players Association:

Ultimate has traditionally relied upon a spirit of sportsmanship which places the responsibility for fair play on the player. Highly competitive play is encouraged, but never at the expense of the bond of mutual respect between players, adherence to the agreed upon rules of the game, or the basic joy of play. Protection of these vital elements serves to eliminate adverse conduct from the Ultimate field. Such actions as taunting of opposing players, dangerous aggression, intentional fouling, or other 'win-at-all-costs' behavior are contrary to the spirit of the game and must be avoided by all players.

Many tournaments give awards for the most spirited team, as voted for by all the teams taking part in the tournament.


At some levels of competition, it is still customary for teams to cheer their opponent at the end of the game. This tradition is an example of how the spirit of ultimate differs from most other sports, as these cheers are meant to be ridiculous, fun, and amusing. Cheers are often creative, and can take the form of a short game involving both teams (very often involving a disc), or possibly a song. Cheers are known as calls in the UK. Cheers are reserved for organized league play: they are virtually non-existent in pick-up games. Cheers are also less common at the higher levels of play, although attitudes towards this custom vary between countries and organizations.

Pick-up games

In the spirit of ultimate's egalitarian roots, there are many types of pick-up. Often this consists of tournaments played outside the championship circuit, including hat tournaments, in which teams are selected on the day of play by picking names out of a hat. These are generally held over a weekend, affording players several games during the day as well as the chance to socialize at night. Pick-up leagues also exist, hosting weekly pick-up games that may be played on arbitrary week nights. In addition, less formal games of pick-up are frequent in parks and fields across the globe. In all these types of pick-up games it will not be uncommon to have as participants the same people who play on nationally or globally competitive teams. Newcomers are always welcomed at pick-up games or whenever people are simply throwing, and enthusiastic players will sideline themselves to spend time teaching beginners the throws and maneuvers necessary to play.

The style of play in pick-up games differs significantly from that in league play. Notably:

  • Foul and pick calls are much rarer. Some pick-up games never call fouls, while some only call one or two per game.
  • The force and stack are rarely used. Players are encouraged to use a free-form style, and to get the disc to less-experienced players.
  • The zone defense is rarely used. One-on-one defense is the default coverage, with players covering the player that they are lined up across from at the beginning of each point.
  • In North America, a dropped disc on the pull is not considered a turnover.
  • Often, no score is kept. If a score is kept, it is usually in the form of a short game at the end of the playing time.
  • To make the game go faster, the count in some pick-up games is only to 3.
  • In some pick-up games, after the count to either 3 or 10 is over the defending team can try to tackle and take away the frisbee from the thrower.

Hat tournaments

Hat tournaments are common in the ultimate circuit. They are tournaments where players join individually rather than as a team. The tournament organizers form teams by randomly taking the names of the participants from a hat.

In practice, in most tournaments, the organizers do not actually use a hat, but form teams taking into account skill, experience, sex, age, height, and fitness level of the players in the attempt to form teams of even strength. A player provides this information when he or she signs up to enter the tournament.

Hat tournaments have a strong emphasis on having fun, socializing, partying, and meeting other players. Players of all levels take part in such events from world-class players to complete beginners.

Hat tournaments (and sometimes also regular tournaments) often have a theme, such as wild west, aliens, pirates, superheroes, etc. The organizers often name teams also according to a theme, such as: beer varieties, movie characters, etc.

There are also many cities that run Hat Leagues, structured like a hat tournament, but where the group of players stay together over the course of a season.

In both hat leagues and hat tournaments, there is an emphasis on forming new connections throughout the ultimate community.

Current leagues

Regulation play, sanctioned in the United States by the UPA, occurs at the college (open & women's divisions), club (open, women's, mixed (co-ed), and masters divisions) and youth (boys & girls divisions) levels, with annual championships in all divisions. Top teams from the championship series compete in semi-annual world championships regulated by the WFDF, made up of national flying disc organizations and federations from about 50 countries.

Recreational leagues have become widespread, and range in organization and size. There have been a small number of children's leagues. The largest and first known pre-high school league was started in 1993 by Mary Lowry, Joe Bisignano, and Jeff Jorgenson in Seattle, Washington. In 2005, the DiscNW Middle School Spring League had over 450 players on 30 mixed teams. Large high school leagues are also becoming common. The largest one is the DiscNW High School Spring League. It has both mixed and single gender divisions with over 30 teams total. The largest adult league is the Ottawa-Carleton Ultimate Association, with 350 teams and over 4000 active members in 2005, located in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Dating back to 1977, the Mercer County (New Jersey) Ultimate Disc League (mcudl.org) is the world's oldest recreational league. There are even large leagues with children as young as third grade, an example being the junior division of the SULA ultimate league in Amherst, Massachusetts. Seattle redirects here. ... The DiscNW Logo, created by Susan Point Disc Northwest (also DiscNW, Northwest Ultimate Association) is a Seattle-based Ultimate Frisbee organization with the aim of increasing participation in the sport of Ultimate at all levels. ... Nickname: Location in Hampshire County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Hampshire Settled 1703 Incorporated 1775 Government  - Type Representative town meeting Area  - Total 27. ...

High school and junior leagues

Tournaments at the high school level of play range from tournaments hosted by local teams to tournaments at a national level. The UPA hosts the Men and Women's HS national championships every year in two locations, allowing them to split the championships between East and West Coast teams. These two tournaments, affectionately known as Eastern's and Western's, are becoming more competitive as high school programs are beginning to treat the game of ultimate more seriously. The UPA also hosts a national Junior's club team tournament and sends a representative team to the World Junior Ultimate Championships, held every two years. At a lower level, the UPA has also sanctioned organized statewide tournaments in 16 states.

College teams

There are over 600 college ultimate teams in North America, and the number of teams is steadily growing. Separated into Open (nearly 450 teams) and Women's (around 200 teams) Divisions, teams compete in the UPA Championship series during the spring. The series consists of 3 tournaments: Sectionals, Regionals, and Nationals. Each year, the top teams from sectionals move on to regionals. The Regional champion, runner-up, and possibly a strength bid, advance to Nationals to compete for the championship title in May.

Club teams

UPA Club ultimate consists of Open, Women's, Masters, Youth and Mixed divisions. Teams are listed on the UPA's team listing page.

Major tournaments

  • World Games, international tournament attended by national teams; organized by the WFDF.2009 tournament link.
  • World Ultimate & Guts Championships, international tournament attended by national teams; organized by the WFDF. 2008 tournament link.
  • World Ultimate Club Championships, international tournament attended by club teams; organized by the WFDF. 2006 tournament link.
  • World Junior Ultimate Championships, international tournament attended by national junior teams; organized by the WFDF. 2006 tournament link.
  • UPA Championship Series, an American and Canadian tournament series attended by regional teams; organized by the UPA. Championship Series link.
  • European Ultimate Championships, European tournament attended by national teams; organized by the EFDF. 2007 tournament link.
  • Europoean Ultimate Club Series, European tournament attended by club teams that qualify at the European Ultimate Championships in their region; organized by the EFDF. 2006 tournament link.
  • Europoean Ultimate Club Championships, European tournament attended by club teams every 4 years; organized by the EFDF.

IWGA logo The World Games, first held in 1981, are an international multi-sport event, meant for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games. ...

Other tournaments

  • April Fools Fest, the longest continuously running tournament in Ultimate history (30th anniversary 2006); organized by WAFC.tournament link
  • Potlatch, the largest mixed ultimate tournament in the world; organized by DiscNW.2007 tournament link
  • Canadian Ultimate Championship, Canada's national tournament series attended by regional division qualifiers; organized by CUPA.2007 tournament link
  • Windmill Windup, the Dutch Windmill Windup tournament with both an open and a women's division (largest women's division in Europe) hosts teams from all over Europe. With revolutionary Swiss-Draw format. 2007 tournament link
  • Wonderful Copenhagen Ultimate, the Danish WCU tournament with both an open and a women's division hosts teams from all over Europe and even some from the U.S. and Asia. 2007 tournament link
  • Soggy Bottom Bowl, in Ontario, Canada kicks off the spring co-ed season. Soggy Bottom Bowl is held in Guelph and is organized by the non-profit group GUPA (Guelph Ultimate Players' Association). This tournament is known for encouraging players to get their bottoms as dirty as possible, with mud and grass, of course.

Coeducation is the integrated education of men and women. ...

Beach Ultimate

  • World Championship Beach Ultimate 2007 [1]. The 2nd 5-on-5 Beach Ultimate World Championship for national teams. Held in December 2007 in Brazil. Organized by Federação Paulista de Disco with the collaboration of BULA.
  • European Championship Beach Ultimate [2] European tournament attended by national teams; organized by BULA.
  • Paganello, unofficial Beach Ultimate club world cup, held every year on Easter weekend in Rimini, Italy.
  • yes BUT Nau, in Le Pouliguen, France, held every year on the Pentecost/Whit Monday holiday (May/June), organized by the Frisbeurs Nantais.
  • Burla Beach Cup. A large tournament, in 2006 hosted 70 teams, held every year in September in Viareggio, Tuscany, Italy. Organized by the Tuscan Flying Bisch Association.
  • CUBE Caledonia's Ultimate Beach Event. The University of Aberdeen's BULA affiliated open beach ultimate competition held annually in April.
  • Wildwood, the largest annual beach ultimate tournament in the world, held in Wildwood, New Jersey.
  • Sandblast, an annual beach ultimate tournament held in early July located in Chicago, Illinois.
  • TBUF, the longest running annual beach ultimate tournament[citation needed] in the world (since 1986) held in mid June located in Galveston, Texas.
  • Lei-Out, the largest annual beach ultimate tournament in the US. Held in late January in Los Angeles, California.

Riminis skyline. ... CUBE (Caledonias Ultimate Beach Event) is a beach ultimate competition held on the sands of Balmedie, just north of Aberdeen, UK. This competition was started in 2000 by the University of Aberdeen Ultimate Frisbee Club, and has grown into an international event. ... Map of Cape May County Panorama of the Wildwood boardwalk, facing north Wildwood is a city in Cape May County, New Jersey, United States. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... Galveston redirects here. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ...

See also

A list of active elite-level Ultimate teams in the United States and Canada. ... A player putting at Cass Benton Disc Golf Course; Northville, Michigan. ... Flying discs (including Frisbees) can be thrown in many ways. ... Flying disc games are games played with flying discs (sometimes called by the trademarked name Frisbees). ... The World Flying Disc Federation (WFDF) is the sanctioning body for an annual series of overall flying disc sports competions. ... The Beach Ultimate Lovers Association (BULA) is the worldwide organization that helps organizers and players further develop the sport of Beach Ultimate. ... Deutscher Frisbeesport-Verband (DFV) is the association of frisbee players and teams in Germany. ...


  1. ^ "Collegiate Ultimate Frisbee Began at Lafayette". www.lafayette.edu. Retrieved on 2008-06-18.
  2. ^ Leonardo, Tony; Zagoria, Adam (2005). ULTIMATE: The First Four Decades. Ultimate History, Inc.. ISBN 0-9764496-0-9. 
  3. ^ WFDF :: Flying Disc History
  4. ^ WFDF :: Flying Disc History
  5. ^ OCUA
  6. ^ Parinella, James; Zaslow, Eric (2004). Ultimate Techniques & Tactics. Human Kinetics. ISBN 073605104X. 
  7. ^ Studarus, James (2003). Fundamentals of Ultimate. Studarus Publishing. ISBN 0972890300. 

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  • WFDF rules (world-wide, except Americas, and Worlds championship)]
  • The Complete 11th Edition of the Rules of Ultimate, Approved 01/11/2007 (Americas)
  • 5 on 5 and 4 on 4 Beach Ultimate
  • UK indoor

Community Sites

  • Ultipedia.org a community wiki dedicated to Ultimate - articles include rules quizzes, articles on strategy, skills, culture, etc.
  • UltiTalk.Com Online web-based Ultimate Frisbee forum. The Place To Talk Ultimate Frisbee.
  • rec.sport.disc Usenet discussion forum
  • Blockstack.tv UK based ultimate television show.
  • FFinder Ultimate tournament/event directory
  • The Huddle An online magazine about strategy from some of the world's best players.
  • BananaCut is the Digg of Ultimate content. It's a socially driven Ultimate Frisbee news, video and photo site.

Leagues and associations

  • UPA's worldwide pickup listing


  • World Flying Disc Federation (WFDF)
  • Beach Ultimate Lovers Association (BULA)
  • European Flying Disc Federation (EFDF)
  • UK and Ireland Ladder League


  • Australian Flying Disc Association (AFDA) - Australia
  • Canadian Ultimate Players Association (CUPA)
  • Česká Asociace Létajícího Disku (CALD) - Czech Republic
  • Nederlandse Frisbee Bond - The Netherlands (English)
  • Suomen Liitokiekkoliitto - Finland (English)
  • Fédération Flying Disc France (FFDF) - France
  • Deutscher Frisbeesport-Verband - Germany
  • Hong Kong Ultimate Players Association (HKUPA)
  • Irish Flying Disc Association - Ireland
  • Federazione Italiana Flying Disc (FIFD) - Italy
  • Korea Ultimate Association (KUA)
  • Korea Ultimate Players Association (KUPA)
  • Luxembourg Flying Disc Federation
  • Federacion Mexicana de Disco Volador - Mexico
  • Drako-Equipo de ultimate en Queretaro Mexico
  • New Zealand Ultimate - New Zealand
  • Philippine Ultimate Association - Philippines
  • Ultimate Frisbee w Polsce - Poland
  • Grupo do Ultimate de Praia - Portugal (Beach)
  • Russian Flying Disc Federation (RFDF) - Russia
  • Singapore Ultimate
  • South African Flying Disc Association
  • Federación Española de Disco Volador (FEDV) - Spain
  • Svenska Frisbeesport Förbundets - Sweden
  • Schweizer Frisbee Sport Verbandes (SFSV) - Switzerland
  • UK Ultimate Association - UK
  • Ultimate Frisbee in Belarus - Belarus

By State/Province


  • New South Wales
  • Queensland
  • Southern Australia
  • Victoria
  • Western Australia


  • Alberta (Edmonton)
  • Alberta (Calgary)
  • British Columbia
  • British Columbia (Vancouver)
  • Manitoba
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
  • Nova Scotia (Halifax)
  • Quebec (Montreal)
  • Quebec (Quebec)
  • Ontario
  • Saskatchewan (Regina)
  • Saskatchewan (Saskatoon)


  • Alaska (Anchorage)
  • Arkansas (Fayetteville)
  • California (San Francisco)
  • California (Los Angeles)
  • Colorado (Boulder)
  • District of Columbia
  • Idaho (Boise)
  • Illinois (Chicago)
  • Maine (Portland)
  • Michigan (Ann Arbor)
  • Minnesota (Minneapolis - St. Paul)
  • Missouri (St. Louis)
  • Montana (Missoula)
  • Nebraska (Omaha)
  • Utah (Salt Lake City)
  • Rhode Island
  • Washington
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Hockey is any of a family of sports in which two teams compete by trying to maneuver a ball, or a hard, round disc called a puck, into the opponents net or goal, using a hockey stick. ... Look up bandy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A game of broomball begins with a face-off Broomball is a popular recreational ice sport originating in Canada and played around the world. ... A game of field hockey in progress Field hockey is a popular sport for men, women and children in many countries around the world. ... A floorball match between Sweden (yellow) and Finland (white) Floorball is a gay indoor team sport played using composite or carbon sticks with a plastic vented blade where the aim is to put a light plastic ball into the opponents goal. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... Indoor field hockey is an indoor variant of traditional outdoor field hockey. ... Ringette is a team sport played on an ice surface. ... Roller Hockey is a form of hockey played on a dry surface using skates with wheels. ... Inline hockey is a variation of roller hockey very similar to ice hockey, from which it is derived. ... Rink hockey - Hardball hockey - Hoquei em Patins Roller Hockey (Quad) is highly popular and has many names worldwide that mean the same sport. ... Road hockey or street hockey is an informal version of ice hockey (or roller hockey) played in the street, usually by children. ... Bat-and-ball games (sometimes named safe haven games, to avoid confusion with the club-games like golf and hockey) are field games played by opposing teams; a player on one team puts a ball in play - usually by it being bowled or pitched - various constricted throws - and then batted... This article is about the sport. ... The origins of the sport known as British baseball, or sometimes as Welsh baseball, date to 1892 when the governing bodies of England and Wales agreed to change the name of their sport from rounders to baseball. ... This article is about the sport. ... Indoor Cricket is a variation on the conventional game of cricket. ... Adults playing kickball. ... Lapta (Russian: ) is a Russian ball game, similar to baseball. ... Oina is a Romanian sport, similar in some ways to the American baseball. ... Over-the-line is a game related to baseball and softball. ... Girls playing pesäpallo in Siilinjärvi Pesäpallo (Swedish: Boboll, also referred to as Finnish baseball) is a fast-moving ball sport thats quite often referred to as the national sport of Finland and has some presence in other countries, such as Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, Australia, and Northern... For the movie, see Rounders (film). ... Softball is a team sport popular especially in the United States. ... Stool ball is a historical ball game, originating in southern England, where variants are still played in some schools. ... Vigoro appears to be somewhat similar to outdoor cricket, incorporating some of the pace of baseball. ... For the Cornish sport, see Cornish Hurling. ... Camogie (in Irish, camógaíocht) is a Celtic team sport, the womens variant of hurling. ... For other uses, see Lacrosse (disambiguation). ... // A shinty game in progress Shinty (Scottish Gaelic camanachd or iomain) is a team sport played with sticks and a ball. ... Canoe polo (called kayak polo in some countries) is a competitive ball sport played on water, in a defined field, between two teams of 5 players, each in a kayak. ... Bike polo match in Budapest Most commonly referred to as Bike Polo, the game is similar to traditional Polo, except that bicycles are used instead of horses. ... Elephant polo is a variant of polo played whilst riding elephants. ... For other uses, see Polo (disambiguation). ... Segway Polo is a team sport which started to gain some measure of popularity after being played by members of the Bay Area Segway Enthusiasts Group (Bay Area SEG) in 2004. ... Yak polo (or sarlagan polo) is a Mongolian variant of the sport polo. ... For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ... Fistball is a very old sport which continues to be practiced all over the world: in Europe, North and South America, Africa and Asia. ... For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ... A game of pelote as played in Ustaritz Pilota in Basque and Catalan, pelota in Spanish, or pelote in French (from Latin pila) is a name for a variety of court sports played with a ball using ones hand, a racket, a wooden bat (pala), or a basket propulsor... Game of Buzkashi in Mazari Sharif, Afghanistan Buzkashi, Kok-boru or Oglak Tartis (Persian: بزکشی buzkashī: goat grabbing) (Uzbek, Tatar, Turkmen: kökbörü, kök blue + börü wolf, Kazakh: көкпар, Kyrgyz: улак) is a traditional Central Asian team sport played on horseback. ... For other uses, see Curling (disambiguation). ... Kabaddi (sometimes written Kabbadi or Kabadi) (Telugu: , Punjabi: , Marathi: , Hindi: ,Urdu: ; IPA: ) is a team sport originally from the Indian subcontinent. ... A woodsball player firing at opponents from behind cover. ... A child demonstrating sepak takraw. ... Water polo is a team water sport. ...

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Ultimate (sport) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6358 words)
Ultimate (often called Ultimate Frisbee) is a competitive non-contact team sport played with a flying disc.
While the exact origins of Ultimate contain some debate and uncertainty, it is generally believed that teenagers from Columbia High School in Maplewood, New Jersey were the first to play the precursor to ultimate initially as an evening pastime.
The objective of Ultimate is to score points by receiving a teammate's pass in the opponent's endzone.
31st-ranked GW men play ultimate sport :: (821 words)
Ultimate is much like football but without contact, frequent stoppages of play or the ability to run with the respective throwing object.
The sport is in its ninth year at GW and is student-run and --organized, with no official coach or even referees.
Ultimate was officially invented in 1968, but became organized and competitive in the early 1980's.
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