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Usul al-fiqh

Uṣūl al-fiqh (Arabic: ‎ ) is a term which literally translates to the roots of the law and refers to the study of the origins, sources, and practice of Islamic jurisprudence. ...

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Ulema (علماء, transliteration: ‘Ulamā’, singular: عالِم, transliteration: ‘Ālim, "scholar") (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. They are best known as the arbiters of shari‘a law. While the ulema are well versed in legal jurisprudence being Islamic lawyers, some of them also go on to specialize in other sciences, such as philosophy, dialectical theology or Quranic hermeneutics or explanation. The fields studied, and the importance given them, will vary from tradition to tradition, or even from seminary to seminary. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Madhhab or Mazhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ... Minhaj is the Arabic word for methodology. ... In Sunni Islamic jurisprudence, Qiyas is the process of analogical reasoning from a known injunction (nass) to a new injunction. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic tern referring to the consensus of the ummah, the community of Muslims, those practicing Islam, or of the ulema, those learned in the relevant topic. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ... An ijazah is a certificate used primarily by Muslims to indicate that one has been authorized by a higher authority to transmit a certain subject or text of Islamic knowledge. ... Istihlal (Arabic: ) is a term used in Islamic jurisprudence, or fiqh, to refer to the act of regarding some action as permissible, or halaal; the implication is that such a regard is an erroneous and improper distortion of Islamic law. ... Istihsan is an Arabic term for juristic preference and is one of the methods of reasoning for understanding the sources of shariah and itjihad. ... For other uses, see Risala (disambiguation). ... In Islamic context, the Ahkam (أحكام) are rulings and orders of the Quran and Sunnah. ... Halaal (حلال, halāl, halal) is an Islamic Arabic term meaning permissible. In English it is most frequently used to refer to food that is permissible according to Islamic law. ... Fard also farida (arabic فرض obligation, duty) is an Islamic term which denotes a religious duty. ... Fard (Arabic: ) also farida (Arabic: ) is an Islamic term which denotes a religious duty. ... Mustahab, recomended, is a Islamic term denoting a actions between Mubah (neutral) and Wajib (actions which must be performed). ... Mubah is an Islamic Arabic term denoting an action as neither forbidden nor commended; neutral. ... Acts and substances which should be evaded by muslims. ... harām (Arabic: حرام Ḥarām, Turkish: Haram, Malay: Haram) is an Arabic word, used in Islam to refer to anything that is prohibited by the faith. ... Batil is an Arabic word meaning falsehood, and can be used to describe a nullified or invalid act or contract according to the sharia. ... A term in Islam. ... Marja (Arabic/Persian: مرجع), also appearing as Marja Taqlid or Marja Dini (Arabic/Persian: مرجع تقليد / مرجع ديني), literally means Source of Emulation or Religious Reference. It is the label provided to Shia authority, a Grand Ayatollah with the authority to make legal decisions within the confines of Islamic law for followers and less-credentialed... Omdurman, Sudan. ... A Mufti (Arabic: مفتى ) is an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of fatwa). // Role of a Mufti in governments In theocracies like Saudi Arabia and Iran, and in some countries where the constitution is based on sharia law, such... Qadi (قاضى) is an Arabic term meaning judge. ... A Faqih is an expert in fiqh, or, Islamic jurisprudence. ... Muhaddith is an Islamic title, referring to one who profoundly knows and narrates hadiths, the chains of their narration (saneed), and the original and famous narrators. ... Mullah (Persian: ملا) is a title given to some Islamic clergy, coming from the Arabic word mawla, means both `vicar` and `guardian. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Maulvi (also spelled: Moulvi, Mawlawi and Mawlvi Persian: مولوی) is an honorific Islamic religious title often, but not exclusively, given to Sunni Muslim religious scholars or Ulema preceding their names, similar to the titles Maulana, Mullah or Shaykh. ... For other uses, see Sheikh (disambiguation). ... Sheikh (Arabic: شيخ ), meaning elder of a tribe, lord, revered old man, or Islamic scholar. ... For other uses, see Ayatollah (disambiguation). ... A Mujaddid (Arabic: مجدد), in Islamic tradition, refers to a person who, Muslims believe, is sent by God in the first half of every century of the Islamic calendar. ... Maulana is a title of respect, technically reserved for Muslim scholars or Ulema (plural of Aalim) who are knowledgable about Islam and have studied under a scholar or at a religious institution, e. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ... A tafsir ( (Arabic: تفسير) tafsÄ«r, Arabic explanation) is Quranic exegesis or commentary. ...


In a broader sense, the term ulema is used to describe the body of Muslim clergy who have completed several years of training and study of Islamic sciences, such as a mufti, qadi, faqih or muhaddith. Some Muslims include under this term the village mullahs, imams and maulvis who have attained only the lowest rungs on the ladder of Islamic scholarship; other Muslims would say that they must meet higher standards to be considered ulema. A Mufti (Arabic: مفتى ) is an Islamic scholar who is an interpreter or expounder of Islamic law (Sharia), capable of issuing fataawa (plural of fatwa). // Role of a Mufti in governments In theocracies like Saudi Arabia and Iran, and in some countries where the constitution is based on sharia law, such... Qadi (قاضى) is an Arabic term meaning judge. ... A Faqih is an expert in fiqh, or, Islamic jurisprudence. ... Muhaddith is an Islamic title, referring to one who profoundly knows and narrates hadiths, the chains of their narration (saneed), and the original and famous narrators. ... Mullah (Persian: ملا) is a title given to some Islamic clergy, coming from the Arabic word mawla, means both `vicar` and `guardian. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Maulvi (also spelled: Moulvi, Mawlawi and Mawlvi Persian: مولوی) is an honorific Islamic religious title often, but not exclusively, given to Muslim religious scholars or Ulema preceding their names, similar to the titles Maulana, Mullah or Shaykh. ...

Contents

Role

Teaching

Islamic clergy teach at Islamic religious schools and Islamic seminaries like in Iran, Pakistan, and other Muslim countries. Ulugh Beg Madrasa, Samarkand, ca. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Executive capacity

They are most powerful in Shi'a tradition of Islam. Following the 1979 revolution in Iran, factions of the Iranian Shia clergy, under the leadership of Khomeini, took control of the country. This was justified by Khomeini's doctrine of "Guardianship of the Jurists" (Wilayat-i Faqih). Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political... Guardianship of the Jurisprudents or Trusteeship of the Jurisconsults (Arabic: ولاية الفقيه Wilayat al-Faqih, Persian: Velayat-e-Faqih) is a Shia Twelver doctrine regarding Islamic leadership // Definition According to it, those most knowledgeable about Islamic law (Shariah) should assume a guiding or leading political role in society. ...


Afghanistan's Taliban regime was also headed by a mullah, Mullah Omar. However, in most countries, they are merely local power figures. The Taliban (Pashto: , also anglicized as Taleban) are a Sunni Muslim Pashtun movement that ruled most of Afghanistan from 1995 until 2001, when their leaders were removed from power by a cooperative military effort between the United States, United Kingdom and the Northern Alliance. ... Mullah (Persian: ملا) is a title given to some Islamic clergy, coming from the Arabic word mawla, means both `vicar` and `guardian. ... Mullah Mohammed Omar (Pashto: ملا محمد عمر) (born c. ...


Military commanders

In the Islamic State of Afghanistan and the Islamic Republic of Iran, mullahs have directly coordinated military operations. This is in keeping with the Islamic traditions as Muhammad and his successors were military commanders themselves. The Islamic State of Afghanistan was the name given to the nation of Afghanistan by the United Islamic Front for the Salvation of Afghanistan (so-called Northern Alliance) government. ...


Role in judicature

In certain Muslim countries, like Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates, where there are sharia courts, Islamic clergy become judges. Therefore, a main job of ulema is the interpretation and maintenance of Islamic law such countries. The term Islamic court or Islamic courts can mean: a court that follows Islamic Sharia law the Islamic Court Union in Somalia Category: ... Judges may refer to the Book of Judges in the Bible more than one judge. ... Sharia (Arabic: transliteration: ) is the dynamic body of Islamic religious law. ...


Advisory role

In some countries like Saudi Arabia, Islamic clergy fulfills the role of a counsel for the king. There are also jobs for them in various governmental institutions. Look up counsel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Preaching

There are various jobs available for the Islamic clergy at mosques such as leading public prayers, preaching, delivering sermons especially at Friday prayers. The Friday prayer is a congregational prayer that Muslims hold Fridays at noon or evening. ...


Some Ulema have made Dawah a lifelong activity such as the Tablighi Jamaat group; here is a list of famous Da'i. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Tablighi Jamaat (Conveying[1] Group) (Arabic: جماعة التبليغ , also Tabliq) is a Muslim missionary and revival movement. ... A caller to Islam is someone who invites or calls non-Muslims to become Muslims, and so is the Islamic equivalent of a Christian missionary; the activity of such a person is referred to as Dawah. ...


Madhhab

Main article: Madhhab

The ulema usually work within a tradition (madhhab) that starts with one of five classic jurists. A Sunni Muslim jurist usually belongs to one of the four main schools: Madhhab (Arabic مذهب pl. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...

The Ja'fari school (Iran, Iraq, Bahrain, and parts of Pakistan & Afghanistan) is usually associated with the Muslims of Shi'ii persuasion. The Šāfiˤī madhab (Arabic: شافعي) is one of the four schools of fiqh, or religious law, within Sunni Islam. ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... The Hanafi (Arabic حنفي) school is the oldest of the four schools of thought (Madhhabs) or jurisprudence (Fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ... This page deals with Islamic thought. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Hanbali (Arabic: حنبلى ) is one of the four schools (Madhhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... Twelvers (Arabic: ‎ Ithnāˤashariyya) are Shiˤa Muslims who believe there were twelve Imāms. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ...


Some ulema are not associated with any school, for various reasons. These include believing that schools are too conservative and that the idea of ijtihad, the right to personal opinion, means that understanding of the Qur'an can change with the times.[citation needed] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


History

An Ottoman scholar.

The second half of the 20th century was marked by a considerable loss of authority and influence of the ulema in most Islamic states. Many secular Arab governments attempted to break the influence of the ulema after their rise to power. Religious institutions were nationalized and the system of waqf "religious donations", which constituted the classical source of income for the ulema, was abolished. Image File history File links Constantinople(1878)-ulema. ... Image File history File links Constantinople(1878)-ulema. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Languages Arabic and other minority languages Religions Islam, Christianity, Druzism and Judaism Arab woman from Ramallah wearing traditional dress in 1915. ... A waqf (Arabic: , plural Arabic: , awqāf; Turkish: ) is an inalienable religious endowment in Islam, typically devoting a building or plot of land for Muslim religious or charitable purposes. ...


In 1961 the Egyptian Nasser government put the Al-Azhar University, one of the highest Islamic intellectual authorities, under the direct control of the state. "The Azharis were even put in army uniforms and had to parade under the command of army officers" (G. Keppel, Jihad). In Turkey, the traditional dervish tekkes and Islamic schools were dissolved and replaced by state controlled religious schools in the 1950s and 1960s. After the independence of Algeria, President Ahmed Ben Bella also deprived the Algerian ulema of their power. Year 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... Al-Azhar Mosque in Cairo Egypt Al-Azhar University (Arabic: الأزهر الشريف; al-Azhar al-Shareef, the Noble Azhar), is a premier Egyptian institution of higher learning, world-renowned for its position as a center of Islamic scholarship and education. ... For other uses, see Dervish (disambiguation). ... One example of a medieval khanqah, this one in Isfahan. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... Ahmed Ben Bella Mohamed Ahmed Ben Bella (Muhammad Ahmad Bin Balla) (Arabic: ) (born December 25, 1918?, Maghnia, Algeria) was the first President of Algeria, and seen by many as the Father of the Nation. ...


Role of the ulema in the ummah

The ulema in most nations consider themselves to represent the ijma "consensus" of the Ummah "community of Muslims" (or to represent at least the scholarly or learned consensus). Many efforts to modernise Islam focus on the reintroduction of ijtihad and empowerment of the ummah to form their own ijma. Ijmāʿ (إجماع) is an Arabic tern referring to the consensus of the ummah, the community of Muslims, those practicing Islam, or of the ulema, those learned in the relevant topic. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Ulema as authors

Many ulema have left behind them only a lifetime of mediating disputes and giving sermons; their contributions, while admirable, did not include authorship. Other ulema have been prolific authors, penning translations of the Qur'an or Quranic commentaries, studies of hadith, works of philosophy, religious admonition, etc. There are enormous bodies of religious literature that form not only the substance of the courses in Islamic seminaries, but inspirational reading for the ordinary Muslim. Most of this literature has not been translated into English, but remains in its original language (usually Arabic, Urdu, Persian, or Turkish). Some has been printed; some remains in manuscript form. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... “Arabic” redirects here. ... The phrase Zaban-e Urdu-e Mualla written in Urdu Urdu () is an Indo-European language of the Indo-Aryan family that developed under Persian, Turkish, Arabic, Hindi, and Sanskrit influence in South Asia during the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire (1200-1800). ... “Farsi” redirects here. ...


See also

For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Islamic studies scholars or simply Islamic scholars are both Muslim and non-Muslim scholars who work in one or more fields of Islamic studies. ... Mullah (Persian: ملا) is a title given to some Islamic clergy, coming from the Arabic word mawla, means both `vicar` and `guardian. ... Shia Muslims believe that the study of Islamic literature is a continual process, and is necessary for identifying all of Gods laws. ...

References

  • Zaman, Muhammad Qasim (2002). The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0691096805. 

The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ...

External links

Look up Ulema in
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Ulema Summary (2428 words)
The ulema are Muslim scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies.
In a broader sense, the term ulema is used to describe the body of Muslim clergy who have completed several years of training and study of Islamic sciences, such as a mufti, qadi, faqih or muhaddith.
Other ulema have been prolific authors, penning translations of the Qur'an or Quranic commentaries, studies of hadith, works of philosophy, religious admonition, etc. There are enormous bodies of religious literature that form not only the substance of the courses in Islamic seminaries, but inspirational reading for the ordinary Muslim.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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