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Encyclopedia > Ukrainian language
Ukrainian
українська мова ukrayins'ka mova
Spoken in: Flag of Ukraine Ukraine
Flag of Russia Russia
Flag of Romania Romania
Flag of Kazakhstan Kazakhstan
Flag of Brazil Brazil
Flag of Canada Canada
Flag of the United States United States
Flag of Moldova Moldova
Flag of Hungary Hungary
Flag of Belgium Belgium
Flag of Poland Poland
Flag of Portugal Portugal
Flag of Italy Italy
Flag of Argentina Argentina
Flag of Paraguay Paraguay
Total speakers: 39.4 million 
Ranking: 26
Language family: Indo-European
 Balto-Slavic
  Slavic
   East Slavic
    Ukrainian 
Official status
Official language in: Flag of Ukraine Ukraine
Flag of Transnistria Transnistria (Moldova)
Regulated by: National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
Language codes
ISO 639-1: uk
ISO 639-2: ukr
ISO 639-3: ukr 

Ukrainian-speaking world (click to enlarge)

Ukrainian (украї́нська мо́ва, ukrayins'ka mova, [ukraˈjinʲsʲka ˈmɔʋa]) is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages. It is the official state language of Ukraine. Written Ukrainian uses a Cyrillic alphabet. The language shares some vocabulary with the languages of the neighboring Slavic nations, most notably with Belarusian, Polish, Russian and Slovak. Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kazakhstan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Moldova. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Paraguay. ... This is a list of languages, ordered by the number of native-language speakers, with some data for second-language use. ... A language family is a group of languages related by descent from a common proto-language. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... The hypothetical Balto-Slavic language group consists of the Baltic and Slavic language subgroups of the Indo-European family. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... This article or section should be merged with List of East Slavic languages The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Transnistria. ... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ... The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine is the highest state research organization of Ukraine. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 421 pixelsFull resolution (1500 × 790 pixel, file size: 114 KB, MIME type: image/png) Linguistic map of Ukrainian language File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... This article or section should be merged with List of East Slavic languages The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ...


The Ukrainian language traces its origins to the Old East Slavic language of early medieval state of Kievan Rus'. In its earlier stages it was called Ruthenian. "Ukrainian is a lineal descendant of the colloquial language used in Kievan Rus" (10th13th century).[1] Old East Slavic language is one name for a language spoken between the 10th and 14th centuries in Kievan Rus and its successor states, the ancestor of the modern East Slavic languages. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Ruthenian may refer to: Ruthenia, a name applied to various parts of Eastern Europe Ruthenians, the peoples of Ruthenia Ruthenian language, a name applied to several Slavic languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ...


The language has persisted despite several periods of bans and/or discouragement throughout centuries as it has always nevertheless maintained a sufficient base among the people of Ukraine, its folklore songs, itinerant musicians, and prominent authors. A kobzar (kобзар in Ukrainian) was a Ukrainian wandering bard of Cossack times, who played a stringed instrument called a kobza to accompany the recitation of epic dumas. ...

Contents

History

See also: History of Ukraine

History of Ukraine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

Perspective

Before the eighteenth century the precursor to the modern Ukrainian language was a vernacular language used mostly by peasants and petits bourgeois which existed side-by-side with Church Slavonic, a literary language of religion that evolved from the Old Slavonic. Although the spoken Ukrainian language was in no danger of extinction, it was only raised to the level of a language of literature, philosophy and science by being promoted at the expense of a separate "high language", be it Greek, Church Slavonic, Polish, Latin or Russian. Ivan Kotlyarevsky in 1798 published an epic poem, Eneyida, a burlesque in Ukrainian, based on Virgil's Aeneid. The book turned out to be the first literary work published in the vernacular Ukrainian, becoming an undying classic of Ukrainian literature. Petit-bourgeois or Anglicised petty bourgeois is a French term that reffered to the members of the lower middle social-classes. ... Page from the Spiridon Psalter in Church Slavic. ... Old Church Slavonic (pol. ... Ivan Petrovych Kotlyarevsky (Ukrainian: ) (b. ... In literary criticism, the term burlesque is employed as a term in genre criticism, to describe any imitative work that derives humor from an incongruous contrast between style and subject. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos) is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BC (between 29 and 19 BC) that tells the legendary story...


The Ukrainian language reflects the history of Ukraine, which is mostly comprised of the periods of foreign domination and resistance to it.


Origin

Ukrainian traces its roots through the mid-fourteenth century Ruthenian language, a chancellery language of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, back to the early written evidences of tenth-century Kievan Rus'. One of the key difficulties in tracing the origin of the Ukrainian language more precisely is that until the end of the 18th century the written language used in Ukraine was quite different from the spoken one. For this reason, there is no direct data on the origin of the Ukrainian language. One has to rely on indirect methods: analysis of typical mistakes in old manuscripts, comparison of linguistic data with historical, anthropological, archaeological ones, etc. Because of the difficulty of the question, several theories of the origin of Ukrainian language exist. Some early theories have been proven wrong by modern linguistics, while others are still being discussed in the academic community. Ruthenian was a historic East Slavic language, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the East Slavic territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Direct written evidence of Ukrainian language existence dates back to the late 16th century.[2] The language itself must have formed earlier, but there are differing opinions as to the exact circumstances and time-frame of its creation.


It is known that between 9th and 13th century, many areas of modern Ukraine, Belarus and Russia were united in a common entity now referred to as Kievan Rus'. Surviving documents from the Kievan Rus' period are written in either Old East Slavic or Old Church Slavonic language or their mixture. Both these languages are considerably different from both modern Ukrainian and Russian language (but similar enough to allow considerable comprehension of the 11th-century texts by an educated Ukrainian or Russian reader). Old East Slavic language is one name for a language spoken between the 10th and 14th centuries in Kievan Rus and its successor states, the ancestor of the modern East Slavic languages. ... Old Church Slavonic (pol. ...


In 13th century, eastern parts of Kievan Rus' (including Moscow) came under Tatar yoke for the three centuries to come, whereas in the western areas (including Kiev) the short Tatar period quickly ended as the territory was incorporated into Grand Duchy of Lithuania. For the following four centuries, the two languages evolved in relative isolation from each other. In the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Old East Slavic became a language of the chancellery and gradually evolved into Ruthenian language. By the 1569 Union of Lublin that formed the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, a significant part of Ukrainian territory was moved from Lithuanian rule to the Polish administration, resulting in the cultural pressure of Polonization and attempts to colonize Ukraine by Polish nobility. It is known, for example, that many Ukrainian nobles learned the Polish language and adopted Catholicism during that period.[3] Lower classes have been less affected but as the literacy was limited to the upper class and clergy and the latter was also under the Polish pressure to come into a Union with the Catholic Church that dominated Poland the effect on the literary language has been strong. Most of the educational system getting Polonized and the most generously funded institutions being to the west of Ruthenia had a deteriorating effect on the Ruthenian indigenous culture. In the Polish Ruthenia the administrative paperwork language started to gradually shift towards Polish as a result of the gradual Polish domination. By the 16th century the peculiar official language was formed, a mix of the Old Church Slavonic with the Ruthenian language of the commoners with the Polish language with the influence of the latter gradually increasing. It soon became mostly like Polish language superimposed on the Ruthenian phonetics.[4] Much of the Polish language influence on spoken Ukrainian may be attributed to this period. For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... Ruthenian was a historic East Slavic language, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the East Slavic territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Events January 11 - First recorded lottery in England. ... The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Lithuanian: Liublino unija; Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed on July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Polonization (Polish: ) is the assumption (complete or partial), of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... Union of Brest (Belarusian: Берасьце́йская у́нія, Ukrainian: Берестейська унія, Polish: ) refers to the 1595-1596 decision of the (Ruthenian) Church of Rus, the Metropolia of Kiev-Halych and all Rus, to break relations with the Patriarch of Constantinople and place themselves under the (patriarch) Pope of Rome, in order to avoid the domination of... Old Church Slavonic (pol. ... Ruthenian was a historic East Slavic language, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the East Slavic territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Polish (jÄ™zyk polski, polszczyzna) is the official language of Poland. ...


By the mid 17th century, the linguistic divergence between Ukrainian and Russian languages is confirmed by the need for translators during negotiations for the Treaty of Pereyaslav, between Bohdan Khmelnytsky, ruler of the Zaporozhian Host, and the Russian state. Pereyaslav Rada The Treaty of Pereyaslav was concluded in 1654 in the Ukrainian city of Pereyaslav during the meeting known as Pereyaslavska Uhoda (Pereyaslav Treaty). ... Bohdan Zynovii Mykhailovych Khmelnytskyi (Ukrainian: , commonly transliterated as Khmelnytsky; known in Polish as Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; in Russian as Богда́н Хмельни́цкий, translit. ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ...


The first theory of the origin of Ukrainian language was suggested in the Imperial Russia in the middle of the 18th century by Mikhail Lomonosov. This theory posits the existence of a common language spoken by all East Slavic people in the time of the Kievan Rus'. According to Lomonosov, the differences that subsequently developed between Great Russian and Ukrainian (then called Little Russian) could be explained by the influence of the Polish language on Ukrainian and the influence of Turkic languages on Russian during the period from 13th to 17th century. Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (Михаи́л Васи́льевич Ломоно́сов) (November 19 (November 8, Old Style), 1711 – April 15 (April 4, Old Style), 1765) was a Russian writer and polymath who made important contributions to literature, education, and science. ... The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Great Russian language (Великорусский язык, Velikorusskiy yazyk) is a name given in the 19th century to the Russian language as opposed to the Ukrainian and Belarusian languages. ... The Ukrainians are a Slavic people of central-eastern Europe. ... Polish (jÄ™zyk polski, polszczyzna) is the official language of Poland. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ...


The "Polonization" theory was criticized as early as in the first half of the nineteenth century by Mykhailo Maxymovych. In fact, the most distinctive features of the Ukrainian language are present neither in Russian nor in Polish. Ukrainian and Polish language do share a lot of common or similar words, but so do all Slavic languages, since many words are carried over from the Proto-Slavic language, the common ancestor of the modern ones. A much smaller part of their common vocabulary can be attributed to the later interaction of the two languages. The "Polonization" theory has not been taken seriously by the academic community since the beginning of the 20th century, but still has some circulation among anti-Ukrainian organizations and politicians. Proto-Slavic is the proto-language from which Old Church Slavonic and all the other Slavic languages later emerged. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


Another point of view developed during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries by linguists of Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union. Similarly to Lomonosov, they assumed the existence of a common language spoken by East Slavs in the past. But unlike Lomonosov's hypothesis, this theory does not view "Polonization" or any other external influence as the main driving force that led to the formation of three different languages: Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian from the common Old East Slavic language. This general point of view is one of the most popular,[5] particularly outside Ukraine. The supporters of this theory disagree, however, about the time when the different languages were formed. Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... Old East Slavic language is one name for a language spoken between the 10th and 14th centuries in Kievan Rus and its successor states, the ancestor of the modern East Slavic languages. ...


Soviet scholars tend to admit a difference between Ukrainian and Russian only at later time periods (fourteenth through sixteenth centuries). According to this view, Old East Slavic diverged into Belarusian and Ukrainian to the west (collectively, the Ruthenian language of the fifteenth to eighteenth centuries), and Old Russian to the north-east, after the political boundaries of Kievan Rus’ were redrawn in the fourteenth century. During the time of the incorporation of Ruthenia (Ukraine and Belarus) into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Ukrainian and Belarusian diverged into identifiably separate languages. This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Old East Slavic language is one name for a language spoken between the 10th and 14th centuries in Kievan Rus and its successor states, the ancestor of the modern East Slavic languages. ... Ruthenian was a historic East Slavic language, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the East Slavic territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The name Old Russian language has been applied to different things. ... Ivan Goryushkin-Skoropudov. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Some scholars see a divergence between the language of Halych-Volhynia and the language of Novgorod-Suzdal by the 1100s, assuming that before the 12th century the two languages were practically indistinguishable. This point of view is, however, at variance with some historical data. In fact, several East Slavic tribes, such as Polans, Drevlyans, Severians, Dulebes (that later likely became Volhynians and Buzhans), White Croats, Tiverians and Ulichs lived on the territory of today's Ukraine long before the 12th century. Notably, some Ukrainian features were recognizable in the southern dialects of Old East Slavic as far back as the language can be documented.[6] For other uses, see Galich. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... This article is about the Russian town. ... Centuries: 11th century - 12th century - 13th century Decades: 1050s 1060s 1070s 1080s 1090s - 1100s - 1110s 1120s 1130s 1140s 1150s Years: 1100 1101 1102 1103 1104 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109 Events and Trends 1107 Emperor Toba ascends the throne of Japan The great Buddhist centre of learning at Nalanda is... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... The Polans (Ukrainian: , Russian: ) were a tribe of Early East Slavs between the 6th and the 9th century, which inhabited both sides of the Dnieper river from Liubech to Rodnia and also down the lower streams of the rivers Ros, Sula, Stuhna, Teteriv, Irpin, Desna and Pripyat. ... The Drevlians (Древляне, Drevlyane in Russian; Деревляни, Derevliany in Ukrainian) were a tribe of Early East Slavs between the 6th and the 10th century, which inhabited the territories of Polesie, Right-bank Ukraine west of Polans, down the stream of the rivers Teteriv, Uzh, Ubort, and Stviga. ... The Severians or Severyans or Siverians were a tribe or tribal union of Early East Slavs occupying areas to the east of the middle Dnieper river around the rivers Desna, Sejm and Sula on the territory of the archaelogical Romny culture. ... The Dulebs (Dulebes, Russian: ) were a tribe of Early East Slavs between the 6th (still questionable) and the 10th centuries. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Buzhans or (more correct) Buzhane (Russian: ,Ukrainian: ) were one of the tribal unions of Early East Slavs. ... White Croats migrated to modern Dalmatia (coastal part of Croatia) as part of the migration of the Croats in 610-641 A.D.[1] ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Ulichs (Uglichs) (Уличи, Угличи in Russian) were a tribe of Early East Slavs between the 8th and the 10th century, which inhabited the territories along the Lower Dnieper, Bug River and the Black Sea. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Old East Slavic, traditionally known as Old Russian (Russian: древнерусский), is a name for a vernacular literary language used between the 10th and 14th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus and other states formed by that ethnic group. ...


Some researchers, while admitting the differences between the dialects spoken by East Slavic tribes in the 10th and 11th centuries, still consider them as "regional manifestations of a common language" (see, for instance, the article by Vasyl Nimchuk). In contrast, Ahatanhel Krymsky and Alexei Shakhmatov assumed the existence of the common spoken language of Eastern Slavs only in prehistoric times.[7] According to their point of view, the diversification of the Old East Slavic language took place in the 8th or early 9th century. The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Ukrainian (украї́нська мо́ва, ukrayinska mova, ) is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages. ... Aleksey Aleksandrovich Shakhmatov (5 June 1864 - 16 August 1920) was an outstanding Russian philologist credited with laying foundations for the science of textology. ... Old East Slavic, traditionally known as Old Russian (Russian: древнерусский), is a name for a vernacular literary language used between the 10th and 14th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus and other states formed by that ethnic group. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ...


A Ukrainian linguist Stepan Smal-Stocky went even further: he denied the existence of a common Old East Slavic language at any time in the past.[8] Similar points of view were shared by Yevhen Tymchenko, Vsevolod Hantsov, Olena Kurylo, Ivan Ohienko and others. According to this theory, the dialects of East Slavic tribes evolved gradually from the common Proto-Slavic language without any intermediate stages during the 6th through 9th centuries. The Ukrainian language was formed by convergence of tribal dialects, mostly due to an intensive migration of the population within the territory of today's Ukraine in later historical periods. This point of view was also confirmed by phonological studies of Yuri Shevelov[9] and is gaining a number of supporters among Ukrainian scientists. Old East Slavic, traditionally known as Old Russian (Russian: древнерусский), is a name for a vernacular literary language used between the 10th and 14th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus and other states formed by that ethnic group. ... Ivan Ohienko (ukr. ... The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... Proto-Slavic is the proto-language from which Old Church Slavonic and all the other Slavic languages later emerged. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ...


Medieval history

Beyond the polemics between several ideological conceptions, the continuous presence of Slavic settlements in Ukraine, since at least the sixth century, provides an underlying ethno-linguistic factual basis for the origins of the Ukrainian language. The westernmost areas of modern-day Ukraine lay to the south of the postulated homeland of the original Slavs. (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland) Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded...


Immigration of Slavic tribes to the Western Slavic and Southern Slavic portions of Eastern Europe led to the dissolution of Early Common Slavic into three groups by the seventh century (East Slavic, West Slavic, and South Slavic). During this time period, some East Slavic elements could have provided a Slavic identity to the Antes civilization (of which nothing but an Iranian name is known). The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Proto-Slavic is the proto-language from which Old Church Slavonic and other Slavic languages later emerged. ... ( 6th century - 7th century - 8th century - other centuries) Events Islam starts in Arabia, the Quran is written, and Arabs subjugate Syria, Iraq, Persia, Egypt, North Africa and Central Asia to Islam. ... Old East Slavic language is one name for a language spoken between the 10th and 14th centuries in Kievan Rus and its successor states, the ancestor of the modern East Slavic languages. ... This article or section should be merged with List of West Slavic languages The West Slavic languages is a subdivision of the Slavic language group (q. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Kievan Rus' and Halych-Volhynia

During the Khazar period, the territory of Ukraine, settled at that time by Iranian (post-Scythian), Turkic (post-Hunnic, proto-Bulgarian), and Finno-Ugric (proto-Hungarian) tribes, was progressively Slavicized by several waves of migration from the Slavic north. Finally, the Varangian ruler of Novgorod, called Oleg, seized Kiev (Kyiv) and established the political entity of Rus'. Some theorists see an early Ukrainian stage in language development here; others term this era Old East Slavic or Old Ruthenian/Rus'ian. Russian theorists tend to amalgamate Rus' to the modern nation of Russia, and call this linguistic era Old Russian. Some hold that linguistic unity over Rus' was not present, but tribal diversity in language was present. The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ... Scythia was an area in Eurasia inhabited in ancient times by an Indo-Aryans known as the Scythians. ... The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... Fyodor Bruni. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... The name Old Ruthenian language has been applied to the Old East Slavic language which was the language of Old Ruthenia, spoken from the 9th to 14th centuries. ... The name Old Russian language has been applied to different things. ...


The era of Rus' is the subject of some linguistic controversy, as the language of much of the literature was purely or heavily Old Slavonic. At the same time, most legal documents throughout Rus' were written in a purely Old East Slavic language (supposed to be based on the Kiev dialect of that epoch). Scholarly controversies over earlier development aside, literary records from Rus' testify to substantial divergence between Russian and Ruthenian/Rusyn forms of the Ukrainian language as early as the era of Rus'. One vehicle of this divergence (or widening divergence) was the large scale appropriation of the Old Slavonic language in the northern reaches of Rus' and of the Polish language at the territory of modern Ukraine. As evidenced by the contemporary chronicles, the ruling princes of Halych and Kiev called themselves "People of Rus'" (with the exact Cyrillic spelling of the adjective from of Rus' varying among sources), which contrasts sharply with the lack of ethnic self-appellation for the area until the mid-nineteenth century. Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Church Slavic or Old Bulgarian, incorrectly Old Slavic ) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Solun (Thessaloniki) by 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius. ... Old East Slavic language is one name for a language spoken between the 10th and 14th centuries in Kievan Rus and its successor states, the ancestor of the modern East Slavic languages. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


One prominent example of this north-south divergence in Rus' from around 1200, was the epic, The Tale of Igor's Campaign. Like other examples of Old Russian literature (for example, Byliny, the Russian Primary Chronicle), it survived only in Northern Russia (Upper Volga belt) and was probably written there. It shows dialectal features characteristic of Severian dialect with the exception of two words which were wrongly interpreted by early nineteenth-century German scholars as Polish loan words. Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died... The Tale of Igors Campaign (Old East Slavic: Слово о плъку Игоревѣ, Slovo o pălku IgorevÄ›; Modern Russian: Слово о полку Игореве, Slovo o polku Igoreve) is an anonymous masterpiece of East Slavic literature written in Old East Slavic language and tentatively dated by the end of 12th century. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Bylina ( Russian: были́на, also Byliny and Stariny) is a traditional epic, heroic narrative poetry of early East Slavs of Kievan Rus, the tradition continued in Russia and Ukraine. ... The Russian Primary Chronicle (Russian: Повесть временных лет, Povest vremennykh let, which is often translated in English as Tale of Bygone Years), is a history of the early East Slavic state, Kievan Rus, from... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Siverian Principality. ...


Under Lithuania/Poland, Muscovy/Russia, and Austro-Hungary

Miniature of St Matthew from the Peresopnytsia Gospels (1561).

After the fall of Halych-Volhynia, Ukrainians mainly fell under the rule of Lithuania, then Poland. Local autonomy of both rule and language was a marked feature of Lithuanian rule. Polish rule, which came mainly later, was accompanied by a more assimilationist policy. The Polish language has had heavy influences on Ukrainian (and on Belarusian). As the Ukrainian language developed further, some borrowings from Tatar and Turkish occurred. Ukrainian culture and language flourished in the sixteenth and first half of the seventeenth century, when Ukraine was part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Ukrainian was also the official language of Ukrainian provinces of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom. Among many schools established in that time, the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (Kiev-Mogila Academy), founded by the Orthodox Metropolitan Peter Mogila (Petro Mohyla), was the most important. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (734x1208, 172 KB)Gospel of Peresopnytsi. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (734x1208, 172 KB)Gospel of Peresopnytsi. ... Matthew the Evangelist (מתי Gift of the LORD, Standard Hebrew and Tiberian Hebrew Mattay; Septuagint Greek Ματθαιος, Matthaios) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Matthew. ... Miniature of St Luke. ... For other uses, see Galich. ... Polish (jÄ™zyk polski, polszczyzna) is the official language of Poland. ... The Tatar language (Tatar tele, Tatarça, Татар теле, Татарча) is a Turkic language spoken by the Tatars. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Crown of the Polish Kingdom, or just colloquially the Crown (Polish:Korona) is the archaic name for territories of Poland, distinguishing them from territories of Grand Duchy of Lithuania or vassal territories like Duchy of Prussia or Duchy of Courland, which had varying degrees of autonomy. ... National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, NaUKMA (Ukrainian: Національний університет «Києво-Могилянська ак&#1072... ... In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop (then more precisely called Metropolitan archbishop) of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. ... Peter Mogila Peter Mogila (Ukrainian: Петро Могила, Petro Mohyla; Romanian: Petru Movilă; Russian: Pyotr Mogila; December 21 1596 â€“ December 22, 1646) was a Metropolitan of Kiev and Galicia from 1633 until his death. ...


In the anarchy of the Khmelnytsky Uprising and following wars, Ukrainian high culture was sent into a long period of steady decline. In the aftermath, the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy was taken over by the Russian Empire. Most of the remaining Ukrainian schools also switched to Polish or Russian, in the territories controlled by these respective countries, which was followed by a new wave of Polonization and Russification of the native nobility. Gradually the official language of Ukrainian provinces under Poland was changed to Polish, while the upper classes in the Russian part of Ukraine used Russian widely. Khmelnytsky Uprising (also Chmielnicki Uprising or Khmelnytsky/Chmielnicki Rebellion) refers to a rebellion in the lands of in present-day Ukraine which raged from 1648-1654. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Polonization (Polish: ) is the assumption (complete or partial), of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ... Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ...


There was little sense of a Ukrainian nation in the modern sense. East Slavs called themselves Rus’ki ('Russian' pl. adj.) in the east and Rusyny ('Ruthenians' n.) in the west, speaking Rus’ka mova, or simply identified themselves as Orthodox (the latter being particularly important under the rule of Catholic Poland). Ukraine under the Russian Empire was called Malorossiya (Little or Lesser Rus' or Little Russia, where the inhabitants spoke the 'Little Russian or Southern Russian language', a dialect of the Russian literary language. Ruthenians is a name that has been applied to different ethnic groups at different times; for an explanation of the reasons for this, see Ruthenia. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Little Russia or Malorossiya (Russian: ) was the name for the territory of Ukraine applied in the time of the Russian Empire and earlier. ...


But during the nineteenth century, a revival of Ukrainian self-identity manifested itself in the literary classes of both Russian-Empire Dnieper Ukraine and Austrian Galicia. The Brotherhood of Sts Cyril and Methodius in Kiev applied an old word for the Cossack motherland, Ukrajina, as a self-appellation for the nation of Ukrainians, and Ukrajins’ka mova for the language. Many writers published works in the Romantic tradition of Europe demonstrating that Ukrainian was not merely a language of the village, but suitable for literary pursuits. Dnieper Ukraine (Ukrainian: ), was the territory of Ukraine in the Russian Empire (Little Russia), roughly corresponding to the current territory of Ukraine, with the exceptions of Crimea (made part of Soviet Ukraine in 1954) and Galicia, which was a province of the Austrian Empire. ... For other uses, see Galicia. ... The Brotherhood of Saints Cyril and Methodius was a short-lived secret political society that existed in Kiev, Ukraine, at the time a part of the Russian Empire. ...


However, in the Russian Empire expressions of Ukrainian culture and especially language were repeatedly persecuted, for fear that a self-aware Ukrainian nation would threaten the unity of the Empire. In 1847 Taras Shevchenko was arrested and exiled, and banned from writing and painting, for political reasons. In 1863, tsarist interior minister Pyotr Valuyev proclaimed in his decree that "there never has been, is not, and never can be a separate Little Russian language".[10] A following ban on Ukrainian books led up to Alexander II's secret Ems Ukaz, which prohibited publication and importation of most Ukrainian-language books, public performances and lectures, and even the printing of Ukrainian texts accompanying musical scores.[11] A period of leniency after 1905 was followed by another strict ban in 1914, which also affected Russian-occupied Galicia. (Luckyj 1956:24–25) Taras Shevchenko Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko (Ukrainian: ) (March 9, 1814 [O.S. February 25] – March 10, 1861 [O.S. February 26]) was a Ukrainian poet, also an artist and a humanist. ... Portrait by Ivan Kramskoi. ... The Valuev Circular (Russian: ; Ukrainian: ) of 18 July 1863 was a secret decree (ukaz) of the Minister of Internal Affairs of the Russian Empire Pyotr Valuev (Valuyev) by which a large portion of the publications in Ukrainian language was prohibited. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... The Ems Ukaz, or Ems Ukase (Russian: ; Ukrainian: ), was a secret decree (ukaz) of Tsar Alexander II of Russia issued in 1876, banning the use of the Ukrainian language (the so-called Little Russian dialect) in print, with the exception of reprinting of old documents. ...


For much of the nineteenth century the Austrian authorities favoured Polish culture, but the Ukrainians were relatively free to partake in their own cultural pursuits in Galicia and Bukovyna, where Ukrainian was widely used in education and in official documents.[12] The suppression by Russia retarded the literary development of the Ukrainian language in Dnieper Ukraine, but there was a constant exchange with Galicia, and many works were published under Austria and smuggled to the east. Bukovina (Bucovina in Romanian; Буковина, Bukovyna in Polish), on the slopes of the Carpathian mountains, comprises an historic province now split between Ukraine. ...


The name Ukrajins’ka mova 'Ukrainian language' became accepted by much of the Ukrainian literary class during the late nineteenth century under Russia and in the early twentieth in Austro-Hungarian Galicia. By the time of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the collapse of Austro-Hungary in 1918, the former 'Ruthenians' or 'Little Russians' were ready to openly develop a body of national literature, to institute a Ukrainian-language educational system, and to form an independent state, named Ukraine (the Ukrainian People's Republic, shortly joined by the West Ukrainian People's Republic). The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... The West Ukrainian National Republic (Ukrainian: ) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyya, and Stanislav. ...

Further information: Name of Ukraine

The name Ukraine (Ukrainian: , ) has been used in a variety of ways since the twelfth century. ...

Speakers in the Russian Empire

In the Russian Empire Census of 1897 the following picture emerged, with Ukrainian being the second most spoken language of the Russian Empire. According to the Imperial census's terminology, the Russian language (Russkij) was subdivided into Ukrainian (Malorusskij, 'Little Russian'), what we know as Russian today (Vjelikorusskij, 'Great Russian'), and Belarusian (Bjelorusskij, 'White Russian'). Russian Empire Census of 1897 was the first and the only census carried out in the Imperial Russia. ... The Ukrainians are a Slavic people of central-eastern Europe. ... Great Russian language (Великорусский язык, Velikorusskiy yazyk) is a name given in the 19th century to the Russian language as opposed to the Ukrainian and Belarusian languages. ...


The following table shows the distribution of settlement by native language ("po rodnomu jazyku") in 1897, in Russian Empire governorates (guberniyas) which had more than 100,000 Ukrainian speakers.[13] The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Guberniya (Russian: ) (also gubernia, guberniia, gubernya) was a major administrative subdivision of the Imperial Russia, usually translated as governorate or province. ...

Total population Ukrainian speakers
("Malorussky yazyk")
Russian speakers
("Velikorussky yazyk")
Polish speakers
Entire Russian Empire 125,640,021 22,380,551 55,667,469 7,931,307
Urban 16,828,395 1,256,387 8,825,733 1,455,527
Rural 108,811,626 21,124,164 46,841,736 6,475,780
Regions
"European Russia"
incl. Ukraine & Belarus
93,442,864 20,414,866 48,558,721 1,109,934
Sub-Vistula guberniyas 9,402,253 335,337 267,160 6,755,503
Caucasus 9,289,364 1,305,463 1,829,793 25,117
Siberia 5,758,822 223,274 4,423,803 29,177
Central Asia 7,746,718 101,611 587,992 11,576
Subdivisions
Bessarabia 1,935,412 379,698 155,774 11,696
Volyn 2,989,482 2,095,579 104,889 184,161
Voronezh 2,531,253 915,883 1,602,948 1,778
Don Host Province 2,564,238 719,655 1,712,898 3,316
Ekaterinoslav 2,113,674 1,456,369 364,974 12,365
Kiev 3,559,229 2,819,145 209,427 68,791
Kursk 2,371,012 527,778 1,832,498 2,862
Podolia 3,018,299 2,442,819 98,984 69,156
Poltava 2,778,151 2,583,133 72,941 3,891
Tavria 1,447,790 611,121 404,463 10,112
Kharkov 2,492,316 2,009,411 440,936 5,910
Kherson 2,733,612 1,462,039 575,375 30,894
City of Odessa 403,815 37,925 198,233 17,395
Chernigov 2,297,854 1,526,072 495,963 3,302
Lublin 1,160,662 196,476 47,912 729,529
Sedletsk 772,146 107,785 19,613 510,621
Kuban Province 1,918,881 908,818 816,734 2,719
Stavropol 873,301 319,817 482,495 961

Polish (jÄ™zyk polski, polszczyzna) is the official language of Poland. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China Rural areas (also referred to as the country, countryside) are settled places outside towns and cities. ... European Russia can be considered the western areas of Russia, where most of the population is centred. ... For other uses, see Vistula (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Volhynia (Wołyń in Polish; Волинь, Volyn’ in Ukrainian; also called Volynia, Volyň in Czech) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Pripyat and Western Bug. ... Voronezh Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Don Voisko Province (or Don Voisko Oblast, Russian: ) of Imperial Russia was the official name of the territory of Don Cossacks, roughly coniciding with todays Rostov Oblast of Russia. ... Dnipropetrovsk Oblast (Ukrainian: , Dnipropetrovs’ka oblast’ or Дніпропетровщина, Dnipropetrovshchyna) is an oblast of central Ukraine, the most important industrial region of the country. ... Kiev Oblast (also Kyiv Oblast, Ukrainian: ) is an oblast (province) in central Ukraine. ... Kursk Oblast (Russian: , Kurskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Historical arms of Podilia The region of Podolia (also spelt Podilia or Podillya) is a historical region in the west-central and south-west portions of present-day Ukraine, corresponding to Khmelnytskyi Oblast and Vinnytsia Oblast. ... Poltava Oblast (Полтавська область, Poltavs’ka oblast’ or Полтавщина, Poltavshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) of central Ukraine. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields amd mounts are wonderful, Motherland Capital Simferopol Largest cities Simferopol, Eupatoria, Kerch, Theodosia, Yalta Official language Ukrainian. ... Kharkiv Oblast (Харківська область, Kharkivs’ka oblast’ or Харківщина, Kharkivshchyna in Ukrainian; Харьковская &#1086... Kherson Oblast (Херсонська область, Khersons’ka oblast’ or Херсонщина, Khersonshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast of southern Ukraine, just north of Crimea. ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... Chernihiv Oblast (Чернігівська область, Chernihivs’ka oblast’ or Чернігівщина, Chernihivshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) of northern Ukraine. ... Lublin Voivodship. ... Siedlce Voivodship (Polish: województwo siedleckie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975-1998, superseded by Masovian Voivodship and Lublin Voivodship. ... Kuban (Ukrainian - Кубань) is an ethnical ukrainian territory. ... Stavropol Krai (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai). ...

Soviet era

The Ukrainian text in this Soviet poster reads: "The Social base of the USSR is an unbreakable union of the workers, peasants and intelligentsia".
The Ukrainian text in this Soviet poster reads: "The Social base of the USSR is an unbreakable union of the workers, peasants and intelligentsia".

During the seven-decade-long Soviet era, the Ukrainian language held the formal position of the principal local language in the Ukrainian SSR. However, practice was often a different story: Ukrainian always had to compete with Russian, and the attitudes of the Soviet leadership towards Ukrainian varied from encouragement and tolerance to discouragement and, at times, suppression. Image File history File links LoC page http://lcweb2. ... Image File history File links LoC page http://lcweb2. ... The notion of an intellectual elite as a distinguished social stratum can be traced far back in history. ... Soviet era is the period of Russian history comprising the years 1917 – 1991, when the power was held by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... State motto: Ukrainian: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Kiev Official language Ukrainian and Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until December 25, 1917 December 30, 1922 August 24, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 3rd in the USSR 603,700 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 2nd in the...


Officially, there was no state language in the Soviet Union. Still it was implicitly understood in the hopes of minority nations that Ukrainian would be used in the Ukrainian SSR, Uzbek would be used in the Uzbek SSR, and so on. However, Russian was used in all parts of the Soviet Union and a special term, "a language of inter-ethnic communication" was coined to denote its status. In reality, Russian was in a privileged position in the USSR and was the state official language in everything but formal name—although formally all languages were held up as equal. Often the Ukrainian language was frowned upon or quietly discouraged, which led to the gradual decline in its usage. Partly due to this suppression, in many parts of Ukraine, notably most urban areas of the east and south, Russian remains more widely spoken than Ukrainian. An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... State motto: Ukrainian: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Kiev Official language Ukrainian and Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until December 25, 1917 December 30, 1922 August 24, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 3rd in the USSR 603,700 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 2nd in the... State motto: Uzbek: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Tashkent Official language None. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ...


Soviet language policy in Ukraine is divided into six policy periods

  1. Ukrainianization and tolerance (1921–late-1932)
  2. Persecution and russification (1933–1957)
  3. Khrushchev thaw (1958–1962)
  4. The Shelest period: limited progress (1963–1972)
  5. The Shcherbytsky period: gradual suppression (1973–1989)
  6. Gorbachev and perestroika (1990–1991)

Ukrainianization and tolerance

Following the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Russian Empire was broken up. In different parts of the former empire, several nations, including Ukrainians, developed a renewed sense of national identity. In the chaotic post-revolutionary years, Ukraine went through several short-lived independent and quasi-independent states, and the Ukrainian language, for the first time in modern history, gained usage in most government affairs. Initially, this trend continued under the Bolshevik government of the Soviet Union, which in a political struggle with the old regime had their own reasons to encourage the national movements of the former Russian Empire. While trying to ascertain and consolidate its power, the Bolshevik government was by far more concerned about many political oppositions connected to the pre-revolutionary order than about the national movements inside the former empire. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ...

The 1921 Soviet recruitment poster. It uses traditional Ukrainian imagery with Ukrainian-language text: "Son! Enroll in the school of Red commanders, and the defence of Soviet Ukraine will be ensured."
The 1921 Soviet recruitment poster. It uses traditional Ukrainian imagery with Ukrainian-language text: "Son! Enroll in the school of Red commanders, and the defence of Soviet Ukraine will be ensured."

The widening use of Ukrainian further developed in the first years of Bolshevik rule into a policy called Korenization. The government pursued a policy of Ukrainianization (Ukrayinizatsiya, actively promoting the Ukrainian language), both in the government and among party personnel, and an impressive education program which raised the literacy of the Ukrainophone rural areas. This policy was led by Education Commissar Mykola Skrypnyk. Newly-generated academic efforts from the period of independence were co-opted by the Bolshevik government. The party and government apparatus was mostly Russian-speaking but were encouraged to learn the Ukrainian language. Simultaneously, the newly-literate ethnic Ukrainians migrated to the cities, which became rapidly largely Ukrainianized—in both population and in education. Image File history File links Poster from early times of Korenization policy in Ukraine source http://www. ... Image File history File links Poster from early times of Korenization policy in Ukraine source http://www. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ... Korenizatsiya (коренизация, sometimes called korenization), meaning nativization or indigenization, was the early Soviet ethnicity policy. ... Ukrainian is an East Slavic language, one of three members of this language group, the other two being Russian and Belarusian. ... Mykola Oleksiyovych Skrypnyk (Ukrainian: , January 25 [O.S. January 13], 1872–July 7, 1933) was a Ukrainian Bolshevik leader who was a proponent of the Ukrainian Republics independence, and led the cultural Ukrainization effort in Soviet Ukraine. ...


The policy even reached those regions of southern Russian SFSR where the ethnic Ukrainian population was significant, particularly the areas by the Don River and especially Kuban in the North Caucasus. Ukrainian language teachers, just graduated from expanded institutions of higher education in Soviet Ukraine, were dispatched to these regions to staff newly opened Ukrainian schools or to teach Ukrainian as a second language in Russian schools. A string of local Ukrainian-language publications were started and departments of Ukrainian studies were opened in colleges. Overall, these policies were implemented in thirty-five raions (administrative districts) in southern Russia. State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... Kuban (Ukrainian - Кубань) is an ethnical ukrainian territory. ... North Caucasus in Russia The North Caucasus (sometimes referred to as Ciscaucasia or Ciscaucasus) is the northern part of the Caucasus region between Europe and Asia. ... See rayon for the textile made of processed cellulose. ...


Persecution and russification

Anti-russification protest. The banner reads “For Ukrainian children - Ukrainian school!”.
Anti-russification protest. The banner reads “For Ukrainian children - Ukrainian school!”.

Soviet policy towards the Ukrainian language changed abruptly in late 1932 and early 1933, after Stalin had already established his firm control over the party and, therefore, the Soviet state. In December, 1932, the regional party cells received a telegram signed by Molotov and Stalin with an order to immediately reverse the korenization policies. The telegram condemned Ukrainianization as ill-considered and harmful and demanded to "immediately halt Ukrainianization in raions (districts), switch all Ukrainianized newspapers, books and publications into Russian and prepare by autumn of 1933 for the switching of schools and instruction into Russian". Image File history File links UkrSchool. ... Image File history File links UkrSchool. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... A raion (or rayon) (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Belarusian раён; Azeri: rayon, Latvian: rajons, Georgian: , raioni) is one of two kinds of administrative subdivisions in languages of some post-Soviet states: a subnational entity and a subdivision of a city. ...


The following years were characterized by massive repression and many hardships for the Ukrainian language and people. Some historians, especially of Ukraine, emphasize that the repression was applied earlier and more fiercely in Ukraine than in other parts of the Soviet Union, and were therefore anti-Ukrainian; others assert that Stalin's goal was the generic crushing of any dissent, rather than targeting the Ukrainians in particular.


The Stalinist era also marked the beginning of the Soviet policy of encouraging Russian as the language of (inter-ethnic) Soviet communication. Although Ukrainian continued to be used (in print, education, radio and later television programs), it lost its primary place in advanced learning and republic-wide media. Ukrainian was considered to be of secondary importance, and an excessive attachment to it was considered a sign of nationalism and so "politically incorrect". At the same time, however, the new Soviet Constitution adopted in 1936 stipulated that teaching in schools should be in native languages.


Major repression started in 1929–30, when a large group of Ukrainian intelligentsia was arrested and most were executed. In Ukrainian history, this group is often referred to as "Executed Renaissance" (Ukrainian: розстріляне відродження). "Ukrainian bourgeois nationalism" was declared to be the primary problem in Ukraine. The terror peaked in 1933, four to five years before the Soviet-wide "Great Purge," which, for Ukraine, was a second blow. The vast majority of leading scholars and cultural leaders of Ukraine were liquidated, as were the "Ukrainianized" and "Ukrainianizing" portions of the Communist party. Soviet Ukraine's autonomy was completely destroyed by the late 1930s. In its place, the glorification of Russia as the first nation to throw off the capitalist yoke had begun, accompanied by the migration of Russian workers into parts of Ukraine which were undergoing industrialization and mandatory instruction of classic Russian language and literature. Ideologists warned of over-glorifying Ukraine's Cossack past, and supported the closing of Ukrainian cultural institutions and literary publications. The systematic assault upon Ukrainian identity in culture and education, combined with effects of an artificial famine (Holodomor) upon the peasantry—the backbone of the nation—dealt Ukrainian language and identity a crippling blow from which it would not completely recover. The notion of an intellectual elite as a distinguished social stratum can be traced far back in history. ... Bourgeois nationalism is a term from Marxist phraseology. ... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) refers collectively to several related campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the 1930s, which removed all of his remaining opposition from power. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... For other uses, see Cossack (disambiguation). ... Child victim of the Holodomor The Ukrainian famine (1932-1933), or Holodomor (Ukrainian: Голодомор), was one of the largest national catastrophes of the Ukrainian nation in modern history with direct loss of human life in the range of millions (estimates vary). ...


This policy succession was repeated in the Soviet occupation of Western Ukraine. In 1939, and again in the late 1940s, a policy of Ukrainianization was implemented. By the early 1950s, Ukrainian was persecuted and a campaign of Russification began.


Khrushchev thaw

While Russian was a de facto official language of the Soviet Union in all but formal name, all national languages were proclaimed equal. The name and denomination of Soviet banknotes were listed in the languages of all fifteen Soviet republics. On this 1961 one-ruble note, the Ukrainian for "one ruble", один карбованець (odyn karbovanets’), directly follows the Russian один рубль (odin rubl’).
While Russian was a de facto official language of the Soviet Union in all but formal name, all national languages were proclaimed equal. The name and denomination of Soviet banknotes were listed in the languages of all fifteen Soviet republics. On this 1961 one-ruble note, the Ukrainian for "one ruble", один карбованець (odyn karbovanets’), directly follows the Russian один рубль (odin rubl’).

After the death of Stalin (1953), a general policy of relaxing the language policies of the past was implemented (1958 to 1963). The Khrushchev era which followed saw a policy of relatively lenient concessions to development of the languages on the local and republican level, though its results in Ukraine did not go nearly as far as those of the Soviet policy of Ukrainianization in the 1920s. Journals and encyclopedic publications advanced in the Ukrainian language during the Khrushchev era. 1961 Soviet Union 1 rouble bill. ... 1961 Soviet Union 1 rouble bill. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... ISO 4217 Code SUR User(s) Soviet Union Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural rublya (gen. ... Soviet Union administrative divisions, 1989 In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... Jan. ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Nikita Khrushchev in 1962 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: Ники́та Серге́евич Хрущёв) (nih-KEE-tah khroo-SHCHYOFF) (April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union... The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ...


Yet, the 1958 school reform that allowed parents to choose the language of primary instruction for their children, unpopular among the circles of the national intelligentsia in parts of the USSR, meant that non-Russian languages would slowly give way to Russian in light of the pressures of survival and advancement. The gains of the past, already largely reversed by the Stalin era, were offset by the liberal attitude towards the requirement to study the local languages (the requirement to study Russian remained). Parents were usually free to choose the language of study of their children (except in few areas where attending the Ukrainian school might have required a long daily commute) and they often chose Russian, which reinforced the resulting Russification. In this sense, some analysts argue that it was not the "oppression" or "persecution", but rather the lack of protection against the expansion of Russian language that contributed to the relative decline of Ukrainian in 1970s and 1980s. According to this view, it was inevitable that successful careers required a good command of Russian, while knowledge of Ukrainian was not vital, so it was common for Ukrainian parents to send their children to Russian-language schools, even though Ukrainian-language schools were usually available. While in the Russian-language schools within the republic, the Ukrainian was supposed to be learned as a second language at comparable level, the instruction of other subjects was in Russian and, as a result, students had a greater command of Russian than Ukrainian on graduation. Additionally, in some areas of the republic, the attitude towards teaching and learning of Ukrainian in schools was relaxed and it was, sometimes, considered a subject of secondary importance and even a waiver from studying it was sometimes given under various, ever expanding, circumstances. Jan. ... The notion of an intellectual elite as a distinguished social stratum can be traced far back in history. ... Linguistic protectionism is any state policy introduced to protect a given language from the expansion of a stronger language (usually a language with a much greater number of speakers), or against mixing (or deliberate compatibility) with a different dialect or a closely related language. ... Russian ( , transliteration: , IPA: ) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia and the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ...


The complete suppression of all expressions of separatism or Ukrainian nationalism also contributed to lessening interest in Ukrainian. Some people who persistently used Ukrainian on a daily basis were often perceived as though they were expressing sympathy towards, or even being members of, the political opposition. This, combined with advantages given by Russian fluency and usage, made Russian the primary language of choice for many Ukrainians, while Ukrainian was more of a hobby. In any event, the mild liberalization in Ukraine and elsewhere was stifled by new suppression of freedoms at the end of the Khrushchev era (1963) when a policy of gradually creeping suppression of Ukrainian was re-instituted. A hobby is a spare-time recreational pursuit. ...


The next part of the Soviet Ukrainian language policy divides into two eras: first, the Shelest period (early 1960s to early 1970s), which was relatively liberal towards the development of the Ukrainian language. The second era, the policy of Shcherbytsky (early 1970s to early 1990s), was one of gradual suppression of the Ukrainian language. The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ...


Shelest period

The Communist Party leader Petro Shelest pursued a policy of defending Ukraine's interests within the Soviet Union. He proudly promoted the beauty of the Ukrainian language and developed plans to expand the role of Ukrainian in higher education. He was removed, however, after only a brief reign, for being too lenient on Ukrainian nationalism. Petro Shelest (Ukrainian: Петро Шелест) (14 February 1908 - 22 January 1996) - First secretary of the Communist party in Ukrainian SSR, member of Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and deputy of the Supreme Soviet. ...


Shcherbytsky period

The new party boss, Shcherbytsky, purged the local party, was fierce in suppressing dissent, and insisted Russian be spoken at all official functions, even at local levels. His policy of Russification was lessened only slightly after 1985. Volodymyr Vasylyovych Shcherbytsky (Ukrainian: , Russian: ) (1918 - 1990) was a Ukrainian and Soviet politician. ... This article is about the year. ...


Gorbachev and perestroika

The management of dissent by the local Ukrainian Communist Party was more fierce and thorough than in other parts of the Soviet Union. As a result, at the start of the Gorbachev reforms, Ukraine under Shcherbytsky was slower to liberalize than Russia itself. For the post-Soviet party, see Communist Party of Ukraine and Communist Party of Ukraine (renewed). ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ; Pronunciation: mih-kha-ILL ser-GHE-ye-vich gor-bah-CHOFF) (born March 2, 1931), was leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991. ... Volodymyr Vasylyovych Shcherbytsky (Ukrainian: , Russian: ) (1918 - 1990) was a Ukrainian and Soviet politician. ...


Although Ukrainian still remained the native language for the majority in the nation on the eve of Ukrainian independence, a significant share of ethnic Ukrainians were Russified. The Russian language was the dominant vehicle, not just of government function, but of the media, commerce, and modernity itself. This was substantially less the case for western Ukraine, which escaped the artificial famine, Great Purge, and most of Stalinism. And this region became the piedmont of a hearty, if only partial renaissance of the Ukrainian language during independence Child victim of the Holodomor The Ukrainian famine (1932-1933), or Holodomor (Ukrainian: Голодомор), was one of the largest national catastrophes of the Ukrainian nation in modern history with direct loss of human life in the range of millions (estimates vary). ... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) refers collectively to several related campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the 1930s, which removed all of his remaining opposition from power. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ...


Independence in the modern era

Modern signs in the Kiev Metro are in Ukrainian. The evolution in their language followed the changes in the language policies in post-war Ukraine. Originally, all signs and voice announcements in the metro were in Ukrainian, but their language was changed to Russian in the early 1980s, at the height of Shcherbytsky's gradual Russification. In the perestroika liberalization of the late 1980s, the signs were changed to bilingual. This was accompanied by bilingual voice announcements in the trains. In the early 1990s, both signs and voice announcements were changed again from bilingual to Ukrainian-only during the Ukrainianization campaign that followed Ukraine's independence.
Modern signs in the Kiev Metro are in Ukrainian. The evolution in their language followed the changes in the language policies in post-war Ukraine. Originally, all signs and voice announcements in the metro were in Ukrainian, but their language was changed to Russian in the early 1980s, at the height of Shcherbytsky's gradual Russification. In the perestroika liberalization of the late 1980s, the signs were changed to bilingual. This was accompanied by bilingual voice announcements in the trains. In the early 1990s, both signs and voice announcements were changed again from bilingual to Ukrainian-only during the Ukrainianization campaign that followed Ukraine's independence.

Since 1991, independent Ukraine has made Ukrainian the only official state language and implemented government policies to broaden the use of Ukrainian. The educational system in Ukraine has been transformed over the first decade of independence from a system that is partly Ukrainian to one that is overwhelmingly so. The government has also mandated a progressively increased role for Ukrainian in the media and commerce. In some cases, the abrupt changing of the language of instruction in institutions of secondary and higher education, led to the charges of Ukrainianization, raised mostly by the Russian-speaking population. However, the transition lacked most of the controversies that surrounded the de-russification in several of the other former Soviet Republics. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 182 pixelsFull resolution (1406 × 320 pixel, file size: 297 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 182 pixelsFull resolution (1406 × 320 pixel, file size: 297 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Official Logo The Kiev Metro (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) is a metro system that is the mainstay of Kievs public transport. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ... In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ...


With time, most residents, including ethnic Russians, people of mixed origin, and Russian-speaking Ukrainians started to self-identify as Ukrainian nationals, even though remaining largely Russophone. The state became truly bilingual as most of its population had already been. The Russian language still dominates the print media in most of Ukraine and private radio and TV broadcasting in the eastern, southern, and to a lesser degree central regions. The state-controlled broadcast media became exclusively Ukrainian but that had little influence on the audience because of their programs' low ratings. There are few obstacles to the usage of Russian in commerce and it is de facto still occasionally used in the government affairs. Look up Russophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In the 2001 census, 67.5% of the country population named Ukrainian as their native language (a 2.8% increase from 1989), while 29.6% named Russian (a 3.2% decrease). It should be noted, though, that for many Ukrainians (of various ethnic descent), the term native language may not necessarily associate with the language they use more frequently. The overwhelming majority of ethnic Ukrainians consider the Ukrainian language native, including those who often speak Russian and Surzhyk (a blend of Russian vocabulary with Ukrainian grammar and pronunciation). For example, according to the official 2001 census data[14] approximately 75% of Kiev's population responded "Ukrainian" to the native language (ridna mova) census question, and roughly 25% responded "Russian". On the other hand, when the question "What language do you use in everyday life?" was asked in the sociological survey, the Kievans' answers were distributed as follows:[15] "mostly Russian": 52%, "both Russian and Ukrainian in equal measure": 32%, "mostly Ukrainian": 14%, "exclusively Ukrainian": 4.3%. Ethnic minorities, such as Romanians, Tatars and Jews usually use Russian as their lingua franca. But there are tendencies within minority groups to prefer Ukrainian in many situations. The Jewish writer Aleksandr Abramovic Bejderman from the mainly Russian speaking city of Odessa is now writing most of his dramas in Ukrainian. Emotional relationship towards Ukrainian is partly changing in Southern and Eastern areas, too. Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Native Language Music, founded in 1996 by musicians Joe Sherbanee and Theo Bishop, is an independent adult contemporary record company based in Southern California that produces, markets, and distributes premium jazz, world, and new age music. ... Surzhyk (Ukrainian: , originally meaning ‘flour or bread made from mixed grains’, e. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ...


Literature

See Ukrainian literature

The literary Ukrainian language, which was preceded by Old East Slavic literature, may be subdivided into three stages: old Ukrainian (twelfth to fourteenth centuries), middle Ukrainian (fourteenth to eighteenth centuries), and modern Ukrainian (end of the eighteenth century to the present). Much literature was written in the periods of the old and middle Ukrainian language, including legal acts, polemical articles, science treatises and fiction of all sorts. Ukrainian literature is literature written in the Ukrainian language. ... Old East Slavic language is one name for a language spoken between the 10th and 14th centuries in Kievan Rus and its successor states, the ancestor of the modern East Slavic languages. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Influential literary figures in the development of modern Ukrainian literature include the philosopher Hryhori Skovoroda, Mykola Kostomarov, Mikhaylo Kotsyubinsky, Taras Shevchenko, Ivan Franko, and Lesia Ukrainka. The literary Ukrainian language is based on the dialect of the Poltava region, with some heavy influence from the dialects spoken in the west, notably Galicia (Halychyna). For most of its history, Russian letters were used for written Ukrainian (for example, by Shevchenko). The modern Ukrainian alphabet and orthography, which introduced the distinct letters і, ї, є, ґ, and modified the usage of и, was developed in the late nineteenth century in Austrian-controlled Galicia. Hryhori Skovoroda (Григорій Сковорода, also known as Grigorij Savvich Skovoroda) (1722 -- 1794) Ukrainian poet, philosopher and composer. ... Nikolai Ivanovich Kostomarov (Ukrainian: ) (May 16, 1817, vil. ... Taras Shevchenko Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko (Ukrainian: ) (March 9, 1814 [O.S. February 25] – March 10, 1861 [O.S. February 26]) was a Ukrainian poet, also an artist and a humanist. ... Ivan Franko Ivan Franko (Іван Франко) (August 15, 1856 – May 28, 1916) was a Ukrainian poet and writer, social and literary critic, journalist, economist, and political activist. ... Lesya Ukrainka Larysa Petrivna Kosach-Kvitka (Лариса Петрівна Косач-Квітка, February 23, 1871 – August 1, 1913) better known under her literary pseudonym Lesya Ukrainka (Лес&#1103... Location Map of Ukraine with Poltava highlighted. ... For other uses, see Galicia. ... The Ukrainian Alphabet (Украї́нська абе́тка, Ukrajins′ka abetka, or алфаві́т, alfavit in Ukrainian) is used to write Ukrainian, the official language of Ukraine. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Ukrainophone

A Ukrainophone is a person who speaks the Ukrainian language.


In the modern nation of Ukraine almost all people can speak Ukrainian. However, many people are also fluent in Russian as well.


Therefore the nation is sometimes divided into Ukrainophones and Russophones. In English these terms are used to indicate a person's language usage but not their ethnicity. Look up Russophone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ...


Current usage

The Ukrainian language is currently emerging from a long period of decline. Although there are almost fifty million ethnic Ukrainians worldwide, including 37.5 million in Ukraine (77.8% of the total population), only in western Ukraine is the Ukrainian language prevalent. In Kiev, both Ukrainian and Russian are spoken, a notable shift from the recent past when the city was primarily Russian speaking. The shift is caused, largely, by an influx of the rural population and migrants from the western regions of Ukraine but also by some Kievans' turning to use the language they speak at home more widely in everyday matters. In northern and central Ukraine, Russian is the language of the urban population, while in rural areas Ukrainian is much more common. In the south and the east of Ukraine, Russian is prevalent even in rural areas, and in Crimea, Ukrainian is almost absent. Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ...


Use of the Ukrainian language in Ukraine can be expected to increase, as the rural population (still overwhelmingly Ukrainophone) migrates into the cities and the Ukrainian language enters into wider use in central Ukraine. The literary tradition of Ukrainian is also developing rapidly overcoming the consequences of the long period when its development was hindered by either direct suppression or simply the lack of the state encouragement policies.


Dialects

Several modern dialects of Ukrainian: exist[16][17] For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ...

  • Northern (Polissian) dialects:[18]
    • Eastern Polissian is spoken in Chernihiv (excluding the southeastern districts), in the northern part of Sumy, and in the southeastern portion of the Kiev Oblast as well as in the adjacent areas of Russia, which include the southwestern part of the Bryansk Oblast (the area around Starodub), as well as in some places in the Kursk, Voronezh and Belgorod Oblasts.[19] No linguistic border can be defined. The vocabulary approaches Russian as the language approaches the Russian Federation. Both Ukrainian and Russian grammar sets can be applied to this dialect. Thus, this dialect can be considered a transitional dialect between Ukrainian and Russian.[20]
    • Central Polissian is spoken in the northwestern part of the Kiev Oblast, in the northern part of Zhytomyr and the northeastern part of the Rivne Oblast.[21]
    • West Polissian is spoken in the northern part of the Volyn Oblast, the northwestern part of the Rivne Oblast as well as in the adjacent districts of the Brest Voblast in Belarus. The dialect spoken in Belarus uses Belarusian grammar, and thus is considered by some to be a dialect of Belarusian.[22]
  • Southeastern dialects:[23]
    • Middle Dnieprian is the basis of the Standard Literary Ukrainian. It is spoken in the central part of Ukraine, primarily in the southern and eastern part of the Kiev Oblast). In addition, the dialects spoken in Cherkasy, Poltava and Kiev regions are considered to be close to "standard" Ukrainian.
    • Slobodan is spoken in Kharkiv, Sumy, Luhansk, and the northern part of Donetsk, as well as in the Voronezh and Belgorod regions of Russia.[24] This dialect is formed from a gradual mixture of Russian and Ukrainian, with progressively more Russian in the northern and eastern parts of the region. Thus, there is no linguistic border between Russian and Ukrainian, and, thus, both grammar sets can be applied. This dialect is a transitional dialect between Ukrainian and Russian.[25]
    • A Steppe dialect is spoken in southern and southeastern Ukraine. This dialect was originally the main language of the Zaporozhian Cossacks.[26]
    • A Kuban dialect related to the Steppe dialect often referred to by the derogatory term of Balachka is spoken in the Kuban region in Russia, by the descendants of the Zaporozhian Cossacks, who settled in that area in the late eighteenth century. This dialect features the use of some Russian vocabulary on a Ukrainian grammar substructure. There are 3 main variants according to location.[27].
  • Southwestern dialects:[28]
    • Boyko is spoken by the Boyko people on the northern side of the Carpathian Mountains in the Lviv and Ivano-Frankivsk Oblasts. It can also be heard across the border in the Subcarpathian Voivodship of Poland
    • Hutsul is spoken by the Hutsul people on the northern slopes of the Carpathian Mountains, in the extreme southern parts of the Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, as well as in parts of the Chernivtsi and Transcarpathian Oblasts, .
    • Lemko is spoken by the Lemko people, whose homeland rests outside the borders of Ukraine in the Prešov Region of Slovakia along the southern side of the Carpathian Mountains, and in the southeast of modern Poland, along the northern sides of the Carpathians.
    • Podillian is spoken in the southern parts of the Vinnytsia and Khmelnytskyi Oblasts, in the northern part of the Odessa Oblast, and in the adjacent districts of the Cherkasy Oblast, the Kirovohrad Oblast and the Mykolaiv Oblast.[29]
    • Volynian is spoken in Rivne and Volyn, as well as in parts of Zhytomyr and Ternopil. It is also used in Chelm in Poland.
    • Pokuttia (Bukovynian) is spoken in the Chernivtsi Oblast of Ukraine. This dialect has some distinct volcabulary borrowed from Romanian.
    • Upper Dniestrian is considered to be the main Galician dialect, spoken in the Lviv, Ternopil and Ivano-Frankivsk Oblasts. Its distinguishing characteristics are the influence of Polish and the German vocabulary, which is reminiscent of the Austro-Hungarian rule. Some of the distinct words used in this dialect can be found here.[30]
    • Upper Sannian is spoken in the border area between Ukraine and Poland in the San river valley.
  • The Rusyn language is considered by Ukrainian linguists to be a dialect of Ukrainian:
    • Dolinian Rusyn or Subcarpathian Rusyn is spoken in the Transcarpathian Oblast.
    • Pannonian or Bačka Rusyn is spoken in northwestern Serbia and eastern Croatia. Rusin language of the Bačka dialect is one of the official languages of the Serbian Autonomous Province of Vojvodina).
    • Pryashiv Rusyn is the Rusyn spoken in the Prešov (in Ukrainian: Pryashiv) region of Slovakia, as well as by some émigré communities, primarily in the United States of America.

Ukrainian is also spoken by a large émigré population, particularly in Canada (see Canadian Ukrainian), United States and several countries of South America like Argentina. The founders of this population primarily emigrated from Galicia, which used to be part of Austro-Hungary before World War I, and belonged to Poland between the World Wars. The language spoken by most of them is the Galician dialect of Ukrainian from the first half of the twentieth century. Compared with modern Ukrainian, the vocabulary of Ukrainians outside Ukraine reflects less influence of Russian, but often contains many loan words from the local language. Chernihiv Oblast (Чернігівська область, Chernihivs’ka oblast’ or Чернігівщина, Chernihivshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) of northern Ukraine. ... Sumy Oblast (Сумська область, Sums’ka oblast’ or Сумщина, Sumshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) in the north-east of Ukraine. ... Kiev Oblast (also Kyiv Oblast, Ukrainian: ) is an oblast (province) in central Ukraine. ... Bryansk Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Starodub (Стародуб in Russian; could be translated as old oak), a town in the Bryansk Oblast in Russia. ... Kursk Oblast (Russian: , Kurskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Voronezh Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Belgorod Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Kiev Oblast (also Kyiv Oblast, Ukrainian: ) is an oblast (province) in central Ukraine. ... Flag of Zhytomyr Oblast Coat of Arms of Zhyomyr Oblast Zhytomyr Oblast (Житомирська область, Zhytomyrs’ka oblast’ or Житомирщина, Zhytomyrshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) of northern Ukraine. ... Rivne Oblast (Рівненська область, Rivnens’ka oblast’ or Рівненщина, Rivnenshchyna in Ukrainian; Rowno in Polish) is an oblast (province) of Ukraine. ... Volyn Oblast (Волинська область, Volyns’ka oblast’ or Волинь/ Волынь, Volyn’ in Ukrainian and Russian respectevely). ... Rivne Oblast (Рівненська область, Rivnens’ka oblast’ or Рівненщина, Rivnenshchyna in Ukrainian; Rowno in Polish) is an oblast (province) of Ukraine. ... Brest voblast is one of the administrative regions in the Republic of Belarus located in the south-west of Poland and Ukraine. ... A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. ... Kiev Oblast (also Kyiv Oblast, Ukrainian: ) is an oblast (province) in central Ukraine. ... Administrative center Cherkasy Governor Oleksandr Cherevko (?) Oblast council  - Chairperson  - Council seats Volodymyr Hres’ (?) 76 Subdivisions  - Raions  - Cities of oblast subordinance  - Cities   -Towns  - Villages 21 6 25 34 838 Area Total  - Land  - Water (% of total)  Ranked 18th 20,900 km² ? km² ? km² (?%) Population  - Total (2006)  - Density  - Annual Growth Ranked ? 1,335... Poltava Oblast (Полтавська область, Poltavs’ka oblast’ or Полтавщина, Poltavshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) of central Ukraine. ... Kiev Oblast (also Kyiv Oblast, Ukrainian: ) is an oblast (province) in central Ukraine. ... Kharkiv Oblast (Харківська область, Kharkivs’ka oblast’ or Харківщина, Kharkivshchyna in Ukrainian; Харьковская &#1086... Sumy Oblast (Сумська область, Sums’ka oblast’ or Сумщина, Sumshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) in the north-east of Ukraine. ... Luhansk Oblast (Ukrainian: , Luhans’ka oblast’ or Луганщина, Luhanshchyna; Russian: , Luganskaya oblast) is the easternmost oblast (province) of Ukraine. ... COA of the Donetsk Oblast Donetsk Oblast (Ukrainian: Донецька область, Donets’ka oblast’ or Донеччина, Donechchyna) is an oblast (province) of eastern Ukraine. ... Voronezh Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Belgorod Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... Balachka (Russian and Ukrainian: балачка) is a Cossack dialect that is spoken in the traditional Cossack regions of Russia such as the Kuban, Stavropol and Don areas. ... Kuban (Ukrainian - Кубань) is an ethnical ukrainian territory. ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... Boyko or Boiko is the name for a distinctive group of Ruthenians (Ukrainian) montagnards of the Carpathian highlands. ... Lviv Oblast is an oblast of western Ukraine, created on December 4, 1939. ... Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (Івано-Франківська область, Ivano-Frankivs’ka oblast’ or Івано-Франківщина, Ivano-Frankivshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast of Ukraine. ... Subcarpathian voivodship since 1999 The Subcarpathian Voivodship (in Polish województwo podkarpackie) is an administrative and local government region or voivodship of south-eastern Poland. ... Travelling Hutsul, Galicia, 1872; lithograph Hutsuls (Ukrainian: , Romanian: HuÅ£uli, singular HuÅ£ul, Hutsul dialect: Hutsule, singular Hutsul; alternatively spelled Huculs, Huzuls, Hutzuls, Gutsuls, Guculs, Guzuls, or Gutzuls) are an ethno-cultural group of highlanders who for centuries have inhabited the Carpathian mountains, mainly in Ukraine, but also in the... Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (Івано-Франківська область, Ivano-Frankivs’ka oblast’ or Івано-Франківщина, Ivano-Frankivshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast of Ukraine. ... Administrative center Chernivtsi Governor Volodymyr Kalish (?) Oblast council  - Chairperson  - Council seats ? (?) ? Subdivisions  - Raions  - Cities of oblast subordinance  - Cities   -Towns  - Villages 11 2 11 8 398 Area Total  - Land  - Water (% of total)  Ranked 24th 8,097 km² ? km² ? km² (?%) Population  - Total (2006)  - Density  - Annual Growth Ranked ? 904,423 113/km² ?% Average... Districts of Zakarpattia Oblast House of the Council of Zakarpattia Oblast in Uzhhorod with Taras Shevchenko Monument Entrance from Ivano-Frankivsk on route A 265 Zakarpattia Oblast or Transcarpathian Oblast (Ukrainian: ; Hungarian: Kárpátalja) is an oblast (province) of Ukraine. ... Lemkos (Ukrainian: ) are one of four major ethnic groups who inhabit the Eastern Carpathian Mountains, and who speak the Lemko dialect/language. ... Lemkivshchyna, sometimes called Lemkovyna, Lemkivshchyna, or Łemkowszczyzna, is the land of the Lemkos (Lemki) includes the higher elevations of the Carpathians of modern-day Poland, extending to around the Poprad River to the west, and extending to the east as far as the region around Sanok, where it meets the... 7: PreÅ¡ov Region The PreÅ¡ov Region (in Slovak: PreÅ¡ovský kraj) is one of the eight Slovak administrative regions. ... Vinnytsia Oblast (Ukrainian: ) is an oblast of Ukraine. ... Khmelnytskyi Oblast (Хмельницька область, Khmel’nyts’ka oblast’ or Хмельниччина, Khmelnychchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) of western Ukraine. ... Administrative center Odessa Governor Ivan Vasylyovych Plachkov (Peoples Union Our Ukraine) Oblast council  - Chairperson  - Council seats Mykola Leonidovych Skoryk (Party of Regions) 120 Subdivisions  - Raions  - Cities of oblast subordinance  - Cities   -Towns  - Villages 26 7 19 33 1,138 Area Total  - Land  - Water (% of total)  Ranked 1st 33,310 km... Administrative center Cherkasy Governor Oleksandr Cherevko (?) Oblast council  - Chairperson  - Council seats Volodymyr Hres’ (?) 76 Subdivisions  - Raions  - Cities of oblast subordinance  - Cities   -Towns  - Villages 21 6 25 34 838 Area Total  - Land  - Water (% of total)  Ranked 18th 20,900 km² ? km² ? km² (?%) Population  - Total (2006)  - Density  - Annual Growth Ranked ? 1,335... Kirovohrad Oblast (Кіровоградська область, Kirovohrads’ka oblast’ or Кіровоградщина, Kirovohradshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) of Ukraine. ... Mykolayiv Oblast (Миколаївська область, Mykolaivs’ka oblast’ or Миколаївщина, Mykolaivshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast of Ukraine. ... Rivne Oblast (Рівненська область, Rivnens’ka oblast’ or Рівненщина, Rivnenshchyna in Ukrainian; Rowno in Polish) is an oblast (province) of Ukraine. ... Volyn Oblast (Волинська область, Volyns’ka oblast’ or Волинь/ Волынь, Volyn’ in Ukrainian and Russian respectevely). ... Flag of Zhytomyr Oblast Coat of Arms of Zhyomyr Oblast Zhytomyr Oblast (Житомирська область, Zhytomyrs’ka oblast’ or Житомирщина, Zhytomyrshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) of northern Ukraine. ... Ternopil Oblast (Тернопільська область, Ternopil’s’ka oblast’ or Тернопільщина, Ternopil’shchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) of Ukraine. ... Chełm is a town in eastern Poland with 68,595 inhabitants (2004). ... Administrative center Chernivtsi Governor Volodymyr Kalish (?) Oblast council  - Chairperson  - Council seats ? (?) ? Subdivisions  - Raions  - Cities of oblast subordinance  - Cities   -Towns  - Villages 11 2 11 8 398 Area Total  - Land  - Water (% of total)  Ranked 24th 8,097 km² ? km² ? km² (?%) Population  - Total (2006)  - Density  - Annual Growth Ranked ? 904,423 113/km² ?% Average... Lviv Oblast is an oblast of western Ukraine, created on December 4, 1939. ... Ternopil Oblast (Тернопільська область, Ternopil’s’ka oblast’ or Тернопільщина, Ternopil’shchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) of Ukraine. ... Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (Івано-Франківська область, Ivano-Frankivs’ka oblast’ or Івано-Франківщина, Ivano-Frankivshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast of Ukraine. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Rusyn is an East Slavic language (along with Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian to which it shares a common linguistic ancestry) that is spoken by the Rusyns. ... Districts of Zakarpattia Oblast House of the Council of Zakarpattia Oblast in Uzhhorod with Taras Shevchenko Monument Entrance from Ivano-Frankivsk on route A 265 Zakarpattia Oblast or Transcarpathian Oblast (Ukrainian: ; Hungarian: Kárpátalja) is an oblast (province) of Ukraine. ... Pannonian Rusyn or simply Rusyn (Ruthenian) is a Slavic language or dialect spoken in north-western Serbia and eastern Croatia (therefore also called Yugoslavo-Ruthenian, Vojvodina-Ruthenian or Bačka-Ruthenian). ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Rusin (meaning literally Rusyn, Ruthenian) is a Slavic language/dialect spoken in north-western Serbia and eastern Croatia (therefore also called Yugoslavo-Ruthenian, Vojvodina-Ruthenian or Bačka-Ruthenian). ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... ... Canadian Ukrainian (Ukrainian: украї́нська мо́ва, ukrayinska mova, ) is a variation (considered also as a dialect by some linguists) of the Ukrainian language specific to the Ukrainian Canadian community descended from the first two waves of historical Ukrainian emigration to Western Canada. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Galicia. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Ukrainophone population

Ukrainian is spoken by approximately 36,894,000 people in the world. Most of the countries where it is spoken are ex-USSR where many Ukrainians have migrated. Canada and the United States are also home to a large Ukrainian population. Broken up by country (to the nearest thousand):[31] Post-Soviet states in alphabetical order: 1. ...

  1. Ukraine 31,058,000
  2. Russia 4,363,000 (1,815,000 according to the 2002 census)[32]
  3. Brazil 988,000[citation needed]
  4. Kazakhstan 898,000
  5. United States 844,000
  6. Moldova 600,000
  7. Belarus 291,000
  8. Canada 200,525,[1] 67,665 spoken at home [2] in 2001, 148,000 spoken as "mother tongue" in 2006[33]
  9. Uzbekistan 153,000
  10. Poland 150,000
  11. Kyrgyzstan 109,000
  12. Argentina 120,000 [citation needed]
  13. Latvia 78,000
  14. Spain 69,000[citation needed]
  15. Portugal 65,800
  16. Romania 57,600
  17. Slovakia 55,000
  18. Georgia 52,000
  19. Lithuania 45,000
  20. Tajikistan 41,000
  21. Turkmenistan 37,000
  22. Australia 30,000
  23. Azerbaijan 29,000
  24. Paraguay 26,000
  25. Estonia 21,000
  26. Armenia 8,000
  27. Hungary 4,900 (according to the 2001 census)[34]
  28. Serbia 3,000

Ukrainian is the official language of Ukraine. The language is also one of three official languages of the breakaway Moldovan republic of Transnistria.[35] Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ...


Ukraine is also co-official, alongside Romanian, in ten communes in Suceava County, Romania (as well as Bistra in Maramureş County). In these localities, Ukrainians, who are an officially-recognised ethnic minority in Romania, make up more than 20% of the population. Thus, according to Romania's minority rights law, education, signage and access to public administration and the justice system are provided in Ukrainian, alongside Romanian.[citation needed] A commune (comună in Romanian) is, along with the municipality, the lowest level of administrative subdivision in Romania. ... Facts Development region: Nord-Est Historic region: [[Moldavia (mostly in Bukovina), and Transylvania]] Capital city: Suceava Population:  â€¢ As of 2002:  â€¢ Population density: 688,435 80/km² Area: 8,553 km² Codes:  â€¢ Car numbers  â€¢ ISO 3166-2:RO SV RO-SV Telephone code: (+40) x30 (1) Web:   County Council Prefecture 1. ... Bistra (Ukrainian: ) is a commune in MaramureÅŸ County, Romania. ... Facts Development region: Nord-Vest Historic region: Transylvania Capital city: Baia Mare Population:  â€¢ As of 2002:  â€¢ Population density: 510,110 81/km² Area: 6,304 km² Codes:  â€¢ Car numbers  â€¢ ISO 3166-2:RO MM RO-MM Telephone code: (+40) x62 (1) Web:   County Council Prefecture 1. ...


Language structure

Cyrillic letters in this article are romanized using scientific transliteration.

The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... A romanization or latinization is a system for representing a word or language with the Roman (Latin) alphabet, where the original word or language used a different writing system. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...

Grammar

Further information: Ukrainian grammar

Old East Slavic (and Russian) o in closed syllables, that is, ending in a consonant, in many cases corresponds to a Ukrainian i, as in pod->pid ‘under’. Thus, in the declension of nouns, the o can re-appear as it is no longer located in a closed syllable, such as rik (nom): rotsi (loc) ‘year’. The Ukrainian language possess an extremely rich grammatical structure inherited from Indo-European: Nouns have grammatical gender, number, and are declined for 7 cases; Adjectives agree with the noun in case, number, and gender; Verbs have 2 aspects, 3 tenses, 3 moods, and 2 voices. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun, which generally marks the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. ... Locative is a case which indicates a location. ...


Ukrainian case endings are somewhat different from Old East Slavic, and the vocabulary includes a large overlay of Polish terminology. Russian na pervom etaže ‘on the first floor’ is in the prepositional case. The Ukrainian corresponding expression is na peršomu poversi. -omu is the standard locative (prepositional) ending, but variants in -im are common in dialect and poetry, and allowed by the standards bodies. The x of Ukrainian poverx has mutated into s under the influence of the soft vowel i (k is similarly mutable into c in final positions). Ukrainian is the only modern East Slavic language which preserves the vocative case. The vocative case is the case used for a noun identifying the person (animal, object, etc. ...


There have been some disputes over the existence of the dual number of the noun. Ilko Korunets' argues that nouns in Ukrainian as well as in Russian and a few other Slavonic languages, have three numbers: singular, dual and plural. He pointed out that there is a difference in noun forms which are used with different numerals. For example: odyn rik, ‘one year’ — dva/try/čotyry roky, ‘two/three/four years’ — pjat’... rokiv, ‘five etc. years’. But he seems to represent the very rare opinion. The overwhelming majority of linguists finds only two numbers (singular and plural). See Dual (grammatical number)#Dual form in Slavic languages. Common Slavic had a complete singular-dual-plural number system, although the dual paradigms showed considerable syncretism. ... Common Slavic had a complete singular-dual-plural number system, although the dual paradigms showed considerable syncretism. ...


Sounds

Further information: Ukrainian phonology

The Ukrainian language has five vowels, /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/, and two approximants /j/, /ʋ/. Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


A number of the consonants come in three forms: hard, soft (palatalized) and long, for example, /l/, /lʲ/, and /ll/ or /n/, /nʲ/, and /nn/. Ukrainians tend to pronounce long sounds where the letters are doubled in other languages, English or Russian, for example. Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... In phonetics, gemination is when a spoken consonant is doubled, so that it is pronounced for an audibly longer period of time than a single consonant. ...


The letter г represents different consonants in Old East Slavic and Ukrainian. Ukrainian г /ɦ/, often transliterated as Latin h, is the voiced equivalent of Old East Slavic х /x/. The Russian (and Old East Slavic) letter г denotes /g/. Russian-speakers from Ukraine and Southern Russia often use the soft Ukrainian г, in place of the hard Old East Slavic one. The Ukrainian alphabet has the additional letter ґ, for representing /g/, which appears in some Ukrainian words such as gryndžoly (ґринджоли, ‘sleigh’) and gudzyk (ґудзик, ‘button’). However, the letter ґ appears almost exclusively in loan words. This sound is still more rare in Ukrainian than in Czech or Slovak. In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... Kha, or Ha, (Ð¥, Ñ…) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the voiceless velar fricative /x/ (pronounced like the ch in German Bach). It is derived from the Greek letter chi (Χ, χ). Categories: Cyrillic letters | Language stubs ... Ghe (Ґ, Ò‘, also called ge with upturn) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet pronounced like the G in go. Originally part of the Ukrainian and Belarusian alphabets, its function was replaced by the letter Ge (Г) in the Soviet Union after 1933. ... A loanword (or a borrowing) is a word taken in by one language from another. ...


Another phonetic divergence between the two languages is the pronunciation of /v/ (Cyrillic в). While in standard Russian it represents /v/, in Ukrainian it denotes both /v/ and /ʋ/ (at the end of a syllable—a labiodental approximant somewhat in between the v in victory and the w in water). Unlike Russian and most other modern Slavic languages, Ukrainian does not have final devoicing. Ve (Ð’, в) is the third letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, representing the sound [v]. In Russian, it is pronounced [f] at the end of a word. ... The labiodental approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject to understand later context. ...


Alphabet

Main article: Ukrainian alphabet
The Ukrainian alphabet
А а Б б В в Г г Ґ ґ Д д Е е Є є Ж ж З з И и
І і Ї ї Й й К к Л л М м Н н О о П п Р р С с
Т т У у Ф ф Х х Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш Щ щ Ю ю Я я Ь ь

The alphabet of the Ukrainian language consists of 33 letters and is derived from the Cyrillic writing system. The modern Ukrainian alphabet is the result of a number of proposed alphabetic reforms from the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, in Ukraine under the Russian Empire, in Austrian Galicia, and later in Soviet Ukraine. A unified Ukrainian alphabet (the Skrypnykivka, after Mykola Skrypnyk) was officially established at a 1927 international Orthographic Conference in Kharkiv, during the period of Ukrainization in Soviet Ukraine. But the policy was reversed in the 1930s, and the Soviet Ukrainian orthography diverged from that used by the diaspora. The Ukrainian letter ge ґ was banned in the Soviet Union from 1933 until the Ukrainian independence in 1990. The Ukrainian Alphabet (Украї́нська абе́тка, Ukrajins′ka abetka, or алфаві́т, alfavit in Ukrainian) is used to write Ukrainian, the official language of Ukraine. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... Mykola Oleksiyovych Skrypnyk (Ukrainian: , January 25 [O.S. January 13], 1872–July 7, 1933) was a Ukrainian Bolshevik leader who was a proponent of the Ukrainian Republics independence, and led the cultural Ukrainization effort in Soviet Ukraine. ... Map of Ukraine with Kharkiv highlighted. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The term Ukrainian diaspora refers to the global community of ethnic Ukrainians, usually more specifically those who maintain some kind of connection, even if ephemeral, to the land of their ancestors and maintain their feeling of Ukrainian national identity within local community. ... Ghe (Ґ, Ò‘, also called ge with upturn) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet pronounced like the G in go. Originally part of the Ukrainian and Belarusian alphabets, its function was replaced by the letter Ge (Г) in the Soviet Union after 1933. ...


The alphabet comprises thirty-three letters, representing thirty-eight phonemes (meaningful units of sound), and an additional sign—the apostrophe. Ukrainian orthography is based on the phonemic principle, with one letter generally corresponding to one phoneme, although there are a number of exceptions. The orthography also has cases where the semantic, historical, and morphological principles are applied. In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ...


The letter щ represents two consonants [ʃʧ]. The combination of [j] with some of the vowels is also represented by a single letter ([ja]=я, [je]=є, [ji]=ї, [ju]=ю), while [jo]=йо and the rare regional [jɪ]=йи are written using two letters. These iotated vowel letters and a special soft sign change a preceding consonant from hard to soft. An apostrophe is used to indicate the hardness of the sound in the cases when normally the vowel would change the consonant to soft. Iotation is a form of palatalisation which occurs in Slavic languages. ... Soft Sign (Ь, ÑŒ) is a letter in the Cyrillic alphabet (Russian: мягкий знак (mÄ­ahkiy znak) [], Ukrainian: м’який знак (miakyy znak) [], Belarusian: мяккі знак (miakki znak) []). It is named so because it usually indicates softening, or palatalization, of the preceding consonant or of the group of them. ... For the prime symbol (′) used for feet and inches, see Prime (symbol). ...


A letter is repeated to indicate that the sound is long.


The phonemes [ʣ] and [ʤ] do not have dedicated letters in the alphabet and are rendered with the digraphs дз and дж, respectively. [ʣ] is pronounced like English ds in pods, [ʤ] is like g in huge. Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

See also Drahomanivka, Ukrainian Latin alphabet.

Drahomanivka was a proposed reform of the Ukrainian alphabet and orthography, promoted by Mykhailo Drahomanov. ... A Latin alphabet for the Ukrainian language has been proposed or imposed several times in history, but has never challenged the conventional Cyrillic Ukrainian alphabet. ...

See also

Surzhyk (Ukrainian: , originally meaning ‘flour or bread made from mixed grains’, e. ... All Slavic languages arose from Proto-Slavic, which developed during the early first millennium and split off into differing dialects around the fifth or sixth century. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Anthem Ще не вмерла України ні слава, ні воля(Ukrainian) Shche ne vmerla Ukrayiny ni slava, ni volya(transliteration) Ukraines glory has not yet perished, nor her freedom Ukraine() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Kiev (Kyiv) Official languages Ukrainian Demonym Ukrainian Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Viktor Yushchenko  -  Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych Independence from... History of Ukraine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic languages. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River (1223) between Subutais reconnaissance unit and the combined force of several princes of Rus. After fifteen years of peace, it was followed by Batu Khans full-scale invasion in 1237-40. ... For other uses, see Galich. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... For other uses, see Galicia. ... Ukrainian territory was fought over by various factions after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the First World War, which added the collapse of Austria-Hungary to that of the Imperial Russia. ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... The West Ukrainian National Republic (Ukrainian: ) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyya, and Stanislav. ... State motto: Ukrainian: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Kiev Official language Ukrainian and Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until December 25, 1917 December 30, 1922 August 24, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 3rd in the USSR 603,700 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 2nd in the... Anthem Ще не вмерла України ні слава, ні воля(Ukrainian) Shche ne vmerla Ukrayiny ni slava, ni volya(transliteration) Ukraines glory has not yet perished, nor her freedom Ukraine() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Kiev (Kyiv) Official languages Ukrainian Demonym Ukrainian Government Semi-presidential system  -  President Viktor Yushchenko  -  Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych Independence from... Politics of Ukraine takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Ukraine is the head of government but shares a lot of these responsibilites with the President of Ukraine, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Verkhovna Rada. ... Political parties in Ukraine lists political parties in Ukraine. ... Mariyinsky Palace The President of Ukraine (Ukrainian: , Prezydent Ukrayiny) is the head of the state of Ukraine and acts in its name. ... Cabinet of Ministers The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine is the highest body in the system of bodies of executive power in Ukraine. ... The Prime Minister of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) presides over the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, which is the top body of the executive branch of the Ukrainian government. ... Categories: Ukraine-related stubs | Ukrainian government | Elections in Ukraine ... Elections in Ukraine gives information on election and election results in Ukraine. ... Referendums in Ukraine, according to the Ukrainian Constitution, is one of the lawful form of expression of peoples will. ... // Western relations Ukraine considers Euro-Atlantic integration its primary foreign policy objective, but in practice balances its relationship with Europe and the United States with strong ties to Russia. ... This article should include material from Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchy, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, and Patriarch Filaret (Mykhailo Denysenko). ... The Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) is an autonomous church of Eastern Orthodoxy in Ukraine, under the ecclesiastic link to the Moscow Patriarchy. ... Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchy (Ukrainian: ; Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kievan Patriarchate or UOC-KP) is one of the two major Orthodox churches in Ukraine [1] The modern history of the church begins in August, 1989, when the parish of the Church of Sts. ... In 1921 a Synod created the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (UAOC) in Kiev and ordained Metropolitan Vasyl (Lypkivsky) as its head. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Ukraine is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC), also known as the Ukrainian Catholic Church, is one of the successor Churches to the acceptance of Christianity by Grand Prince Vladimir the Great (Ukrainian Volodymyr) of Kiev (Kyiv), in 988. ... Protestants in Ukraine constitute about 600 - 700 thousands (2007), nearly 1% of total population. ... Muslims in Ukraine make up about 4% of the total population. ... History of the Jews in Ukraine // Kievan Rus’ Main article: Kievan Rus’ Halych-Volynia Main article: Halych-Volynia 14th Century Main article: 14th century Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Main article: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth From the founding of the Kingdom of Poland in the 10th century through the creation of the Polish... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ... The judicial system of Ukraine consists of four levels, as follows: Local courts of general jurisdiction (combining criminal and civil jurisdiction) consisting of: district, urban district and town courts; regional courts; city courts in Kiev and Sevastopol; administrative local courts. ... The Constitutional Court of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) is the only body of constitutional jurisdiction in Ukraine. ... The Supreme Court of Ukraine (in Ukrainian, Верховний Суд України) is the highest judicial body in the system of courts of general jurisdiction in Ukraine. ... The Prosecutor General of Ukraine (also Attorney General of Ukraine, Ukrainian: ) heads the system of official prosecution in courts known as the Office of the Prosecutor General of Ukraine (Генеральна прокуратура України). The Office of the Prosecutor General is entrusted with: prosecution in court on behalf of the State; representation of the interests... This article is about the police authority of Ukraine. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Ministry of Defense of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) was established on September 24, 1991,[1][2] one month after Ukraines declaration of independence from the Soviet Union. ... The Ukrainian Air force (Ukrainian: , Povitryani Syly Ukrayiny) is a part of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. ... The Ukrainian Ground Forces (Ukrainian: ) were formed from the Soviet Army formations, units, and establishments, including three military district headquarters (the Kiev, Carpathian, and Odessa), that were on Ukrainian soil when the Soviet Union collapsed in 1990-2. ... Ukrainian Navy Ensign The Ukrainian Naval Force (Ukrainian: ) is the navy of Ukraine and part of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. ... The Ukrainian Marine Corps is a branch of the Ukrainian Navy. ... The airmobile force is a highly mobile component of the Ukrainian Ground Forces. ... Ukrainian Navy Ensign The Ukrainian Navy (Ukrainian: Військово-Морські Сили України, ВМСУ) is a part of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This is a list of the Ukrainian oblasts and territories, in order of descending area. ... This is a list of the Ukrainian oblasts and territories, in order of descending population (in 2006, except otherwise stated). ... Raions of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) are small territorial units of subdivision of Ukraine. ... As of January 1, 2006 there are 457 cities (Ukrainian: мiсто, misto) in Ukraine. ... As of January 1, 2006 there are 457 cities (Ukrainian: мiсто, misto) in Ukraine. ... As of January 1, 2006 there are 886 urban-type settlements (Ukrainian: , translit. ... ISO 4217 Code UAH User(s) Ukraine Inflation 11. ... The National Bank of Ukraine is the central bank of the country. ... Telephones _ main lines in use: 9. ... www. ... Sources State Statistics Committee of Ukraine Categories: | | ... Demographics of Ukraine, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... This is a partial list of famous or notable people who have Ukrainian roots (ethnic - paternal or maternal, speak/write in the Ukrainian language, and/or were born or spent an essential part of their life on todays Ukrainian territory, and were important to the development of Ukraine culturally... The term Ukrainian diaspora refers to the global community of ethnic Ukrainians, usually more specifically those who maintain some kind of connection, even if ephemeral, to the land of their ancestors and maintain their feeling of Ukrainian national identity within local community. ... The first Ukrainian Census after the dissolution of the Soviet Union was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine on December 5, 2001, twelve years after the last All-Union census in 1989. ... A performance of a traditional Ukrainian dance by Virsky dance ensemble The Culture of Ukraine is a result of influence over millenia from the West and East, with an assortment of strong culturally-identified ethnic groups. ... Ukrainian cuisine has a rich history and offers a wide variety of dishes, partly borrowed from other cuisines like German, Turkish and Polish. ... Location of Ukraine The wine industry of Ukraine is well-established with long traditions. ... A Ukrainian dance troupe at the BC Ukrainian Cultural Festival Ukrainian Dance most often to refers to Ukrainian Folk-Stage Dance (as it is known by ethnographers and dance historians), a stylized form of a Folk Dance based in part on the movements contained in, and the actual traditional dances... Ukraine is a multi-national Eastern European state situated north of the Black Sea, formerly part of the Soviet Union. ... The name Ukraine (Ukrainian: , ) has been used in a variety of ways since the twelfth century. ... The Flag of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ; translit. ... Small coat of Arms of Ukraine. ... Mykhaylo Verbytsky, composer Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy (Ukrainian: , or Ukraines glory has not perished - literally ) is the national anthem of Ukraine. ... Hero of Ukraine (Ukrainian: , transliteration: Heroy Ukrayiny; Russian: ) is the highest state decoration that can be conferred upon an individual citizen by the Government of Ukraine. ...

References

  1. ^ Ukrainian language, Encyclopædia Britannica
  2. ^ http://litopys.org.ua/zyzlex/zyz.htm
  3. ^ The Polonization of the Ukrainian Nobility
  4. ^ (Russian) Nikolay Kostomarov, Russian History in Biographies of its main figures, Chapter Knyaz Kostantin Konstantinovich Ostrozhsky (Konstanty Wasyl Ostrogski)
  5. ^ http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9074133?query=Ukrainian%20language&ct=. Retrieved on January 26, 2007.
  6. ^ http://www.litopys.org.ua/shevelov/shev.htm
  7. ^ http://litopys.narod.ru/pivtorak/pivt.htm
  8. ^ http://litopys.narod.ru/istkult/ikult01.htm
  9. ^ http://www.litopys.org.ua/shevelov/shev.htm
  10. ^ Валуевский циркуляр, full text of the Valuyev circular on Wikisource(Russian)
  11. ^ http://litopys.narod.ru/ohukr/ohu14.htm
  12. ^ http://www.vesna.org.ua/txt/subtelny/istukr/17.htm#6
  13. ^ Source: demoscope.ru (Russian)
  14. ^ http://ukrcensus.gov.ua/rus/results/general/language/city_kyiv/. Retrieved on November 19, 2005.
  15. ^ Welcome to Ukraine (See above). Retrieved on November 19, 2005.
  16. ^ http://litopys.org.ua/ukrmova/um156.htm
  17. ^ http://litopys.org.ua/ukrmova/um184.htm
  18. ^ http://litopys.org.ua/ukrmova/um161.htm
  19. ^ http://litopys.org.ua/ukrmova/um155.ht
  20. ^ http://www.ethnology.ru/doc/narod/t1/gif/nrd-t1_0151z.gif
  21. ^ http://litopys.org.ua/ukrmova/um167.htm
  22. ^ http://www.belarusguide.com/as/map_text/havorki.html
  23. ^ http://litopys.org.ua/ukrmova/um160.htm
  24. ^ http://litopys.org.ua/ukrmova/um169.htm
  25. ^ http://www.ethnology.ru/doc/narod/t1/gif/nrd-t1_0151z.gif
  26. ^ http://litopys.org.ua/ukrmova/um171.htm
  27. ^ http://harazd.net/~nadbuhom/mapy-historia/mapy_8.htm
  28. ^ http://litopys.org.ua/ukrmova/um159.htm
  29. ^ http://litopys.org.ua/ukrmova/um180.htm
  30. ^ http://www.ji.lviv.ua/n36-1texts/gwara.htm
  31. ^ Source, unless specified: Ethnologue
  32. ^ http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_04_04.htm
  33. ^ Mother tongue "refers to the first language learned at home in childhood and still understood by the individual at the time of the census." More detailed language figures are to be reported in December 2007. Statistics Canada (2007). Canada at a Glance 2007, p. 4.
  34. ^ http://www.nepszamlalas.hu/hun/kotetek/18/tables/load1_33_3.html
  35. ^ The Constitution of Transnistria, Article 12
  • Luckyj, George S.N. ([1956] 1990). Literary Politics in the Soviet Ukraine, 1917–1934, revised and updated edition, Durham and London: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-1099-6.
  • G.Y. Shevelov (1979). A Historical Phonology of the Ukrainian Language.. Heidelberg: Carl Winter Verlag. ISBN 3-533-02787-2. . Ukrainian translation is partially available online.
  • Григорій Петрович Півторак (Hryhoriy Pivtorak) (1998). Походження українців, росіян, білорусів та їхніх мов (The origin of Ukrainians, Belarusians, Russians and their languages). Kiev: Akademia. ISBN 966-580-082-5. , (in Ukrainian). Available online.
  • Subtelny, Orest (1988). Ukraine: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press,. ISBN 0-8020-5808-6. 
  • Василь Німчук. Періодизація як напрямок дослідження генези та історії української мови. Мовознавство. 1997.- Ч.6.-С.3-14; 1998.
  • Микола Лесюк "Різнотрактування історії української мови".
  • Ilko V. Korunets' (2003). Contrastive Topology of the English and Ukrainian Languages. Vinnytsia: Nova Knyha Publishers,. ISBN 966-7890-27-9. 
  • "What language is spoken in Ukraine", in Welcome to Ukraine, 2003, 1.
  • All-Ukrainian population census 2001
  • Конституція України (Constitution of Ukraine) (in Ukrainian), 1996, English translation (excerpts).
  • 1897 census

The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Nikolai Ivanovich Kostomarov (Russian: ; Ukrainian: ) (May 16, 1817, vil. ... Noble Family Ostrogski Coat of Arms Ostrogski Parents Konstanty Ostrogski Aleksandra SÅ‚ucka Consorts Zofia Tarnowska Children with Zofia Tarnowska Elżbieta Ostrogska Janusz Ostrogski Katarzyna Ostrogska Konstanty Ostrogski Aleksander Ostrogski Date of Birth 1526 Place of Birth Ostróg Date of Death 1608 Place of Death Ostróg Konstanty... The original Wikisource logo. ... George Stephen Nestor Luckyj (1919 - November 21, 2001) was a scholar of Ukrainian literature, who greatly contributed to the awareness of Ukrainian literature in the English-speaking world and to the continuation of legitimate scholarship on the subject during the post-war period. ... For other uses, see Heidelberg (disambiguation). ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Orest Subtelny - Ukrainian historian, professor at Department of History and Political Science, York University. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...

External links

Wikipedia
Ukrainian language edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wiktionary
Ukrainian language edition of Wiktionary, the free dictionary/thesaurus
Wikibooks
Wikibooks' [[wikibooks:|]] has more about this subject:
Ukrainian

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