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Encyclopedia > Ukrainian People's Republic
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Ukrainian People's Republic (Ukrainian: Українська Народна Республіка, Ukrayins'ka Narodna Respublika), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ... In a broad definition, a republic is a state or country that is led by people whose political power is based on principles that are not beyond the control of the people of that state or country. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the system of autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal Provisional Government (Duma), resulting in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Symon Petlyura (Симон Петлюра; also spelled Simon, Semen, Semyen Petliura or Petlura, May 10, 1879 â€“ May 25, 1926) was a Ukrainian politician. ...

History of Ukraine
Early East Slavs
Kievan Rus'
Mongol invasion
Halych-Volynia
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Cossack era
Imperial Russia
Austrian Galicia
Ukrainian People's Republic
Western Ukrainian Republic
Ukrainian SSR
Independent Ukraine
Flag of Ukrainian People's Republic
Flag of Ukrainian People's Republic

Contents

History of Ukraine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... Map of the the extent of Kievan Rus through the 11th century. ... The Mongol Invasion of Rus was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. ... Halych-Volhynia, or Halych-Volodymyr, was a large state in Ruthenia (Rus ) which existed in the 13th and 14th centuries. ... The presumable banner of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with the coat of arms, called Пагоня in Belarusian, Vytis in Lithuanian and PogoÅ„ in Polish Another version of the Lithuanian banner The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Didžioji KunigaikÅ¡tystÄ—, Belarusian: Вялі́кае Кня́ства Літо́ўскае (ВКЛ), Ukrainian: Велике Князівство Литовське (ВКЛ), Polish: Wielkie KsiÄ™stwo Litewskie) was an... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Coat-of-arms of Galicia or Galicja Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , German: , Hungarian: ) is an historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ... The West Ukrainian National Republic (Ukrainian: or ЗУНР, ZUNR; also translated West Ukrainian Peoples Republic) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyya, and Stanislav. ... State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ... Anthem: Ukrainian: Transliteration: Shche ne vmerla Ukrajiny Ukraines glory has not perished Capital Kiev (Kyiv) Largest city Kiev Ukrainian Government Parliamentary democracy  - President Viktor Yushchenko  - Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych Independence from the Soviet Union   - Declared August 24, 1991   - Referendum December 1, 1991   - Finalized December 25, 1991  Area  - Total 603... Image File history File links UPR_flag. ... Image File history File links UPR_flag. ...

Central Rada

The socialist Central Rada was established on March 17, 1917, shortly after the start of the February Revolution (rada meaning council, the equivalent of Russian soviet). Its president was the respected historian Mykhailo Hrushevsky. During fighting in Kyiv between supporters of the Russian Provisional Government and the Bolsheviks, the Central Rada threw in support for the Bolsheviks. After expelling the government forces, the Rada announced an autonomous Ukrainian Republic, still maintaining ties to Russia, on November 22, 1917. After a brief truce, the small Bolshevik faction organized an All-Ukrainian Council of Soviets in December 1917 in an attempt to seize power. When this failed due to the Bolsheviks' relative lack of popularity in Kiev, they moved to Kharkiv and proclaimed a Soviet Ukrainian Republic. The Russian Bolshevik Red Army entered Ukraine in support of the Soviet government. The Central Rada or Tsentralna Rada (Ukrainian: ) was a representative body formed in 1917 in Kyiv to govern the Ukrainian Peoples Republic—the Ukrainian autonomy and then independent state. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in Leap years). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... The February Revolution (N.S.: March Revolution) of 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... Rada is the term for council or assembly borrowed by Polish from Middle High German Rat (council) and later passed into Czech, Ukrainian, and Belarusian languages. ... A soviet (Russian: сове́т) originally was a workers local council in late Imperial Russia. ... Hrushevsky in 1895 Mykhailo Serhiyovych Hrushevsky (Ukrainian: }; CheÅ‚m, 29 June (17 June Old Style) 1866 — Kislovodsk, 26 November 1934) was one of the most important Ukrainian public figures of the 20th century. ... Kiev (Київ, Kyiv, in Ukrainian; Киев, Kiev, in Russian) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper river. ... The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd after the deterioration of the Russian Empire and the abdication of the Tsars. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... November 22 is the 326th day (327th on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kharkiv highlighted. ... State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ...


On January 25, 1918 the Central Rada issued its Fourth Universal (dated January 22, 1918), breaking ties with Bolshevik Russia and proclaiming a sovereign Ukrainian state. Less than a month later, on February 9, 1918, the Red Army seized Kiev. January 25 is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Besieged by the Bolsheviks and having lost much territory, the Rada was forced to seek foreign aid, and signed the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk as an ally of Imperial Germany, on February 9, 1918. Germany forced the Bolsheviks out of Ukraine, but by this time much of the Ukrainian population was disenchanted with the once-popular Rada. In the wake of internal squabbles and ineffective control of the countryside, the Germans disbanded the Central Rada on April 29, 1918. Prior to this, the Rada had approved the Constitution of the Ukrainian People's Republic. The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest, formerly Brest-Litovsk, between Russia and the Central Powers, marking Russias exit from World War I. The treaty was practically obsolete before the end of the year but is significant as a chief... This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... February 9 is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Constitution of Ukrainian Peoples Republic The Constitution of Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: , Konstytutsiya Ukrayinskoii Narodnoii Respubliky) is a constitutional document approved by the Central Rada on 29 April 1918, but never announced. ...


The Hetmanate

In the coup, the Rada was replaced by a conservative government of Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky, the Hetmanate, and the Ukrainian People's Republic by a "Ukrainian State" (Ukrayins’ka derzhava). Skoropadsky, a former officer of the Russian Empire, established a regime favoring large landowners and concentrating power at the top, although it was merely a puppet of Germany. The government had little support from Ukrainian activists, but unlike the socialist Rada, it was able to establish an effective administrative organization, established diplomatic ties with many countries, and concluded a peace treaty with Soviet Russia. In a few months, the Hetmanate also printed millions of Ukrainian-language textbooks, established many Ukrainian schools, two universities, and a Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Hetman`s coat of arms Hetman StanisÅ‚aw Koniecpolski of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Hetman was the title of the second highest military commander (after the monarch) used in 15th to 18th century Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania, known from 1569 to 1795 as the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Pavlo Skoropadsky Pavlo Skoropadsky (Ukrainian: Павло Скоропадський, also spelled Pavel Skoropadsky or Skoropadski, born: May 3, 1873, in Wiesbaden, Germany, died: April 26, 1945, Metten monastery clinic, Bavaria, Germany) was a Ukrainian politician. ... The Hetmanate (Ukrainian: , Het’manat) was a short-lived provisional government of Ukraine, installed by Germany after disbanding the Central Rada of the Ukrainian National Republic in 1918. ... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1924) Area Approx. ... Ukrainian (украї́нська мо́ва, ukrayinska mova, ) is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages. ... The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine is the highest state research organization of Ukraine. ...

Stamp of Ukrainian People's Republic. 1918.
Stamp of Ukrainian People's Republic. 1918.

The Hetmanate government also supported the confiscation of previously-nationalized peasant lands by wealthy estate owners, often with the help of German troops. This led to unrest, the rise of a peasant partisan (guerrilla) movement, and a series of large-scale popular armed revolts. Negotiations were held to garner support from previous Rada members Petliura and Vynnychenko, but these activists worked to overthrow Skoropadsky. Image File history File links Marky_unr_3. ... Image File history File links Marky_unr_3. ... A selection of Hong Kong postal stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Look up guerrilla in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Symon Petlyura (Симон Петлюра; also spelled Simon, Semen, Semyen Petliura or Petlura, May 10, 1879 â€“ May 25, 1926) was a Ukrainian politician. ... Volodymyr Vynnychenko (Володимир Винниченко, b. ...


Due to the the impending loss of World War I by Germany and Austria-Hungary, Skoropadsky's sponsors, the Hetman formed a new cabinet of Russian Monarchists and committed to federation with a possible future non-Bolshevik Russia. In response, the Ukrainian socialists announced a new revolutionary government, the Directorate, on November 14, 1918. Combatants Allied Powers: France Italy Russia Serbia United Kingdom United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Commanders Ferdinand Foch Georges Clemenceau Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna Nicholas II Aleksei Brusilov Herbert Henry Asquith Douglas Haig John Jellicoe Woodrow Wilson John Pershing Wilhelm II Paul von Hindenburg Reinhard... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... The Directorate, or Directory (Директория, Dyrektoriya), was a government of the Ukrainian National Republic formed in 1918 in rebellion against Skoropadskys Hetmanate. ... November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining until the end of the year. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


The Directorate

The Directorate gained massive popularity, and the support of some of Skoropadsky's military units including the Sich Riflemen. Their insurgent army encircled Kiev on November 21st. After a three week long stalemate, the German forces evacuated, taking along Skoropadsky. On December 19, 1918 the Directorate took control of Kiev. A monument in honor of Sich Rifles Sich Riflemen (Ukrainian: ) is the name applied to and used by various military organizations formed by Austria-Hungary in the territory of modern Ukraine in 1917 out of local population. ...


The Bolsheviks invaded Ukraine from Kursk in late December, 1918. On January 22, 1919, the Directorate was officially united with the West Ukrainian People's Republic, although the latter entity de facto maintained its own army and government. In February 1919, the Bolsheviks captured Kiev. Kursk (Russian: ; pronunciation: koorsk) is a city in Central Russia, the administrative center of Kursk Oblast. ... The West Ukrainian National Republic (Ukrainian: ) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyya, and Stanislav. ...


Throughout 1919, Ukraine experienced chaos as the armies of the Ukrainian Republic, the Bolsheviks, the Whites, the Entente, and Poland, as well as anarchist bands such as that of Nestor Makhno vied for power. The subsequent Kiev Offensive, staged by the Polish army and allied Ukrainian forces, was unable to change the situation, and in March 1921, the Peace of Riga sealed a shared control of the territory by Poland, the Russian SFSR, and the Ukrainian RSR. 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The White movement, whose military arm is known as the White Army (Белая Армия) or White Guard (Белая Гвардия, белогвардейцы) and whose members are known as Whites (Белые, or the derogatory Беляки) or White Russians (a term which has other meanings) comprised some of the Russian forces, both political and military, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the... European military alliances in 1915. ... This article or section may contain inappropriate or misinterpreted citations. ... Nestor Makhno. ... Combatants Poland Soviet Russia Commanders Józef PiÅ‚sudski, Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Aleksandr Yegorov, Semyon Budionny Strength 8 Infantry Divisions, 1 Cavalry Division, 2 understrength Ukrainian divisions 8 Infantry Divisions, 2 Cavalry Divisions, later also 1st Cavalry Army Casualties ? ? The Kiev Offensive (or Kiev Operation) was an attempt by... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Central and Eastern Europe after the Treaty of Riga See also Riga Peace Treaty for other treaties concluded in Riga. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Socialist republics/ Communist state Last Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0. ... State motto: Ukrainian: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Kiev Official language None. ...


As the result, the lands of Galicia (Halychyna), the western part of the traditional territory of Ukraine, as well as a large part of the Volyn territory had been incorporated into Poland, while the larger central parts of traditional Ukrainian territory, as well as predominantly Russian eastern and southern areas became part of Soviet Ukraine. Coat-of-arms of Galicia or Galicja Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , German: , Hungarian: ) is an historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ... Volhynia (Wołyń in Polish; Волинь, Volyn’ in Ukrainian; also called Volynia, Volyň in Czech) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Pripyat and Western Bug. ...


After its military and political defeat, the Directorate continued to maintain control over some of its military forces. In October 1921 it launched a series of guerrilla raids into central Ukraine that reached as far east as Kiev Oblast. On November 4th, the Directorate's guerrillas captured Korosten and seized much military supplies. But on November 17, 1921, this force was surrounded by Bolshevik cavalry and destroyed. Kiev Oblast (also Kyiv Oblast, Ukrainian: ) is an oblast (province) in central Ukraine. ... Korosten is a city in northern Ukraine. ...


In 1922, having secured its territory, Soviet Ukraine joined the Russian, Byelorussian, and Transcaucasian republics to form the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. State motto: Пралетарыі ўсіх краін, яднайцеся! Belarusian: Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... The Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was a short-lived (1922-1936) Soviet republic, consisting of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, which were traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics in the Soviet Union. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


References

  • Subtelny, Orest (1988). Ukraine: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-5808-6.
  • Magosci, Paul Robert (1996). A History of Ukraine. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-7820-6.
  • Kubijovic, V. (Ed.), Ukraine: A Consice Encyclopedia, University of Toronto Press: Toronto, Canada, 1963.

Orest Subtelny - Ukrainian historian, professor at Department of History and Political Science, York University. ...

See also

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Ukrainian People's Republic
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