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Encyclopedia > Ukrainian Insurgent Army
Ukrainian Insurgent Army
Participant in World War II

Flag of the UPA
Active 1943-1955
Leaders Vasyl Ivakhiv, Dmytro Klyachkivskyy, Roman Shukhevych, Vasyl Kuk
Area of
operations
primarily in territories of prewar Poland, Romania and Czechoslovakia populated with Ukrainian majority, with raids as far east as Kiev region
Strength Estimates of armed personnel at various times ranged from 15,000 - 100,000
Allies temporary arrangements with Nazi Germany
Opponents Nazi German SS, the Polish Armia Krajowa,

Soviet partisans, the Soviet Red Army, NKVD Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Roman Shukhevych (Ukrainian: ; also known by his pseudonym Taras Chuprynka) (b. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... SS redirects here. ... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... The Soviet partisans were members anti-fascist resistance movement which fought against the occupation of the Soviet Union by Axis forces during World War II. At the end of June 1941, immediately after the Germans crossed the Soviet border, the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik) (see... CCCP redirects here. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ...

Battles/wars mainly guerrilla activity

The Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Ukrainian: Українська Повстанська Армія, Ukrayins’ka Povstans’ka Armiya, UPA) was a Ukrainian military organization formed initially in Volyn (in north-western Ukraine). The UPA's primary purpose was to protect the interests,[citation needed] of the Ukrainian population starting out as a resistance group that grew into a guerrilla army. The UPA was the military branch of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN). During its existence, the UPA fought a large variety of military forces, including Nazi Germany, the Polish underground army (Armia Krajowa), and Sovietr forces including Soviet partisans, the Red Army, NKVD, SMERSH, NKGB, MVD. The UPA also cooperated at times with Germany. Volhynia (Wołyń in Polish; Волинь, Volyn’ in Ukrainian; also called Volynia, Volyň in Czech) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Pripyat and Western Bug. ... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ... Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists or OUN (Ukrainian: or ОУН) was a Ukrainian political movement originally created in the interwar Poland. ...



In order to differentiate itself from Soviet "Partisans" (a term commonly used by communist underground forces) the members UPA tended to use the Ukrainian term "Povstantsi" (insurgents).


After World War II, the UPA remained active and continued open battles against Poland until 1947 and the Soviet Union until the 1949. It was especially strong in the Carpathian Mountain and Volyn regions of Western Ukraine. It was unique among the anti-Nazi resistance movements in that it had no significant foreign support. Its growth and strength reflected its popularity among the people of Western Ukraine.[1] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Volhynia (Wołyń in Polish; Волинь, Volyn’ in Ukrainian; also called Volynia, Volyň in Czech) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Pripyat and Western Bug. ...


Outside of Western Ukraine, however, the Soviet Ukrainian population considered, during WWII, the OUN/UPA to have been collaborators with the Germans. [2]


(Note: Another group also often popularly entitled UPA also existed in Volyn. It was nominally formed earlier in late November 1941 before the formal formation of UPA and was initially known as the Polissian Sich. This group had no direct connections with the OUN(B), and allied itself politically with OUN(M) and OUN(UNR). This grouping led by Taras Bulba-Borovets had links to the UNR in exile. It was renamed the Ukrainian People's Revolutionary Army in July 1943 before being later absorbed into the UPA of the OUN(B). [11] [12]) Volhynia (Wołyń in Polish; Волинь, Volyn’ in Ukrainian; also called Volynia, Volyň in Czech) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Pripyat and Western Bug. ... Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN, ОУН) was a Ukrainian political movement for the establishment of an independent Ukraine. ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ...

Contents

Organization of UPA

UPA propaganda poster. OUN/UPA formal greetings is written in Ukrainian bold on two horizontal lines Glory to Ukraine (Glory to (her) Heroes)
UPA propaganda poster. OUN/UPA formal greetings is written in Ukrainian bold on two horizontal lines Glory to Ukraine (Glory to (her) Heroes)

UPA's command structure overlapped with that of the OUN in a sophisticated and was highly centralized. The UPA was responsible for operations while the OUN was in charge of administrative duties; each had their own chain of command. The six main departments were military, political, security service, mobilization, supply, and the Ukrainian Red Cross. There was overlap between OUN and UPA posts and the local OUN and UPA leader were frequently the same person. Organizational methods were borrowed and adapted from the German, Polish and Soviet military, while UPA units trained based on a modified Red Army field unit manual.[3] The General Staff consisted of operations, intelligence, training, logistics, personnel and political education departments. UPA's largest units, Kurins, consisting of 500-700 soldiers [,[4] were equivalent to battalions in a regular army, and its smallest units, Riys, with 8-10 soldiers [,[4] were equivalent to squads.[3] Occasionally, and particularly in Volyn, during some operations three or more Kurins would unite and form a Zahin or Brigade [.[4] UPA cartoon logo This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... UPA cartoon logo This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists or OUN (Ukrainian: or ОУН) was a Ukrainian political movement originally created in the interwar Poland. ... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols This article is about the military unit. ... In the fire service a Squad is a Engine Company with a compliment of rescue tools. ... In military science a brigade is a military unit that is part of a division and includes regiments (where that level exists), or (in modern armies) is composed of several battalions (typically two to four) and directly attached supporting units. ...

Roman Shukhevych
Roman Shukhevych

UPA's leaders were: Vasyl Ivakhiv (spring – 13 of May 1943), Dmytro Klyachkivskiy, Roman Shukhevych (January 1944 until 1950)[5] and finally Vasyl Kuk. Image File history File links Shukhewich. ... Image File history File links Shukhewich. ... Roman Shukhevych (Ukrainian: ; also known by his pseudonym Taras Chuprynka) (b. ...


In November 1943, UPA adopted a new structure, creating a Main Military Headquarters and three areas (group} commands: UPA-West, UPA-North and UPA-South. Three military schools for low-level command staff were also established.


UPA's membership is estimated to have consisted of 60% peasants of low to moderate means, 20-25% workers (primarily from the rural lumber and food industries), and 15% from the intelligentsia (students, urban professionals). The latter group provided a large portion of UPA's military trainers and officer corps.[3] Sixty percent of UPA's membership was from Galicia and 30% from Volyn and Polesia[6] By late 1943 and early 1944, the UPA controlled much of the territory of Volyn, outside of the major cities, and was able to organize basic services for the villagers such as schools, hospitals, and the printing of newspapers. The number of UPA fighters varied with time. A German Abwehr report from November 1943 estimated that UPA had 20,000 soldiers;[7] other estimates at that time placed the number at 40,000.[8] By the summer of 1944, estimates of UPA membership varied from 25-30 thousand fighters[9] up to 100,000 soldiers.[8] The notion of an intellectual elite as a distinguished social stratum can be traced far back in history. ... For other uses, see Galicia. ... Volhynia (Wołyń in Polish; Волинь, Volyn’ in Ukrainian; also called Volynia, Volyň in Czech) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Pripyat and Western Bug. ... Polesie (Polish spelling; Polissya, Полісся in Ukrainian, Polesye, Полесье in Russian, Palyessye or Palesse, Пале́сьсе in Belarusian, formerly also Polesia in Latin) is one of the largest European swampy areas, located in the South-Western part of the Eastern-European Lowland, within the territories of Belarus, Ukraine and Poland. ... Volhynia (Wołyń in Polish; Волинь, Volyn’ in Ukrainian; also called Volynia, Volyň in Czech) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Pripyat and Western Bug. ... The Abwehr was a German intelligence organization from 1921 to 1944. ...


UPA Formation

1941

In a Memorandum from August, 14 1941 OUN (B) proposed to the Germans, to create a Ukrainian Army “which will join the German army … until the latter will win”, in exchange for German recognition of an allied Ukrainian independent state[10] The Ukrainian Army was planned to have been formed on the basis of DUN (Detachments of Ukrainian nationalists - Druzhyny Ukrainskykh Natsinalistiv) and specifically on the basis of the “Ukrainian legion”, at that time composed of two battalions (kurins) “Nachtigal” and “Roland.” At this time these two battalions were included in the Abwehr special regiment “Brandenburg-800”. However, such propositions were not adopted by the Germans, and by the middle of September 1941 the Germans began a repression campaign against the most proactive OUN members.


During the first OUN Conference which held at the beginning of October 1941, the OUN formulated its strategy for the future. It called on moving some part of its organizational structure to underground, avoiding conflicts with Germans and refraining from anti-German propaganda activities.[11] At the same time, in some areas the OUN tried to infiltrate its own members into and create its own network within the German Auxiliary police. A CISCO Security auxiliary police officer stands guard beside an armoured truck while his colleagues deliver high-valued goods to and from commercial clients at Raffles Place, Singapore. ...


A captured German document of November 25, 1941 (Nuremberg Trial O14-USSR) ordered: "It has been ascertained that the Bandera Movement is preparing a revolt in the Reichskommissariat which has as its ultimate aim the establishment of an independent Ukraine. All functionaries of the Bandera Movement must be arrested at once and, after thorough interrogation, are to be liquidated..."[12] By the end of November 1941, the remains of the “Ukrainian Legion” (approximately 650 persons) signed a contract for military service with the Germans and transferred to Germany for military training for further usage at Eastern Front. At the same time (end of November 1941) the Germans started a second wave of repression in Reichskommissariat Ukraine specially targeting OUN (B) members. However, most of the captured OUN activists in Reichskommissariat Ukraine belonged to OUN (M) wing. The Nuremberg Trials is the general name for two sets of trials of Nazis involved in World War II and the Holocaust. ... Reichskommissariat Moskau Reichskommissariat Ostland Reichskommissariat Ukraine Reichskommissariat Kaukasus See also Reichskommissar Category: ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


1942

In April 1942 at the Second OUN(B) conference developed the policies for the “creation, build-up and development of Ukrainian political and future military forces”, “action against partisan activity supported by Moscow” were adopted. The primary enemy targeted were the Soviet partisans. German policy was criticized.[13]


During service from May till October 1942 the “Nachtigall Battalion” where Roman Shukhevych was deputy commander lost 49 killed and 40 wounded (in 5 clashes with Soviet partisans) while claiming more than 2000 killed Soviet partisans.


In July 1942 OUN (B) issued a statement in which the main enemy targetted was “Moscow”, while the Germans was ephemerally criticized for their policy concerning the Ukrainian independent state. Until December 1942, OUN(B)'s principal activity was propaganda and the development of its own underground network, while actions against the Germans were described as undesirable and provocative.


In the beginning of December 1942 near Lviv the “Military conference of OUN(B)” was held. It resulted in the adoption of a policy of accelerated growth for the creation of Military forces of OUN(B). The Conference statement underlined that “all combat capable population must support under OUN banners the struggle against the Bolsheviks enemy”. On May 30, 1947[14] the Main Ukrainian Liberation Council (Головна Визвольна Рада) adopted the date of October 14, 1942 as the official day for celebrating UPA's creation. is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


1943

  • Jan: From beginning of December 1942 till beginning of January 1943 the Germans relocated to the General Government the disbanded “Nachtigall Battalion” renaming it the 201 Wehrmacht Guard (Defense) Division to Belarus to guard against Soviet partisans attacks.
  • Apr: Later most of the remnants of the “Nachtigall Battalion” joined the UPA or Waffen-Grenadier-Division der SS (galizische Nr.1) in Spring 1943.[15]

The General Government (in full General government for the occupied Polish areas, in German Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete) was the name given by Germany to the governing authority in Poland after its occupation by the Wehrmacht in September and October 1939. ... The Soviet partisans were members anti-fascist resistance movement which fought against the occupation of the Soviet Union by Axis forces during World War II. At the end of June 1941, immediately after the Germans crossed the Soviet border, the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik) (see...

UPA's relations with Germany

Hostilities

Despite the stated opinions of Dmytro Klyachkivsky and Roman Shukhevych that the Germans were a secondary threat compared to the main enemies, the Soviet partisans and Poles, the Third Conference of Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists which was held near Lviv 17-21 February 1943, adopted the decision to begin open warfare against the Germans,[16] although OUN fighters had already attacked a German garrison on February 7th of that year.[17] Accordingly, the OUN (B) leadership issued secret instructions ordering their members who had infiltrated the German auxiliary police in 1941-1942 to desert with their weapons to join the units of UPA in Volyn. This process often involved engaging in armed conflict with German forces trying to prevent them from doing so. The number of well-trained and well-armed policemen deserting into the ranks of UPA was estimated as being between 4 to 5 thousand.[18] Initially, the military formation of the OUN under Bandera's leadership was called "military detachment of OUN (SD)" but after April 1943 UPA, a name more well-known and popular among Ukrainians, was adopted as the official name [13]. Roman Shukhevych (Ukrainian: ; also known by his pseudonym Taras Chuprynka) (b. ... Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists or OUN (Ukrainian: or ОУН) was a Ukrainian political movement originally created in the interwar Poland. ...


By late 1943 and early 1944, the UPA controlled much of the territory of Volyn, outside of the major cities, and was able to organize basic services for the villagers such as schools, medical care for victims of war through the UPA-controlled Ukrainian Red Cross [3] [19] , and the printing of journals, newspapers, and pamphlets for youth [20]. Under German occupation, the UPA conducted hundreds of raids on German police stations and military convoys. In the region of Zhytomyr (which was taken from the Nazi by the Red Army in November 1943-January 1944, with groups of Soviet partisans moving there by February-March 1943), the insurgents were estimated by the German General-Kommissar Leyser to be in control of 80% of the forests and 60% of the farmland.[21] The UPA were able to send small groups of raiders deep into eastern Ukraine. Volhynia (Wołyń in Polish; Волинь, Volyn’ in Ukrainian; also called Volynia, Volyň in Czech) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Pripyat and Western Bug. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Zhytomyr highlighted. ... Belorussian guerrillas liquidated, injured and took prisoner some 1. ... Modern arable agriculture typically uses large fields like this one in Dorset, England. ... A raid is a brief attack, normally performed by a small military force of commandos, or by irregulars. ...


As a rule the UPA did not attack units of the Wehrmacht, knowing that they were fighting against Russian Communism. Likewise, the frontline forces of the German army did not take any part in manhunts and operation against the UPA, sometimes even refusing to assist the German security and police forces against UPA.[22] Indeed, according to German Eastern Front General Ernst Kostring, UPA fighters "fought almost exclusively against German administrative agencies, the German police and the SS in their quest to establish an independent Ukraine controlled by neither Moscow nor Germany."[23]


According to the OUN/UPA, on May 12, 1943 Germans attacked the town of Kolki using several SS-Divisions (SS units operated alongside the Nazi Army who were responsible for intelligence, central security, policing action, and the mass extermination), but the Germans as well as insurgents suffered heavy losses.[24] Although there were no SS-divisions mentioned at this time in the identified areas according to mainstream historians,[25],[26][27] Soviet partisans reported about the reinforcement of German auxiliary forces at Kolki for the end of April until mid of May, 1943[28]


In June 1943 German SS and police forces under the command of General von dem Bach-Zalewski, seen as an expert in fighting against guerrillas, attempted to destroy UPA-North in Volyn during Operation "BB" (Bandenbekampfung). He was chosen specifically by Himmler to destroy the UPA in this operation.[29] Erich von dem Bach, born Erich von Zelewski and also known as Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski (March 1, 1899 - March 8, 1972), was a Nazi official and a member of the SS (in which he reached the rank of SS-Obergruppenführer). ...


According to the UPA/OUN, the initial stage of “BB” (Bandenbekempfung) operation under the command of Sturbahnfuehrer SS General Platle and later under General Hintzler against the UPA produced no results whatsoever. This catastrophic development was the subject of several discussions by Himmler's staff that resulted in the sending to Ukraine of General von dem Bach-Zalewski, responsible only to Hitler himself.[30] Erich von dem Bach, born Erich von Zelewski and also known as Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski (March 1, 1899 - March 8, 1972), was a Nazi official and a member of the SS (in which he reached the rank of SS-Obergruppenführer). ...



According to UPA/OUN(B) estimates, during Operation "BB" Bach-Zalewski had under his disposal 10 battalions of motorized SS troops with heavy weapons and artillery, 10,000 German and Polish police, 2 regiments of the Hungarian army, and three battalions of Cossacks organized from among Soviet POWs and 50 tanks, 27 planes and 5 armored trains.[31] Another UPA estimate assessed the situation during Operation "BB" as follows: Germans send military division which formed from SS regiment, 2 Hungarian regiments, Cossacks regiment and unit of German gendarmes. Their losses from UPA was – 193 persons.[32] By August, the operation proved to be a military failure. On August 19-20, the UPA captured the military center of Kamin Koshyrsky, capturing large quantities of arms and ammunition.[33]As a result of the complete failure of the operations General von dem Bach-Zalewski recalled from his command.[34] This article needs cleanup. ...



General Prutzmann, von dem Bach-Zalewski's successor as commander of the "BB" did not introduce any new methods in combating the UPA. The UPA-North grew steadily, and the Germans, apart from terrorizing the civilian population, were virtually limited to defensive actions.[35]


According to post-war estimates, the UPA had the following number of clashes with the Germans in mid to late 1943 in Volyn: in July, 35; in August, 24; in September, 15; October-November, 47. "[36] During the summer of 1943, according to post-war estimates, the Germans lost over 3,000 men killed or wounded while the UPA lost 1237 killed or wounded.[37][38]


The Carpathian mountains saw some of the heaviest fighting between UPA and German forces in late 1943 and early 1944, as the UPA struggled to maintain control over several of the mountain passes. In one engagement, Ukrainian insurgents numbering about 600 men (including numbers of Ukrainian self-defense force), invoked the panic and retreat of 2 German divisions which initially took up positions in the villages of Maidan, Posich and Zaviy on November 27, 1943. As the result of this operation the Ukrainian insurgents captured a great quantity of arms and ammunition at the cost only 4 dead and 11 wounded.[39] Satellite image of the Carpathians. ...


UPA, fighting a two-front war against both the Germans and approaching Soviets (as well as Soviet partisans), did not focus all of its efforts against the Germans. Indeed, it considered the Soviets to be a greater threat. Adopting a strategy analogous to that of the Chetnik leader General Draža Mihailović, UPA held back against the Germans in order to better prepare itself for and engage in the struggle against the Communists. Because of this, although UPA managed to limit German activities to a certain extent, it failed to prevent the Germans from deporting approximately 500,000 people from Western Ukrainian regions and from economically exploiting Western Ukraine. [40] Chetniks (Serbian Četnici, Четници) were an organization of Yugoslavs (mostly Serbs) who supported the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and formed a notable resistance force during World War II. The name is derived from the Serbian word četa which means company (of about 100 men). ... Dragoljub Draža Mihailović (Serbian Cyrillic: Драгољуб Дража Михаиловић; Anglicised: Drazha Mihailovich ; also known as Чича or ÄŒiča) (April 27, 1893 - July 17, 1946) was a Serbian general now primarily remembered as leader of the resistance movement Yugoslav Royal Army in the Fatherland during World War II. After the war, he was tried...


Collaboration

In autumn 1943 some detachments of UPA attempted to find reproachment with Germans. Although doing so was condemned by an OUN/UPA order from November 25, 1943 such actions were not halted [41] In May 1944 the OUN submitted instructions to "switch the struggle, which was conducted against Germans, completely into a struggle against the Soviets."[42]. Nevertheless, according to the UPA/OUN, in July 1944, two more attempts by the Germans to capture the Carpathian mountain passes were repulsed. Near the villages of Kamianka and Lypa, 3 insurgent battalions repulsed the incursions of 2 German SS divisions, totaling 30,000 soldiers (7-9 July), and on the 12th of July Germans reinforced them with a 3rd division. These Divisions were alternatively described as SS and as police Divisions by UPA/OUN sources, Avoiding direct confrontation, the UPA battalions inflicted a high number of casualties through sniping, ambushes, and attacks from the flanks and rear while abandoning their fixed positions. On 14-16 of July all of the German Divisions retreated with the loss over 600 dead. The insurgents suffered only a dozen casualties.[43] Although according to German data and mainstream historians there were no SS divisions at this time in the mentioned area.[44].[45][46][47]



In order to fight the mutual Soviet enemy in early 1944, UPA forces in Volyn and Lviv regions engaged in limited cooperation with the German Wehrmacht contingent upon the Germans leaving Ukrainian villagers and UPA undisturbed.[48][49] However, in the winter and spring of 1944 it would be incorrect to state that there was a complete cessation of armed conflict between UPA and Nazi forces because UPA continued to defend Ukrainian villages against repressive actions of the German administration.[50] For example, on January 20th, 200 German soldiers on their way to the Ukrainian village of Pyrohivka were forced to retreat after a several-hours long firefight with a group of 80 UPA soldiers after having lost 30 killed and wounded.[51]. Such hostilities ended by late spring 1944 due to much of the disputed territory no longer being under German occupation, and to negotiations between UPA and the Germans.


In a top secret memorandum, General-Major Brigadefuhrer Brenner wrote in mid-1944 to SS-Obergruppenfuhrer General Hans Prutzmann, the highest ranking German SS officer in Ukraine, that “The UPA has halted all attacks on units of the German army. The UPA systematically sends agents, mainly young women, into enemy-occupied territory, and the results of the intelligence are communicated to Department 1c of the [German] Army Group” on the southern Front.[52] By the autumn of 1944, the German press was full of praise for UPA for their Anti-Bolshevik successes, referring to the UPA fighters as "Ukrainian fighters for freedom"[53]


In a debriefing before U.S. authorities in 1948, a Committee of former German commanders on the Eastern front claimed that "the Ukrainian Nationalist movement formed the strongest partisan movement in the East, with the exception of the Russian Communists."[54] Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


UPA and Poles

For more details on this topic, see Wartime Massacres of Poles in Volhynia.

It is claimed that the UPA was active in the ethnic cleansing actions of ethnic Poles from areas of Ukrainian autonomous settlement. The methods used included terrorist acts and mass-murder of Polish civilians. Ehnic cleansing operations of the Polish population began on a large scale in February-March 1943, although these early actions occurred in areas under the control of Taras Bulba-Borovets rather than of the OUN[7] For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... Terrorist redirects here. ... The Massacre of Poles in Volhynia was an ethnic cleansing conducted in Volhynia (Polish: ) during World War II. In the course of it, up to 80,000 Poles are thought to have been massacred by the nationalist Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Ukrainska Povstanska Armiya, or UPA). ...


Soviet partisans in the Rivne region reported that terror actions committed by “nationalists” against the Polish population commenced in April 1943[55]) and lasted until 1944. Professor Władysław Filar from Polish Institute of National Remembrance, an eyewitness to the massacres, claims that it is impossible to establish whether these events were ever planned. Although in August 1943 UPA placed notices in every Polish village stating "in 48 hours leave beyond the Buh or the Sian river - otherwise Death"[7] no known documents exist proving that UPA-OUN made a decision to exterminate Poles in Volhynia.[56] Rivne (Ukrainian: , Russian: , translit. ... Institute of National Remembrance (Polish: ; IPN) is a Polish institution created by the IPN Act in 18 December 1998. ... Bug at Wlodawa One of the two rivers called Bug (pronounced Boog), the Western Bug, or Buh (Belarusian: Захо́дні Буг; Russian: За́падный Буг; Ukrainian: Західний Буг, Zakhidnyi Buh), flows from central Ukraine to the west, forming part of the boundary between that nation and Poland, passes along the Polish-Belarusian...


Ukrainian civilians participated in the violence [7], and large groups of armed "bandit" marauders unaffiliated with the UPA brutalized civilians, serving as a useful propaganda tool for the Soviets .[57] so the exact number of Poles killed specifically by UPA is unknown.


In anti-Polish actions in Galicia it is claimed that the UPA conducted cooperative actions with detachments of regiments of the Waffen-Grenadier-Division der SS (galizische Nr.1) ).[7]. The estimates of the number of Poles murdered in Ukraine range from 100,000 to 500,000;[dubious ][58] many more Poles left the area because of the UPA actions.


The UPA's activities can be seen as a reaction to past policies and actions of the inter-war Polish government, such as shutting down Ukrainian schools and churches or encouraging Polish settlement in the regions considered by OUN to be "ethnically Ukrainian". However, UPA also killed ethnic Ukrainians, those who did not cooperate with them, as well as those Ukrainians who had intermarried.


The UPA actions were matched by similar actions by the Polish Armia Krajowa. The brutal conflict escalated out of control with many thousand of civilians being murdered by both Ukrainian and Polish forces.[59] Speaking of the escalation in violence, a former soldier in a Polish nationalist partisan unit stated Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ...

"The ethnic Ukrainians responded by wiping out an entire Polish colony, setting fire to the houses, killing those inhabitants unable to flee and raping the women who fell into their hands, no matter how old or how young...we retaliated by attacking an even bigger Ukrainian village and... killed women and children. Some of our men were so filled with hatred after losing whole generations of their family in the Ukrainian attacks that they swore they would take an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth...This was how the fighting escalated. Each time more people were killed, more houses burnt, more women raped." [60]

Estimates of the death tolls from the retaliatory actions of the Polish Home Army forces include numbers such as 2,000 Ukrainian civilians [61] or as high as 20 thousand in Volhynia alone.[62] For other meanings of Home Army see: Home Army (disambiguation) The Armia Krajowa or AK (Home Army) functioned as the pre-eminent underground military organization in German-occupied Poland, which functioned in all areas of the country from September 1939 until its disbanding in January 1945. ... Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ...

UPA's war with Soviet Union

Under German occupation

The total number of local Soviet Partisans acting in western Ukraine was never high, due to the region enduring only two years of Soviet rule (some places even less).[63] Only towards the end of the war, in 1944 was the numbers of the Soviet Partisans in Ukraine, and their activity increased. UPA first encountered them in late 1942. The Soviet partisans were members anti-fascist resistance movement which fought against the occupation of the Soviet Union by Axis forces during World War II. At the end of June 1941, immediately after the Germans crossed the Soviet border, the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik) (see...


In early 1943, the Soviet partisan leader Sydir Kovpak established himself and in the summer of 1943, well-armed with supplies delivered to secret airfields formed a group numbering several thousand men [64] which went deep into the Carpathians. Attacks by the German air force and military forced Kovpak to break up his force into smaller units, whose remnants were subsequently harrassed by UPA in the Carpathian mountains, and some destroyed altogether.[33] In 1944, famous Soviet intelligence agent Nikolai Kuznetsov was captured and executed by UPA members, after unwittingly entering their camp while wearing a Wehrmacht officer uniform.[65] Sydor Kovpak Sydir Artemovych Kovpak (Ukrainian: ; Russian: , Sidor Artyomovich Kovpak) (June 7, 1887 – December 11, 1967) was a prominent Soviet partisan leader in Ukraine. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Intelligence (abbreviated or ) is the process and the result of gathering information and analyzing it to answer questions or obtain advance warnings needed to plan for the future. ... Nikolai Kuznetsov Nikolai Ivanovich Kuznetsov (Russian: Николай Иванович Кузнецов) (July 27, 1911–March 9, 1944) (pseudonym - Grachev) was a Soviet intelligence agent and partisan who operated in occupied Ukraine during World War II. Born in a peasant family in Yekaterinburg region. ...


Fighting the Soviet Army (1944-45)

With the occupation of Ukraine by the Red Army, the UPA tried to avoid clashes with the regular units of the Soviet military fearing their offensive action would annihilate them. [66] Instead, the UPA focused its energy on NKVD units and Soviet officials of all levels, from NKVD and military officers to the school teachers and postal workers attempting to establish Soviet administration.[33] Soviet archival data shows that UPA attacks were focussed on small units and groups of Soviet soldiers, often ending with brutal killing of the captured and wounded. The UPA opposed the mobilization of able-bodied men into the Soviet Army through the extermination of whole families of those who joined. The UPA also disrupted Soviet efforts at collectivization. For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ...


In March 1944, UPA insurgents mortally wounded front commander Army General Nikolai Vatutin, who led the liberation of Kiev.[67] Several weeks later an NKVD battalion was annihilated by UPA near Rivne. This began a full-scale operation in the spring of 1944, initally involving 30,000 Soviet troops against UPA in Volyn. Estimates of casualties vary depending on the source. In a letter to the state defense committee of the USSR, Lavrentiy Beria stated that in spring 1944 clashes between Soviet forces and UPA resulted in 2018 killed and 1570 captured UPA fighters and only 11 Soviet killed and 46 wounded. Nikolai Fyodorovich Vatutin (1900 - 1944) was a Soviet marshal. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Rivne (Ukrainian: , Russian: , translit. ... Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (Georgian: ლავრენტი ბერია, Lavrenti Pavles dze Beria; Russian: Лаврентий Павлович Берия; 29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953) was a Soviet politician and chief of the Soviet security and police apparatus. ...


Soviet archives show that a captured UPA member stated that he received a reports about UPA losses of 200 fighters while their Soviet forces lost 2,000.[68]. The first significant sabotage operations against communications of Soviet Army before their offensive against the Germans was conducted by UPA in April-May 1944. Such actions were promptly stopped by Soviet Army and NKVD troops. The OUN/UPA submitted an order to temporarily cease anti-Soviet activities and prepare for further struggle against the Soviets. [69]


Despite heavy casualties on both sides, the struggle was inconclusive. New large scale actions of UPA, especially in Ternopil Oblast, were launched in July-August 1944, when the Red Army advanced West. [70] By the autumn of 1944, UPA forces enjoyed virtual freedom of movement over an area 160,000 kilometers in size and home to over 10 million people and had established a shadow government.[3] Ternopil (Ukrainian: , translit. ...


In November 1944, Khrushchev launched the first of several large-scale Soviet assaults on UPA throughout western Ukraine, involving according to OUN/UPA estimates at least 20 NKVD combat divisions supported by artillery and armored units. They blockaded villages and roads and set forests on fire.[33] Soviet archival data states that on October 9, 1944 1 NKVD Division, eight NKVD brigades, and an NKVD cavalry regiment with the total number of 26, 304 NKVD soldiers stationed in Western Ukraine. In addition, 2 regiments with 1500 and 1200 persons, 1 battalion (517 persons) and three armored trains with 100 additional soldiers each, as well as 1 border guards regiment and 1 unit were starting to relocate there in order to reinforce them.[71] Nikita Khrushchev in 1962 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: Ники́та Серге́евич Хрущёв) (nih-KEE-tah khroo-SHCHYOFF) (April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ...


During late 1944 and the first half of 1945, according to Soviet data, UPA suffered approximately 89,000 killed, approximately 91,000 captured, and approximately 39,000 surrendered while the Soviet forces lost approximately 12,000 "killed or hanged", approximately 6,000 wounded and 2,600 MIA. In addition, during this time, according to Soviet data UPA actions resulted in the killing of 3,919 civilians and disappearance of 427 others.[72] Despite the heavy losses, as late as summer 1945, many battalion-size UPA units still continued to control and administer large areas of territory in western Ukraine.[73] In February 1945 UPA issued an order to liquidate kurins (battalions) and sotnya’s (companies) and to act predominantly by choty’s (platoons). [74] Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols This article is about the military unit. ... Platoon of the German Bundeswehr. ...


Spring 1945- late 1946

For more details on this topic, see Sluzhba Bezbeky.

After the Germany surrendered in May 1945, the Soviet authorities, now gave the insurgencies taking place on its territory in Ukraine, and the Baltics priority. Initially combat units were re-organised. More special forces were routed. One of the major issues was the local support the UPA had from the population, and that became the top issue for the Soviets.


Areas of UPA activity were depopulated, the estimates on numbers vary, officially Soviet archives state that between 1944 and 1952 a total of 182,543 people [14] [75] to 500,000 .[76] Mass arrests of suspected UPA informants or family members were conducted; between February 1944 and May 1946 over 250,000 people were arrested in Western Ukraine .[77] Those arrested typically experienced beatings or other violence. Those suspected of being UPA members underwent extensive torture; reports exist of some prisoners being burned alive. The many arrested women believed to be affiliating with UPA were subjected to months of torture, deprivation, and rape at the hands of Soviet security in order to "break" them and get them to reveal UPA members' identities and locations or to turn them into Soviet double-agents. [78] Mutilated corpses of captured rebels were put on public display.[79]


UPA responded to the Soviet methods by unleashing their own terror against Soviet activists, suspected collaborators and their families, most of whom turned out to be innocent people This work was particularly attributed to the feared Sluzhba Bezbeky (SB), the anti-espionage and punishment wing of UPA. In a typical incident in Lviv region, in front of horrified villagers, UPA troops gouged out the eyes of two entire families suspected of reporting on insurgent movements to Soviet authorities, before hacking their bodies to pieces. Due to public outrage about such acts UPA stopped killing the families of those it deemed collaborators by mid 1945. Other victims of UPA included Soviet civilian activists sent to Galicia from other parts of the Soviet Union, who were often forced to recite anti-Stalinist slogans before being brutally executed in public; heads of village Soviets, those sheltering or feeding Red Army personnel, and even people turning food in to collective farms. The effect of such terror was such that people refused to take posts as village heads, and until the late 1940's villages chose single men with no dependants as their leaders.[80]


Initially the UPA proved to be especially adept at assassinating key Soviet administrative officials. According to NKVD data, between February 1944 and December 1946 11,725 Soviet officers, agents and collaborators were assassinated and 2,401 were "missing", presumed kidnapped, in Western Ukraine [81]. In one county in Lviv region alone, from August 1944 until January 1945 Ukrainian rebels killed ten members of the Soviet activ and a secretary of the county Communist party, and kidnapped four other officials. UPA travelled at will throughout the area. In this county, there were no courts, no prosecutor's office, and the local NKVD only had three staff members. [82] According to a 1946 report by Khrushchenv's deputy for West Ukrainian affairs A.A. Stoiantsev, out of 42,175 operations and ambushes against UPA by Destructive Battalions in Western UKraine, only 10 percent had positive results - in the vast majority there was either no contact or the individual unit was disarmed and pro-Soviet leaders murdered or kidnapped. [83] Morale amongst the NKVD in Western Ukraine was particularly low. Even within the dangerous context of of Soviet state service in the late-Stalin era, West Ukraine was considered to be a "hardship post", and personnel files reveal higher rates of transfer requests, alcoholism, and nervous breakdowns and refusal to serve among NKVD field agents there at that time. [84] A raion (or rayon) (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Belarusian раён; Azeri: rayon, Latvian: rajons, Georgian: , raioni) is one of two kinds of administrative subdivisions in languages of some post-Soviet states: a subnational entity and a subdivision of a city. ... Lviv Oblast is an oblast of western Ukraine, created on December 4, 1939. ...


The first success of the Soviet authorities came in early 1946 in the Carpathians, which were blockaded from January 11 until April 10. Afterwards the UPA operating there ceased to exist as a combat unit.[85] The continuous heavy casualties elsewhere forced the UPA to split into small units consisting of 100 soldiers. Many of the troops demobilized and returned home, and the Soviet union offered three amnesties during 1947-1948 [66]


For this reason, by 1946, UPA was reduced to a core group of 5-10 thousand fighters, and large-scale UPA activity shifted to the Soviet-Polish border. Here, in 1947, they allegedly killed the Polish Communist deputy defense minister General Karol Świerczewski. In spring 1946, the OUN/UPA established contacts with the Intelligence services of France, Great Britain and the USA.[86] Although the UPA obtained some help from the CIA and British intelligence during the latter phase of its struggle, the operation was betrayed by Kim Philby. After the huge winter 1945/46 operation by the NKVD, UPA/OUN fielded 479 units and had 3,735 fighters, according to an NKVD estimate from April 1, 1946. By January 1, 1947 MGB estimated OUN and UPA as having 530 fighting units with 4,456 fighters. Karol Åšwierczewski, Marian Spychalski and Michal Rola-Zymierski Karol Åšwierczewski, (callsign Walter) (22 February 1897 in Warsaw – 28 March 1947 at JabÅ‚onki near Baligród) was a military officer, general in service of Poland, Russia and Spain and a communist activist. ... Kim Philby Harold Adrian Russell Kim Philby or H.A.R. Philby (OBE: 1946-1965), (1 January 1912 – 11 May 1988) was a high-ranking member of British intelligence, a communist, and spy for the Soviet Unions NKVD and KGB. In 1963, Philby was revealed as a member of...

UPA fighters in Rivne Oblast, in 1947

The end of the UPA (1947-1955)

The turning point in the struggle against UPA did not come until 1947, when the Soviets were able to establish their own spy network within UPA and when they shifted their struggle from one of mass terror to one of infiltration and espionage. On May 30, 1947 Shukhevych issued instructions joining the OUN and UPA in underground warfare [15]. Only in 1947-1948 was UPA resistance broken enough to allow the Soviets to implement large-scale collectivization throughout western Ukraine.[3] On September 3, 1949 Shukhevych issued an order, liquidating UPA units and headquarters and integrating UPA's personnel in the OUN (B) underground. By 1948, the Soviet central authorities purged local officials who had mistreated peasants and engaged in "vicious methods". At the same time, Soviet agents planted within UPA had taken their toll on morale and on UPA's effectiveness. According to the writing of one slain Ukrainian rebel, "the Bolsheviks try to take us from within...you can never know directly in whose hands you will find yourself. From such a network of spies, the work of whole teams is often penetrated..." In November 1948, the work of Soviet agents led to two important victories against UPA: the defeat and deaths of the heads of the most active UPA network in Western Ukraine, and the annhialiation of "Myron", the head of the UPA's counterintelligence SB unit. [87] Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ...


Simultanously the Soviet authorities tried to win over the local population by investing largely into the Western Ukraine, and also setting up a quick dispatch groups in many regions to quickly combat UPA. According to one retired MVD major, by 1948 idiologically we had the support of most population. [66] Also the Soviets skilfully exploited Polish-Ukrainian ethnic hatred by using Poles as informants, and to help isolate the UPA helped the Polish government to carry out Operation Wisła in 1947. Tablet inscription in Polish (left) and Ukrainian: In memory of those expelled from Lemkivshchyna, on the 50th anniversary of Operation WisÅ‚a, 1947-1997. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Thus after 1947 UPA's activity began to die down. UPA's leader, Roman Shukhevych, was killed in an ambush near Lviv on March 5, 1950. Although sporadic UPA activity continued until the mid 1950's, after Shukhevich's assassination UPA rapidly lost its fighting capability. An assessment of UPA's manpower by Soviet authorities in April 17, 1952 indicated that UPA/OUN had only 84 fighting units consisting of 252 persons. UPA's last commander, Vasyl Kuk, was captured on May, 24 1954. Despite the existence of some insurgent groups, according to a report by the MGB of the Ukrainian SSR, the "liquidation of armed units and OUN underground was accomplished at the beginning of 1956". [16]. Roman Shukhevych (Ukrainian: ; also known by his pseudonym Taras Chuprynka) (b. ... “Lvov” redirects here. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A controversy exists that there were NKVD units dressed as UPA fighters[88] and committed atrocities in order to demoralize the civilian population.[89]; among these NKVD units were those composed of former UPA fighters working for the NKVD.[90]The Security Service of Ukraine (SBU) recently published information about 150 such special groups consisting of 1,800 people operated until 1954. [91] One famous example of an ex-UPA turned MVD fighter was Bohdan Stashynsky who would then climb the ladder of MGB (and later KGB) hierarchy to become a foreign agent who assassinated the OUN chief Lev Rebet in 1957 and ultimately Stepan Bandera himself in 1959. In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Stepan Andriyovych Bandera (January 1, 1909–October 15, 1959) was a Ukrainian nationalist leader who headed the Ukrainian Nationalist Organisation (OUN). ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Prominent people killed by the UPA insurgents during the anti-Soviet struggle included Metropolitan Oleksiy (Hromadsky) of the Ukrainian Autonomous Orthodox Church and pro-Soviet writer Yaroslav Halan who was hacked dead by an ax. [66] The Ukrainian Autonomous Orthodox Church (Ukrainian: ) was a short-lived Ukrainian Church that existed during the times when Ukraine was occupied by Nazi Germany in the Second World War. ...


In 1951 CIA covert operations chief Frank Wisner estimated that some 35,000 Soviet police troops and Communist party cadres had been eliminated by guerrillas connected with the Ukrainian Insurgent Army after the end of World War II.[92] Official Soviet figures for the losses inflicted by all types of "Ukrainian nationalists" during the period 1944-1953 referred to 30,676 persons; amongst them were 687 NKGB-MGB personnel, 1,864 NKVD-MVD personnel, 3,199 Soviet Army, Border Guards, and NKVD-MVD troops, 241 communist party leaders, 205 komsomol leaders and 2,590 members of self-defense units. According to Soviet data the remaining losses were among civilians, including 15,355 peasants and kolkhozniks.[93] Soviet archives state that between February 1944 and January 1946 the Soviet forces conducted 39,778 operations against UPA, during which they killed a total of 103,313, captured a total of 8,370 OUN members and captured a total of 15,959 active insurgents.[94] Frank Gardiner Wisner (1910 – October 29, 1965) was the head of the Directorate of Plans of the Central Intelligence Agency. ...


The armaments of the UPA

For the most part, the UPA used primarily light infantry weapons of those armies that it fought, mostly Soviet and German. Trophy weapons were the basic source for the insurgent arsenals. In 1943-44 during large-scale operations, insurgent forces also used heavy artillery and sometimes even tanks. However, insurgents used heavy technology more as a means of propaganda of their military might, rather than as an actual means of conducting battles, so the light infantry weapon remained the basic weapon used by the UPA[95].


Women in the UPA

The all-national character of the liberation struggle of Ukrainian insurgents is confirmed by the large scale participation of women. Ukrainian women were amongst the first to assist UPA soldiers, providing them with food, clothing and shelter. For this, hundreds of thousands of Ukrainian women were arrested as "bandit supporters" and were deported or killed. However, many were active members. In 1943-44 there was an autonomous women's network. Certain aspects of insurgent activity depended mainly on women. Most couriers and messengers, medical personnel, workers in the underground printing establishments, and were also active as intelligence agents. Some women occupied high posts in the underground. Kalyna Lukan - "Halyna" was the leader of the Kosiv nadryon leadership, Iryna Tymochko "Khrytsia" supervise the Verkhovyna nadryon in Lemkivshchyna, Daria Rebet was a member of the OUN Leadership and a member of th presidium of the underground parliament[96]. Lemkivshchyna, sometimes called Lemkovyna, Lemkivshchyna, or Łemkowszczyzna, is the land of the Lemkos (Lemki) includes the higher elevations of the Carpathians of modern-day Poland, extending to around the Poprad River to the west, and extending to the east as far as the region around Sanok, where it meets the...


Publishing activity of the UPA

One of the more important aspects of the Ukrainian national liberation movement was its publishing activity. Its main directions were: the publication of propaganda-ideological materials, textbooks, works of military-theoretical character, periodicals and literary works. The earliest leaflets appeared in 1943 and were a way in which the Ukrainian movement waged war against the enemy. The most renown publicists of the time were Petro Fedun "Poltava", Osyp Diakiv "Hornovy", Dmyro Mayivsky "Petro Duma". In their works they concentrated on the principles of the Ukrainian national liberation struggle, the geopolitical situation in Europe and the world in connection with the Ukrainian question, problems of national transformations in the USSR and socialist satellites.


UPA periodicals contained ideological articles, informational reports and decrees, interesting facts from Ukrainian history and training materials as well as prose and poetry of Ukrainian underground members.


Over 130 periodicals appeared, 500 brochures, dozens of training manuals, memoirs, poetic collections, thousands of leaflets, appeals and responses were published[97].


UPA and Soviet infiltration

From the beginning of 1944, the Soviets waged an active war against the UPA launching a large-scale assault against the Ukrainian underground in several directions, propaganda among the population; military operations; repression against members and their families. Soviet anti-insurgent propaganda was concentrated on discrediting and dividing the national liberation movement. Soviet propaganda emphasised their thesis on the treason and crimes of "Ukrainian-German nationalists" and their collaboration with "fascist invaders".


From 1944 through the 1950's initially frontal sections of the Red Army and SMERSH were directed against the UPA. Later the function of fighting the UPA fell to the NKVD. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In 1944-1945 the NKVD carried out 26,693 operations against the Ukrainian underground. These resulted in the deaths of 22.474 Ukrainian soldiers and the capture of 62,142 prisoners. During this time the NKVD formed special groups known as spetshrupy made up of former Soviet partisans. The goal of these groups was to discredit the and disorganize the OUN and UPA. In August 1944 Sydir Kovpak was placed under NKVD authority. Posing as Ukrainian insurgents these special formations used violence against the civilian population of Western Ukraine. In Jun 1945 there were 156 such special groups with 1783 members[98].


The Soviets used"extermination battalions" (strybky) recruiting secret collaborators in each population point. Attempts were made to place agents at all leading levels of the OUN and UPA.


From December 1945-1946 15,562 operations were carried out in which 4,200 were killed and more than 9,400 were arrested. From 1944-1953,the Soviets killed 153,000 and arrested 134,000 members of the UPA. 66,000 Families (204,000 people) were forcibly deported to Siberia and half a million people were subject to repressions. In the same period Polish authorities deported 450,000 people[99].


UPA's relationships with Western Ukraine's Jews

In contrast to the well established links between UPA and atrocities committed on Polish civilians, there is a lack of consensus among historians about the involvement of UPA in the massacre of western Ukraine's Jews. Numerous accounts ascribe to UPA a role in the tragic fate of the Ukrainian Jews under the German occupation.[100][101] Some historians, however, do not support the claims that UPA was involved in anti-Jewish massacres.[73][102] [103]


Prior to the formation of UPA, in 1941-1942, the political organization from which it was formed, the OUN, made numerous violently antisemitic statements. For example, in instructions to its members concerning how the OUN should behave during the war, it declared that "in times of chaos...one can allow oneself to liquidate Polish, Russian and Jewish figures, particularly the servants of Bolshevik-Muscovite imperialism" and further, when speaking of Russians, Poles, and Jews, to "destroy in the struggle, especially those, who defend the [Soviet] regime: send them to their lands, destroy them especially the intelligentsia...assimilation of the Jews is ruled out." [104] Nevertheless, some Jews were protected by the OUN. According to a report to the Chief of the Security Police in Berlin dated March 30, 1942, "...it has been clearly established that the Bandera movement provided forged passports not only for its own members, but also for Jews." [105] Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists or OUN (Ukrainian: or ОУН) was a Ukrainian political movement originally created in the interwar Poland. ...



By early 1943 the OUN had entered into open armed conflict with Nazi Germany. In 1944, the OUN formally "rejected racial and ethnic exclusivity"[73] Despite the allegations of UPA's involvement in the killing of Jews and earlier anti-Jewish statements by the OUN, there were cases of Jewish participation within the ranks of UPA, some of whom held high positions. Jewish participation included fighters [106] but was particularly visible among its medical personnel. These included Dr. Margosh, who headed UPA-West's medical service, Dr. Marksymovich, who was the Chief Physician of the UPA's officer school, and Dr. Abraham Kum, the director of an underground hospital in the Carpathians. One Ukrainian historian has claimed that almost every UPA unit included Jewish support personnel. The latter individual was the recipient of UPA's Golden Cross of Merit. Isolated reports of the Jewish families being sheltered by UPA have also surfaced. [107] UPA's cooperation with Jews was extensive enough that, according to former head of the Office to Counter Soviet Disinformation at the USIA, some Soviet propoganda works complained about Zionists "closely cooperating with" Bandera ringleaders. [108] One can conclude that the relationship between UPA and Western Ukraine's Jews was complex and not one-sided. The United States Information Agency (USIA), which existed from 1953 to 1999, was a United States agency devoted to what it called public diplomacy. ...


Aftermath

Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and other UPA graves in the Ukrainian Orthodox Cemetary in South Bound Brook, New Jersey.
Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and other UPA graves in the Ukrainian Orthodox Cemetary in South Bound Brook, New Jersey.


According to Columbia University professor John Armstrong "If one takes into account the duration, geographical extent, and intensity of activity, the UPA very probably is the most important example of forceful resistance to an established Communist regime prior to the decade of fierce Afghan resistance beginning in 1979...the Hungarian revolution of 1956 was, of course, far more important, involving to some degree a population of nine million...however it lasted only a few weeks. In contrast, the more-or-less effective anti-Communist activity of the Ukrainian resistance forces lasted from mid-1944 until 1950."[109]. The Ukrainian Orthodox Church in the USA (UOC of USA) is a jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate in the United States. ... Map of South Bound Brook in Somerset County South Bound Brook is a Borough in Somerset County, New Jersey, United States. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ...


During the following years the UPA was officially taboo by Soviet Union, and mentioned only as a terrorist organization. After Ukraine gained independence in 1991, there have been heated debates to give former UPA members an official recognition as legitimate combatants, with the accompanying pensions and benefits due to war veterans. They have also striven to hold parades and commemorations of their own, especially in Western Ukraine. This, in turn, led to opposition from the Ukrainian veterans of the Soviet Army and many Ukrainian politicians particularly in the south and east of the country. Many governments such as Russia and Poland have negatively reacted to this. Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ...


So far the attempts to reconcile the two groups of veterans have made little progress. An attempt to hold a joint parade in Kiev in May, 2005, to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the end of World War II, proved unsuccessful. The assessment of the historical role of UPA remains a controversial issue in Ukrainian society, although Ukrainian president Viktor Yushchenko joined several public Ukrainian organizations in calls for reconciliation, pensions, and other benefits for UPA veterans that would equate them in status with the veterans of the Soviet Army, and aid the understanding of their role in the chaotic times of UPA operations. In 2007, president Yushchenko awarded the title "Hero of Ukraine", the country's highest honour to UPA leader Roman Shukhevych. Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Mariyinsky Palace The President of Ukraine (Ukrainian: , Prezydent Ukrayiny) is the head of the state of Ukraine and acts in its name. ... Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Ukrainian:  ) (born February 23, 1954) is the current President of Ukraine. ... This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ... Hero of Ukraine (Ukrainian: , transliteration: Heroy Ukrayiny; Russian: ) is the highest state decoration that can be conferred upon an individual citizen by the Government of Ukraine. ... Roman Shukhevych (Ukrainian: ; also known by his pseudonym Taras Chuprynka) (b. ...

Former UPA and UNA members with Plast Scout Organization pose for photos shortly after the Anniversary of the UPA ceremony in Berezhany, Ukraine
Former UPA and UNA members with Plast Scout Organization pose for photos shortly after the Anniversary of the UPA ceremony in Berezhany, Ukraine

Recently, attempts to reconcile former Armia Krajowa and UPA soldiers have been made by both the Ukrainian and Polish sides. Individual former members UPA have expressed their readiness for mutual apology.[citation needed] Some of the past soldiers of both organisations have met and asked for forgiveness for the past misdeeds.[17] Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ...


Restoration of graves and cemeteries in Poland, where fallen UPA soldiers were placed have been agreed to by the Polish side.[18]


In late 2006 the Lviv city administration announced the future transference of the tombs of Stepan Bandera, Yevhen Konovalets, Andriy Melnyk and other key leaders of OUN/UPA to a new area of Lychakivskiy Cemetery specifically dedicated to Ukrainian nationalists.[19] “Lvov” redirects here. ... Stepan Andriyovych Bandera (January 1, 1909–October 15, 1959) was a Ukrainian nationalist leader who headed the Ukrainian Nationalist Organisation (OUN). ... Yevhen Konovalets (b. ... Andrii Melnyk Andrii Melnyk or Andrij Melnik (Ukrainian: Андрій Мельник) (December 12, 1890-November 1, 1964), Ukrainian military and political leader. ... Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists or OUN (Ukrainian: or ОУН) was a Ukrainian political movement originally created in the interwar Poland. ... Lychakivskiy Cemetery, 2003. ...

Monument to the Victims of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, Simferopol, Ukraine
Monument to the Victims of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, Simferopol, Ukraine

Without waiting for official Kiev notice, many regional authorities have already decided to approach the UPA history on their own. In many western cities and villages monuments, memorials and plaques to the leaders and troops of the UPA have sprung up, including the statue of Stepan Bandera himself which opened in October 2007. In response to this, many eastern provinces responded with opening of memorials to their victims, the first one of which opened in Simferopol, Crimea in September 2007. [110] Simferopol (English pronunciation: /ËŒsɪm. ... Simferopol (English pronunciation: /ËŒsɪm. ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ...


On January 10, 2008 Viktor Yushchenko, Presidents of Ukraine submitted a draft law "On the Official Status of Fighters for Ukraine’s Independence in 20s-90s of the 20th century". Under the draft, persons who took part in political, guerrilla, underground and combat activities for the freedom and independence of Ukraine from 1920 -1990 as part of the:

  • Ukrainian Military Organization (UVO)
  • Karpatska Sich
  • OUN
  • UPA
  • Ukrainian Main Liberation Army,

as well as persons who assisted these organizations shall be recognized as war veterans. [111]


In 2007, the Security Service of Ukraine (SBU) set up a special working group to study archive documents of the activity of the Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) and Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) in order to make public original sources. This will help to determine what is the "truth" and what is "fabrication". [112]


See also

SS-Division Galizien (Ukrainian: ), 14. ... For other uses, see Galicia. ... Tablet inscription in Polish (left) and Ukrainian: In memory of those expelled from Lemkivshchyna, on the 50th anniversary of Operation Wisła, 1947-1997. ... The Ukrainian Military Organization (Ukrainian: , UVO) was an Ukrainian resistance and sabotage movement active in Polands Eastern Lesser Poland during the years between the world wars. ...

Footnotes

References

  1. ^ Subtelny, p. 474 Subtelny, Orest (1988). Ukraine: A History (in English). Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 800. ISBN 0802083900. 
  2. ^ Institute of Ukrainian History, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, Chapter 4, p. 180
  3. ^ a b c d e f [http://yurizhukov.com/doc/070900_Zhukov_UPA_Final.pdf Yuri Zhukov, "Examining the Authoritarian Model of Counter-insurgency: The Soviet Campaign Against the Ukrainian Insurgent Army", Small Wars and Insurgencies, v.18, no. 3, pp.439-466]
  4. ^ a b c Institute of Ukrainian History, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, Chapter 12, p. 169
  5. ^ Пастка для «Щура» 4 листопада одному з засновників УПА Дмитрові Клячківському виповнилося 95 років in Ukrainian-Russian "Zerkalo Nedeli" Magazine
  6. ^ Institute of Ukrainian History, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, Chapter 12, p. 172
  7. ^ a b c d e Institute of Ukrainian History, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, Chapter 14, p. 188
  8. ^ a b Magoscy, R. (1996). A History of Ukraine. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 
  9. ^ Petro Sodol - Ukrainian Insurgent Army 1943-1949. Handbook. New – York 1994 p.28
  10. ^ Institute of Ukrainian History, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army Chapter 1 p.69
  11. ^ Institute of Ukrainian History, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army Chapter 2 P.92
  12. ^ InfoUkes: Ukrainian History - World War II in Ukraine
  13. ^ Institute of Ukrainian History, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army Chapter 2 P.95-97.
  14. ^ Banderivtsi Nationalistic Portal (Бандерівці ідуть! in Націоналістичний портал) (Ukrainian)
  15. ^ Institute of Ukrainian History, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army Chapter 1,2,3
  16. ^ [1] p.164
  17. ^ [2] p.181
  18. ^ [3] p.165
  19. ^ [4] Chronicles of UPA
  20. ^ Encyclopedia of Ukraine on-line, Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, University of Alberta
  21. ^ Toynbee, T.R.V. (1954). Survey of International Affairs: Hitler's Europe 1939-1945. Oxford: Oxford University Press, (page # missing). 
  22. ^ Yuriy Tys-Krokhmaluk, UPA Warfare in Ukraine. New York, N.Y. Society of Veterans of Ukrainian Insurgent Army Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 72-80823 P.232
  23. ^ Debriefing of General Kostring Department of the Army, 3 November 1948, MSC - 035, cited in Sodol, Petro R., 1987, UPA: They Fought Hitler and Stalin, New York: Committee for the World Convention and Reunion of Soldiers in the UIA, pg. 58.
  24. ^ Yuriy Tys- Krokhmaluk, UPA Warfare in Ukraine. New York, N.Y. Society of Veterans of Ukrainian Insurgent Army Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 72-80823 P.58-59
  25. ^ Wegner, B. (1990). The Waffen-SS. Padstow: TJ Press.
  26. ^ Williamson, G., & Andrew, S. (2004a). The Waffen-SS (2): 6 to 10 Divisions. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.
  27. ^ Williamson, G., & Andrew, S. (2004b). The Waffen-SS (3): 11 to 23 Divisions. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.
  28. ^ Ivan Bilas. Repressive-punishment system in Ukraine. 1917-1953 Vol.2 Kyiv Lybid-Viysko Ukrainy, 1994 ISBN 5-325-00599-5 p, 384 p.391
  29. ^ James K. Anderson, Unknown Soldiers of an Unknown Army, Army Magazine, May 1968, p. 63
  30. ^ Yuriy Tys- Krokhmaluk, UPA Warfare in Ukraine. New York, N.Y. Society of Veterans of Ukrainian Insurgent Army Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 72-80823 p.238-239
  31. ^ Krokhmaluk, Y. (1973). UPA Warfare in Ukraine. New York: Vantage Press, p. 242. 
  32. ^ P.Mirchuk “Ukrainian Insurgent Army 1942-1952” –Munich; 1953 p.41-42
  33. ^ a b c d Krokhmaluk, Y. (1973). UPA Warfare in Ukraine. New York: Vantage Press, (page 242). 
  34. ^ Yuriy Tys- Krokhmaluk, UPA Warfare in Ukraine. New York, N.Y. Society of Veterans of Ukrainian Insurgent Army Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 72-80823 p.140-142
  35. ^ Yuriy Tys- Krokhmaluk, UPA Warfare in Ukraine. New York, N.Y. Society of Veterans of Ukrainian Insurgent Army Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 72-80823 p.242-243
  36. ^ Ukrainian Institute of Military History, Ukrainian Insurgent Army and Military Formations of the OUN During the Second World War, Ivan Mukovsky, Oleksander Lysenko, #5-6, 2002
  37. ^ Institute of Ukrainian History, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, Chapter 14, p. 186
  38. ^ L. Shankovskyy (1953). History of Ukrainian Army (Історія українського війська), p.32. 
  39. ^ Yuriy Tys- Krokhmaluk, UPA Warfare in Ukraine. New York, N.Y. Society of Veterans of Ukrainian Insurgent Army Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 72-80823 P.67
  40. ^ Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, Chapter 4, p. 180
  41. ^ p.190-194
  42. ^ Institute of Ukrainian History, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, Chapter 14
  43. ^ Yuriy Tys- Krokhmaluk, UPA Warfare in Ukraine. New York, N.Y. Society of Veterans of Ukrainian Insurgent Army Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 72-80823 P.69-73
  44. ^ Wegner, B. (1990). The Waffen-SS. Padstow: TJ Press.
  45. ^ Williamson, G., & Andrew, S. (2004a). The Waffen-SS (2): 6 to 10 Divisions. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.
  46. ^ Williamson, G., & Andrew, S. (2004b). The Waffen-SS (3): 11 to 23 Divisions. Oxford: Osprey Publishing.
  47. ^ Tieke, W. (1999). In the Firestorm of the Last Years of the War: II SS-Panzerkorps with the 9 and 10 SS-Divisions "Hohenstaufen" and Frundsberg". Winnipeg: JJ Fedorowicz Publishing
  48. ^ p.192
  49. ^ Yaroslav Hrytsak, "History of Ukraine 1772-1999"
  50. ^ p.196
  51. ^ Institute of Ukrainian History, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, Chapter 14, pg. 197
  52. ^ http://www.history.neu.edu/fac/burds/Gender.pdf
  53. ^ Martovych O. The Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA). – Munchen, 1950 p.20
  54. ^ (1950) Russian Combat Methods in World War II. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 111. 
  55. ^ Ivan Bilas. Repressive-punishment system in Ukraine. 1917-1953 Vol.2 Kyiv Lybid-Viysko Ukrainy, 1994 ISBN 5-325-00599-5 p.391
  56. ^ Antypolskie akcje nacjonalistów ukraińskich
  57. ^ Jeffrey Burds (1997). "Agentura: Soviet Informants' Networks & the Ukrainian Underground in Galicia, 1944-48", East European Politics and Societies v.11 p 96
  58. ^ Norman Davies. (1996). Europe: a History. Oxford: Oxford University Press
  59. ^ Subtelny, p. 475
  60. ^ on Chapter Ethnicity, Memory, and Violence: Reflections on Special Problems in Soviet and East European Archives, by Jeffrey Burds, 2005, in Archives, Documentation, and the Institutions of Social Memory: Essays from the Sawyer Seminar, Francis X. BLouin and William G. Rosenberg, eds. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press.
  61. ^ J. Turowski, Pożoga. Walki 27 Wołyńskiej dywizji AK, Warszawa 1990, p. 513
  62. ^ Analysis: Ukraine, Poland Seek Reconciliation Over Grisly History, Jan Maksymiuk, RFE/RL, May 12, 2006
  63. ^ Partisan Movement in Ukraine [5]
  64. ^ Subtelny, p. 476
  65. ^ Ihor Sundiukov, "The Other Side of the Legend: Nikolai Kuznetsov Revisited", 24 Jan. 2006. Retrieved on 18 December 2007.
  66. ^ a b c d Vladimir Perekrest, former NKVD officer, Source: FSB.ru [6]
  67. ^ Grenkevich, L., translated by David Glantz. (1999). The Soviet Partisan Movement, 1941-1944: Critical analysis of. Routledge, 134. 
  68. ^ Institute of Ukrainian History, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, Chapter 15, p. 213-214
  69. ^ Ivan Bilas. Repressive-punishment system in Ukraine. 1917-1953 Vol.2 Kiev Lybid-Viysko Ukrainy, 1994 ISBN 5-325-00599-5 pp.549-570
  70. ^ Ivan Bilas. Repressive-punishment system in Ukraine. 1917-1953 Vol.2 Kiev Lybid-Viysko Ukrainy, 1994 ISBN 5-325-00599-5 pp.549-570
  71. ^ According to Soviet archives, the NKVD units located in Western Ukraine were: the 9th Rifle division; 16, 20, 21, 25, 17, 18, 19, 23rd brigades; 1 cavalry regiment. Sent to reinforce them: 256, 192nd regiments; 1 battalion three armored trains (45, 26, 42). The 42nd border guard regiment and another unit (27th) were sent to reinforce them. From Ivan Bilas. Repressive-punishment system in Ukraine. 1917-1953 Vol.2 Kiev Lybid-Viysko Ukrainy, 1994 ISBN 5-325-00599-5 P.478-482
  72. ^ Exact statistics of UPA casualties by the Soviets and Soviet casualties by UPA, in specific time periods, according to data compiled by the NKVD of the Ukrainian SRR: during February - December 1944 “OUN –bandits” suffered the following casualties: 57,405 killed; 50,387 captured; 15,990 surrendered. During the period from January 1, 1945 until May 1,1945 the following casualties were reported: 31,157 killed; 40,760 captured; 23,156 surrendered. “OUN –bandits'” actions numbered 2,903 in 1944, and from January 1, 1945 until May 1, 1945 - 1,289. During February until December 1944 Soviet losses were: 9,521 "killed and hanged"; 3,494 wounded; 2,131 MIA; amongst them NKVD-NKGB suffered 401 killed and hanged, 227 wounded, 98 MIA and captured. From January 1, 1945 until May 1, 1945 the NKVD and Soviet Army troops suffered 2,513 killed, 2,489 wounded, 524 MIA and captured. Soviet Authorities personnel suffered 1,225 killed or hanged, 239 wounded, 427 MIA or captured. In addition, 3,919 civilians were killed or hanged, 320 wounded, and 814 MIA or captured. From Ivan Bilas. Repressive-punishment system in Ukraine. 1917-1953 Vol.2 Kiev Lybid-Viysko Ukrainy, 1994 ISBN 5-325-00599-5 pp.604-605
  73. ^ a b c Orest Subtelny, Ukraine: a history, pp. 489, University of Toronto Press, 2000, ISBN 0-8020-8390-0
  74. ^ Institute of Ukrainian History, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army [7]
  75. ^ Theses include deported (1944-47): families of OUN/UPA members–– 15,040 families (37,145) persons; OUN/UPA underground families – 26,332 (77,791 persons) taken from: Ivan Bilas. Repressive-punishment system in Ukraine. 1917-1953 Vol.2 Kiev Lybid-Viysko Ukrainy, 1994 ISBN 5-325-00599-5 P.545-546
  76. ^ Subtelny, p. 489
  77. ^ Jeffrey Burds (1997). "Agentura: Soviet Informants' Networks & the Ukrainian Underground in Galicia, 1944-48", East European Politics and Societies v.11 pg. 97
  78. ^ http://www.history.neu.edu/fac/burds/Gender.pdf
  79. ^ Jeffrey Burds (1997). "Agentura: Soviet Informants' Networks & the Ukrainian Underground in Galicia, 1944-48", East European Politics and Societies v.11 .
  80. ^ Jeffrey Burds (1997). "Agentura: Soviet Informants' Networks & the Ukrainian Underground in Galicia, 1944-48", East European Politics and Societies v.11 pp. 106 - 110
  81. ^ Jeffrey Burds (1997). "Agentura: Soviet Informants' Networks & the Ukrainian Underground in Galicia, 1944-48", East European Politics and Societies v.11 pp. 113-114
  82. ^ Jeffrey Burds (1997). "Agentura: Soviet Informants' Networks & the Ukrainian Underground in Galicia, 1944-48", East European Politics and Societies v.11 pp. 113-114
  83. ^ Jeffrey Burds (1997). "Agentura: Soviet Informants' Networks & the Ukrainian Underground in Galicia, 1944-48", East European Politics and Societies v.11 pg. 123
  84. ^ Jeffrey Burds (1997). "Agentura: Soviet Informants' Networks & the Ukrainian Underground in Galicia, 1944-48", East European Politics and Societies v.11 pg. 120
  85. ^ Institute of Ukrainian History, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army [8]
  86. ^ Institute of Ukrainian History, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army [9]
  87. ^ Jeffrey Burds (1997). "Agentura: Soviet Informants' Networks & the Ukrainian Underground in Galicia, 1944-48", East European Politics and Societies v.11 pp. 125-130
  88. ^ Wilson, A. (2005). Virtual Politics: Faking Democracy in the Post-Soviet World. New Haven: Yale University Press, 15. 
  89. ^ Ukrainian Weekly, July 28, 2002, written by Dr. Taras Kuzio
  90. ^ Ivan Bilas. Repressive-punishment system in Ukraine. 1917-1953 Vol.2 Kyiv Lybid-Viysko Ukrainy, 1994 ISBN 5-325-00599-5 P 460-464, 470-477
  91. ^ Ukranian News
  92. ^ Simpson, Christopher (1988). "Guerrillas for World War III", - America's recruitment of Nazis, and its disastrous effect on our domestic and foreign policy. Collier Books / Macmillan, 148. ISBN 978-0020449959. 
  93. ^ http://history.org.ua/oun_upa/upa/24.pdf p.439
  94. ^ Institute of Ukrainian History, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, Chapter 21, pp. 385-386 [10]
  95. ^ (Ukrainian) Українська Повстанська Армія - Історія нескорених - Львів, 2007 p.203
  96. ^ (Ukrainian) Українська Повстанська Армія - Історія нескорених - Львів, 2007 p.211
  97. ^ (Ukrainian) Українська Повстанська Армія - Історія нескорених - Львів, 2007 p.227
  98. ^ (Ukrainian) Українська Повстанська Армія - Історія нескорених - Львів, 2007 p.307-310
  99. ^ (Ukrainian) Українська Повстанська Армія - Історія нескорених - Львів, 2007 p.307-310
  100. ^ Ukrainian Insurgent Army in the Encyclopaedia of the Holocaust, Israel Gutman, editor-in-chief. New York: Macmillan, 1990. 4 volumes. ISBN 0-02-896090-4.
  101. ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski, Ukrainian Collaboration in Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide in the Second Republic, 1918–1947 pp. 220–59, McFarland & Company, 1998, ISBN 0-7864-0371-3
  102. ^ Himka, John-Paul. "War Criminality: A Blank Spot in the Collective Memory of the Ukrainian Diaspora". Spaces of Identity 5 (1): 5-24. 
  103. ^ Institute of History, Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, "Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and Ukrainian Insurgent Army
  104. ^ Institute of Ukrainian History, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army, Chapter 2, pp.62-63
  105. ^ Divide and Conquer: the KGB Disinformation Campaign Against Ukrainians and Jews. Ukrainian Quarterly, Fall 2004. By Herbert Romerstein
  106. ^ Leo Heiman, "We Fought for Ukraine - The Story of Jews Within UPA", Ukrainian Quarterly Spring 1964, pp.33-44.
  107. ^ Friedman, P.. "Ukrainian-Jewish Relations During the Nazi Occupation, YIVO Annual of Jewish Social Science v. 12, pp. 259–96, 1958–59". 
  108. ^ Divide and Conquer: the KGB Disinformation Campaign Against Ukrainians and Jews. Ukrainian Quarterly, Fall 2004. By Herbert Romerstein
  109. ^ John Armstrong, Ukrainian Nationalism, 3rd edition. Englewood, Colorado: Ukrainian Academic Press, 1990. ISBN: 0872877558 (2nd edition: New York: Columbia University Press, 1963)
  110. ^ Lenta.ru В Крыму открыт монумент жертвам бандеровцев 14.September 2007. Retrived 2nd April 2008.
  111. ^ Yushchenko pushes for official recognition of OUN-UPA combatants
  112. ^ SBU to study archive documents on activity of Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists / News / NRCU

Orest Subtelny - Ukrainian historian, professor at Department of History and Political Science, York University. ... The University of Alberta (U of A) is a public coeducational research university located in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. ... Orest Subtelny - Ukrainian historian, professor at Department of History and Political Science, York University. ... David Bryant Mumford (born 11 June 1937) is an American mathematician known for distinguished work in algebraic geometry, and then for research into vision and pattern theory. ... Collier Books was a publisher established by the Collier family. ... Macmillan Publishers Ltd, also known as The Macmillan Group, is a privately-held international publishing company owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. ... The Encyclopaedia of the Holocaust was published in 1990, in tandem Hebrew and English editions, by Yad Vashem, the Israeli Holocaust Memorial Authority. ... Tadeusz Piotrowski can refer to: Tadeusz Piotrowski (mountaineer). ...

Books and Articles

  • Subtelny, Orest (1988). Ukraine: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-5808-6. 
  • Davies, Norman (2005). God's playground: a history of Poland: in two volumes, Vol. 2, Chapter 19. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-925340-4. 
  • (Polish) Sowa, Andrzej (1998). Stosunki polsko-ukraińskie 1939-1947. ISBN 83-909631-5-8. 
  • (Polish) Motyka, Grzegorz (2006). Ukraińska partyzantka 1942-1960. Warszawa: ISP PAN / RYTM. ISBN 83-788373-163-8. 
  • (Ukrainian) УПА розпочинає активні протинімецькі дії (UIA Start the Active anti-German actions) (За матеріалами звіту робочої групи істориків Інституту історії НАН України під керівництвом проф. Станіслава Кульчицького)
  • Documents on Ukrainian Polish Reconciliation

Orest Subtelny - Ukrainian historian, professor at Department of History and Political Science, York University. ... Norman Davies, Warsaw (Poland), October 7, 2004 Norman Davies (born June 8, 1939 in Bolton, Lancashire) is an English historian of Welsh descent, noted for his publications on the history of Poland, Europe and the British Isles. ...

External links

  • UPA - Ukrainian Insurgent Army
  • Ukrainian Insurgent Army, Encyclopedia of Ukraine
  • Chronicle of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army
  • Critical point of view on the movement Ukrainian Insurged Army (Polish)

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