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Encyclopedia > Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church
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Image File history File links Download high resolution version (960x1280, 103 KB) Summary -- façade: mounted statue of st. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (960x1280, 103 KB) Summary -- façade: mounted statue of st. ... St. ... “Lvov” redirects here. ... Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... Image File history File links HY002563. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      An... The ruins of Korsun: the place where the Russian and Ukrainian church was born. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For the... Coptic history is part of History of Egypt that begins with the introduction of Christianity in Egypt in the 1st century AD during the Roman period, and covers the history of the Copts to the present day. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Eastern Orthodox Churches trace their... This article should include material from Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchy, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, and Patriarch Filaret (Mykhailo Denysenko). ... Judging from the New Testament account of the rise and expansion of the early church, during the first few centuries of Christianity, the most extensive dissemination of the gospel was not in the West but in the East. ...

Traditions
Oriental Orthodoxy
Coptic Orthodox Church
Armenian Apostolic Church
Syriac Christianity
Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church
Assyrian Church of the East
Eastern Orthodox Church
Eastern Catholic Churches
Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term... Jesus Christ in a Coptic icon The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria (Coptic: , literally: the Egyptian Orthodox Church of Alexandria) is the official name for the largest Christian church in Egypt. ... Official standard of Karekin II Catholicos of Armenia The Armenian Apostolic Church (Armenian: Õ€Õ¡Õµ Ô±Õ¼Õ¡Ö„Õ¥Õ¬Õ¡Õ¯Õ¡Õ¶ Եկեղեցի, Hay Arakelagan Yegeghetzi), sometimes called the Armenian Orthodox Church or the Gregorian Church, is the worlds oldest national church[1] [2] and one of the most ancient Christian communities [3]. // Baptism of Tiridates III. The earliest... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Syriac Christianity is a culturally and... Ethiopian Church in jerusalem The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (in transliterated Amharic:Yäityopya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Orthodox Church until 1959, when it was granted its own Patriarch by Coptic Orthodox Pope of... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Assyrian Church of the East... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The...

Liturgy and Worship
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For other uses, see Sign of the cross (disambiguation). ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In the Orthodox liturgical tradition, the omophorion is one of the bishops vestments and the symbol of his spiritual and ecclesiastical authority. ...

Theology
Hesychasm - Icon
Apophaticism - Filioque clause
Miaphysitism - Monophysitism
Nestorianism - Theosis - Theoria
Phronema - Philokalia
Praxis - Theotokos
Hypostasis - Ousia
Essence-Energies distinction
Hesychasm (Greek hesychasmos, from hesychia, stillness, rest, quiet, silence) is an eremitic tradition of prayer in the Eastern Orthodox Church, and some other Eastern Churches of the Byzantine Rite, practised (Gk: hesychazo: to keep stillness) by the Hesychast (Gr. ... Look up icon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Negative theology - also known as the Via Negativa (Latin for Negative Way) and Apophatic theology - is a theology that attempts to describe God by negation, to speak of God only in terms of what may not be said about God. ... In Christian theology the filioque clause or filioque controversy (filioque meaning and [from] the son in Latin) is a heavily disputed addition to the Nicene Creed, that forms a divisive difference in particular between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions. ... Miaphysitism (sometimes called henophysitism) is the christology of the Oriental Orthodox Churches. ... Monophysitism (from the Greek monos meaning one, alone and physis meaning nature) is the christological position that Christ has only one nature, as opposed to the Chalcedonian position which holds that Christ has two natures, one divine and one human. ... Nestorianism is the doctrine that Jesus exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as a unified person. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Eastern Orthodox and... Theoria is contemplation or perception of beauty, esp. ... Phronema is a Greek term that is used in Eastern Orthodox theology to refer to mindset or outlook; it is the Orthodox mind. ... The Philokalia (Gk. ... Praxis is the customary use of knowledge or skills, distinct from theoretical knowledge. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek: , translit. ... In Christianity, the Greek word hypostasis [1] is usually translated into Latin as natura and then into English as nature, although the specific Greek word for nature and substance is physis. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The Energies of God are a central principle of theology in the Eastern Orthodox Church, understood by the orthodox Fathers of the Church, and most famously formulated by Gregory Palamas, against charges of heresy brought by Barlaam of Calabria. ...

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The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC), also known as the Ukrainian Catholic Church, is one of the successor Churches to the acceptance of Christianity by Grand Prince Vladimir the Great (Ukrainian Volodymyr) of Kiev (Kyiv), in 988. UGCC is the largest Eastern Rite sui juris particular church in full communion with the Holy See, and is directly subject to the Pope. The Primate of the Church, in union with the Pope, holds the office of Archbishop-Major of Kiev-Halych and All Rus, though the hierarchs of the church have acclaimed their primate "Patriarch" and have requested Papal recognition and elevation. The Church is now geographically quite widespread, having some 40 hierarchs in over a dozen countries on four continents, including three other metropolitans in Poland, the United States, and Canada, the head of the church is Cardinal Lubomyr Husar. For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... Clandestine Christian communities existed in Kiev for decades before the official baptism. ... The title Grand Prince (Latin, Magnus Princeps; German, Großfürst, Finnish Suuriruhtinas, Swedish Storfurste, Lithuanian Didysis kunigaikÅ¡tis, Russian Великий князь Velikii kniaz) ranks in honour below Emperor and Tsar but higher than a sovereign Prince (Fürst) or Royal Prince. ... Detail of the Millenium of Russia monument in Novgorod (1862) representing St Vladimir and his family. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Events Vladimir I, Prince of Kiev marries Anna, sister of Byzantine emperor Basil II and converts to Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... The Latin term sui juris means of ones own right. ... A particular Church, in Catholic theology and Canon law, is any of the individual constituent ecclesial communities in full communion with Rome that are part of the Catholic Church as a whole. ... Full communion is completeness of that relationship between Christian individuals and groups which is known as communion. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Primate (from the Latin Primus, first) is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, a major archbishop is an Eastern Rite hierarch who has the same jurisdiction in his sui juris particular church that an Eastern rite patriarch does, but whose episcopal see is less prestigious than a patriarchal see. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Jackdaw on the coat-of-arms of Galicia alludes to the name of Halych Halych (Russian and Ukrainian: ) is a historic town in Western Ukraine on the Dniester River. ... A hierarch is a very high-ranking bishop; see also primate (religion) and metropolitan bishop. ... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ... In hierarchical Christian churches, the rank of metropolitan bishop, or simply metropolitan, pertains to the diocesan bishop or archbishop (then more precisely called Metropolitan archbishop) of a metropolis; that is, the chief city of an old Roman province, ecclesiastical province, or regional capital. ... For other uses, see Cardinal (disambiguation). ... His Eminence Lubomyr Cardinal Husar (born 26 February 1933) is a Cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church, Major Archbishop of Lviv of the Ukrainians, and is the primate of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, the second largest church of the Catholic Communion. ...


Within Ukraine itself, the UGCC is a minority faith of the religious population, being a distant second to the majority Eastern Orthodox faith. The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church is the second largest religious organization in Ukraine in terms of number of communities. In terms of number of faithful, the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church ranks third in allegiance among the population of Ukraine, after the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate), and the Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchate. Currently, the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church predominates in three western oblasts of Ukraine, but constitutes a small minority elsewhere in the country. Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... The Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) is an autonomous church of Eastern Orthodoxy in Ukraine, under the ecclesiastic link to the Moscow Patriarchy. ... Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchy (Ukrainian: ; Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kievan Patriarchate or UOC-KP) is one of the two major Orthodox churches in Ukraine [1] The modern history of the church begins in August, 1989, when the parish of the Church of Sts. ... Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasť, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ...

Contents

History

Before the Union of Brest

The Ukrainian Catholic church did not exist, as such, until the Union of Brest, but its roots go back to the very beginning of Christianity in Mediaeval Slavic State of Rus'. The area of modern-day Ukraine was influenced primarily of Byzantine missionaries. The mission of Saints Cyril and Methodius was especially important their development of the Cyrillic alphabet allowed the spread of worship in the Old Church Slavonic language. The Greek influence continued to until the Great Schism, when the Ruthenian (Rusyn) Church was separated from Rome, and became Orthodox. This article should include material from Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchy, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, and Patriarch Filaret (Mykhailo Denysenko). ... The ruins of Korsun: the place where the Russian and Ukrainian church was born. ... The word Rus or Rus (Русь in Cyrillic Alphabet) may refer to: the Rus (people) of disputed origin who were at the roots of the statehood of Eastern Slavic peoples; the territories they ruled, also known by the Latinized name, Ruthenia; Kievan Rus, the most powerful of... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ... For details about each of the saints, see Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Church Slavic or Old Bulgarian, incorrectly Old Slavic ) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Solun (Thessaloniki) by 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For the... Ruthenian may refer to: Ruthenia, a name applied to various parts of Eastern Europe Ruthenians, the peoples of Ruthenia Ruthenian language, a name applied to several Slavic languages This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Rusyn can refer to: Rusyns Rusyn language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ...


Following the Mongol annihilation of Kiev in the 13th century, the Metropolitan of Kiev moved to Vladimir in 1299. By 1326, the Metropolitan had settled in Moscow, and by 1328 had changed the title of Metropolitan of Kiev for the title Metropolitan of Moscow. The separate legal tradition of the Russian Church, as differentiated from the Church in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, was codified in the decision of the first properly Russian Church Council of the Hundred Chapters ('Stoglav') in 1448, followed by the formal separation of the Church of Rus' into separate Russian (Muscovite) and Ruthenian (Kievan) Metropoliae in 1453. The Mongol Invasion of Russia was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. ... Population 315,954 (2002) Time zone Moscow (MSK/MSD), UTC +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD) Latitude/Longitude Vladimir (Russian: ) is an old city in Russia. ... Events Osman I declares the independence of the Ottoman Principality The County of Holland is annexed by the County of Hainaut April 1, 1299 Kings Towne on the River Hull granted city status by Royal Charter of King Edward I of England. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Osman I (1299-1326) to Orhan I (1326-1359) Aradia de Toscano, is initiated into a Dianic cult of Italian Witchcraft (Stregheria), and discovers through a vision that she is the human incarnation of the goddess Aradia. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... The following is a list of Russian Orthodox metropolitans and patriarchs of Moscow along with when they served: Metropolitans Maximus (1283-1305) Peter (1308-1326) Theognostus (1328-1353) Alexius (1354-1378) Cyprian (1381-1382), (1390-1406) Pimen (1382-1384) Dionysius I (1384-1385) Photius (1408-1431) Isidore the Apostate (1437... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... The Stoglavi Sobor (Стоглавый Собор) or Council of a Hundred Chapters was a church council that was held in Moscow in 1551, with participation of the tsar Ivan IV and representatives of the Boyar Duma. ... Events January 5/ 6 - Christopher of Bavaria, King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden dies with no designated heir leaving all three kingdoms with vacant thrones. ... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ...


Union of Brest

Main article: Union of Brest

This situation continued for some time, and in the intervening years what is now Western Ukraine fell under the rule of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Polish authorities were heavily influenced by the ideals of the Counter-Reformation, and wanted to increase the Catholic presence in Ukraine. Meanwhile the clergy of the Ukrainian lands were faced with rule from distant Moscow. In response to this situation, much of the Ruthenian Church in Polish territory agreed by the Union of Brest in 1595 to break from the Patriarch in Moscow and reuinte with the Roman Catholic Church under the sponsorship of the ruler of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Sigismund III Vasa. The union was not accepted by all the members of the Greek Church in these lands, and marked the beginning of the creation of separate Ukrainian Catholic and Ukrainian Orthodox Churches on the lands of Ukraine and Belarus. Due to violence, the Metropolitan of the Kievan Greek Catholic Church left Kiev early in the 1600s and settled in Navahrudak Bealarus and Vilna in Lithuania. Union of Brest (Belarusian: Берасьце́йская у́нія, Ukrainian: Берестейська унія, Polish: ) refers to the 1595-1596 decision of the (Ruthenian) Church of Rus, the Metropolia of Kiev-Halych and all Rus, to break relations with the Patriarch of Constantinople and place themselves under the (patriarch) Pope of Rome, in order to avoid the domination of... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Sigismund III Vasa (Polish: ) (20 June 1566 – 30 April 1632 N.S.) was King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1587 to 1632, and King of Sweden (where he was known simply as Sigismund) from 1592 until he was deposed in 1599. ... Ukrainian Orthodox Church may refer to: Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchate Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the USA Autonomous Ukrainian Orthodox Church in America Orthodox Christianity History of Christianity in Ukraine History of Christianity in Lala Land... Many inventions and institutions are created, including Hans Lippershey with the telescope (1608, used by Galileo the next year), the newspaper Avisa Relation oder Zeitung in Augsburg, and Cornelius Drebbel with the thermostat (1609). ... Vilnius Old Town Vilnius (sometimes Vilna; Polish Wilno, Belarusian Вільня, Russian Вильнюс, see also Cities alternative names) is the capital city of Lithuania. ...


After the Union

The final step of the full particularity of the Ukrainian Catholic Church was then effected by the development of the middle Ruthenian language into separate Rusyn, Ukrainian and Belarusian languages around 1600 to 1800. With Orthodoxy being largely suppressed during the two centuries of the Polish rule, the Greek-Catholic influence on the Ukrainian population was so great that hardly any remained Orthodox. The Belarusian or Belorussian language (беларуская мова, BGN/PCGN: byelaruskaya mova, Scientific: bjelaruskaja mova) is the language of the Belarusian people and is spoken in Belarus and abroad, chiefly in Russia, Ukraine, Poland. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ...


After the partition of Poland, the formerly Greek-Catholic territory was mostly divided between Russia and Austria. In the Russian partition, that included Volhynia and Podolia, only in the easternmost areas of Podolia the population quickly and voluntarily returned to Orthodoxy. Initially, the Russian authorities were extremely tolerant of the Greek-Catholic church and allowed it to function (calling them Basilians). However immediately the clergy was split into pro-Catholic and pro-Russian, with the former tending to convert to Latin Rite Catholicism, whilst the demands of the latter group led by Bishop Joseph Semashko being firmly rejected by the ruling Greek-Catholic synod still largely controlled by the pro-Polish clergy with the Russian authorities largely refusing to interfere. The situation changed abruptly following the Russia successful suppression of the 1831 Polish revolt aimed at overthrowing the Russian control of the Polish territories. As the uprising was actively supported by the Greek-Catholic church, the crackdown on the Church became imminent. The pro-Latin members of the Synod were removed and the Church began to disintegrate with its parishes in Volhynia reverting to the Orthodoxy including the 1833 transfer of the famous Pochaiv Lavra. In 1839 the Synod of Polotsk (Modern Belarus) under the leadership of bishop Joseph Yamashko dissolved the Greek-Catholic church in the Russian Empire, and all its property was transferred to the Orthodox state church. Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... Historical arms of Podilia The region of Podolia (also spelt Podilia or Podillya) is a historical region in the west-central and south-west portions of present-day Ukraine, corresponding to Khmelnytskyi Oblast and Vinnytsia Oblast. ... The Basilian Fathers, also known as The Congregation of Saint Basil, is an international order of Roman Catholic priests and students studying for the priesthood. ... Coat-of-arms of the November Uprising. ... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Pochayiv Lavra of the Assumption of the Theotokos (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) has for centuries been the foremost spiritual and ideological centre of various Orthodox denominations in Western Ukraine. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ...


The dissolution of the Greek-Catholic Church in Russia was complete in 1875 with the abolition of the Eparchy of Kholm.[1]


19th century: West Ukrainian period

With the elimination of Ruthenian Catholics on the territory of the Russian Empire during the 1800s the Pope of Rome granted the transfer of the quasi-patriarchal powers of the Major-Archiepiscopate of Kiev/Halych and all Rus to the Metropolitan of Lviv (Lemberg) in the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1803. Suffragan sees included Ivano-Frankivsk (then called Stanislav) and Przemyśl (Peremyshl). By the end of the century, the faithful of this church began emigrating to the U.S., Canada, and Brazil. The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... // Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. ... “Lvov” redirects here. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Location Map of Ukraine with Ivano-Frankivsk highlighted. ... For alternative meanings of Przemysl see: Przemysl (disambiguation page). ...


By the information of Catholic Encyclopedia, the pressure of the Russian Government in what was then known as 'Little Russia' (now Ukraine) made the Greek Catholics utterly wiped out and some 7,000,000 of the Uniats there were compelled, partly by force and partly by deception, to become part of the Greek Orthodox Church.[2] Greek Orthodox Church (Greek: Hellēnorthódoxē Ekklēsía) can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches. ...


In Austrian Polish partition that included Galicia (modern Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk and parts of Ternopil oblasts), the Greek-Catholic Ruthenian (Ukrainian) peasantry was largely under the Polish Latin Catholic domination. The Austrians granted equal legal privileges to the Greek-Catholic Church and removed Polish influence. As a result, within Austrian Galicia over the next century the Greek-Catholic Church ceased being a puppet of foreign interests and became the primary cultural force within the Ukrainian community. Most independent native Ukrainian cultural trends (such as Rusynophilia, Russophilia and later Ukrainophilia) emerged from within the ranks of the Greek-Catholic Church. For many people, the Austrians were seen as having saved the Ukrainians and their Church from the Poles. For other uses, see Galicia. ... Russophilia is the love of Russia and/or Russians. ...

St George's Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church built by architect The Very Reverend Philip Ruh, O.M.I. in 1923. Protected Heritage site, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan
St George's Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church built by architect The Very Reverend Philip Ruh, O.M.I. in 1923. Protected Heritage site, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan [3]

Image File history File linksMetadata St_georges. ... Image File history File linksMetadata St_georges. ... The Ukrainian Catholic Cathedral of St. ... St. ... For other uses of Saskatoon, see Saskatoon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...

20th century: persecution and internationalization

Ukrainian Greek Catholics found themselves under the governance of the nations of Poland, Hungary, Romania and Czechoslovakia after World War I. Under the previous century of the Austrian rule, the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church attained such a strong Ukrainian national character that in the interwar Poland, the Greek Catholics of Galicia were seen by the nationalist Polish and Catholic state as even less reliable than the Orthodox Volhynians. Carrying its Polonisation policies throughout its Eastern Territories, the Polish authorities sought to weaken the UGCC in various ways. In 1924, following a visit with the Ukrainian Catholic believers in North America and western Europe, the head of the UGCC was initially denied reentry to Lviv until after a considerable delay. Polish Roman Catholic priests led by their bishops began to undertake missionary work among Greek-Catholic faithful, and the administrative restrictions were placed on the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church.[4] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Polonization (in Polish: polonizacja) is the assumption, voluntary or involuntary, complete or partial, of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ...

The interior of St. Joseph the Betrothed Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church in Chicago, Illinois St Joseph Ukrainian Catholic Church Homepage .
The interior of St. Joseph the Betrothed Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church in Chicago, Illinois St Joseph Ukrainian Catholic Church Homepage .

The aftermath of World War II placed Ukrainian Catholics under the rule of the Soviet Union and Soviet Bloc regimes which, using positions of only a few clergy, called a "synod" in Lviv and annulled the Union of Brest. Ironically, as all the bishops were of the UGCC were at this point either in prison or exile, no bishops were involved in this "synod", making it canonically illegitimate by the canons of both Churches. Whilst officially all of the church property was transferred to the Russian Orthodox Church, some clergy went underground. This catacomb church was strongly supported by the diaspora created by the mass emigration to the Western hemisphere, which began in the 1870s. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 449 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1127 × 1503 pixel, file size: 208 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) the inside iconostas of st josph ukrainian chatholic church, chicago illinois I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 449 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1127 × 1503 pixel, file size: 208 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) the inside iconostas of st josph ukrainian chatholic church, chicago illinois I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public... The new Churchs Exterior. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ...


For the clergy that joined the Orthodox Church, the Soviet authorities refrained from large-scale persecution of religion that was seen elsewhere in the country. In the city of Lviv alone only one church was closed. In fact, the western dioceses of Lviv-Ternopil and Ivano-Frankivsk were the largest in the USSR. Canon law was also relaxed on the clergy allowing them to shave beards (a practice uncommon to Orthodoxy) and conduct liturgy in Ukrainian as opposed to Slavonic.


Nevertheless in 1989, at the height of the Gorbachev's liberalization reforms the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church emerged from the catacombs to find itself largely in disarray with the nearly all of its pre-1946 parish lost to the Orthodox faith. The church actively supported by nationalist organisations took an uncompromising stance towards returning its lost property and parishes. According to a Greek-Catholic priest "even if the whole village is now Orthodox and one person is Greek Catholic, the church [building] belongs to that Catholic because the church was built by his grand-parents and great-grand-parents"[5] The weakened Soviet authorities were unable to pacify the situation and most of the parishes in Galicia came under the control of the Greek-Catholics during the events of a large scale interconfessional rivalry that was often accompanied by violent clashes of the faithful provoked by their religious and political leadership.[6] These tensions led to a rupture of relations between the Russian Orthodox Church and the Vatican. Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ...


During the Soviet era, the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church did flourish throughout the Ukrainian diaspora. Cardinal Josyf Slipyj was jailed as a dissident but ordained in pectore (in secret) a cardinal in 1949; he was freed in 1963 and was the subject of an extensive campaign to have him named as a patriarch, which met with strong support as well as controversy. Pope Paul VI demurred, but compromised with the creation of a new title of major archbishop, with a jurisdiction roughly equivalent to that of a patriarch in an Eastern church. This title has since passed to Myroslav Ivan Lubachivsky in 1984 and thereafter to Lubomyr Cardinal Husar in 2000; this title has also been granted to the heads of three other Eastern Catholic Churches. Soviet redirects here. ... A monument to Cardinal Josyf Slipyj outside the Ternopil Cathedral Josyf Slipyj (Ukrainian: ) (February 17, 1892—February 7, 1984) was a Ukrainian Greek Catholic cleric, the leader of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church and a Cardinal. ... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, a major archbishop is an Eastern Rite hierarch who has the same jurisdiction in his sui juris particular church that an Eastern rite patriarch does, but whose episcopal see is less prestigious than a patriarchal see. ... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ... Myroslav Ivan Lubachivsky (Ukrainian: ; 24 June 1914, Dolyna, Austria-Hungary - 14 December 2000, Lviv, Ukraine), Cardinal, was Bishop of the Ukrainian Catholic Archeparchy of Philadelphia in the United States and from 1984 Major Archbishop of Lviv and head of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC). ... This article is about the year. ... Lubomyr Cardinal Husar (Ukrainian: ) (born 26 February 1933) is a Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church and head of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, a minority church in Ukraine but the second largest sui juris church in full communion with the Holy See. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The...


Today, most Ukrainian Catholic Churches have moved away from Church Slavonic and use Ukrainian. Many churches also offer liturgies in the official language of the country the Church is in, for example, German in Germany or English in Canada; however, some parishes continue to celebrate the liturgy in Slavonic even today, and services in a mix of languages are not unusual.


Modern Times

Currently the church admits between 3 and 5 million supporters on the territory of Ukraine. Worldwide, the faithful now number some 6 to 10 million, forming the largest particular Catholic Church, after the majority Latin Rite Church. A particular Church, in Catholic theology and Canon law, is any of the individual constituent ecclesial communities in full communion with Rome that are part of the Catholic Church as a whole. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... The Latin Rite is one of the 23 sui iuris particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ...


In the 2000s, the construction has begun for the transfer of the major see of the Ukrainian Catholic Church back to the Ukrainian capital of Kiev. However, this move remains controversial for some Ukrainian Catholics, who view Lviv in Western Ukraine as the true stronghold of Ukrainian Catholicism, having supported and protected the Ukrainian Catholic Church through long periods of persecution. Moving the Ukrainian Catholic Church to Kiev, therefore, has taken on political overtones in the Church. The move tends to be supported by those people who favour the appointment of a Ukrainian Catholic Patriarch to oversee the Ukrainian Catholic Church. This issue was met with total opposition from the Ukrainian Orthodox Church who questioned not only the almost non-existent Greek Catholic followers in Kiev, but also the political tone of it, particularly as the construction was sponsored by the Ukrainian first lady Kateryna Yushchenko. The whole Eastern Orthodox Communion, backed the Ukrainian Orthodox stand putting a major strain on the Vatican's relations with them. The Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) is an autonomous church of Eastern Orthodoxy in Ukraine, under the Patriarch of Moscow. ... Kateryna Yuschchenko with her husband Viktor Yushchenko Kateryna Mykhaylivna Yushchenko-Chumachenko is the current and second wife of Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko. ...


In 2001 a small group of clergymen opposed to certain policies (such as de-latinisation) and ecumenism of the UGCC hierarchy, organized themselves as the Priestly Society of Saint Josaphat. The PSSJ possesses close ties with the Traditionalist Catholic Society of Saint Pius X, which rejects and condemns certain actions and policies of both Cardinal Husar and of the Pope. Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Liturgical Latinisation is the process by which the liturgical practices of the Churches of Eastern Christianity (particularly the Eastern Catholic Churches, but also those of the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Oriental Orthodox Churches) are changed to resemble more closely the practices of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism... Saint Josaphat Kuncevyc of Polotsk. ... A traditionalist Catholic is a Roman Catholic who believes that there should be a restoration of the liturgical forms, public and private devotions, and presentation of Catholic teachings that prevailed in the Catholic Church just before the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965). ... The Society of St. ...


The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church has moved its administrative center from Western Ukrainian Lviv to a new cathedral in Kiev on 21 August of 2005. The title of the head of the UGCC was changed from The Major Archbishop of Lviv to The Major Archbishop of Kiev and Halych. “Lvov” redirects here. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The current eparchies and other territorial jurisdictions of the church are:

The Ukrainian Catholic Eparchy of Wrocław-Gdańsk is an eparchy of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church situated in Poland. ... The Ukrainian Catholic Archeparchy of Winnipeg is the Ukrainian Greek Catholic archeparchy for the nation of Canada, and includes the suffragan eparchies of Edmonton, New Westminster, Saskatoon, and the Toronto. ... The Ukrainian Catholic Eparchy of Edmonton is a Ukrainian Catholic archdiocese that includes part of the Canada. ... The Ukrainian Catholic Eparchy of Toronto and Eastern Canada is a Ukrainian Catholic archdiocese that includes part of the Canada. ... The Ukrainian Catholic Eparchy of Saskatoon is a Ukrainian Catholic archdiocese that includes part of the Canada. ... The Ukrainian Catholic Eparchy of New Westminster is a Ukrainian Greek Catholic eparchy that includes part of Canada. ... Seat of the Archeparchy: The Ukrainian Catholic Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania The Ukrainian Catholic Archeparchy of Philadelphia is the Catholic archdiocese governing all Ukrainian Catholic dioceses and Ukrainian Catholics in the United States. ... The Ukrainian Catholic Eparchy of Chicago is a diocese of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church covering parishes in: Arizona California Colorado Hawaii Illinois Indiana Kansas Michigan Minnesota Missouri Nebraska North Dakota Oregon Texas Washington Wisconsin The Bishop of the eparchy is Richard Seminack. ... The Chateau at St. ... Ukrainian Catholic Eparchy of Parma Ohio, was established in 1983 by Pope John Paul II, it ecompasses: Western Pennsylvania West Virginia Kentucky Tennessee Mississippi Alabama Georgia Florida North Carolina South Carolina Eparch of the Eparchy is Bishop Robert M. Moskal. ... The Ukrainian Catholic Eparchy of Saints Peter and Paul of Melbourne (Latin: Eparchia Sanctorum Petri et Pauli Melburnensis Ucranorum) is an Eastern Rite Catholic eparchy of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, attached to the Archdiocese of Melbourne, Australia. ... The Apostolic Exarchate in France, Benelux and Switzerland for the Ukrainians is a Ukrainian Greek Catholic rite diocese. ... The Apostolic Exarchate in Germany and Scandinavia for the Ukrainians (German: Apostolisches Exarchat für Deutschland und Skandinavien) covers Ukrainian Greek Catholics in Germany, Finland, Norway and Sweden. ... A Ukrainian Greek Catholic parish church in Wolverhampton, England The Apostolic Exarchate for Ukrainians (Ukrainian: Апостольський екзархат у Великобританії) is an apostolic exarchate for Ukrainian Greek Catholics in Great Britain. ...

See also

Union of Brest (Belarusian: Берасьце́йская у́нія, Ukrainian: Берестейська унія, Polish: ) refers to the 1595-1596 decision of the (Ruthenian) Church of Rus, the Metropolia of Kiev-Halych and all Rus, to break relations with the Patriarch of Constantinople and place themselves under the (patriarch) Pope of Rome, in order to avoid the domination of... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article should include material from Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchy, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, and Patriarch Filaret (Mykhailo Denysenko). ... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... The ruins of Korsun: the place where the Russian and Ukrainian church was born. ... Andriy Sheptytsky Metropolitan Andrey Sheptytsky (Ukrainian: ; July 29, 1865—November 1, 1944) was the Metropolitan Archbishop of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church from 1901 until his death. ... A monument to Cardinal Josyf Slipyj outside the Ternopil Cathedral Josyf Slipyj (Ukrainian: ) (February 17, 1892—February 7, 1984) was a Ukrainian Greek Catholic cleric, the leader of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church and a Cardinal. ... Josaphata Hordashevska (born Michaelina Hordashevska 1869, Lviv - 1919) - Ukrainian Greek-Catholic nun, was the first member of the Sisters Servants of Mary Immaculate. ... The Byzantine Discalced Carmelites [1] are a community of cloistered nuns of the Byzantine Ruthenian Catholic Church living committed to a life of prayer, according to the tradition and lifestyle of the Discalced Carmelites. ... Dzhublyk, also transliterated as Jublyk (Ukrainian: Джублик) - Greek-Catholic Marian sanctuary near the villages Nyzhnye Bolotnye and Vilkhivka in western Ukraine, that became known for the Marian apparition of Our Lady and Holy Family. ... The Ukrainian Catholic University (Ukrainian: , Ukrainskyy Katolytskyy Universytet) is a Catholic university in Lviv, Ukraine, affiliated with the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. ...

External references

  1. ^ St. Nicholas Church
  2. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia Article on Ruthenians
  3. ^ The Very Reverend Philip Ruh, O.M.I. Priest, Architect and Builder of about 40 Ukrainain Catholic Churches URL accessed February 9, 2007
  4. ^ Magosci, P. (1989). Morality and Reality: the Life and Times of Andrei Sheptytsky. Edmonton, Alberta: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies, University of Alberta. 
  5. ^ Andrew Wilson, The Ukrainians: Unexpected Nation, p. 246, Yale University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-300-09309-8
  6. ^ Nathaniel Davis, A Long Walk to Church: A Contemporary History of Russian Orthodoxy, p. 75, Westview Press, 2003, ISBN 0-8133-4067-5
  • Articles in Zerkalo Nedeli (Mirror Weekly): "Moscow, Vatican and an unpredictable weather in Ukraine", March 2004,in Ukrainian and in Russian
  • "Account of the history of the Unia and its disestablishment in 19th Century Russia" in Russian
  • Orientales Omnes Ecclesias, Encyclical on the Reunion of the Ruthenian Church with Rome by Pope Pius XII in Catholic Encyclopedia
  • Greek Catholics in America, Catholic Encyclopedia

Andrew Wilson could refer to: Andrew Wilson (theologian), a theologian for the Unification Church Andrew Wilson (politician), a former member of the Scottish Parliament Andrew Wilson (composer), a composer Andrew Wilson (footballer), an English footballer Andrew Wilson (basketball), a basketball player Andrew Wilson (artist), a 19th century artist Andrew Wilson... Yale University Press is a book publisher founded in 1908. ... Zerkalo Nedeli (Дзеркало тижня - Dzerkal Tyzhnia Ukrainian: Weekly Mirror) is Ukraine’s most influential analytical weekly. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church
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  • St Joseph Ukrainian Catholic Church
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1754 words)
The foundation of the Ukrainian Catholic Church was laid by the communion of the Patriarch of Constantinople with the Popes in Rome throughout most of the first millennium (until 1054) and intermittent communion thereafter.
With the elimination of Ruthenian Catholics on the territory of the Russian Empire during the 1800s the Pope of Rome granted the transfer of the quasi-patriarchal powers of the Major-Archepiscopate of Kiev/Halych and all Rus to the Metropolitan of Lviv (Lemberg) in the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1803.
Nevertheless in 1989, the Ukrainian Catholic Church emerged from the catacombs.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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