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Encyclopedia > Ukraine
Україна
Ukrayina
Ukraine
Flag of Ukraine Coat of arms of Ukraine
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemЩе не вмерла України ні слава, ні воля  (Ukrainian)
Shche ne vmerla Ukrayiny ni slava, ni volya  (transliteration)
Ukraine's glory has not yet perished, nor her freedom

Location of  Ukraine  (orange)

on the European continent  (white) Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Flag of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ; translit. ... Small coat of Arms of Ukraine. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Mykhaylo Verbytsky, composer Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy (Ukrainian: , or Ukraines glory has not perished - literally ) is the national anthem of Ukraine. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 112 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ukraine Wikipedia talk:WikiProject Countries Maps of Ukraine ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

Capital
(and largest city)
Kiev (Kyiv)
50°27′N, 30°30′E
Official languages Ukrainian
Demonym Ukrainian
Government Semi-presidential unitary state
 -  President Viktor Yushchenko
 -  Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko
 -  Speaker of the Parliament Arseniy Yatsenyuk
Independence from the Soviet Union 
 -  Declared August 24, 1991 
 -  Referendum December 1, 1991 
 -  Finalized December 26, 1991 
Area
 -  Total 603,628 km² (44th)
233,090 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 7%
Population
 -  2008 estimate 46,372,700 (27th)
 -  2001 census 48,457,102 
 -  Density 77/km² (115th)
199/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $399.866 billion[1] (29th)
 -  Per capita $8,624[1] (83rd)
GDP (nominal) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $131.2 billion[2] (47st)
 -  Per capita $2,852 (88th)
Gini (2006) 31[2] (medium
HDI (2005) 0.788 (medium) (76th)
Currency Hryvnia (UAH)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Internet TLD .ua
Calling code +380

Ukraine (English pronunciation /juːˈkreɪn/; Ukrainian: Україна, Ukrayina, /ukrɑˈjinɑ/) is a country in Eastern Europe. It borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova (including the disputed territory of Transnistria) to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south. The city of Kiev (Kyiv) is Ukraine's capital. Not to be confused with capitol. ... Demographics of Ukraine, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... Mariyinsky Palace The President of Ukraine (Ukrainian: , Prezydent Ukrayiny) is the head of the state of Ukraine and acts in its name. ... Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Ukrainian:  ) (born February 23, 1954) is the current President of Ukraine. ... The Prime Minister of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) presides over the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, which is the top body of the executive branch of the Ukrainian government. ... Yulia Volodymyrivna Tymoshenko[1] (Ukrainian: ) (born 27 November 1960) is a Ukrainian politician and former Prime Minister of Ukraine (from 24 January to 8 September 2005). ... The Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) is the speaker of the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraines national parliament. ... Arseniy Petrovych Yatsenyuk (Ukrainian: ) (born May 22, 1974 in Chernivtsi, Ukraine) is a Ukrainian politician, economist, and lawyer. ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... The Act of Declaration of Independence of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) was adopted by the Ukrainian parliament on August 24, 1991. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Referendum took place in Ukraine on December 1, 1991. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map of countries by 2006 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, October 2007). ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... ISO 4217 Code UAH User(s) Ukraine Inflation 11. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .tc is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Timecube. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Country Code: 380 International Call Prefix: 8~10 Ukraine (similarly to most of ex-Soviet Union countries) employs a four-level (local, zone, country, international) open dialing plan. ... English pronunciation includes the usage of consonant and vowel sounds in the English language. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ... Motto: none Anthem: Limba noastră (Our Tongue) Capital ChiÅŸinău Largest city ChiÅŸinău Official language(s) Moldovan (Romanian) Government President Prime Minister Parliamentary Republic Vladimir Voronin Vasile Tarlev Independence  - Formation  - Independence August 27, 1991 August 2, 1940, August 27, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%)   33,843 km² (135th... The disputed status of Transnistria arose because of the Transnistrian declaration of independence on Sep. ... For the region during the Second World War, see Transnistria (World War II). ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ...


The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs. From at least the 9th century, the territory of Ukraine was a center of the medieval East Slavic civilization forming the state of Kievan Rus', which disintegrated in the 12th century. From the 14th century on, the territory of Ukraine was divided among a number of regional powers and by the 19th century the largest part of Ukraine was integrated into the Russian Empire with the rest under Austro-Hungarian control. After a chaotic period of incessant warfare and several attempts at independence (1917–1921) following the Russian Revolution and the Great War, Ukraine emerged in 1922 as one of the founding republics of the Soviet Union. The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic's territory was enlarged westward shortly before and after the Second World War, and again in 1954 with the Crimea transfer. In 1945, the Ukrainian SSR became one of the co-founding members of the United Nations.[3] Ukraine became independent again after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. This began a transition period to a market economy, in which Ukraine was stricken with eight straight years of economic decline.[4] But since about the turn of the century, the economy has been experiencing a stable increase, with real GDP growth averaging about seven percent annually.[4] The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic languages. ... The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... Ukrainian territory was fought over by various factions after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the First World War, which added the collapse of Austria-Hungary to that of the Imperial Russia. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... This article is about the constituent republics of the Soviet Union. ... State motto (Ukrainian): Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... UN redirects here. ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets (though completley useless to some dumbasses) guided by a free price system. ... World map showing GDP real growth rates for 2007. ...


Ukraine is a unitary state composed of 24 oblasts (provinces), one autonomous republic (Crimea), and two cities with special status: Kiev, its capital, and Sevastopol, which houses the Russian Black Sea Fleet under a leasing agreement. Ukraine is a republic under a semi-presidential system with separate legislative, executive, and judicial branches. At the end of 2004, the country underwent an extensive constitutional reform that has changed the balance of power among the parliament, the prime minister, and the cabinet, as well as their relationship with the president. A map showing the unitary states. ... Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasÅ¥, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ... A significant number of autonomous republics can be found within the successor states of the Soviet Union, but the majority are located within Russia. ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... Black Sea Fleet sleeve ensign The Black Sea Fleet (Russian: Черноморский флот) is a large sub-unit of the Russian (and formerly Soviet) Navy, operating in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea since the early 18th century. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... The judiciary, also referred to as the judicature, consists of justices, judges and magistrates among other types of adjudicators. ... Mariyinsky Palace The President of Ukraine (Ukrainian: , Prezydent Ukrayiny) is the head of the state of Ukraine and acts in its name. ...

Contents

Etymology

Main article: Name of Ukraine

The Ukrainian word Ukrayina is from Old East Slavic ukraina "borderland", from u "by, at" and the Slavic root kraj "edge; region".[5] In the Ukrainian language krayina simply means "country." In English, the country is referred to without the definite article, conforming to the usual English grammar rules for names of countries[2]. Before the country's independence in 1991, the country was often referred to as The Ukraine. The term Ukraine rather than The Ukraine is now predominant in diplomacy[6] and journalism.[7][8][9][10][11][12] The name Ukraine (Ukrainian: , ) has been used in a variety of ways since the twelfth century. ... Old East Slavic, traditionally known as Old Russian (Russian: древнерусский), is a name for a vernacular literary language used between the 10th and 14th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus and other states formed by that ethnic group. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


History

Main article: History of Ukraine

History of Ukraine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

Early history

Human settlement on the territory of Ukraine dates back to at least 4500 BC, when the Neolithic Cucuteni culture flourished in a wide area that covered parts of modern Ukraine including Trypillia and the entire Dnieper-Dniester region all the way to and including parts of the modern territories of Romania and Moldova. During the Iron Age, the land was inhabited by Cimmerians, Scythians, and Sarmatians.[13] Between 700 BC and 200 BC it was part of the Scythian Kingdom (Scythia). An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Reconstruction of a Trypillia hut, in the Trypillia museum, Ukraine. ... Trypillia (Ukrainian: , Russian: , Tripolye) is a village in Ukraine in Kiev Oblast with 2,800 inhabitants (as of 1 January 2005). ... This article is about the river. ... The Dniester (Ukrainian: translit. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... The Cimmerians (Greek: , Kimmerioi) were ancient equestrian nomads who, according to Herodotus, originally inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea, in what is now Russia and Ukraine, in the 8th and 7th century BC. Assyrian records, however, first place them in the region of what is... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... Approximate extent of Scythia and Sarmatia in the 1st century BC (the orange background shows the spread of Eastern Iranian languages, among them Scytho-Sarmatian). ...


Colonies of Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, and Byzantine Empire, such as Tyras, Olbia, and Hermonassa, were founded starting from the 6th century BC on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea, and thrived well into the 6th century AD. The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Tyras, a colony of Miletus, probably founded about 600 BC, situated some 10 m. ... Olbia, Ukraine is the site of Pontic Olbia in the Crimea, a colony founded from Miletus on the shores of the Bugh estuary, which lasted for a thousand years. ... Hermonassa and other Greek colonies along the north coast of the Black Sea in the 5th century BCE. Tmutarakan (Russian: Тмутаракань) is an ancient city that controlled the Cimmerian Bosporus, the passage from the Black Sea to the Sea of Azov. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


In the 7th century AD the territory of eastern Ukraine was part of Old Great Bulgaria. At the end of the century the majority of Bulgar tribes migrated in different directions and the land fell in Khazars' hands. The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Old Great Bulgaria or Great Bulgaria (Η παλαιά μεγάλη Βουλγαρία in Byzantine chronicles; alternative name: Onoguria/Onoghuria) was a Bulgar state, founded by Kubrat, which briefly existed in the 7th century north of the Caucasus mountains in the steppe between the rivers Dnieper and Lower Volga[1]. // Main article: Kubrat Kubrat (also Kurt or... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ...


Golden Age of Kiev

Main article: Kievan Rus'
Map of the Kievan Rus', 11th century. During the Golden Age of Kiev the lands of Rus' covered much of present day Ukraine, as well as western Russia and Belarus
Map of the Kievan Rus', 11th century. During the Golden Age of Kiev the lands of Rus' covered much of present day Ukraine, as well as western Russia and Belarus

During the 10th and 11th centuries, much of modern-day Ukraine was populated by the Rus' people who formed the largest and most powerful European polity, called the Kievan Rus'. Rus' laid the foundation for the national identity of Ukrainians, as well as other East Slavic nations, through subsequent centuries.[14] Kiev, the capital of modern Ukraine, became the most important city of the Rus'. The city was wrested from Khazars by Askold and Dir in about 860 AD. According to the Primary Chronicle, the Rus' elite initially consisted of Varangians from Scandinavia. The Varangians later became assimilated into the local Slavic population and became part of the Rus' first dynasty, the Rurik Dynasty.[14] Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1382, 581 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: History of Russia Kievan Rus Categories: | | ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1382, 581 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: History of Russia Kievan Rus Categories: | | ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Rus’ (Русь, ) was a medieval East Slavic nation, which, according to the most popular but by no means the only theory, may have taken its name from a ruling warrior class, possibly, with Scandinavian roots. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... The East Slavs are the ethnic group that evolved into the Russian, Ukrainian and Belarusian peoples. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Askold (Höskuldr) and Dir (Dyri) were according to the Primary Chronicle, two of Ruriks men. ... The Russian Primary Chronicle (Old-Slavonic: Повсть времяньныхъ лтъ; Russian: Повесть временных лет, Povest vremennykh let; Ukrainian: Повість времмених літ, Povist vremennykh lit; often translated into English as Tale of Bygone Years), is a history of the Kievan Rus from around 850 to 1110 originally compiled in Kiev about 1113. ... The Varangians (Russian: Variags, Варяги) were Scandinavians who travelled eastwards, mainly from Jutland and Sweden. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... The Rurik Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Kievan Rus, Rus principalities, and early Russia from 862 to 1598. ...


Kievan Rus' was composed of several principalities ruled by the interrelated Rurikid Princes. The seat of Kiev, the most prestigious and influential of all principalities, became the subject of many rivalries among Rurikids as the most valuable prize in their quest for power. These were sometimes contested through intrigue, but more often through bloody conflicts. The Golden Age of Kievan Rus' began with the reign of Vladimir the Great (Volodymyr, 980–1015), who turned Rus' toward Byzantine Christianity. During the reign of his son, Yaroslav the Wise (1019–1054), Kievan Rus' reached the zenith of its cultural development and military power. This was followed by the state's increasing fragmentation as the relative importance of regions rose again. After a final resurgence under the rule of Vladimir Monomakh (1113–1125) and his son Mstislav (1125–1132), Kievan Rus' finally disintegrated into separate principalities following Mstislav's death. The 13th century Mongol invasion devastated Kievan Rus'. Kiev was totally destroyed in 1240.[15][14][16] A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... Rurik Dynasty ... Kniaz’ or knyaz (князь in Russian and Ukrainian; cneaz in Romanian fem. ... Detail of the Millenium of Russia monument in Novgorod (1862) representing St Vladimir and his family. ... Clandestine Christian communities existed in Kiev for decades before the official baptism. ... Yaroslav I the Wise (978?-1054) (Christian name: Yury, or George) was thrice prince of Novgorod and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule. ... Volodymyr Monomakh (Ukrainian: Володимир Мономах; Russian: Владимир Мономах; Christian name Vasiliy, or Basil) (1053 -- May 19, 1125) was the ruler of Kievan Rus. ... Mstislav I Vladimirovich the Great (Russian: ) (June 1, 1076 – April 14, 1132), was the Velikiy Kniaz (Grand Prince) of Kiev (1125-1132), the eldest son of Vladimir II Monomakh by Gytha of Wessex. ... Redirect page ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ...


On the Ukrainian territory, the state of Kievan Rus' was succeeded by the principalities of Galich (Halych)and Volodymyr-Volynskyi, which were merged into the state of Galicia-Volhynia. Jackdaw on the coat-of-arms of Galicia alludes to the name of Halych Halych (Russian and Ukrainian: ) is a historic town in Western Ukraine on the Dniester River. ... Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... Halych-Volynia principality was the Ruthenian successor state of Kievan Rus on the territory of Rus menora (Rus propria) including the lands of Red Ruthenia, Black Ruthenia, and the remainder of southwestern Rus. This state also briefly controlled the region of Bessarabia and Moldavia. ...


Under foreign domination

See also: Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Crown of the Polish Kingdom, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and Russian Empire
In the centuries following the Mongol invasion, much of Ukraine was controlled by Lithuania (from the 14th century on) and since the Union of Lublin (1569) by Poland, as seen at this outline of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth as of 1619
In the centuries following the Mongol invasion, much of Ukraine was controlled by Lithuania (from the 14th century on) and since the Union of Lublin (1569) by Poland, as seen at this outline of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth as of 1619

In the mid-14th century, Galicia-Volhynia was subjugated by Casimir the Great of Poland, while the heartland of Rus', including Kiev, fell under the Gediminids of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Following the 1386 Union of Krevo, a dynastic union between Poland and Lithuania, most of Ukraine's territory was controlled by the local as well as increasingly Ruthenized Lithuanian nobles as part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. At this time, the term Ruthenia and Ruthenians as the Latinized versions of "Rus'", became widely applied to the land and its people, respectively. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... Crown of the Polish Kingdom, or just colloquially the Crown (Polish:Korona) is the archaic name for territories of Poland, distinguishing them from territories of Grand Duchy of Lithuania or vassal territories like Duchy of Prussia or Duchy of Courland, which had varying degrees of autonomy. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1973x1556, 717 KB) LEGEND: 1 - The Crown (Kingdom of Poland), 2 - Duch of Prussia - Polish fief, 3 - Grand Duchy of Lithuania, 4 - Duchy of Courland - Livonian fief, 5 - Livonia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1973x1556, 717 KB) LEGEND: 1 - The Crown (Kingdom of Poland), 2 - Duch of Prussia - Polish fief, 3 - Grand Duchy of Lithuania, 4 - Duchy of Courland - Livonian fief, 5 - Livonia. ... Redirect page ... The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Lithuanian: Liublino unija; Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed on July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into a single state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, with the official... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Noble Family or Dynasty Piast dynasty Coat of Arms Piast Eagle Parents WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I the Elbow-high, Jadwiga Kaliszka, of Gniezno and Greater Poland Consorts Aldona Ona, Adelheid of Hesse, Christina, Jadwiga of Glogow and Sagan Children 5 daughters Date of Birth 1310 Place of Birth Kowal Date... The Battle on the Irpen River (as referred to in historic chronicles) occurred in 1321 between the armies of Gediminas (Gedimin), the Grand Duke of Lithuania, and knyaz (prince) Stanislav of Kiev, allied with knyaz Oleg of Pereyaslavl and knyaz Roman of Bryansk. ... Columns of Gediminas, symbol of the Gediminids. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... The Union of Krewo (or Union of Krevo) was a a political and dynastic agreement between Queen Jadwiga of Poland and Grand Prince Jagiello of Lithuania and the begining of the Polish-Lithuanian Union. ... Dynastic union refers to the union of two titles or rulerships in one ruler or titleholder. ... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ...


By 1569 the Union of Lublin formed the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and a significant part of Ukrainian territory was moved from largely Ruthenized Lithuanian rule to the Polish administration, as it was transferred to the Polish Crown. Under the cultural and political pressure of Polonization much of the Ruthenian upper class converted to Catholicism and became indistinguishable from the Polish nobility.[17] Thus, the Ukrainian commoners, deprived of their native protectors among Ruthenian nobility, turned for protection to the Cossacks, who remained fiercely orthodox at all times and tended to turn to violence against those they perceived as enemies, particularly the Polish state and its representatives.[18] The Union of Lublin, painted by Jan Matejko The Union of Lublin (Lithuanian: Liublino unija; Belarusian: Лю́блінская ву́нія; Polish: Unia lubelska) - signed on July 1, 1569 in Lublin, united the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania into a single state, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, with the official... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Crown of the Polish Kingdom, or just colloquially the Crown (Polish:Korona) is the archaic name for territories of Poland, distinguishing them from territories of Grand Duchy of Lithuania or vassal territories like Duchy of Prussia or Duchy of Courland, which had varying degrees of autonomy. ... Polonization (Polish: ) is the assumption (complete or partial), of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic—from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1]—is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... This article needs cleanup. ... This article needs cleanup. ...

"Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of the Ottoman Empire." Painted by Ilya Repin from 1880 to 1891
"Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of the Ottoman Empire." Painted by Ilya Repin from 1880 to 1891

In the mid-17th century, a Cossack quasi state, the Zaporozhian Host, was established by the Dnieper Cossacks and the Ruthenian peasants fleeing Polish serfdom.[19] Poland had little real control of this land in what is now central Ukraine, which became an autonomous military quasi state, at times allied with the Commonwealth in military campaigns and at times rebelling against the Polish rule. However, the enserfment of peasantry by the Polish nobility emphasized the Commonwealth's fierce exploitation of the workforce and, and perhaps most importantly, the suppression of the Orthodox Church pushed the allegiances of Cossacks away from Poland. Their aspiration was to have representation in Polish Sejm, recognition of Orthodox traditions and the gradual expansion of the Cossack Registry, all being vehemently denied by the Polish kings. The Cossacks eventually turned for protection to Orthodox Russia, a decision which would later lead towards the downfall of the Polish-Lithuanian state,[19] and for Ukraine the preservation of its allegiance to the Orthodox Church and continued lack of national sovereignty. The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan of Turkey (1880-91). ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan of Turkey (1880-91). ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire Ilya Repin, 1880-1891 canvas, 2. ... Sultan Mehmed IV Mehmed IV (also known as Dördüncü, fourth, and Avci, hunter) (January 2, 1642–1693) (Arabic: محمد الرابع) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1648 to 1687. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Ilyá Yefímovich Répin (Илья́ Ефи́мович Ре́пин) (August 5, 1844 (Julian calendar: July 24) – September 29, 1930) was a leading Russian painter and sculptor of the Peredvizhniki artistic school. ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... Serf redirects here. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... This article needs cleanup. ... A plantation economy is an economy which is based on agricultural mass production, usually of a few staple products grown on large farms called plantations. ... The Sejm building in Warsaw. ... Registered Cossacks (Polish: Kozacy rejestrowi) is the term used for Cossacks (mostly from the Zaporizhian Sich) who were part of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth armies. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ...

Map of the Russian Empire, 1682-1762
Map of the Russian Empire, 1682-1762

In 1648, Bohdan Khmelnytsky led the largest of the Cossack uprisings against the Commonwealth and the Polish king John II Casimir.[20] This uprising finally led to a partition of the modern territory of Ukraine between Poland and Russia.[21] Left-bank Ukraine was eventually integrated into Russia as the Cossack Hetmanate, following the 1654 Treaty of Pereyaslav and the ensuing Russo-Polish War. After the partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century by Prussia, Habsburg Austria, and Russia, Western Ukrainian Galicia was taken over by Austria, while the rest of Ukraine was progressively incorporated into the Russian Empire. The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Bohdan Zynovii Mykhailovych Khmelnytskyi (Ukrainian: , commonly transliterated as Khmelnytsky; known in Polish as Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; in Russian as Богда́н Хмельни́цкий, translit. ... Khmelnytsky Uprising (also Chmielnicki Uprising or Khmelnytsky/Chmielnicki Rebellion) refers to a rebellion in the lands of in present-day Ukraine which raged from 1648-1654. ... Reign From November, 1648 until September 16, 1668 Elected In November 1648 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On January 19, 1649 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Vasa Parents Zygmunt III Waza Anna Austriaczka Consorts Ludwika Maria Children with Ludwika Maria Maria Anna Teresa... Left-bank Ukraine (Ukrainian: Лівобережна Україна Russian: Левобережная Украина, Polish: Lewobrzeżna Ukraina ): historic name of the part of Ukraine on the left bank of the Dnipro River, comprising the modern-day regions of Chernihiv, Poltava and Sumy and the eastern part of the Kyiv and Cherkasy regions, in Russian histories... This article is about the Cossack republic of 1654 to 1775. ... Pereyaslav Rada The Treaty of Pereyaslav was concluded in 1654 in the Ukrainian city of Pereyaslav during the meeting known as Pereyaslavska Uhoda (Pereyaslav Treaty). ... The Russo-Polish War of 1654-1667, also called the War for Ukraine, was the last major conflict between Muscovite Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... For other uses, see Galicia. ...


Because of its geographic location, Ukraine played an important role in the frequent wars between East European monarchies and the Ottoman Empire. As a result of Russian successes in the wars against Ottoman Empire and Crimean Khanate of 1768–74 and 1787–1792, the territories along the Black Sea coast were annexed to the Russian Empire as well. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... The Russo-Turkish Wars were a series of eleven wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Turkish-ruled Ottoman Empire during the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


Despite the promises of Ukrainian autonomy given by the treaty of Pereyaslav, the Ukrainian elite and the Cossacks never received the freedoms and the autonomy they were expecting from Imperial Russia. However, within the Empire, Ukrainians rose to the highest offices of Russian state, and the Russian Orthodox Church.[a] The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ...


At a later period, the tsarist regime carried the policy of Russification of Ukrainian lands, suppressing the use of the Ukrainian language in print, and in public.[22] Росси́йская Импе́рия, (also Imperial Russia) covers the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great into the Russian Empire stretching from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposition of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start of the Russian Revolution... Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ... Ukrainian (украї́нська мо́ва, ukrayinska mova, ) is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages. ...


World War I and revolution

See also: Ukraine in World War I , Ukraine after the Russian Revolution , and Ukrainian War of Independence

During World War I Austro-Hungarian authorities established the Ukrainian Legion, along with the Polish Legion, to fight against the Russian Empire. These legions were the foundations of the successful Polish Army and the abortive Ukrainian Galician Army that fought against the Bolsheviks and Poles in the post World War I period (1919-1923). One of the underlying themes of Ukrainian history of the early 20th century has been the quest for an independent nation. ... Ukrainian territory was fought over by various factions after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the First World War, which added the collapse of Austria-Hungary to that of the Imperial Russia. ... Combatants Ukrainian Peoples Republic West Ukrainian Peoples Republic German Empire (1918) Poland (1920) Ukrainian SSR Russian SFSR Makhnovshchyna (allied with the Bolsheviks until 1920) White Movement German Empire (1917) Poland (1918-1919) France (1919) The Ukrainian War of Independence was a conflict between Bolshevik, White Russian, Ukrainian, Polish... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... The Ukrainian Galician Army fielded a Jewish battalion (Zhydivskiy Kurin UHA) recruited from Ternopil and led by Leutenant S. Leimberg. ...

Soldiers of the Ukrainian People's Army.
Soldiers of the Ukrainian People's Army.

Those suspected of the Russophile sentiments were treaty harshly. Up to 20,000 supporters of Russia from Galicia were detained and placed in an Austrian internment camp in Talerhof, Styria, and in a fortress at Terezín (now in the Czech Republic).[23] Talerhof is the concentration camp, created by Austro-Hungarian authorities in the first days of the World War I in a sandy valley in foothills of the Alpes, near Graz, the main city of province Styria. ... Styria redirects here. ... Fortress plan, 1869 For the Nazi concentration camp, see Theresienstadt concentration camp Terezín (IPA: ; German: ) is the name of a former military fortress and garrison town in the Ústí nad Labem Region of the Czech Republic. ...


With the collapse of the Russian and Austrian empires following World War I and the Russian Revolution of 1917, a Ukrainian national movement for self-determination reemerged. During 1917–20, several separate Ukrainian states briefly emerged: the Ukrainian People's Republic, the Hetmanate and the Directorate successively established territories in the former Russian Empire, while the West Ukrainian People's Republic emerged briefly in the former Austro-Hungarian territory. In the midst of the civil war, a Ukrainian anarchist movement called the Black Army led by Nestor Makhno also developed.[24] However with the Western Ukraine's defeat in the Polish-Ukrainian War followed by the failure of the further Polish invasion repelled by the Russian and Ukrainian pro-Soviet forces, Ukraine lost its initial independence. According to the Peace of Riga concluded between Soviet Russia, Soviet Ukraine and Poland western Ukraine was split-off and incorporated into Poland while the larger central and eastern parts formed a Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in March 1919, that later became a constituent republic of the Soviet Union in December 1922. The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political and social upheavals in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the tsarist autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal and moderate-socialist Provisional Government, resulting in the establishment of Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... Flag Capital Kyiv Government Monarchy Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky History  - Established April, 1918  - Disestablished December, 1918 Ukrainian State (Ukrainian: , Ukrains’ka Derzhava) or The Hetmanate (Ukrainian: , Het’manat) was a short-lived polity in Ukraine, installed under support of the Central powers by Ukrainian Cossacks and military organizations after disbanding the... The Directorate, or Directory (Директория, Dyrektoriya), was a government of the Ukrainian National Republic formed in 1918 in rebellion against Skoropadskys Hetmanate. ... The West Ukrainian National Republic (Ukrainian: ) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyya, and Stanislav. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... Anarchism is a generic term describing various political philosophies and social movements that advocate the elimination of hierarchy and imposed authority. ... Nestor Ivanovich Makhno (Ukrainian: Нестор Іванович Махно, October 26, 1888 – July 25, 1934) was an anarcho-communist Ukrainian revolutionary who refused to align with the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution. ... Combatants Poland West Ukrainian Peoples Republic The Polish-Ukrainian War of 1918 and 1919 was a conflict between the forces of Poland and West Ukrainian Peoples Republic for the control over Eastern Galicia after the dissolution of Austria-Hungary. ... The Kiev Offensive (or Kiev Operation) was an important military operation, carried out by Polish Army and allied Ukrainian forces during the Polish-Bolshevik War, from April 1920 to June of the same year. ... Central and Eastern Europe after the Treaty of Riga See also Riga Peace Treaty for other treaties concluded in Riga. ... State motto (Ukrainian): Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ...


Interwar Soviet Ukraine

The Bolsheviks introduced universal health care, education and social-security benefits, as well as the right to work and housing. Women's rights were greatly increased through new laws aimed to wipe away centuries-old inequalities.[25] The Ukrainian culture and language also enjoyed a revival, as Ukrainization became a local implementation of the Soviet-wide Korenization (literally indigenization) policy.[26] These cultural policies were sharply reversed by the early-1930s. Universal health care, or universal healthcare, is health care coverage which is extended to all citizens, and sometimes permanent residents, of a governmental region. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... A performance of a traditional Ukrainian dance by Virsky dance ensemble The Culture of Ukraine is a result of influence over millenia from the West and East, with an assortment of strong culturally-identified ethnic groups. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Korenizatsiya (коренизация, sometimes called korenization), meaning nativization or indigenization, was the early Soviet ethnicity policy. ...

DniproGES hydroelectric power plant under construction circa 1930.
DniproGES hydroelectric power plant under construction circa 1930.

Starting from the late 1920s, Ukraine was involved in the Soviet industrialization and the republic's industrial output quadrupled in the 1930s.[27] However, the industrialization had a heavy cost for the peasantry, demographically a backbone of the Ukrainian nation. To satisfy the state's need for increased food supplies and to finance industrialization, Stalin instituted a program of collectivization of agriculture as the state combined the peasants' lands and animals into collective farms and enforcing the policies by the regular troops and secret police. Those who resisted were arrested and deported and the increased production quotas were placed on the peasantry. The collectivization had a devastating effect on agricultural productivity. As the members of the collective farms were not allowed to receive any grain until the unachievable quotas were met, starvation became widespread. In 1932-33, millions starved to death in a man-made famine known as Holodomor.[b] Scholars are divided as to whether this famine fits the definition of genocide, but the Ukrainian parliament and more than a dozen other countries recognize it as the genocide of the Ukrainian people.[28] Image File history File links DneproGES.jpg‎ DnieproGES under construction, 1934 From: [1], State archives of Russian Federation Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of Ukraine Dnieper Hydroelectric Station ... Image File history File links DneproGES.jpg‎ DnieproGES under construction, 1934 From: [1], State archives of Russian Federation Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): History of Ukraine Dnieper Hydroelectric Station ... // At the fourteenth Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in December 1927, Stalin attacked the left by expelling Trotsky and his supporters from the party and then moving against the right by abandoning Lenins New Economic Policy which had been championed by Nikolai Bukharin and Alexei... The collectivisation campaign in the USSR, 1930s. ... For the reggaeton aritst, see Cheka (artist). ... Not by Their Own Will. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... Child victim of the Holodomor Map of Ukrainian SRR in 1932-1933 (7 Oblast`s (Regions) + Moldavian ASSR) administrative borders given in light grey The Ukrainian famine (1932-1933), or Holodomor (Ukrainian: Голодомор), was one of the largest national catastrophes of the Ukrainian nation in modern history with direct loss of... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Verkhovna Rada. ...


The times of industrialization and Holodomor also coincided with the Soviet assault on the national political and cultural elite often accused in "nationalist deviations". These policies of Ukrainization were reversed at the turn of the decade. Two waves of purges (1929–1934 and 1936–1938) resulted in the elimination of four-fifths of the Ukrainian cultural elite.[27] This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) refers collectively to several related campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the 1930s, which removed all of his remaining opposition from power. ...


World War II

See also: Eastern Front (World War II)
Soviet soldiers preparing rafts to cross the Dnieper (the sign reads "To Kiev!") in the 1943 Battle of the Dnieper.

Following the Ribbentrop-Molotov pact in September 1939, German and Soviet troops divided the territory of Poland. Eastern Galicia and Volhynia with their Ukrainian population became reunited with the rest of Ukraine. This unifications of Ukraine achieved for the first time in its history was a decisive event in the history of the nation.[29][30] Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky... This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ... The Dnieper River (Russian: , Dnepr; Belarusian: , Dniapro; Ukrainian: , Dnipro) is a river which flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, ending its flow in the Black Sea. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Konstantin Rokossovsky, Ivan Konev Strength 1,250,000 men 12,600 guns 2,100 tanks 2,000 planes 2,650,000 men 51,000 guns 2,400 tanks 2,850 planes Casualties Low est. ... Molotov (left), Ribbentrop (in black) and Stalin The Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, also known as the Hitler-Stalin pact or Nazi-Soviet pact, was a non-aggression treaty between Germany and Russia, or more precisely between the Soviet Union and the Third Reich. ... CCCP redirects here. ... For the Soviet Unions military action against Poland under the same alliance, see Soviet invasion of Poland (1939). ... For other uses, see Galicia. ... Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ...


After France surrendered to Germany, Romania ceded Bessarabia and northern Bukovina to Soviet demands. The Ukrainian SSR incorporated northern and southern districts of Bessarabia, the northern Bukovina, and the Soviet-occupied Hertsa region. But it ceded the western part of the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic to the newly created Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic. All these territorial gains were internationally recognized by the Paris peace treaties of 1947. Belligerents France United Kingdom Canada Czechoslovakia Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III H.G. Winkelman WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Sikorski Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ... The June 1940 Soviet Ultimatum was issued by the Soviet Union to Romania, regarding the Soviet territorial requests. ... Ethnic divisions in Chernivtsi Oblast with Hertza region highlighted in dark blue Hertza region (Romanian: Å¢inutul HerÅ£a, Ukrainian: Край Герца Kraj Herca]) is the territory of an administrative district (raion) of Hertsa (HerÅ£a) in the southern part of Chernivtsi Oblast in south-western Ukraine, on the Romanian border. ... Moldavian ASSR (Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Republic; Romanian: Republica Autonomă Socialistă Sovietică Moldovenească) was an autonomous region of the Ukrainian SSR between 12 October 1924 and 2 August 1940, encompassing Transnistria (now in Moldova) and parts which are now in Ukraine. ... State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ... The Paris Peace Conference (July 29 to October 15, 1946) resulted in the Paris peace treaties signed on February 10, 1947. ...


German armies invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, thereby initiating four straight years of incessant total war. The Axis allies initially advanced against desperate but unsuccessful efforts of the Red Army. In the encirclement battle of Kiev, the city was acclaimed by the Soviets as a "Hero City", for the fierce resistance by the Red Army and by the local population. More than 600,000 Soviet soldiers (or one quarter of the Western Front) were killed or taken captive.[31][32] Although the wide majority of Ukrainians fought alongside the Red Army and Soviet resistance,[33] some elements of the Ukrainian nationalist underground created the anti-Soviet nationalist formation Ukrainian Insurgent Army (1942) that later fought the Nazi forces as well while another nationalist movement collaborated with the Nazis. In total, about 4.5 million ethnic Ukrainians fought in the ranks of the Soviet Army.[33][c] The pro-Soviet partisan guerrilla resistance in Ukraine at its peak in 1944 is estimated anywhere from 47,800 to 500,000, with about 48% of them being ethnic Ukrainians.[34][35] Similar to the Soviet partisans, the Ukrainian Insurgent Army's figures are very inaccurate, ranging anywhere from 15,000 to as much as 100,000 Ukrainians.[36][37] The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia Croatia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Franz Halder Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Ernst Busch Erich Hoepner Alfred Keller Georg von Küchler Günther von Kluge Heinz Guderian Hermann Hoth Albrecht Kesselring Adolf Strauss Carl-Heinrich von... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... Black: Zenith of the Axis Powers Capital Not applicable Political structure Military alliance Historical era World War II  - Tripartite Pact September 27, 1940  - Anti-Comintern Pact November 25, 1936  - Pact of Steel May 22, 1939  - Dissolved 1945 This article is about the independent countries (states) that comprised the Axis powers. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Hero City (город-герой or gorod-geroy in Russian) is an honorary title awarded to twelve cities and one city-fortress in the Soviet Union for outstanding heroism during the Great Patriotic War of 1941 to 1945. ... Combatants Germany Soviet Union Commanders Gerd von Rundstedt Semyon Budyonny (Removed from duty on Sept. ... WWII Eastern Front at the beginning of Operation Barbarossa The Western Front was a Front (military subdivision) of the Soviet Army, one of the Soviet Army Fronts during the Second World War. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... The Soviet partisans were members anti-fascist resistance movement which fought against the occupation of the Soviet Union by Axis forces during World War II. At the end of June 1941, immediately after the Germans crossed the Soviet border, the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik) (see... The Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Ukrainian: ) was a Ukrainian military organization formed initially in Volyn (in north-western Ukraine). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... SS-Brigadeführer Pavlo Schandruk The Ukrainian National Army (UNA) was the fighting arm of the Ukrainian National Committee of general Pavlo Shandruk. ... The Soviet partisans were members anti-fascist resistance movement which fought against the occupation of the Soviet Union by Axis forces during World War II. At the end of June 1941, immediately after the Germans crossed the Soviet border, the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik) (see...

Museum of the Great Patriotic War in Kiev.
Museum of the Great Patriotic War in Kiev.

Initially, the Germans were received as liberators by some Ukrainians, especially in western Ukraine, which had only joined the Soviet Union in 1939. However, brutal German rule in the occupied territories eventually turned many of its supporters against the occupation. Nazi administrators of conquered Soviet territories made little attempt to exploit the population of Ukrainian territories' dissatisfaction with Soviet political and economic policies.[38] Instead, the Nazis preserved the collective-farm system, systematically carried out genocidal policies against Jews, deported others (mainly Ukrainians) to work in Germany, and began a systematic depopulation of Ukraine to prepare it for German colonization,[39] which included a food blockade on Kiev. Under these circumstances, most people living in the occupied territory either passively or actively opposed the Nazis.


The total losses inflicted upon the Ukrainian population during the war are estimated between five and eight million,[40][41][42] including over half a million Jews killed by the Einsatzgruppen, sometimes with the help of local collaborators. Of the estimated 8.7 million Soviet troops who fell in battle against the Nazis,[43][44][45] 1.4 million were ethnic Ukrainians.[45][43][c][d] Ukraine is distinguished as one of the first nations to fight the Axis powers in Carpatho-Ukraine, and one that saw some of the greatest bloodshed during the war. A member of Einsatzgruppe D is just about to shoot a Jewish man kneeling before a filled mass grave in Vinnitsa, Ukraine, in 1942. ... Motto Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy Anthem Ukrainian: Transliteration: Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy Ukraines glory has not perished Map of Carpatho-Ukraine in 1939. ... Combatants Soviet Union,[1] Poland, Tannu Tuva (until 1944 incorporation with USSR), Mongolia Germany,[2] Italy (to 1943), Romania (to 1944), Finland (to 1944), Hungary, Slovakia, Croatia, Spain (to 1943, unofficial) Commanders Joseph Stalin, Aleksei Antonov, Ivan Konev, Rodion Malinovsky, Ivan Bagramyan, Kirill Meretskov, Ivan Petrov, Alexander Rodimtsev, Konstantin Rokossovsky...


Postwar development

See also: History of the Soviet Union (1953–1985)
Cleanup and restoration of Khreshchatyk, the central street of Kiev, heavily damaged in the war
Cleanup and restoration of Khreshchatyk, the central street of Kiev, heavily damaged in the war

The republic was heavily damaged by the war, and it required significant efforts to recover. More than 700 cities and towns and 28,000 villages were destroyed.[27] The situation was worsened by a famine in 1946–47 caused by the drought and the infrastructure breakdown that took away tens of thousand lives.[46] The Cold War ensued as the USSR and the United States struggled indirectly for influence around the world. ... Image File history File links Khreschatyk_cleanup. ... Image File history File links Khreschatyk_cleanup. ... Kreschatyk in the early 1980s Khreschatyk (Ukrainian: , Russian: ) is probably the best-known street in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ...


The nationalist anti-Soviet resistance lasted for years after the war, chiefly in Western Ukraine, but also in other regions.[47] The Ukrainian Insurgent Army, continued to fight the USSR into the 1950s. Using guerilla war tactics, the insurgents targeted for assassination and terror of those who they perceived as the representing, or cooperating at any level with, the Soviet state.[48][49] The Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Ukrainian: ) was a Ukrainian military organization formed initially in Volyn (in north-western Ukraine). ... are you looking for the political definition of guerilla war? Guerilla War is a video game by SNK. It is an overhead shooter. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ...


Following the death of Stalin in 1953, Nikita Khrushchev became the new leader of the USSR. Being the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Ukrainian SSR in 1938-49, Khrushchev was intimately familiar with the republic and after taking power union-wide, he began to emphasize the friendship between the Ukrainian and Russian nations. In 1954, the 300th anniversary of the Treaty of Pereyaslav was widely celebrated, and in particular, Crimea was transferred from the Russian SFSR to the Ukrainian SSR.[50] Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... Khrushchev redirects here. ... Pereyaslav Rada The Treaty of Pereyaslav was concluded in 1654 in the Ukrainian city of Pereyaslav during the meeting known as Pereyaslavska Uhoda (Pereyaslav Treaty). ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 December 30, 1922 December 12, 1991 (independence) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... State motto: Ukrainian: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Kiev Official language Ukrainian and Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until December 25, 1917 December 30, 1922 August 24, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 3rd in the USSR 603,700 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 2nd in the...


The times of Khrushchev Thaw in early 1960s brought to life a new wave of indigenously Ukrainian dissident movement with such prominent figures as Vyacheslav Chornovil, Vasyl Stus, Levko Lukyanenko. As in the other regions of USSR, the movements were quickly suppressed. During the 1960s, it is estimated that over fifty percent of all political prisoners in the USSR were Ukrainians.[51] In Soviet history, Kruschevs Thaw or Khrushchev Thaw refers to the period between the end of 1950s and the beginning of 1960s, when repressions and censorship reached a low point. ... For the Pearl Jam song, see Dissident (song). ... Vyacheslav Chornovil (Ukrainian: ) (December 24, 1937, Yerky, Katerynopilsky Raion, Cherkasy Oblast, Ukrainian SSR - March 25, 1999, near Boryspil, Kiev Oblast, Ukraine) was a Ukrainian politician. ... Vasyl Stus on the cover of a book of his poetry My people, I will return to you Vasyl Semenovych Stus (Ukrainian: ; January 8, 1938 - September 4, 1985) was a Ukrainian poet and publicist, one of the most active members of Ukrainian dissident movement. ... Levko Lukyanenko in Sophia Square, Kyiv. ...

Largest airplane in the world An-225, produced by Antonov in 1980s
Largest airplane in the world An-225, produced by Antonov in 1980s
Map of the radiation levels around Chernobyl in 1996
Map of the radiation levels around Chernobyl in 1996

Already by the 1950s, the republic fully surpassed pre-war levels of industry and production.[52] It also became an important center of the Soviet arms industry and high-tech research. Such an important role resulted in a major influence of the local elite. Many members of the Soviet leadership came from Ukraine, most notably Leonid Brezhnev who would later oust Khrushchev and become the Soviet leader from 1964 to 1982, as well as many prominent Soviet sportsmen, scientists and artists. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (861x260, 29 KB) An-225 at München Airport Beschreibung: AN225 auf dem Münchner Flughafen Quelle: fotografiert im Jahr 2002 Fotograf: Edgar Lindner Lizenzstatus: GNU FDL Original Uploader: de:Benutzer:Rico Kuehn File links The following pages on the English... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (861x260, 29 KB) An-225 at München Airport Beschreibung: AN225 auf dem Münchner Flughafen Quelle: fotografiert im Jahr 2002 Fotograf: Edgar Lindner Lizenzstatus: GNU FDL Original Uploader: de:Benutzer:Rico Kuehn File links The following pages on the English... An-225 carrying a Buran shuttle The Antonov An-225 Mriya (NATO reporting name: Cossack) is a strategic airlift transport airplane that was built by Antonov (ASTC). ... For other uses, see Antonov (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Chernobyl_radiation_map_1996. ... Image File history File links Chernobyl_radiation_map_1996. ... This article is about the city of Chernobyl. ... The AK-47 has been produced in greater numbers than any other assault rifle and has been used in conflicts all over the world. ... Brezhnev redirects here. ...


The rule of Shcherbytsky, leader of the Communist Party of Ukraine, was characterized by the expanded policies of Russification. At the same time, being one of the most influential Soviet politicians and the veteran of the CPSU Politburo he used his clout to advocate economic interests of Ukraine within the USSR. Volodymyr Vasylyovych Shcherbytsky (Ukrainian: , Russian: ) (17 February 1918 - 17 February 1990) was a Ukrainian and Soviet politician. ... Simonenko presidential election-2004 poster in Russian The Communist Party of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) is a political party in Ukraine, currently led by Petro Symonenko. ... Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ... The Politburo (in Russian: Политбюро), known as the Presidium from 1952 to 1966, functioned as the central policymaking and governing body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ...


On April 26, 1986 a reactor in the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant exploded, resulting in the Chernobyl disaster, the worst nuclear reactor accident in history.[53][54] The disaster was the result of a flawed reactor design, and serious mistakes by plant operators. The explosions and the resulting fire sent a plume of highly radioactive fallout into the atmosphere and over an extensive geographical area, resulting in mandatory evacuation or voluntary resettlement of about 350,000 people. At the time of the accident seven million people lived in the contaminated territories, including 2.2 million in Ukraine.[55] is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station, viewed from the roof of a building in Pripyat, Ukraine. ... Chernobyl reactor number four after the disaster, showing the extensive damage to the main reactor hall (image center) and turbine building (image lower left) The Chernobyl disaster, reactor accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, or simply Chernobyl, was the worst nuclear power plant accident in history and the only... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion, so named because it falls out of the atmosphere into which it is spread during the explosion. ...


After the accident, a new city, Slavutych, was built outside the exclusion zone to house and support the employees of the plant, which was decommissioned in 2000. Around 150,000 people were evacuated from the contaminated area, and 300,000–600,000 took part in the cleanup. As of 2000, about 4,000 Ukrainian children have been diagnosed with thyroid cancer caused by radiation released by this incident.[56] Slavutych (Ukrainian: ) is a city in northern Ukraine, named after the Old Slavic name of the near-by Dnieper River. ... Entrance to the Zone of Alienation Abandoned living blocks in the Zone The Zone of Alienation, which is variously referred to as The Chernobyl Zone, The 30 Kilometer Zone, The Zone of Exclusion, The Fourth Zone, or just The Zone (Ukrainian official designation: Зона відчуження Чорнобильської АЕС, zona vidchuzhennya Chornobylskoyi AES, colloquially... Thyroid cancer refers to any of four kinds of malignant tumors of the thyroid gland: papillary, follicular, medullary and anaplastic. ...


Independence

On July 16, 1990 the new parliament adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine.[57] The declaration established the principles of the self-determination of the Ukrainian nation, democracy, political and economic independence, and the priority of Ukrainian law on the Ukrainian territory over Soviet law. A month earlier, a similar declaration was adopted by the parliament of the Russian SFSR. This started a period of confrontation between the central Soviet, and new republican authorities. In March 1991, a referendum was organized by Soviet authorities, asking people whether they wanted to live in a "renewed" Soviet Union. The Ukrainian parliament added a second question, asking Ukrainian citizens whether they wished to live in the Soviet Union on the principles established in the Declaration of State Sovereignty. The citizens of Ukraine responded positively to both questions. is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Declaration of State Sovereignty of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) was adopted on July 16, 1990 by the recently elected parliament of Ukrainian SSR. The Declaration established the principles of Self-Determination of the Ukrainian Nation, Rule of the People, State Power, Citizenship of the Ukrainian SSR, Territorial Supremacy, Economic Independence, Environmental... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 December 30, 1922 December 12, 1991 (independence) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the...


In August 1991, the conservative Communist leaders of the Soviet Union attempted a coup to remove Gorbachev and to restore the Communist party's power. After the attempt failed, on August 24, 1991 the Ukrainian parliament adopted the Act of Independence in which the parliament declared Ukraine as an independent democratic state.[58] A referendum and the first presidential elections took place on December 1, 1991. That day, more than 90 percent of the Ukrainian people expressed their support for the Act of Independence, and they elected the chairman of the parliament, Leonid Kravchuk to serve as the first President of the country. At the meeting in Brest, Belarus on December 8, followed by Alma Ata meeting on December 21, the leaders of Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine, formally dissolved the Soviet Union and formed the Commonwealth of Independent States.[59] Ukraine became completely independent state on December 26, 1991 when the Council of Republics (a chamber) of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR recognized the dissolution of the Soviet Union and dissolved itself (another chamber of the Supreme Soviet had being unable to work during some monthes before this, due to absence of quorum). During the Soviet Coup of 1991 (August 19-22, 1991), also known as the August Putsch or August Coup, a group of members of the Soviet government briefly deposed Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev and attempted to take control of the country. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Act of Declaration of Independence of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) was adopted by the Ukrainian parliament on August 24, 1991. ... The Referendum took place in Ukraine on December 1, 1991. ... The Ukrainian presidential election, 1991 was the first presidential election held in Ukraine. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Leonid Kravchuk in Kiev, August 1992 Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk (Ukrainian: Леонід Макарович Кравчук born 10 January 1934) is a Ukrainian politician. ... Mariyinsky Palace The President of Ukraine (Ukrainian: , Prezydent Ukrayiny) is the head of the state of Ukraine and acts in its name. ... The Belavezha Accords (Russian: ) is the agreement signed at the state Dacha near Visculi in Belarussian part of the BiaÅ‚owieża Forest (also known as Belovezhskaya Pushcha) on December 8, 1991, by the Presidents of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus (Boris Yeltsin, Leonid Kravchuk and Stanislav Shushkevich), which declared the... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Alma-Ata Pioneers palace Russian Orthodox Cathedral Night city. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...  Member state  Associate member Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Working language Russian Type Commonwealth Membership 11 member states 1 associate member Leaders  -  Executive Secretary Sergei Lebedev Establishment December 21, 1991 Website http://cis. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Look up chamber in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... Look up quorum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

First launch of a Ukrainian Zenit rocket at the Sea Launch complex.

Ukraine was initially viewed as a republic with favorable economic conditions in comparison to the other regions of the Soviet Union.[60] However, the country experienced deeper economic slowdown than some of the other former Soviet Republics. During the recession, Ukraine lost 60 percent of its GDP from 1991 to 1999,[61][62] and suffered five-digit inflation rates.[63] Dissatisfied with the economic conditions, as well as crime and corruption, Ukrainians protested and organized strikes.[64] The Zenit rocket (Ukrainian: Зеніт, Russian: Зени́т; meaning Zenith) is a space launch vehicle manufactured by the Yuzhnoe Design Bureau of Ukraine. ... Sea Launch command ship Sea Launch Commander Sea Launch is a spacecraft launch service that uses a mobile sea platform for equatorial launches of commercial payloads on specialized Zenit 3SL rockets. ... The Post-Soviet states, also commonly known as former Soviet republics, are the independent nations which split off from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991. ...


In 1994, President Kravchuk agreed to hold presidential elections ahead of schedule, in which he lost the presidential post to former Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma who served two terms as the president. Leonid Kravchuk in Kiev, August 1992 Leonid Makarovych Kravchuk (Ukrainian: Леонід Макарович Кравчук born 10 January 1934) is a Ukrainian politician. ... The Ukrainian presidential election, 1994 was a presidential election held in 1994 in Ukraine. ... The Prime Minister of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) presides over the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, which is the top body of the executive branch of the Ukrainian government. ... Leonid Kuchma Leonid Danylovych Kuchma (Ukrainian: Леонід Данилович Кучма; born August 9, 1938) was the second President of Ukraine from July 19, 1994, to January 23, 2005. ...


The Ukrainian economy stabilized by the end of 1990s. A new currency, the hryvnia, was introduced in 1996. Since 2000 the country has enjoyed steady economic growth averaging about seven percent annually,[65][4] which is one of the highest growth rates in Europe and the world. A new Constitution of Ukraine was adopted in 1996, which turned Ukraine into a semi-presidential republic and established a stable political system. Kuchma was, however, criticized by opponents for concentrating too much of power in his office, corruption, transferring public property into hands of loyal oligarchs, discouraging free speech, and electoral fraud.[66][67] ISO 4217 Code UAH User(s) Ukraine Inflation 11. ... The Constitution of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) was adopted at the 5th session of the Verkhovna Rada (parliament) of Ukraine, on June 28, 1996. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government that features both a prime minister and a president who are active participants in the day to day functioning of government. ... Business oligarch is a near-synonym of the term business magnate. The choice of the word oligarch denotes the significant influence such wealthy individuals may have on the life of a nation. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an election. ...


The first astronaut of the National Space Agency of Ukraine to enter space under the Ukrainian flag was Leonid Kadenyuk on May 13, 1997. Ukraine became an active participant in scientific space exploration and remote sensing missions. Between 1991 and 2007, Ukraine has launched six self made satellites and 101 launch vehicles, and continues to design spacecraft.[68] For other uses, see Astronaut (disambiguation). ... The National Space Agency of Ukraine, or NSAU (Ukrainian: Національне космічне агентство України, Natsionalne kosmichne ahentstvo Ukrayiny, or НКАУ, NKAU) is the Ukrainian government agency responsible for space policy and programs. ... NAME: Leonid K. Kadenyuk NSAU Astronaut PERSONAL DATA: Born January 28, 1951, in the Chernivtsi region of Ukraine. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... For other uses, please see Satellite (disambiguation) A satellite is an object that orbits another object (known as its primary). ... A Saturn V launch vehicle sends Apollo 15 on its way to the moon. ...

In 2004, Viktor Yanukovych, then Prime Minister, was declared the winner of the presidential elections, which had been largely rigged, as many observers agreed. The results caused a public outcry in support of the opposition candidate, Viktor Yushchenko, who challenged the results and led the peaceful Orange Revolution. The revolution brought Viktor Yushchenko and Yulia Tymoshenko to power, while casting Viktor Yanukovych in opposition.[69] In late March and early April 2007, Ukraine dealt with yet another constitutional crisis. President Viktor Yushchenko dissolved the Ukrainian parliament and ordered an early election to be held May 27, 2007. This decision rallied widespread support from the 'Orange' opposition, and wide spread denial from Yanukovych's fraction, the Party of Regions.[70] Eventually, a compromise between Yushchenko and Yanukovych was reached to hold early parliamentary elections.[71] The early elections were held on September 30, 2007. In the elections, the combined parties of Yulia Tymoshenko and 'Our Ukraine' emerged victorious. On December 18, 2007, Yulia Tymoshenko once again became the prime minister of Ukraine.[72] Image File history File links Ukraine_elections_massprotest_20041122. ... Image File history File links Ukraine_elections_massprotest_20041122. ... Orange-clad demonstrators gather in the Independence Square in Kiev on 22 November, 2004. ... Maidan Nezalezhnosti (literally: Independence Square ) is a main square in Kyiv, capital city of Ukraine. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) (born on July 9, 1950 in Yenakiieve, Donetsk Oblast) is the Prime Minister of Ukraine. ... The presidential election held in November and December 2004 in Ukraine was mostly a political battle between Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych and former Prime Minister and opposition leader Viktor Yushchenko. ... Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Ukrainian:  ) (born February 23, 1954) is the current President of Ukraine. ... Orange-clad demonstrators gather in the Independence Square in Kiev on 22 November, 2004. ... Yulia Volodymyrivna Tymoshenko[1] (Ukrainian: ) (born 27 November 1960) is a Ukrainian politician and former Prime Minister of Ukraine (from 24 January to 8 September 2005). ... On April 2, 2007, Viktor Yushchenko, the President of Ukraine, dissolved parliament and signed the presidential decree ordering early parliamentary elections in Ukraine to be held on May 27, 2007,[1] though they were later postponed to June 24, 2007. ... Viktor Andriyovych Yushchenko (Ukrainian:  ) (born February 23, 1954) is the current President of Ukraine. ... Verkhovna Rada. ... This article is about the political process. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Ukrainian Party of Regions emblem The Party of Regions ( Ukrainian: , Russian: ) is a Ukrainian political party created in March 2001. ... Early parliamentary elections in Ukraine are scheduled to take place on September 30, 2007. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc, (Ukrainian: ) is the name of the subsequently created political coalitions in Ukraine led by the politician Yulia Tymoshenko. ... Our Ukraine–Peoples Self-Defense Bloc (Ukrainian: ) is an Ukrainian political alliance formed by the Peoples Union Our Ukraine, the Civil Movement Peoples Self-Defense, Pora, the Peoples Movement of Ukraine, the Ukrainian Peoples Party, the Ukrainian Republican Party Assembly, the Christian Democratic Union, the... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Yulia Volodymyrivna Tymoshenko[1] (Ukrainian: ) (born 27 November 1960) is a Ukrainian politician and former Prime Minister of Ukraine (from 24 January to 8 September 2005). ...


On April 18, 2007 in Cardiff, Wales, Ukraine won a joint bid with Poland to host the UEFA Euro 2012 football championship, which is the third-largest sporting event in the world after the FIFA World Cup and the Olympics. This is the first time in Ukrainian history that the country got a chance to host such a major international event. Experts and politicians have noted that it will boost Ukrainian infrastructure development, tourism and overall investments into the country. Among the most significant developments that will take place in the process of preparation are the road infrastructure improvement, expanding hotel networks in at least six major cities (in particular, Kiev, Dnipropetrovsk, Kharkiv, Donetsk, Odessa and Lviv), modernization of airports and construction of modern football stadiums. One of the stadiums (under construction) is the Shakhtar Stadium in Donetsk, which received a five-star FIFA rating as one of the best in the world.[73] is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article is about the Welsh capital. ... The UEFA Euro 2012, commonly referred to as Euro 2012, will be the 14th European Championship for national football teams sanctioned by UEFA. Poland and Ukraine will be the host nations of the final tournament, scheduled for the summer of 2012, following the election of their joint-bid by UEFA... The FIFA World Cup, sometimes called the Football World Cup or the Soccer World Cup, but usually referred to simply as the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the mens national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the... Olympic Games Summer Olympic Games Medal count Winter Olympic Games Medal count Olympic sports Medal counts Participating NOCs Olympic symbols Olympics WikiProject Olympics Portal Athens 2004 • Beijing 2008 Torino 2006 • Vancouver 2010 ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Dnipropetrovsk highlighted. ... For other uses, see Kharkiv (disambiguation). ... For Donetsk in Russia, see Donetsk, Russia. ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... “Lvov” redirects here. ... Shakhtar Stadium is a football-only stadium in Donetsk, Ukraine, currently under construction. ... This article is about the international association football organization. ...


Government and politics

Verkhovna Rada, the Parliament of Ukraine
Verkhovna Rada, the Parliament of Ukraine

Ukraine is a republic under a mixed semi-parliamentary semi-presidential system with separate legislative, executive, and judicial branches. The President is elected by popular vote for a five-year term and is the formal head of state.[74] Ukraine is a republic under a semi-presidential system with separate legislative, executive, and judicial branches. ... Elections in Ukraine gives information on election and election results in Ukraine. ... // Western relations Ukraine considers Euro-Atlantic integration its primary foreign policy objective, but in practice balances its relationship with Europe and the United States with strong ties to Russia. ... Verkhovna Rada. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... States with semi-presidential systems are shown in yellow The semi-presidential system is a system of government in which a prime minister and a president are both active participants in the day-to-day functioning of the administration of a country. ... Chamber of the Estates-General, the Dutch legislature. ... The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... The judiciary, also referred to as the judicature, consists of justices, judges and magistrates among other types of adjudicators. ... Mariyinsky Palace The President of Ukraine (Ukrainian: , Prezydent Ukrayiny) is the head of the state of Ukraine and acts in its name. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ...


Ukraine's legislative branch includes the 450-seat unicameral parliament, the Verkhovna Rada.[75] The parliament is primarily responsible for the formation of the executive branch and the Cabinet of Ministers, which is headed by the Prime Minister.[76] Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... Verkhovna Rada. ... Cabinet of Ministers The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine is the highest body in the system of bodies of executive power in Ukraine. ... The Prime Minister of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) presides over the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, which is the top body of the executive branch of the Ukrainian government. ...


Laws, acts of the parliament and the cabinet, presidential decrees, and acts of the Crimean parliament may be abrogated by the Constitutional Court, should they be found to violate the Constitution of Ukraine. Other normative acts are subject to judicial review. The Supreme Court is the main body in the system of courts of general jurisdiction. Local self-government is officially guaranteed. Local councils and city mayors are popularly elected and exercise control over local budgets. The heads of regional and district administrations are appointed by the president. The Verkhovna Rada of Crimea (Ukrainian: ; English: ) is the official name of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukraines parliament. ... The Constitutional Court of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) is the only body of constitutional jurisdiction in Ukraine. ... The Constitution of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) was adopted at the 5th session of the Verkhovna Rada (parliament) of Ukraine, on June 28, 1996. ... The Supreme Court of Ukraine (in Ukrainian, Верховний Суд України) is the highest judicial body in the system of courts of general jurisdiction in Ukraine. ...


Ukraine has a large number of political parties, many of which have tiny memberships and are unknown to the general public. Small parties often join in multi-party coalitions (electoral blocs) for the purpose of participating in parliamentary elections.


Military

Main article: Military of Ukraine
Ukrainian army soldiers aboard BTR-80 during the US led invasion of Iraq
Ukrainian army soldiers aboard BTR-80 during the US led invasion of Iraq

After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Ukraine inherited a 780,000 man military force on its territory, equipped with the third-largest nuclear weapon arsenal in the world.[77] In May 1992, Ukraine signed the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) in which the country agreed to give up all nuclear weapons to Russia for disposal and to join the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty as a non-nuclear weapon state. Ukraine ratified the treaty in 1994, and by 1996 the country became free of nuclear weapons.[78] Currently Ukraine's military is the second largest in Europe, after that of Russia.[79] For other uses, see Ukrainian Army (disambiguation). ... The Armed Forces of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) were formed from portions of the Military of the collapsing Soviet Union, in the early 1990s. ... BTR-80 is an 8x8 wheeled armoured personnel carrier (APC) designed in the Soviet Union. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... START, officially the STrategic Arms Reduction Treaty was a nuclear weapons limitation treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... // History Since the breakup of the Soviet Union, the Russians have discussed rebuilding a viable, cohesive fighting force out of the remaining parts of the former Soviet armed forces. ...


Ukraine also took consistent steps toward reduction of conventional weapons. It signed the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, which called for reduction of tanks, artillery, and armored vehicles (army forces were reduced to 300,000). The country plans to convert the current conscript-based military into a professional volunteer military not later than in 2011.[80] The original Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) was negotiated and concluded during the last years of the Cold War and established comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment in Europe (from the Atlantic to the Urals) and mandated the destruction of excess weaponry. ... The term Conscript may refer to people enlisted in the armed forces through conscription. ... A volunteer military or all-volunteer military is one which derives its manpower from volunteers rather than conscription or mandatory service. ... 2011 (MMXI) will be a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

A Ukrainian peacekeeper in Kosovo
A Ukrainian peacekeeper in Kosovo

Ukraine has been playing an increasingly larger role in peacekeeping operations. Ukrainian troops are deployed in Kosovo as part of the Ukrainian-Polish Battalion.[81] A Ukrainian unit was deployed in Lebanon, as part of UN Interim Force enforcing the mandated ceasefire agreement. There was also a maintenance and training battalion deployed in Sierra Leone. In 2003-2005, a Ukrainian unit was deployed in Iraq, as part of the Multinational force in Iraq under Polish command. The total Ukrainian military deployment around the world is 562 servicemen.[82] For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Unit badge Polish-Ukrainian Peace Force Battalion or POLUKRBAT is a Polish-Ukrainian peacekeeping battalion, formed in late 1990s expressly for participation in international peace-keeping and humanitarian operations under the auspices of international organizations.[1] The battalion can be used in international missions approved by the UN Security Council... A Sisu XA-180 used by Swedish UNIFIL forces in Lebanon The United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon, or UNIFIL, was created by the United Nations, with the adoption of Security Council Resolution 425 and 426 on March 19, 1978, to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, restore international peace and... The Multi-National Force - Iraq (MNF-I), is a military command, led by the United States, that is fighting the Iraq War against the multitude of Iraqi insurgents. ...


Following independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state.[83] The country has had a limited military partnership with Russia, other CIS countries and a partnership with NATO since 1994. In the 2000s, the government was leaning towards the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and a deeper cooperation with the alliance was set by the NATO-Ukraine Action Plan signed in 2002. As of 2006, this issue is a subject of heated debate within Ukraine as to whether the country should join NATO. In August 2006, the leading political parties signed the Universal of National Unity, a nonbinding document, in which it was agreed that the question of joining NATO should be answered by a national referendum at some point in the future.[80] According to polls, half of Ukrainians are opposed to NATO membership, with only up to 30% approving it.[84] Partnership for Peace is a NATO project aimed at creating trust between NATO and other states in Europe and the former Soviet Union. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... The Universal of National Unity, also known as the Declaration of National Unity, (Ukrainian: , translit. ...


Oblasts

The system of Ukrainian subdivisions reflects the country's status as a unitary state (as stated in the country's constitution) with unified legal and administrative regimes for each unit. Ukraine is subdivided into 24 oblasts (Ukrainian singular: область, oblast; plural області, oblasti), one autonomous republic (автономна республіка, avtonomna respublika), and two cities with special status (singular місто зі спеціальним статусом, misto zi spetsialnym statusom). ... Ukraine is subdivided into 24 oblasts (Ukrainian singular: область, oblast; plural області, oblasti), one autonomous republic (автономна республіка, avtonomna respublika), and two cities with special status (singular місто зі спеціальним статусом, misto zi spetsialnym statusom). ... A map showing the unitary states. ... The Constitution of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) was adopted at the 5th session of the Verkhovna Rada (parliament) of Ukraine, on June 28, 1996. ... This article is about law in society. ... Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ...


Ukraine is subdivided into twenty-four oblasts (provinces) and one autonomous republic (avtonomna respublika), Crimea. Additionally, the cities of Kiev, the capital, and Sevastopol, both have a special legal status. The 24 oblasts and Crimea are subdivided into 490 raions (districts), or second-level administrative units. The average area of a Ukrainian raion is 1,200 km², the average population of a raion is 52,000 people.[85] Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasÅ¥, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... A significant number of autonomous republics can be found within the successor states of the Soviet Union, but the majority are located within Russia. ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... A raion (or rayon) (Russian and Ukrainian: ; Belarusian раён; Azeri: rayon, Latvian: rajons, Georgian: , raioni) is one of two kinds of administrative subdivisions in languages of some post-Soviet states: a subnational entity and a subdivision of a city. ... Local government areas called districts are used, or have been used, in several countries. ...


Urban areas (cities) can either be subordinated to the state (as in the case of Kiev and Sevastopol), the oblast or raion administrations, depending on their population and socio-economic importance. Lower administrative units include urban-type settlements, which are similar to rural communities, but are more urbanized, including industrial enterprises, educational facilities, and transport connections, and villages. Urban-type settlement (Russian: , posyolok gorodskogo tipa; Ukrainian: , selyshche miskoho typu; abbreviated as in Russian and as in Ukrainian) is an official designation for a certain type of urban settlements used in some of the countries of the former Soviet Union. ... Masouleh village, Gilan Province, Iran. ...


In total, Ukraine has 457 cities, 176 of them are labeled oblast-class, 279 smaller raion-class cities, and two special legal status cities. These are followed by 886 urban-type settlements and 28,552 villages.[85]

Ukraine is subdivided into 24 oblasts (Ukrainian singular: область, oblast; plural області, oblasti), one autonomous republic (автономна республіка, avtonomna respublika), and two cities with special status (singular місто зі спеціальним статусом, misto zi spetsialnym statusom). ... Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasÅ¥, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ... Download high resolution version (1417x990, 309 KB) Political map of Ukraine by Sven Teschke --Steschke 21:39, 2004 Dec 2 (UTC) This map is listed in the german Version of Wikipedia:Featured pictures. ... Administrative center Cherkasy Governor Oleksandr Cherevko (?) Oblast council  - Chairperson  - Council seats Volodymyr Hres’ (?) 76 Subdivisions  - Raions  - Cities of oblast subordinance  - Cities   -Towns  - Villages 21 6 25 34 838 Area Total  - Land  - Water (% of total)  Ranked 18th 20,900 km² ? km² ? km² (?%) Population  - Total (2006)  - Density  - Annual Growth Ranked ? 1,335... Chernihiv Oblast (Чернігівська область, Chernihivs’ka oblast’ or Чернігівщина, Chernihivshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) of northern Ukraine. ... Administrative center Chernivtsi Governor Volodymyr Kalish (?) Oblast council  - Chairperson  - Council seats ? (?) ? Subdivisions  - Raions  - Cities of oblast subordinance  - Cities   -Towns  - Villages 11 2 11 8 398 Area Total  - Land  - Water (% of total)  Ranked 24th 8,097 km² ? km² ? km² (?%) Population  - Total (2006)  - Density  - Annual Growth Ranked ? 904,423 113/km² ?% Average... Dnipropetrovsk Oblast (Ukrainian: , Dnipropetrovs’ka oblast’ or Дніпропетровщина, Dnipropetrovshchyna) is an oblast of central Ukraine, the most important industrial region of the country. ... COA of the Donetsk Oblast Donetsk Oblast (Ukrainian: Донецька область, Donets’ka oblast’ or Донеччина, Donechchyna) is an oblast (province) of eastern Ukraine. ... Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (Івано-Франківська область, Ivano-Frankivs’ka oblast’ or Івано-Франківщина, Ivano-Frankivshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast of Ukraine. ... Kharkiv Oblast (Харківська область, Kharkivs’ka oblast’ or Харківщина, Kharkivshchyna in Ukrainian; Харьковская область, Khar’kovskaya oblast’ in Russian) is an oblast of eastern Ukraine. ... Kherson Oblast (Херсонська область, Khersons’ka oblast’ or Херсонщина, Khersonshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast of southern Ukraine, just north of Crimea. ... Khmelnytskyi Oblast (Хмельницька область, Khmel’nyts’ka oblast’ or Хмельниччина, Khmelnychchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) of western Ukraine. ... Kiev Oblast (also Kyiv Oblast, Ukrainian: ) is an oblast (province) in central Ukraine. ... Kirovohrad Oblast (Кіровоградська область, Kirovohrads’ka oblast’ or Кіровоградщина, Kirovohradshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) of Ukraine. ... Luhansk Oblast (Ukrainian: , Luhans’ka oblast’ or Луганщина, Luhanshchyna; Russian: , Luganskaya oblast) is the easternmost oblast (province) of Ukraine. ... Lviv Oblast is an oblast of western Ukraine, created on December 4, 1939. ... Mykolayiv Oblast (Миколаївська область, Mykolaivs’ka oblast’ or Миколаївщина, Mykolaivshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast of Ukraine. ... Administrative center Odessa Governor Ivan Vasylyovych Plachkov (Peoples Union Our Ukraine) Oblast council  - Chairperson  - Council seats Mykola Leonidovych Skoryk (Party of Regions) 120 Subdivisions  - Raions  - Cities of oblast subordinance  - Cities   -Towns  - Villages 26 7 19 33 1,138 Area Total  - Land  - Water (% of total)  Ranked 1st 33,310 km... Poltava Oblast (Полтавська область, Poltavs’ka oblast’ or Полтавщина, Poltavshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) of central Ukraine. ... Rivne Oblast (Рівненська область, Rivnens’ka oblast’ or Рівненщина, Rivnenshchyna in Ukrainian; Rowno in Polish) is an oblast (province) of Ukraine. ... Sumy Oblast (Сумська область, Sums’ka oblast’ or Сумщина, Sumshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) in the north-east of Ukraine. ... Ternopil Oblast (Тернопільська область, Ternopil’s’ka oblast’ or Тернопільщина, Ternopil’shchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) of Ukraine. ... Vinnytsia Oblast (Ukrainian: ) is an oblast of Ukraine. ... Volyn Oblast (Волинська область, Volyns’ka oblast’ or Волинь/ Волынь, Volyn’ in Ukrainian and Russian respectevely). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Zaporizhia Oblast (Запорізька область, Zaporizka oblast’ or Запоріжщина, Zaporizhchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) of southern Ukraine. ... Flag of Zhytomyr Oblast Coat of Arms of Zhyomyr Oblast Zhytomyr Oblast (Житомирська область, Zhytomyrs’ka oblast’ or Житомирщина, Zhytomyrshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) of northern Ukraine. ... A significant number of autonomous republics can be found within the successor states of the Soviet Union, but the majority are located within Russia. ... Ukraine is subdivided into 24 oblasts (Ukrainian singular: область, oblast; plural області, oblasti), one autonomous republic (автономна республіка, avtonomna respublika), and two cities with special status (singular місто зі спеціальним статусом, misto zi spetsialnym statusom). ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ...

Geography

Main article: Geography of Ukraine
A topographic map of Ukraine
A topographic map of Ukraine

At 603,700 km² (233,074 sq mi) and with a coastline of 2,782 km (1,729 mi), Ukraine is the world's 44th-largest country (after the Central African Republic, before Madagascar). It is the second largest country in Europe (after the European part of Russia, before metropolitan France).[2] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require rewriting and/or reformatting. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x954, 541 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Geography of Ukraine Category: ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x954, 541 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Geography of Ukraine Category: ... This article is about the unit of measure. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Metropolitan France Metropolitan France (French: or la Métropole) is the part of France located in Europe, including Corsica (French: Corse). ...


The Ukrainian landscape consists mostly of fertile plains (or steppes) and plateaus, crossed by rivers such as the Dnieper (Dnipro), Seversky Donets, Dniester and the Southern Buh as they flow south into the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov. To the southwest, the delta of the Danube forms the border with Romania. The country's only mountains are the Carpathian Mountains in the west, of which the highest is the Hora Hoverla at 2,061 m (6,762 ft), and those on the Crimean peninsula, in the extreme south along the coast.[86] The steppe of Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, steppe (from Slavic step) is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally reckoned as being dominated by tall grasses, while short grasses are said... The Dnieper River (Russian: , Dnepr; Belarusian: , Dniapro; Ukrainian: , Dnipro) is a river which flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, ending its flow in the Black Sea. ... Length 1,050 km Elevation of the source - m Average discharge - m³/s Area watershed - km² Origin Russia Mouth Don River Basin countries Russia, Ukraine Donets (Донец), is a tributary of Don River, Russia. ... The Dniester (Ukrainian: translit. ... The Southern Buh, Bug, or Boh River (Південний Буг, Pivdennyi Buh in Ukrainian; Hipanis in ancient Greek) is entirely located in Ukraine. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ... Danube Delta - Landsat satellite photo (2000) The Danube Delta (Delta Dunării in Romanian), split between Tulcea County of Romania and Odessa Oblast of Ukraine, is the largest and best preserved of European deltas, with an area of 3446 km², after the Volga Delta. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... Hoverla mountain (Ukrainian: , Hoverla, Russian: Goverla, Czech: Hoverla, Polish: Howerla), at 2,062 m, is the highest mountain in Ukrainian part of the Carpathian Mountains. ... A foot (plural: feet) is a non-SI unit of distance or length, measuring around a third of a metre. ... The Yayla Mountains or Crimean Mountains (Crimean Tatar: , Alpine Meadow mountains; Ukrainian: , translit. ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ...


Ukraine has a mostly temperate continental climate, although a more Mediterranean climate is found on the southern Crimean coast. Precipitation is disproportionately distributed; it is highest in the west and north and lesser in the east and southeast. Western Ukraine, receives around 1,200 mm of precipitation, annually. While Crimea, receives around 400 mm of precipitation. Winters vary from cool along the Black Sea to cold farther inland. Average annual temperatures range from 5.5–7 °C in the north, to 11–13 °C in the south.[87] In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ...  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is one that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin, which includes over half of the area with this climate type world-wide. ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


According to 1887 estimates by Austro-Hungarian geographers, the Ukrainian city of Rakhiv (48°45′N, 18°55′E) is the site of the geographical centre of Europe.[88] However, this is disputed by other European cities and the question has not yet been answered. Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Rakhiv (Ukrainian: , Hungarian: Rahó, Romanian: Rahău, Russian: , translit. ... This map shows some of the locations of claimants to the title of Centre of Europe An ongoing debate concerns where the geographical centre of Europe is to be found. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Ukraine
A 20 hryvnia banknote depicting the Ukrainian poet Ivan Franko
A 20 hryvnia banknote depicting the Ukrainian poet Ivan Franko

In Soviet times, the economy of Ukraine was the second largest in the Soviet Union, being an important industrial and agricultural component of the country's planned economy. With the collapse of the Soviet system, the country moved from a planned economy to a market economy. The transition process was difficult for the majority of the population which plunged into poverty.[27] Ukraine's economy contracted severely following the years after the Soviet collapse.[27] Day to day life for the average person living in Ukraine was a struggle.[27] A significant number of citizens in rural Ukraine survived by growing their own food, often working two or more jobs and buying the basic necessities through the barter economy.[27] // Overview Ukraine has many of the components of a major European economy -- rich farmlands, a well-developed industrial base, highly trained labour, and a good education system. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 404 KB) Summary Description: Building of the National Bank of Ukraine Author: Alexander Noskin Date: 8-15-2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Kiev ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 404 KB) Summary Description: Building of the National Bank of Ukraine Author: Alexander Noskin Date: 8-15-2005 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Kiev ... The building of the National Bank of Ukraine. ... The National Bank of Ukraine is the central bank of the country. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1501x797, 280 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Ukraine ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1501x797, 280 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Ukraine ... ISO 4217 Code UAH User(s) Ukraine Inflation 11. ... Ivan Franko Ivan Franko (Іван Франко) (August 15, 1856 – May 28, 1916) was a Ukrainian poet and writer, social and literary critic, journalist, economist, and political activist. ... This article refers to an economy controlled by the state. ... This article refers to an economy controlled by the state. ... A market economy (also called a free market economy or a free enterprise economy) is an economic system in which the production and distribution of goods and services take place through the mechanism of free markets (though completley useless to some dumbasses) guided by a free price system. ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China Rural areas (also referred to as the country, countryside) are settled places outside towns and cities. ...


In 1991, the government liberalized most prices to combat widespread product shortages, and was successful in overcoming the problem. At the same time, the government continued to subsidize government-owned industries and agriculture by uncovered monetary emission. The loose monetary policies of the early 1990s pushed inflation to hyperinflationary levels. For the year 1993, Ukraine holds the world record for inflation in one calendar year.[89] Those living on fixed incomes suffered the most.[27] Prices stabilized only after the introduction of new currency, the hryvnia, in 1996. In economics, hyperinflation is inflation that is out of control, a condition in which prices increase rapidly as a currency loses its value. ... ISO 4217 Code UAH User(s) Ukraine Inflation 11. ...


The country was also slow in implementing structural reforms. Following independence, the government formed a legal framework for privatization. However, widespread resistance to reforms within the government and from a significant part of the population soon stalled the reform efforts. A large number of government-owned enterprises were exempt from the privatization process. In the meantime, by 1999, the output had fallen to less than 40 percent of the 1991 level,[90] but recovered to slightly above the 100 percent mark by the end of 2006.[1] Origins People Theories Ideas Movements Topics Related Philosophy Portal Politics Portal        Privatization is the incidence or process of transferring ownership of business from the public sector (government) to the private sector (business). ...


Ukraine's 2007 GDP (PPP), as calculated by the IMF, is ranked 29th in the world and estimated at $399.866 billion.[1] Nominal GDP (in U.S. dollars, calculated at market exchange rate) was $131.2 billion, ranked 41st in the world.[2] PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ...

A Ukrainian-made Antonov An-148.
A Ukrainian-made Antonov An-148.

In the early 2000s, the economy showed strong export-based growth of 5 to 10 percent, with industrial production growing more than 10 percent per year.[91] The growth was largely attributed to a surge in exports of metals and chemicals to China. The Antonov An-148 (Ukrainian and Russian: ) is a regional jet aircraft produced by the Ukrainian aircraft firm Antonov. ... PRC is a common abbreviation for: Peoples Republic of China Palestinian Red Crescent Popular Resistance Committees This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The World Bank classifies Ukraine as a middle-income state.[92] Significant issues include underdeveloped infrastructure and transportation, corruption and bureaucracy. But the rapidly growing Ukrainian economy has a very interesting emerging market with a relatively big population, and large profits associated with the high risks.[93] The Ukrainian stock market recorded 130% growth in 2007, for second highest in the world.[94] According to the CIA, in 2006 the market capitalization of the Ukrainian stock market was $42.87 billion.[2] Growing sectors of the Ukrainian economy include the IT Outsourcing market, which was expected to grow over 25 percent in 2007.[95] The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... The PFTS is the larger of Ukraines two main stock exchanges (the other being the USE). ... Outsourcing became part of the business lexicon during the 1980s and often refers to the delegation of non-core operations from internal production to an external entity specializing in the management of that operation. ...

Ukrainian oblasts (provinces) by monthly salary.
Ukrainian oblasts (provinces) by monthly salary.

By December 2007 the average nominal salary in Ukraine reached 1,675 hryvnias per month.[96] Despite remaining lower than in neighboring central European countries, the annual growth of average salary income in real terms is about 20 percent for several years (2001-2006) in a row.[97] Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasť, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ... Sources State Statistics Committee of Ukraine Categories: | | ... ISO 4217 Code UAH User(s) Ukraine Inflation 11. ...


Ukraine produces nearly all types of transportation vehicles and spacecraft. Antonov airplanes and KrAZ trucks are exported to many countries. The majority of Ukrainian exports are marketed to the European Union and CIS.[98] The National Space Agency of Ukraine, or NSAU (Ukrainian: Національне космічне агентство України, Natsionalne kosmichne ahentstvo Ukrayiny, or НКАУ, NKAU) is the Ukrainian government agency responsible for space policy and programs. ... For other uses, see Antonov (disambiguation). ... Kraz (Kremenchugsky Avtomobilny Zavod) produces trucks in Kremenchuk, Ukraine. ... Economics In economics, an export is any good or commodity, shipped or otherwise transported out of a country, province, town to another part of the world, typically for use in trade or sale. ... CIS usually refers to: Commonwealth of Independent States, a modern-day political entity consisting of 11 former Soviet Union Republics CIS is also an acronym for: Canadian Interuniversity Sport Cancer Information Service Carcinoma in situ Centre for Independent Studies Center for Immigration Studies Chinese International School Cisalpino Citizenship & Immigration Services...


The country imports most energy supplies, especially oil and natural gas, and to a large extent depends on Russia as an energy supplier. While 25 percent of the natural gas in Ukraine comes from internal sources, about 35 percent comes from Russia and the remaining 40 percent from Central Asia through transit routes that Russia controls. At the same time, 85 percent of the Russian gas is delivered to Western Europe through Ukraine.[99] Synthetic motor oil being poured. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


After 15 years of negotiations, Ukraine was invited to join the World Trade Organization on February 5, 2008.[100] Ukraine ratified the agreements on April 10, 2008,[101] and became a full member on May 16, 2008. WTO redirects here. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Ukraine
A collection of traditional pysanky from Volyn
A collection of traditional pysanky from Volyn

Ukrainian customs are heavily influenced by Christianity, which is the dominant religion in the country.[102] The culture of Ukraine has been also influenced by its eastern and western neighbors, which is reflected in its architecture, music and art. A performance of a traditional Ukrainian dance by Virsky dance ensemble The Culture of Ukraine is a result of influence over millenia from the West and East, with an assortment of strong culturally-identified ethnic groups. ... Ukrainian pysanky A pysanka (Ukrainian: писанка, plural: pysanky, or pysankas) is a Ukrainian Easter egg, decorated using a wax-resist (batik) method. ... Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


Communist rule had quite a strong effect on the art and writing of Ukraine.[103] In 1932, Stalin made socialist realism state policy in the Soviet Union when he promulgated the decree "On the Reconstruction of Literary and Art Organizations". This greatly stifled creativity. During the 1980s glasnost (openness) was introduced and Soviet artists and writers again became free to express themselves as they wanted.[104] Roses for Stalin, Boris Vladimirski, 1949 For other meanings of the term realism, see realism (disambiguation). ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ...


The tradition of the Easter egg, known as pysanky, has long roots in Ukraine. These eggs were drawn on with wax to create a pattern; then, the dye was applied to give the eggs their pleasant colours, the dye did not affect the previously wax-coated parts of the egg. After the entire egg was dyed, the wax was removed leaving only the colourful pattern. This tradition is thousands of years old, and precedes the arrival of Christianity to Ukraine.[105] For a hidden feature or message, see Easter egg (media). ... Ukrainian pysanky Pysanka (plural: pysanky, pysankas) is a Ukrainian word for an egg decorated using a wax resist (batik) method. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ...


The Ukrainian diet includes chicken, pork, beef, fish and mushrooms. Ukrainians eat a lot of potatoes, grains, fresh and pickled vegetables, different kinds of bread. Popular traditional dishes include varenyky (boiled dumplings with mushrooms, potatoes, sauerkraut, cottage cheese or cherries), borsch (soup made of beets, cabbage and mushrooms or meat) and holubtsy (stuffed cabbage rolls filled with rice, carrots and meat). Ukrainian specialties also include Chicken Kiev and Kiev Cake. Ukrainians drink stewed fruit, juices, milk, buttermilk (they make cottage cheese from this), mineral water, tea and coffee, beer, wine and horilka.[106] Gołąbki is a hearty traditional Polish dish consisting of boiled cabbage leaves stuffed with ground beef, chopped onions, and rice, baked in a spicy tomato sauce. ... Chicken Kiev Chicken Kiev is a dish of boned chicken breast pounded and rolled around cold unsalted butter, then breaded and fried. ... Kiev Cake is a kind of dessert cake. ... Horilka (Ukrainian: горілка, from hority, to burn) is essentially Ukrainian vodka. ...


In Ukraine, gender roles tend to be more traditional, and grandparents play a greater role in raising children than in the West.[107]


Language

Main article: Ukrainian Language
The main square of Kiev

According to the Constitution, the state language of Ukraine is Ukrainian. Russian, which was the de facto official language of the Soviet Union, is widely spoken, especially in eastern and southern Ukraine. According to the 2001 census, 67.5% of the population declared Ukrainian as their native language and 29.6% declared Russian.[108] Ukrainian (украї́нська мо́ва, ukrayinska mova, ) is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages. ... Maidan Nezalezhnosti (literally: Independence Square ) is a main square in Kyiv, capital city of Ukraine. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Ukrainian is an East Slavic language, one of three members of this language group, the other two being Russian and Belarusian. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... The Russian language in Ukraine (Russian: ) is the most common first language in Eastern and Southern Ukraine and Kiev, the countrys capital, and the most spread second language throughout the country. ...


It is sometimes difficult to determine the extent of the two languages.[109] Many people use a Surzhyk (a mixture of Ukrainian and Russian where the vocabulary is often combined with Ukrainian grammar and pronunciation) while claiming in surveys that they speak Russian or Ukrainian (though most can speak both literary languages). Some ethnic Ukrainians, while calling Ukrainian their native language, use Russian more frequently in their daily lives.[110] Surzhyk (Ukrainian: , originally meaning ‘flour or bread made from mixed grains’, e. ...


These details result in a significant difference across different survey results, as even a small restating of a question switches responses of a significant group of people.[e] Ukrainian is mainly spoken in western and central Ukraine. In western Ukraine, Ukrainian is also the dominant language in cities (such as Lviv). In central Ukraine, Ukrainian and Russian are both equally used in cities, with Russian being more common in Kiev,[111][e] while Ukrainian is the dominant language in rural communities. In eastern and southern Ukraine, Russian is primarily used in cities, and Surzhyk is used in rural areas. “Lvov” redirects here. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Surzhyk (Ukrainian: , originally meaning ‘flour or bread made from mixed grains’, e. ...

A Cossack and horse monument in Odessa
A Cossack and horse monument in Odessa

For a large part of the Soviet era the number of Ukrainian speakers was declining from generation to generation and by the mid-1980s the usage of the Ukrainian language in public life decreased significantly.[109] Following independence, the government of Ukraine began following a policy of Ukrainization,[112] to increase the use of Ukrainian. This generally comes at the expense of Russian, which was often the language of administration during the periods of rule from Moscow. The government promotes the use of Ukrainian in various spheres that are under government control, such as schools, government offices, and the broadcasting media. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 541 KB) Description: (Odessa Ukraine) Photographer: Jewgienij Bal File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ukraine Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 541 KB) Description: (Odessa Ukraine) Photographer: Jewgienij Bal File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ukraine Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... For other uses, see Cossack (disambiguation). ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


According to the Constitution of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Ukrainian is the only state language of the republic. However, the republic's constitution specifically recognizes Russian as the language of the majority of its population and guarantees its usage 'in all spheres of public life'. Similarly, the Crimean Tatar language (the language of a sizable 12% minority of the republic[113]) is guaranteed a special state protection as well as the 'languages of other ethnicities'. Russian speakers constitute an overwhelming majority of the Crimean population (77%), with Ukrainian speakers comprising 10.1%, and Crimean Tatar speakers 11.4%.[114] But in everyday life the majority of Crimean Tatars and Ukrainians in Crimea use Russian.[115] Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ...


Sport

Main article: Sport in Ukraine

Ukraine greatly benefited from the Soviet emphasis on physical education. Such policies left Ukraine with hundreds of stadiums, swimming pools, gymnasiums, and many other athletic facilities.[116] Of the many different sports Ukraine plays, the major sport is football. The top professional league is the Vyscha Liha, also known as the Ukrainian Premier League. The most decorated and known team is FC Dynamo Kyiv. The Ukraine national football team debuted in the 2006 FIFA World Cup, and reached the quarterfinals before losing to eventual champions, Italy. When it comes to sports, Ukraine is a typical European country. ... The Olimpiysky National Sports Complex (also known as Olympic Stadium, Republican Stadium or Central Stadium; Ukrainian: ) is a multi-use sports facility in Kiev, Ukraine, located on the slopes of citys central Cherepanov Hill. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Soccer redirects here. ... The Ukrainian Premier League (known locally as Vyscha Liha) is the top division of Ukrainian football. ... Professional football league of Ukraine logo The Ukrainian Premier League (Ukrainian: , Vyscha Liha) is the highest division of Ukrainian annual football championship. ... FC Dynamo Kyiv (Ukrainian: , FK Dynamo Kyiv; Russian: , Dynamo Kiev) is a professional football club from the Ukrainian capital city, Kiev. ... First international Ukraine 1 - 3 Hungary (Uzhgorod, Ukraine; 29 April 1992) Biggest win Ukraine 6 - 0 Azerbaijan (Kyiv, Ukraine; 15 August 2006) Biggest defeat Croatia 4 - 0 Ukraine (Zagreb, Croatia; 25 March 1995) Spain 4 - 0 Ukraine (Leipzig, Germany; 14 June 2006) World Cup Appearances 1 (First in 2006) Best... 2006 World Cup redirects here. ... First International Italy 6 - 2 France (Milan, Italy; 15 May 1910) Largest win Italy 9 - 0 USA (Brentford, England; 2 August 1948) Worst defeat Hungary 7 - 1 Italy (Budapest, Hungary; 6 April 1924) World Cup Appearances 15 (First in 1934) Best result Winners, 1934, 1938, 1982 European Championship Appearances 6...


Other sports are also popular in Ukraine. Boxers Vitali Klitschko and Wladimir Klitschko have held heavyweight world champion titles. Ukraine has an ice hockey league and a national ice hockey team. They also have a basketball league, and cricket clubs. Dr. Vitali Vladimirovich Klitschko (Ukrainian: ) born July 19, 1971). ... Wladimir Klitschko (Ukrainian: ) (born March 25, 1976 in Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan) is a Ukrainian heavyweight boxer. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... Ukrainian Basketball Super League is the top professional basketball league in Ukraine. ...


Ukraine made its Olympic debut at the 1994 Winter Olympics. After attending 3 out of 25 Summer Games and 4 out of 22 Winter Games, Ukraine is ranked 36th by number of gold medals won in the All-time Olympic Games medal count. Many athletes who represented and won medals for the Soviet Union were Ukrainians. The 1994 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVII Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in 1994 in Lillehammer, Norway. ... An all-time medal count for all Olympic Games from 1896 to 2006, including Summer Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games and a combined total of both, is tabulated below. ...


Demographics

Ethnic composition of Ukraine
Ukrainians
 
77.8%
Russians
 
17.3%
Belarusians
 
0.6%
Moldovans
 
0.5%
Crimean Tatars
 
0.5%
Bulgarians
 
0.4%
Hungarians
 
0.3%
Romanians
 
0.3%
Poles
 
0.3%
Jews
 
0.2%
Armenians
 
0.2%
Greeks
 
0.2%
Tatars
 
0.2%
Source: Ethnic composition of the population of Ukraine, 2001 Census

According to the Ukrainian Census of 2001, ethnic Ukrainians make up 77.8% of the population. Other significant ethnic groups are Russians (17.3%), Belarusians (0.6%), Moldovans (0.5%), Crimean Tatars (0.5%), Bulgarians (0.4%), Hungarians (0.3%), Romanians (0.3%), Poles (0.3%), Jews (0.2%), Armenians (0.2%), Greeks (0.2%) and Tatars (0.2%).[117] Demographics of Ukraine, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... The first Ukrainian Census after the dissolution of the Soviet Union was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine on December 5, 2001, twelve years after the last All-Union census in 1989. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... Hungarian may refer to: Hungary or the Kingdom of Hungary. ... This article is about the people. ...


Ukraine is considered to be in a demographic crisis due to its high death rate and a low birth rate. In 2007, the country's population was declining at the fourth fastest rate in the world.[118] The demographic trend is showing signs of improvement, as the birth rate has been growing for several consecutive years. Net population growth over the first nine months of 2007 was registered in five provinces of the country (out of 24), and population shrinkage was showing signs of stablising nationwide. The highest birth rates were in Western provinces.[119] Immigrants constitute an estimated 14.7% of the total population.[120]


The industrial regions in the east and southeast are the most heavily populated, and about 67.2% of the population lives in urban areas.[121]

Demography, 1990-2007. Number of inhabitants in millions.
Demography, 1990-2007. Number of inhabitants in millions.

Romanians and Moldavians are another significant minority in Ukraine, concentrated mainly in the Chernivtsi, Odessa, Zakarpattia and Vinnytsia oblasts. Administrative center Chernivtsi Governor Volodymyr Kalish (?) Oblast council  - Chairperson  - Council seats ? (?) ? Subdivisions  - Raions  - Cities of oblast subordinance  - Cities   -Towns  - Villages 11 2 11 8 398 Area Total  - Land  - Water (% of total)  Ranked 24th 8,097 km² ? km² ? km² (?%) Population  - Total (2006)  - Density  - Annual Growth Ranked ? 904,423 113/km² ?% Average... Administrative center Odessa Governor Ivan Vasylyovych Plachkov (Peoples Union Our Ukraine) Oblast council  - Chairperson  - Council seats Mykola Leonidovych Skoryk (Party of Regions) 120 Subdivisions  - Raions  - Cities of oblast subordinance  - Cities   -Towns  - Villages 26 7 19 33 1,138 Area Total  - Land  - Water (% of total)  Ranked 1st 33,310 km... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Vinnytsia Oblast (Ukrainian: ) is an oblast of Ukraine. ...


Jews played a very important role in Ukrainian cultural life, especially in the 19th and first half of the 20th century. Today Yiddish, the Ukrainian Jews' traditional language, is only used by a small number of older people. Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ...


Significant migration took place in the first years of Ukrainian independence. More than one million people moved into Ukraine in 1991-1992, mostly from the other former Soviet republics. In total, between 1991 and 2004, 2.2 million immigrated to Ukraine (among them, 2.0 million came from the other former Soviet Union states), and 2.5 million emigrated from Ukraine (among them, 1.9 million moved to other former Soviet Union republics).[122]


In the context of low salaries and unemployment within Ukraine, labor emigration became a mass phenomenon at the end of the 1990s. Although estimates vary, about two to three million Ukrainian citizens are currently working abroad, many illegally, in construction, service, housekeeping, and agriculture industries. A memorial statue in Hanko, Finland, commemorating the thousands of emigrants who left the country to start a new life in the United States Emigration is the act and the phenomenon of leaving ones native country or region to settle in another. ...

Cities by population
Rank City Division Pop. Rank City Division Pop.
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View of the Kiev Pechersk Lavra
Kiev
Kharkiv's Freedom Square
Kharkiv As of January 1, 2006 there are 457 cities (Ukrainian: мiсто, misto) in Ukraine. ... As of January 1, 2006 there are 457 cities (Ukrainian: мiсто, misto) in Ukraine. ... Ukraine is subdivided into 24 oblasts (Ukrainian singular: область, oblast; plural області, oblasti), one autonomous republic (автономна республіка, avtonomna respublika), and two cities with special status (singular місто зі спеціальним статусом, misto zi spetsialnym statusom). ... As of January 1, 2006 there are 457 cities (Ukrainian: мiсто, misto) in Ukraine. ... As of January 1, 2006 there are 457 cities (Ukrainian: мiсто, misto) in Ukraine. ... As of January 1, 2006 there are 457 cities (Ukrainian: мiсто, misto) in Ukraine. ... Ukraine is subdivided into 24 oblasts (Ukrainian singular: область, oblast; plural області, oblasti), one autonomous republic (автономна республіка, avtonomna respublika), and two cities with special status (singular місто зі спеціальним статусом, misto zi spetsialnym statusom). ... As of January 1, 2006 there are 457 cities (Ukrainian: мiсто, misto) in Ukraine. ... Image File history File links Kiev_Pechersk_Lavra_(General). ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... For other uses, see Kharkiv (disambiguation). ...

1 Kiev Kiev 2,611,327 11 Luhansk Luhansk 463,097
2 Kharkiv Kharkiv 1,470,902 12 Makiivka Donetsk 389,589
3 Dnipropetrovsk Dnipropetrovsk 1,065,008 13 Simferopol Crimea 358,108
4 Odessa Odessa 1,029,049 14 Vinnytsia Vinnytsia 356,665
5 Donetsk Donetsk 1,016,194 15 Sevastopol Sevastopol 342,451
6 Zaporizhia Zaporizhia 815,256 16 Kherson Kherson 328,360
7 Lviv Lviv 732,818 17 Poltava Poltava 317,998
8 Kryvyi Rih Dnipropetrovsk 668,980[123] 18 Chernihiv Chernihiv 304,994
9 Mykolaiv Mykolaiv 514,136 19 Cherkasy Cherkasy 295,414
10 Mariupol Donetsk 492,176 20 Sumy Sumy 293,141
2001 Census[124]

Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ... Map of Ukraine with Luhansk highlighted. ... Luhansk Oblast (Ukrainian: , Luhans’ka oblast’ or Луганщина, Luhanshchyna; Russian: , Luganskaya oblast) is the easternmost oblast (province) of Ukraine. ... For other uses, see Kharkiv (disambiguation). ... Kharkiv Oblast (Харківська область, Kharkivs’ka oblast’ or Харківщина, Kharkivshchyna in Ukrainian; Харьковская область, Khar’kovskaya oblast’ in Russian) is an oblast of eastern Ukraine. ... For a long time people thought Makiivka (MAKĪĪBKA, ru. ... COA of the Donetsk Oblast Donetsk Oblast (Ukrainian: Донецька область, Donets’ka oblast’ or Донеччина, Donechchyna) is an oblast (province) of eastern Ukraine. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Dnipropetrovsk highlighted. ... Dnipropetrovsk Oblast (Ukrainian: , Dnipropetrovs’ka oblast’ or Дніпропетровщина, Dnipropetrovshchyna) is an oblast of central Ukraine, the most important industrial region of the country. ... Simferopol (English pronunciation: /ËŒsɪm. ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... Administrative center Odessa Governor Ivan Vasylyovych Plachkov (Peoples Union Our Ukraine) Oblast council  - Chairperson  - Council seats Mykola Leonidovych Skoryk (Party of Regions) 120 Subdivisions  - Raions  - Cities of oblast subordinance  - Cities   -Towns  - Villages 26 7 19 33 1,138 Area Total  - Land  - Water (% of total)  Ranked 1st 33,310 km... Location Map of Ukraine with Vinnytsia highlighted. ... Vinnytsia Oblast (Ukrainian: ) is an oblast of Ukraine. ... For Donetsk in Russia, see Donetsk, Russia. ... COA of the Donetsk Oblast Donetsk Oblast (Ukrainian: Донецька область, Donets’ka oblast’ or Донеччина, Donechchyna) is an oblast (province) of eastern Ukraine. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Sevastopol highlighted. ... For other uses, see Zaporizhia (disambiguation). ... Zaporizhia Oblast (Запорізька область, Zaporizka oblast’ or Запоріжщина, Zaporizhchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) of southern Ukraine. ... Kherson (Ukrainian and Russian Херсон) is a city in southern Ukraine, the capital of Kherson Oblast, with 303,900 inhabitants (2004). ... Kherson Oblast (Херсонська область, Khersons’ka oblast’ or Херсонщина, Khersonshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast of southern Ukraine, just north of Crimea. ... “Lvov” redirects here. ... Lviv Oblast is an oblast of western Ukraine, created on December 4, 1939. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Poltava highlighted. ... Poltava Oblast (Полтавська область, Poltavs’ka oblast’ or Полтавщина, Poltavshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) of central Ukraine. ... Government Country Oblast Raion Ukraine Dnipropetrovsk Oblast Kryvyi Rihskyi Raion Founded 17th Century City rights 1919 Mayor Geographical characteristics Area  - City 407. ... Dnipropetrovsk Oblast (Ukrainian: , Dnipropetrovs’ka oblast’ or Дніпропетровщина, Dnipropetrovshchyna) is an oblast of central Ukraine, the most important industrial region of the country. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Chernihiv highlighted. ... Chernihiv Oblast (Чернігівська область, Chernihivs’ka oblast’ or Чернігівщина, Chernihivshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) of northern Ukraine. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Mykolaiv highlighted. ... Mykolayiv Oblast (Миколаївська область, Mykolaivs’ka oblast’ or Миколаївщина, Mykolaivshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast of Ukraine. ... Cherkasy (Ukrainian Черкаси, Rus. ... Administrative center Cherkasy Governor Oleksandr Cherevko (?) Oblast council  - Chairperson  - Council seats Volodymyr Hres’ (?) 76 Subdivisions  - Raions  - Cities of oblast subordinance  - Cities   -Towns  - Villages 21 6 25 34 838 Area Total  - Land  - Water (% of total)  Ranked 18th 20,900 km² ? km² ? km² (?%) Population  - Total (2006)  - Density  - Annual Growth Ranked ? 1,335... now. ... COA of the Donetsk Oblast Donetsk Oblast (Ukrainian: Донецька область, Donets’ka oblast’ or Донеччина, Donechchyna) is an oblast (province) of eastern Ukraine. ... Sumy is a town in the Ukraine Sumy region. ... Sumy Oblast (Сумська область, Sums’ka oblast’ or Сумщина, Sumshchyna in Ukrainian) is an oblast (province) in the north-east of Ukraine. ... The first Ukrainian Census after the dissolution of the Soviet Union was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine on December 5, 2001, twelve years after the last All-Union census in 1989. ...

Healthcare

Universal health care is granted to all the citizens of Ukraine by the constitution,[125] while private institutions are also encouraged and provide a complementary role. As of 2006, the average life expectancy in Ukraine is 62.16 years for males and 73.96 years for females. The biggest factor contributing to this relatively low life expectancy for males is a high mortality rate among working-age males from preventable causes such as alcohol poisoning and smoking.[126] As a result, there are 0.857 males to every female in Ukraine.[2] A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... The word male has the following meanings: In biology, it refers to one half of a heterogamous reproduction system, where the female is the other half. ... Female is a sex that denotes an animal which produces egg cells in order to reproduce. ... This article is about the measure of remaining life. ... Crude death rate by country Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in some population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time. ... Alcohol poisoning is a serious — sometimes deadly — result of drinking excessive amounts of alcohol (ethanol). ... For the food preparation, see Smoking (cooking). ...


The death rate in 2007 is estimated to be 16.07 per 1000 people, compared with the European Union average of 10.00 per 1000.[127] Ukraine's birth rate is 9.45 per 1000 people, compared with the European Union average of 10.00 per 1000.[127] To help ease these statistics, the government increased child support payments by 17 times in 2005, thus providing one-time payments of 8,175 Hryvnias, and monthly payments of 154 Hryvnias per child.[128][129] Ukraine suffers from the highest per capita rate of cardiovascular diseases in the world.[130] HIV/AIDS, which was virtually non-existent in the Soviet Union, rapidly spread following its collapse. As of 2001, Ukraine had at least 360,000 people, or approximately 1.4% of the population, living with HIV/AIDS,[2] giving it the highest rate of HIV/AIDS infection in Europe and the CIS. The number of physicians in Ukraine is currently at 2.95 per 1000 people. This is comparable to the United States, which has 2.56 physicians per 1000 people.[131] Nominal spending on the Ukrainian health care system nearly doubled from 1996 to 2000. Thus, in 2000, health care spending sat at 7.4 billion hryvnias, and was still increasing.[132] The hryvnia (Ukrainian гривня) has been the national currency of Ukraine since 1996 when it replaced the coupon (or karbovanets), the temporary currency used after Ukraine left the Soviet Union and the ruble zone. ... Some steps an individual can take to reduce the risk of cardivascular disease include: Not smoking Maintaining a healthy body mass index Maintaining a diet conducive to cardovascular health, for example the polymeal Getting regular cardiovascular exercise Diet a low energy diet Exercise aerobic exercise, which will increase the strength... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... ISO 4217 Code UAH User(s) Ukraine Inflation 11. ...


Religion

See also: History of Christianity in Ukraine
St. Michael's Golden-Domed Cathedral is an example of Ukrainian Baroque architecture
St. Michael's Golden-Domed Cathedral is an example of Ukrainian Baroque architecture
The Crimean Khan's palace in Bakhchisaray was the center of Islam in Ukraine for more than 300 years
The Crimean Khan's palace in Bakhchisaray was the center of Islam in Ukraine for more than 300 years

The dominant religion in Ukraine is Eastern Orthodox Christianity, which is currently split between three Church bodies: the Ukrainian Orthodox Church autonomous church body under the Patriarch of Moscow, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchate, and the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church.[102] This article should include material from Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchy, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, and Patriarch Filaret (Mykhailo Denysenko). ... The reconstructed St. ... The Vydubychi Monastery in Kiev is an example of Ukrainian Baroque architecture. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 164 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 164 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Bakhchisaray (Crimean Tatar: Bağçasaray, Ukrainian: , Russian: ), a town in Central Crimea, centre of the Bakhchisaray raion (district), former capital of the Crimean Khanate. ... ... The Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) is an autonomous church of Eastern Orthodoxy in Ukraine, under the ecclesiastic link to the Moscow Patriarchy. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, autocephaly is the status of a hierarchical church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. ... The following is a list of Russian Orthodox metropolitans and patriarchs of Moscow along with when they served: Metropolitans Maximus ( 1283- 1305) Peter ( 1308- 1326) Theognostus ( 1328- 1353) Alexius ( 1354- 1378) Cyprian ( 1381- 1382), ( 1390- 1406) Pimen ( 1382- 1384) Dionysius I ( 1384- 1385) Photius ( 1408- 1431) Isidore the Apostate ( 1437... Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchy (Ukrainian: ; Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kievan Patriarchate or UOC-KP) is one of the two major Orthodox churches in Ukraine [1] The modern history of the church begins in August, 1989, when the parish of the Church of Sts. ... In 1921 a Synod created the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (UAOC) in Kiev and ordained Metropolitan Vasyl (Lypkivsky) as its head. ...


A distant second by the number of the followers is the Eastern Rite Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, which practices a similar liturgical and spiritual tradition as Eastern Orthodoxy, but is in communion with the See of Rome (Roman Catholic Church) and recognizes the primacy of the Pope as head of the Church.[133] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC), also known as the Ukrainian Catholic Church, is one of the successor Churches to the acceptance of Christianity by Grand Prince Vladimir the Great (Ukrainian Volodymyr) of Kiev (Kyiv), in 988. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... Spirituality, in a narrow sense, concerns itself with matters of the spirit. ... For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ... Full communion is completeness of that relationship between Christian individuals and groups which is known as communion. ... The Holy See (Latin: Sancta Sedes, holy seat) is the episcopal see of Rome. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ...


Additionally, there are 863 Roman Catholic (Latin or Western Rite) communities, and 474 clergy members serving some one million Roman Catholics in Ukraine.[102] The group forms some 2.19% of the population and consists mainly of ethnic Poles, who live predominantly in the western regions of the country. Catholic Church redirects here. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...


Protestant Christians also form around 2.19% of the population. Protestant numbers have grown greatly since Ukrainian independence. The Evangelical Baptist Union of Ukraine is the largest group, with more than 150,000 members and about 3000 clergy. The second largest Protestant church is the Ukrainian Church of Evangelical faith (Pentecostals) with 110000 members and over 1500 local churches and over 2000 clergy, but there also exist other Pentecostal groups and unions and together all Pentecostals are over 300,000, with over 3000 local churches. Also there are many Pentecostal high education schools such as the Lviv Theological Seminary and the Kiev Bible Institute. Other groups include Calvinists, Lutherans, Methodists and Seventh-day Adventists. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is also present.[102] Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Evangelical Baptist Union of Ukraine (aka All-Ukrainian Union of Associations of Evangelical Christians Baptists; Ukrainian: ) is the largest protestant union in Ukraine. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Pentecostal... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated Adventist[3]) Church is a Protestant Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance of Saturday, the original seventh day of the Judeo-Christian week, as the Sabbath. ... For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ...


There are an estimated 500,000 Muslims in Ukraine. About 300,000 Muslims are Crimean Tatars. There are 487 registered Muslim communities, 368 of them on the Crimean peninsula. In addition, some 50,000 Muslims live in Kiev, mostly foreign-born.[134] A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ...


The Jewish community is a tiny fraction of what it was before World War II. Jews form 0.63% of the population. A 2001 census indicated 103,600 Jews, although community leaders claimed that the population could be as large as 300,000. There are no statistics on what share of the Ukrainian Jews are observant but the Orthodox Judaism has a stronger presence in Ukraine, than a smaller Reform denomination. Additionally, there is a presence of the middle-ground sect, Conservative Judaism (aka Masorti Judaism) as well.[102] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Orthodox Judaism is the formulation of Judaism that adheres to a relatively strict interpretation and application of the laws and ethics first canonised in the Talmudic texts (Oral Torah) and as subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. ... Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... This article is about Conservative (Masorti) Judaism in the United States. ... The Masorti movement is the name given to Conservative Judaism in the State of Israel. ...


As of January 1, 2006 there were 35 Krishna Consciousness and 53 Buddhist registered communities in the country.[134] is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) is a new religious movement based on Bengali, or more specifically Gaudiya, Vaishnavism founded by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, referred to by followers as His Divine Grace, in New York in 1966. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by...


Education

Ukraine produces the fourth largest number of tertiary graduates in Europe, while being ranked seventh in population
Ukraine produces the fourth largest number of tertiary graduates in Europe, while being ranked seventh in population

According to the Ukrainian constitution, the access to free education is granted to all citizens. Complete general secondary education is compulsory in the state schools which constitute the overwhelming majority. Free higher education in state and communal educational establishments is provided on a competitive basis.[135] There is also a small number of accredited private secondary and higher education institutions. This article is about education in Ukraine. ... // This is a partial list of universities in Ukraine, by city. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 484 pixels Full resolution (877 × 531 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Europe Education Russia Economy of... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 484 pixels Full resolution (877 × 531 pixel, file size: 60 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Europe Education Russia Economy of... Students attend a lecture at a tertiary institution. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Constitution of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) was adopted at the 5th session of the Verkhovna Rada (parliament) of Ukraine, on June 28, 1996. ... Secondary education - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Due to the state supported free education, the literacy rate is an estimated 99.4%.[2] Since 2005, an eleven-year school program has been replaced with a twelve-year one: primary education takes four years to complete (starting at age six), middle education (secondary) takes five years to complete. There are then three years of upper secondary school.[136] In the 12th grade, students take the Government Tests or school-leaving exams. The Government tests act as both school-leaving exams and university admission tests. Literacy is the ability to use text to communicate across space and time. ... For the community in Florida, see University, Florida. ...


The Ukrainian higher education system comprises higher educational establishments, scientific and methodological facilities under federal, municipal and self-governing bodies in charge of education.[137] The organization of higher education in Ukraine is built up in accordance with the structure of education of the world's higher developed countries, as is defined by UNESCO and the UN.[138] For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... A federal government is the common government of a federation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Local government of the United States. ... A developed country is a country that has achieved (currently or historically) a high degree of industrialization, and which enjoys the higher standards of living which wealth and technology make possible. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ...


Infrastructure

Main article: Transport in Ukraine
Ukraine's road Network
Ukraine's road Network

Most of Ukraine's infrastructure is Soviet era and outdated. Although the Ukrainian road system covers all major populated centers, it is considered to be by European standards, of low quality.[139] In total, Ukrainian paved roads stretch for 164,732 km.[2] This article is about transport in Ukraine. ... For other uses, see Highway (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... EU redirects here. ...


Rail transport in Ukraine plays the role of connecting all major urban areas, port facilities and industrial centers with neighboring countries. The heaviest concentration of railroad track is located in the Donbas region of Ukraine. Although the amount of freight transported by rail fell by 7.4% in 1995 in comparison with 1994, Ukraine is still one of the world's highest rail users.[140] The total amount of railroad track in Ukraine extends for 22,473 km, of which 9,250 km is electrified.[2] railroads redirects here. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... For other uses, see Port (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this term, see Industry (disambiguation) Industrial redirects here. ... Railroad or railway tracks are used on railways, which, together with railroad switches (points), guide trains without the need for steering. ... Categories: Stub | Regions of Ukraine | Ukrainian historical regions ... Freight is a term used to classify the transportation of cargo and is typically a commercial process. ... Map of countries rail network length Rail network divided by area of country This article gives rail usage statistics by country according to the International Union of Railways. ... railroads redirects here. ...


Ukraine is one of Europe’s largest energy consumers, it consumes almost double the energy of Germany, per unit of GDP.[141] A great share of energy supply in Ukraine comes from nuclear power, with the country receiving most of its nuclear services and nuclear fuel from Russia. The remaining oil and gas, is mostly imported from Russia. Ukraine is heavily dependent on its nuclear energy. The largest nuclear power plant in Europe, the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant, is located in Ukraine. In 2006, the government planned to build 11 new reactors by the year 2030, in effect, doubling the current amount of nuclear power capacity.[142] Renewable energy plays a very modest role in electrical output. In 2005 energy production was met by the following sources: nuclear (47%), thermal (45%), hydro and other (8%).[142] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ... Synthetic motor oil being poured. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... This article concerns the energy stored in the nuclei of atoms; for the use of nuclear fission as a power source, see Nuclear power. ... A nuclear power station. ... Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant is the largest nuclear power plant not only in Ukraine but also in Europe. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ...


See also

Image File history File links Flag_of_Ukraine. ... History of Ukraine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The East Slavs are a Slavic ethnic group, the speakers of East Slavic languages. ... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... Redirect page ... Halych-Volynia principality was the Ruthenian successor state of Kievan Rus on the territory of Rus menora (Rus propria) including the lands of Red Ruthenia, Black Ruthenia, and the remainder of southwestern Rus. This state also briefly controlled the region of Bessarabia and Moldavia. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ... Coat of arms Motto Si Deus Nobiscum quis contra nos (Latin: If God is with us, then who is against us) Pro Fide, Lege et Rege (Latin: For Faith, Law and King, since 18th century) Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth at its greatest extent (ca. ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... For other uses, see Galicia. ... Ukrainian territory was fought over by various factions after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the First World War, which added the collapse of Austria-Hungary to that of the Imperial Russia. ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... The West Ukrainian National Republic (Ukrainian: ) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyya, and Stanislav. ... State motto: Ukrainian: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Kiev Official language Ukrainian and Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until December 25, 1917 December 30, 1922 August 24, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 3rd in the USSR 603,700 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 2nd in the... Politics of Ukraine takes place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Ukraine is the head of government but shares a lot of these responsibilites with the President of Ukraine, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Verkhovna Rada. ... Political parties in Ukraine lists political parties in Ukraine. ... The Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) is the speaker of the Verkhovna Rada, Ukraines national parliament. ... Mariyinsky Palace The President of Ukraine (Ukrainian: , Prezydent Ukrayiny) is the head of the state of Ukraine and acts in its name. ... Cabinet of Ministers The Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine is the highest body in the system of bodies of executive power in Ukraine. ... The Prime Minister of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) presides over the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, which is the top body of the executive branch of the Ukrainian government. ... Categories: Ukraine-related stubs | Ukrainian government | Elections in Ukraine ... Elections in Ukraine gives information on election and election results in Ukraine. ... Referendums in Ukraine, according to the Ukrainian Constitution, is one of the lawful form of expression of peoples will. ... // Western relations Ukraine considers Euro-Atlantic integration its primary foreign policy objective, but in practice balances its relationship with Europe and the United States with strong ties to Russia. ... This article should include material from Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchy, Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, and Patriarch Filaret (Mykhailo Denysenko). ... Ukrainian Orthodox Church may refer to: Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church Ukrainian Orthodox Church - Kiev Patriarchate Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Canada Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the USA Autonomous Ukrainian Orthodox Church in America Orthodox Christianity History of Christianity in Ukraine History of Christianity in Lala Land... The Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Ukrainian: ; Russian: ) is an autonomous church of Eastern Orthodoxy in Ukraine, under the ecclesiastic link to the Moscow Patriarchy. ... Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Kiev Patriarchy) (Ukrainian: ; Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kyivan Patriarchate or UOC-KP) is one of the two major Orthodox churches in Ukraine, however viewed uncanonical by the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... In 1921 a Synod created the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church (UAOC) in Kiev and ordained Metropolitan Vasyl (Lypkivsky) as its head. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Ukraine is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church (UGCC), also known as the Ukrainian Catholic Church, is one of the successor Churches to the acceptance of Christianity by Grand Prince Vladimir the Great (Ukrainian Volodymyr) of Kiev (Kyiv), in 988. ... Protestants in Ukraine constitute about 600 - 700 thousands (2007), nearly 1% of total population. ... Muslims in Ukraine make up about 4% of the total population. ... History of the Jews in Ukraine // Kievan Rus’ Main article: Kievan Rus’ Halych-Volynia Main article: Halych-Volynia 14th Century Main article: 14th century Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Main article: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth From the founding of the Kingdom of Poland in the 10th century through the creation of the Polish... The judicial system of Ukraine consists of four levels, as follows: Local courts of general jurisdiction (combining criminal and civil jurisdiction) consisting of: district, urban district and town courts; regional courts; city courts in Kiev and Sevastopol; administrative local courts. ... The Constitutional Court of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) is the only body of constitutional jurisdiction in Ukraine. ... The Supreme Court of Ukraine (in Ukrainian, Верховний Суд України) is the highest judicial body in the system of courts of general jurisdiction in Ukraine. ... The Prosecutor General of Ukraine (also Attorney General of Ukraine, Ukrainian: ) heads the system of official prosecution in courts known as the Office of the Prosecutor General of Ukraine (Генеральна прокуратура України). The Office of the Prosecutor General is entrusted with: prosecution in court on behalf of the State; representation of the interests... This article is about the police authority of Ukraine. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Foreign Intelligence Service of Ukraine (Ukrainian: or SZR) was formed in 2004, a former department of the Security Service of Ukraine. ... The Ministry of Defense of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) was established on September 24, 1991,[1][2] one month after Ukraines declaration of independence from the Soviet Union. ... The Ukrainian Air force (Ukrainian: , Povitryani Syly Ukrayiny) is a part of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. ... The Ukrainian Ground Forces (Ukrainian: ) were formed from the Soviet Army formations, units, and establishments, including three military district headquarters (the Kiev, Carpathian, and Odessa), that were on Ukrainian soil when the Soviet Union collapsed in 1990-2. ... Ukrainian Navy Ensign The Ukrainian Naval Force (Ukrainian: ) is the navy of Ukraine and part of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. ... The Ukrainian Marine Corps is a branch of the Ukrainian Navy. ... The airmobile force is a highly mobile component of the Ukrainian Ground Forces. ... Ukrainian Navy Ensign The Ukrainian Navy (Ukrainian: Військово-Морські Сили України, ВМСУ) is a part of the Armed Forces of Ukraine. ... Chief directorate of intelligence of the Ministry of Defence of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) or ГУР (HUR), is Ukraines military intelligence service. ... Ukraine is subdivided into 24 oblasts (Ukrainian singular: область, oblast; plural області, oblasti), one autonomous republic (автономна республіка, avtonomna respublika), and two cities with special status (singular місто зі спеціальним статусом, misto zi spetsialnym statusom). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... This is a list of the Ukrainian oblasts and territories, in order of descending area. ... Raions of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ) are small territorial units of subdivision of Ukraine. ... As of January 1, 2006 there are 457 cities (Ukrainian: мiсто, misto) in Ukraine. ... As of January 1, 2006 there are 886 urban-type settlements (Ukrainian: , translit. ... ISO 4217 Code UAH User(s) Ukraine Inflation 11. ... The National Bank of Ukraine is the central bank of the country. ... Telephones _ main lines in use: 9. ... www. ... Sources State Statistics Committee of Ukraine Categories: | | ... Demographics of Ukraine, Data of FAO, year 2005 ; Number of inhabitants in thousands. ... This is a partial list of famous or notable people who have Ukrainian roots (ethnic - paternal or maternal, speak/write in the Ukrainian language, and/or were born or spent an essential part of their life on todays Ukrainian territory, and were important to the development of Ukraine culturally... The term Ukrainian diaspora refers to the global community of ethnic Ukrainians, usually more specifically those who maintain some kind of connection, even if ephemeral, to the land of their ancestors and maintain their feeling of Ukrainian national identity within local community. ... The first Ukrainian Census after the dissolution of the Soviet Union was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine on December 5, 2001, twelve years after the last All-Union census in 1989. ... A performance of a traditional Ukrainian dance by Virsky dance ensemble The Culture of Ukraine is a result of influence over millenia from the West and East, with an assortment of strong culturally-identified ethnic groups. ... Ukrainian cuisine has a rich history and offers a wide variety of dishes, partly borrowed from other cuisines like German, Turkish and Polish. ... Location of Ukraine The wine industry of Ukraine is well-established with long traditions. ... A Ukrainian dance troupe at the BC Ukrainian Cultural Festival Ukrainian Dance most often to refers to Ukrainian Folk-Stage Dance (as it is known by ethnographers and dance historians), a stylized form of a Folk Dance based in part on the movements contained in, and the actual traditional dances... Ukrainian literature is literature written in the Ukrainian language. ... Ukraine is a multi-national Eastern European state situated north of the Black Sea, formerly part of the Soviet Union. ... The name Ukraine (Ukrainian: , ) has been used in a variety of ways since the twelfth century. ... The Flag of Ukraine (Ukrainian: ; translit. ... Small coat of Arms of Ukraine. ... Mykhaylo Verbytsky, composer Shche ne vmerla Ukrainy (Ukrainian: , or Ukraines glory has not perished - literally ) is the national anthem of Ukraine. ... Hero of Ukraine (Ukrainian: , transliteration: Heroy Ukrayiny; Russian: ) is the highest state decoration that can be conferred upon an individual citizen by the Government of Ukraine. ...

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The University of Toronto Press is a publishing house and a division of the University of Toronto that engages in academic publishing. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Korrespondent (Russian: ; literally: Correspondent) is one of Ukraines main newpapers published weekly in Russian, Ukrainian, and English in both print and online. ... Andrew Wilson (b. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... Yale University Press is a book publisher founded in 1908. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of North Carolina Press (or UNC Press), founded in 1922, is a university press that is part of the University of North Carolina. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Zerkalo Nedeli (Дзеркало тижня - Dzerkal Tyzhnia Ukrainian: Weekly Mirror) is Ukraine’s most influential analytical weekly. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ukrainian Independent Information Agency (УНІАН Ukrainian: UNIAN) is a Kyiv-based Ukrainian news agency. ... The Princeton University Press is a publishing house, a division of Princeton University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Andrew Wilson could refer to: Andrew Wilson (theologian), a theologian for the Unification Church Andrew Wilson (politician), a former member of the Scottish Parliament Andrew Wilson (composer), a composer Andrew Wilson (footballer), an English footballer Andrew Wilson (basketball), a basketball player Andrew Wilson (artist), a 19th century artist Andrew Wilson... Yale University Press is a book publisher founded in 1908. ... 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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... IMF redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ukrainian Weekly is the oldest newspaper of the Ukrainian diaspora in the United States, and North America, which is published weekly in English language. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Space Agency of Ukraine, or NSAU (Ukrainian: Національне космічне агентство України, Natsionalne kosmichne ahentstvo Ukrayiny, or НКАУ, NKAU) is the Ukrainian government agency responsible for space policy and programs. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // The Chicago Tribune is a major daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois and owned by the Tribune Company. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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FC Shakhtar Donetsk (Ukrainian: Russian: ) is a Ukrainian professional football club, playing in the city of Donetsk, the capital of Donetsk region. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Verkhovna Rada. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Verkhovna Rada. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Verkhovna Rada. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Zerkalo Nedeli (Russian: ; Ukrainian: ), usually referred to in English as the Mirror Weekly, is one of Ukraine’s most influential[1] analytical newspapers published weekly in Kiev, the nations capital. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... AFP logo Paris headquarters of AFP Charles Havas Agence France-Presse (AFP) is the oldest news agency in the world, and one of the three largest with Associated Press and Reuters. ... 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Zerkalo Nedeli (Дзеркало тижня - Dzerkal Tyzhnia Ukrainian: Weekly Mirror) is Ukraine’s most influential analytical weekly. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The first Ukrainian Census after the dissolution of the Soviet Union was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine on December 5, 2001, twelve years after the last All-Union census in 1989. ... The first Ukrainian Census after the dissolution of the Soviet Union was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine on December 5, 2001, twelve years after the last All-Union census in 1989. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 27th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Notes

a.^  Among the Ukrainians that rose to the highest offices in the Russian Empire were Aleksey Razumovsky, Alexander Bezborodko, Ivan Paskevich. Among the Ukrainians who greatly influenced the Russian Orthodox Church in this period were Stephen Yavorsky, Feofan Prokopovich, Dimitry of Rostov. Count A. G. Razumovsky Count Alexei Grigorievich Razumovsky (Алексей Григорьевич Разумовский) (1709–1771), was a Ukrainian Cossack who rose to become lover and, probably, a secret spouse of the Russian Empress Elizaveta Petrovna. ... Prince Alexander Andreyevich Bezborodko (Russian: ) (1747–1799) was the Grand Chancellor of Russia and chief architect of Catherine the Greats foreign policy after the death of Nikita Panin. ... Portrait by George Dawe from the Military Gallery Ivan Fyodorovich Paskevich (Russian: ) (18 August [O.S. 5 August] 1782 – 1 February [O.S. 20 January] 1856) was a Ukrainian-born military leader in the Russian service. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Stephen Yavorsky (c. ... Theophan Prokopovich Feofan/Theophan Prokopovich (June 18, 1681, Kiev–September 19, 1736, St. ... Statue of St. ...


b.^  Estimates on the number of death vary. Official Soviet data is not available because the Soviet government denied the existence of the famine.


c.1 2  These figures are likely to be much higher, as they do not include Ukrainians from nations or Ukrainian Jews, but instead only ethnic Ukrainians, from the Ukrainian SSR An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ...


d.^  This figure excludes POW deaths. Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


e.1 2  According to the official 2001 census data (by nationality; by language) about 75% of Kiev's population responded 'Ukrainian' to the native language (ridna mova) census question, and roughly 25% responded 'Russian'. On the other hand, when the question 'What language do you use in everyday life?' was asked in the 2003 sociological survey, the Kievans' answers were distributed as follows: 'mostly Russian': 52%, 'both Russian and Ukrainian in equal measure': 32%, 'mostly Ukrainian': 14%, 'exclusively Ukrainian': 4.3%.
"What language is spoken in Ukraine?", Welcome to Ukraine, 2003/2.  The first Ukrainian Census after the dissolution of the Soviet Union was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine on December 5, 2001, twelve years after the last All-Union census in 1989. ...

Print sources

  • Subtelny, Orest. Ukraine: A History, 1st edition. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1988. ISBN 0-8020-8390-0.
  • Sullivant, Robert. Soviet Politics and the Ukraine 1917-1957. New York: Columbia University Press, 1962.
  • Grenkevich, Leonid. "The Soviet Partisan Movement, 1941-1944". Published by Routledge, 1999. ISBN 0714648744
  • Russian Oppression in Ukraine. Reports and Documents. London: Ukrainian Publishers Ltd., 1962. ISBN 0902322141

Orest Subtelny - Ukrainian historian, professor at Department of History and Political Science, York University. ... The University of Toronto Press is a publishing house and a division of the University of Toronto that engages in academic publishing. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ... The University of Toronto Press is a publishing house and a division of the University of Toronto that engages in academic publishing. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Headquartered in the legendary Flatiron Building in New York City, St. ... Headquartered in the legendary Flatiron Building in New York City, St. ...

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