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Encyclopedia > Udmurt ASSR

The Udmurt Republic (Russian: Удму́ртская респу́блика; Udmurt: Удмурт Элькун) or Udmurtia (Russian: Удму́ртия) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). The direct transliteration of the Republic's Russian name is Udmurtskaya Respublika or Udmurtiya; Udmurt name: Udmurt Elkun. Udmurt (удмурт кыл, udmurt kyl) is a Finno-Ugric language spoken by the Udmurts, native of the Russian constituent republic of Udmurtia, where it is co-official with the Russian language. ... Russia is a federation which consists of 88 subjects (Russian: ; English transliteration: subyekty, sing. ... In a broad definition a republic is a state or country that is led by people who do not base their political power on any principle beyond the control of the people of that state or country. ... There exist many possible systems for transliterating the Cyrillic alphabet of the Russian language to English or the Latin alphabet. ...

Udmurt Republic
Удмуртская республика
Удмурт Элькун
   
Flag of Udmurtia Coat of arms of Udmurtia
Flag of Udmurtia Coat of arms of Udmurtia
Image:RussiaUdmurtia2005.png
Capital Izhevsk
Area

- total
- % water Image File history File links Flag_of_Udmurtia. ... Download high resolution version (919x916, 141 KB)Coat of arms of Udmurtia. ... Flag of Udmurtia Flag of Udmurtia is one of the official state symbols of Udmurtia. ... Image File history File links RussiaUdmurtia2005. ... The city coat of arms Izhevsk (Иже́вск, from 1985 to 1987 Ustinov, after Dmitri Ustinov [Усти́нов]) is the capital and culture center of Udmurtia within the Russian Federation. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ...

Ranked 60th

- 42,100 km²
- negligible Here is a list of the 88 federal subjects of Russia in order of size. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ...

Population

- Total
- Density World map of the population density in 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ...

Ranked 29th

- est. 1,570,316 (2002)
- est. 37.3/km² Here is a list of the 89 federal subjects of Russia in order of population according to the 2002 census. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ...

Political status Republic
Federal district Privolzhsky (Volga) Federal District
Economic Region Urals
Cadaster # 18
Official languages Russian, Udmurt
President Alexander Alexandrovich Volkov
Chairman of the Government Yuri Stepanovich Pitkevich
Legislature {{{LegiNm}}}
Anthem State anthem of the Udmurt Republic 

Contents

The Russian Federation is divided into 88 federal subjects (constituent units), 21 of which are republics. ... All of the federal subjects of Russia are grouped into seven federal districts (Russian: , sing. ... Privolzhsky (Volga) Federal District (Russian: Приво́лжский федера́льный о́круг; tr. ... Russia is divided into eleven economic regions (Russian: экономические районы, sing. ... Udmurt (удмурт кыл, udmurt kyl) is a Finno-Ugric language spoken by the Udmurts, native of the Russian constituent republic of Udmurtia, where it is co-official with the Russian language. ... The National Anthem of the Udmurt Republic is one of the official state symbols of the Udmurt Republic, a member of the Russian Federation. ...


Geography

Udmurtia is located in the eastern portion of the Eastern European Plain, between the Kama and Vyatka Rivers. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Russian Plain. ... Kama (Russian: ; Tatar: Çulman) is a river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga. ... The Vyatka River (Russian: ) is a river in Kirov Oblast and the Republic of Tatarstan in Russia, right tributary of the Kama River. ...

  • Area: 42,100km².
  • Borders:
  • Highest point: no data.
  • Maximum N->S distance: no data.
  • Maximum E->W distance: no data.

Kirov Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... Perm Krai (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia that came into existence on December 1, 2005 as a result of the 2004 referendum on the merger of Perm Oblast and Permyakia Autonomous District. ... The Republic of Bashkortostan, or Bashkiria (Russian: or ; Bashkir: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... The Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: ; Tatar: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ...

Time zone

Udmurtia is located in the Samara Time Zone (SAMT/SAMST). UTC offset is +0400 (SAMT)/+0500 (SAMST). Image File history File links RTZ3. ... It has been suggested that leap second be merged into this article or section. ...

Rivers

Major rivers include:

  • Cheptsa River
  • Izh River
  • Kama River (navigable)
  • Kilmez River
  • Siva River

Kama (Russian: ; Tatar: Çulman) is a river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga. ...

Lakes

While there are no large lakes in the Republic, Votkinskoye Reservoir is partially located on its territory.


Natural resources

Udmurtia's natural resources include oil, peat, mineral waters, and more. Oil reserves are estimated to be 820 million tons (as of 2002). Approximately 7–8 million tons are extracted annually. Most of the oil is exported. Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ) or crude oil is a black, dark brown or greenish liquid found in porous rock formations in the earth. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In many places, mineral water is often colloquially used to mean carbonated water (which is usually carbonated mineral water, as opposed to tap water). ... The word ton or tonne is derived from the Old English tunne, and ultimately from the Old French tonne, and referred originally to a large cask with a capacity of 252 wine gallons, which holds approximately 2100 pounds of water. ...


Forests cover over 40% of the Republic's territory. Most of the forests are coniferous. Temperate coniferous forests are a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest. ...


Climate

Udmurtia has moderate continental climate, with warm summers and cold winters with a lot of snow. A continental climate is the climate typical of the middle-latitude interiors of the large continents of the Northern Hemisphere in the zone of westerly winds; similar climates exist along the east coasts (but not the west coasts) of the same continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other...

  • Average January temperature: −14.5°C
  • Average July temperature: +18.3°C
  • Average annual precipitation: 400–600 mm

Administrative divisions

Cities and towns under republics jurisdiction: Izhevsk (Ижевск) (capital) city districts: Industrialny (Индустриальный) Leninsky (Ленинский) Oktyabrsky (Октябрьский) Pervomaysky (Первомайский) Ustinovsky (Устиновский) Glazov (Глазов) Mozhga (Можга) Sarapul (Сарапул) Votkinsk (Воткинск) Districts: Alnashsky (Алнашский) with 12 selsovets under the districts jurisdiction. ...

Demographics

According to the 2002 Census, Russians at 944,108 make up 60.1% of the republic's population, while the ethnic Udmurts at 460,584 only make up 29.3%. Other groups include Tatars (109,218, or 7.0%), Ukrainians (11,527, or 0.7%), Mari (8,985, or 0.6%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the republic's total population. 2,957 people (0.2%) did not indicate their nationalities during the Census. For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Russian Census of 2002 (Russian: ) was the first census of Russian Federation carried out on October 9, 2002. ... The Udmurts are a people who speak the Finno-Ugric Udmurt language. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Mari (also known as Cheremis in Russian and ÇirmeÅŸ in Tatar) are a Volga-Finnic people in the Volga area, the natives of Mari El, Russia. ...


Over two thirds of the world population of Udmurts live in Udmurtia[citation needed].

  • Population: 1,570,316 (2002)
    • Urban: 1,094,338 (69.7%)
    • Rural: 475,978 (30.3%)
    • Male: 725,075 (46.2%)
    • Female: 843,241 (53.7%)
  • Females per 1000 males: 1,160
  • Average age: 35.8 years
    • Urban: 35.6 years
    • Rural: 36.1 years
    • Male: 32.8 years
    • Female: 38.4 years
  • Number of households: 552,862 (with 1,548,762 people)
    • Urban: 395,200 (with 1,084,281 people)
    • Rural: 157,662 (with 464,481 people)

History

Udmurtia map
Enlarge
Udmurtia map

A historical state that joined Russia were Ar begs. Ar begs (in Russian chronicles Арские князья) was a formation of Noqrat Tatars nobility, served to Muscovy in 16th-17th century. ...


Before November 4, 1920, when Votsk Autonomous Oblast was formed, the territory of modern day Udmurtia was divided between Kazan and Vyatka Governorships. On January 1, 1932, Votsk Autonomous Oblast was renamed Udmurt Autonomous Oblast, which was then reorganized into the Udmurt ASSR on December 28, 1934. The Udmurt Republic in its present form has existed since September 20, 1990. November 4 is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 57 days remaining. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ... Votsk Autonomous Oblast was created 1920-11-04. ... Guberniya (Russian: ) (also gubernia, guberniia, gubernya) was a major administrative subdivision of the Imperial Russia, usually translated as governorate or province. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... Udmurt Autonomous Oblast was the name given to Votsk Autonomous Oblast on 1932-01-01. ... December 28 is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 3 days remaining. ... 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... September 20 is the 263rd day of the year (264th in leap years). ... This article is about the year. ...


Politics

The head of government in Udmurtia is the President, who is elected for a five-year term. As of 2005, the president is Alexander Alexandrovich Volkov, who assumed his post on November 3, 2000. Prior to the elections, Volkov was the Chairman of the Republic's Council—the highest post at that time. 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alexander A. Volkov (Александр А. Волков) (born 1951) is the President of the Udmurt Republic, located in Eastern Europe between the Kama and Viatka rivers, in the heart of Russia. ... November 3 is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 58 days remaining. ... This article is about the year 2000. ...


The Republic's parliament is the State Council, popularly elected every five years. The State Council has 100 deputies. States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in orange and red—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ...


The Republic's constitution was adopted on December 7, 1994. December 7 is the 341st day (342nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal. // Events January Bill Clinton January 1 : North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) goes into effect. ...


Economy

Udmurtia is an industrialized Republic. The most developed industries include machine building, chemical, and oil and gas industries.


Culture

In Udmurtia, there are eight professional theaters, the Philharmonic Society, and more than ten state and numerous public museums which tell about history and culture of Udmurtia and its people, like the Museum of history and culture in Sarapul, or the Tchaikovsky Museum in Votkinsk. One of the oldest arms museums is located in Izhevsk. Sarapul (Russian: ) is a small town in Udmurtia, Russia where Anton Zemlyanov emerged in 1972. ... A young Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1874) Tchaikovsky redirects here. ... Votkinsk (Во́ткинск) is a small industrial town in the ural parts of the District of Viatka in former Vyatka Province in Udmurtia, Russia. ... The bayonet, still used in war as both knife and spearpoint. ... The city coat of arms Izhevsk (Иже́вск, from 1985 to 1987 Ustinov, after Dmitri Ustinov [Усти́нов]) is the capital and culture center of Udmurtia within the Russian Federation. ...


See also: Music of Udmurtia Udmurtia is a Russian region. ...


Education

The most important facilities of higher education include the Udmurt State University, Izhevsk State Technical University, and Izhevsk State Medical Academy, all located in the capital Izhevsk.


Religion

The majority of the Republic's population is atheist or Russian Orthodox. Shamanism is also practiced. Atheism, in its broadest sense, is the absence of theism (the belief in the existence of deities). ... The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... A shaman doctor of Kyzyl. ...


Further reading

  • Daniel Kalder.Lost Cosmonaut: Observations of an Anti-tourist . Scribner Book Company. ISBN 0-7432-8994-3.

External links

  • (Russian) (English) Official website of the Udmurt Republic.
  • (Russian) Official website of the State Council of Udmurtia.
  • (English) Map of Udmurtia.
  • (English) (Russian) Official website of the Udmurt State University.
  • (English) (Russian) Official website of the Izhevsk State Medical Academy.
  • (Russian) Official website of the Izhevsk State Technical University.
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Federal cities Moscow | St. Petersburg
Autonomous oblast Jewish
Autonomous okrugs Aga Buryatia | Chukotka | Evenkia1 | Khantia-Mansia | Koryakia3 | Nenetsia | Taymyria1 | Ust-Orda Buryatia2 | Yamalia
  1. On January 1, 2007, Evenk and Taymyr Autonomous Okrugs will be merged into Krasnoyarsk Krai.
  2. On January 1, 2008, Ust-Orda Buryat Autonomous Okrug will be merged into Irkutsk Oblast.
  3. On July 1, 2007, Kamchatka Oblast and Koryak Autonomous Okrug will merge to form Kamchatka Krai.
Federal districts
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