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Encyclopedia > Ubykh people

The Ubykh people are a group who spoke the Northwest Caucasian Ubykh language, up until 1992. The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called Pontic or Abkhaz-Adyg/Circassian, are a group of languages spoken in Caucasian Russia, Turkey, Jordan, Kabardino-Balkaria (an autonomous republic in Russia) and Abkhazia ( de facto independent formally an autonomous republic in Georgia). ... Ubykh is a language of the Northwestern Caucasian group, spoken by the Ubykh people up until the early 1990s. ... 1992 was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...


The Ubykh used to inhabit an area just northwest of Abkhazia in the Caucasus. They were probably one of the populations to inhabit the ancient nation of Colchis, and some of the people involved in the myth of the Golden Fleece may have been Ubykh speakers. Outside of mythology, the ancestors of the Ubykh were mentioned in book IV of Procopius' De Bello Gotico (The Gothic War), under the name βρου̃χοι (Brouchoi) , a corruption of the native term tw. The Ubykhs were semi-nomadic horseback people, and the Ubykh language still contains a finely differentiated vocabulary related to horses and tack. Some Ubykhs also practised favomancy. Abkhazia (Abkhaz Аҧсны/Aphsny, Georgian აფხაზეთი/Apkhazeti, Russian Абха́зия/Abkhazia) is a region of 8,600 km² (3,300 sq. ... The Caucasus , a region bordering Asia Minor, is located between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus Mountains and surrounding lowlands. ... Colchis, or Aea-Colchis (Georgian form - Kolkheti), in ancient geography district of Asia Minor, at the eastern extremity of the Black Sea, bounded on the N. by the Caucasus. ... In Greek mythology, the ram with the Golden Fleece (Okros Satsmisi in Georgian) was given to Nephele of Thessaly by Hermes for her to transport her children, Helle and Phrixus, away from Ino. ... The writings of Procopius of Caesarea (500 ? - 565 ?), in Palestine, are the primary source of information for the rule of the emperor Justinian. ... Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ... Favomancy is a form of divination that used to be practized by seers in Russia, and in particular, the Ubykh people. ...


However, the Ubykh people gained more prominence in modern times. In 1864, during the reign of the tsar Alexander II, Georgia and Abkhazia were invaded by the Russian army. The Adyghe and Abkhazian peoples were decimated, and the Abaza people were partially driven out of the Caucasus. But the result on the Ubykh people was much more widespread; the Ubykh nation was given a month to get out of the Caucasus or be subjugated by the Russian army. Deciding to leave free rather than stay and be ruled, the entire Ubykh nation left the Caucasus en masse and eventually settled in Turkey. 1864 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Tsar (Bulgarian цар, Russian царь,   listen[?]; often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917 (although... Alexander II (1818-1881) Alexander (Aleksandr) II (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (April 17, 1818–March 13, 1881) was the Emperor (tsar) of Russia from March 2, 1855 until his assassination. ... The Adiga are a people of the northwest Caucasus region, principally inhabiting Adygeya (now a constituent republic of the Russian Federation). ... The Abaza language (Абаза Бызшва/Abaza Byzšwa) is a language of the Caucasus mountains in the Russian autonomous republic of Karachay-Cherkessia. ...


The Ubykh elders decided that it would be best if the Ubykh people were to assimilate into Turkish culture, since they would not be discriminated against. They shifted from being a nomadic horseback culture (supported by their language, which still has a finely differentiated vocabulary for horses and tack) to becoming a culture of farmers, eventually settling in a number of villages around the municipality of Manyas. The Ubykh language was displaced by Turkish and Circassian, and the last native speaker of Ubykh, Tevfik Esenç, died in 1992. An elder refers to various Wikipedia topics. ... The Kabardian language is a Russia, Jordan and Turkey. ... Tevfik Esenç at age 82 Tevfik Esenç (1904 – October 7, 1992) was a circassian exile in Turkey and the last known speaker of the Ubykh language. ...


Today, the Ubykh diaspora has been scattered into Russia, Turkey, and to a much lesser extent, Abkhazia and Jordan. The Ubykh nation per se no longer exists, although those who are of Ubykh ancestry are proud to call themselves Ubykh, and a couple of villages are still found in Turkey where the vast majority of the population is still Ubykh by descent. Abkhazia (Abkhaz Аҧсны/Aphsny, Georgian აფხაზეთი/Apkhazeti, Russian Абха́зия/Abkhazia) is a region of 8,600 km² (3,300 sq. ...


Ubykh society was patrilineal; many Ubykhs, even today, know five, six, or even seven generations of their agnatic ancestry. Nevertheless, as in other Northwest Caucasian cultures, women were especially venerated, and the Ubykh language retains a special second person pronoun prefix used exclusively with women (χa-). Patrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones fathers lineage; it generally involves the inheritance of property, names or titles through the male line as well. ... Patrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones fathers lineage; it generally involves the inheritance of property, names or titles through the male line as well. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ubykh language (858 words)
Ubykh is an ergative language, making no distinction between the subject of an intransitive sentence and the direct object of a transitive sentence.
English verbs must agree only with the subject; Ubykh verbs, by contrast, must agree with the subject, the direct object and the indirect object, and benefactive objects must also be marked in the verb.
Grammatically, Ubykh presents two cases (direct in zero and oblique in -n), a past-present-future distinction of verb tense (the suffixes -q'a and -aw represent past and future) and an imperfective aspect suffix (-yt' is its marker).
Ubykh language at AllExperts (2436 words)
Ubykh or Ubyx is a language of the Northwestern Caucasian group, spoken by the Ubykh people up until the early 1990s.
Ubykh was spoken in the eastern coast of the Black Sea around Sochi until 1864, when the Ubykhs were driven out of the region by the Russians.
Ubykh was never written by its speech community, but a few phrases were transcribed by Evliya Celebi in his Seyahatname, and a substantial portion of the oral literature, along with some cycles of the Nart saga, was transcribed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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