FACTOID # 23: Wisconsin has more metal fabricators per capita than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Ubuntu (Linux distribution)
Ubuntu

Ubuntu 7.10 "Gutsy Gibbon" Desktop.
Website: www.ubuntu.com
Company/
developer:
Canonical Ltd./Ubuntu Foundation
OS family: Linux
Source model: Free and open source software
Latest stable release: 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon) / 18 October 2007
Available language(s): multilingual
Update method: APT
Package manager: dpkg
Supported platforms: i386, AMD64, PowerPC,[1] PlayStation 3[2], IA-64[3] UltraSPARC[4]
Kernel type: Monolithic kernel, Linux
Default user interface: GNOME
Working state: Current

Ubuntu (IPA pronunciation /ù'búntú/ (oo-BOON-too[5])) is a predominantly desktop-oriented Linux distribution, based on Debian GNU/Linux but with a stronger focus on usability, regular releases, and ease of installation at the expense of platform diversity. Ubuntu is sponsored by Canonical Ltd, owned by South African billionaire entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth. Image File history File links Ubuntu_Logo. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... The term software company could be applied to: a) a company that produces software, distributes software from a third party, or provides services such as custom software development. ... For other uses, see Software developer (disambiguation). ... Canonical Ltd. ... The Ubuntu Foundation was founded by Mark Shuttleworth and Canonical Ltd, on July 1, 2005 and announced by Benjamin Mako Hill. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... Free and Open Source Software, also F/OSS or FOSS, is software which is liberally licensed to grant the right of users to study, change, and improve its design through the availability of its source code. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Advanced Packaging Tool, or APT, is a package management system used by Debian and its derivatives. ... dpkg (short for Debian PacKaGe) is the base of the Debian package management system. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with X86 assembly language. ... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... The PlayStation 3 , trademarked PLAYSTATION®3,[3] commonly abbreviated PS3) is the third home video game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment; successor to the PlayStation 2. ... In computing, IA-64 (short for Intel Architecture-64) is a 64-bit processor architecture developed cooperatively by Intel Corporation and Hewlett-Packard (HP), and implemented in the Itanium and Itanium 2 processors. ... Sun UltraSPARC II Microprocessor Sun UltraSPARC T1 (Niagara 8 Core) SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture) is a RISC microprocessor instruction set architecture originally designed in 1985 by Sun Microsystems. ... A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ... It has been suggested that Monolithic system be merged into this article or section. ... The Linux kernel is a Unix-like operating system kernel. ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... This article is about the mythical creature. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... A Linux distribution, often simply distribution or distro, is a member of the Linux family of Unix-like operating systems comprising the Linux kernel, the non-kernel parts of the GNU operating system, and assorted other software. ... Debian, created by the Debian Project, is a widely used distribution of free software developed through the collaboration of volunteers from around the world. ... Usability is a term used to denote the ease with which people can employ a particular tool or other human-made object in order to achieve a particular goal. ... Canonical Ltd is a private company founded (and funded) by South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth for the promotion of Free Software projects. ... Mark Richard Shuttleworth (born 18 September 1973) is a South African entrepreneur who was the second self-funded space tourist and first African national in space. ...


The name of the distribution comes from the southern African concept of ubuntu which may be rendered roughly as "humanity toward others", "we are people because of other people", or "I am who I am because of who we all are," though other meanings have been suggested.[6] A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Look up ubuntu in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The most recent version, Ubuntu 7.10 (Gutsy Gibbon), was released on October 18, 2007. Ubuntu aims to use only free software to provide an up-to-date yet stable operating system for the average user. is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ...


Kubuntu and Xubuntu are official subprojects of the Ubuntu project, aiming to bring the KDE and Xfce desktop environments, respectively, to the Ubuntu core. Edubuntu is an official subproject designed for school environments, and should be equally suitable for children to use at home.[7] Gobuntu is the official subproject, which is aimed at adhering strictly to the Free Software Foundation's Four Freedoms.[8] The newest official subproject is JeOS. Ubuntu JeOS (pronounced "Juice") is an efficient variant of the popular desktop and server operating system, configured specifically for virtual appliances. Kubuntu is an official derivative of the Ubuntu Linux distribution using the KDE environment instead of GNOME. It is part of the Ubuntu project and uses the same underlying system. ... Xubuntu is an official derivative of the Ubuntu open source operating system, using the Xfce desktop environment. ... For the NYSE stock ticker symbol KDE, see 4Kids Entertainment. ... Xfce ([1]) is a free software desktop environment for Unix and other Unix-like platforms, such as Linux, Solaris and BSD. Its configuration is entirely mouse-driven and the configuration files are hidden from the casual user. ... Information in this article or section has not been verified against sources and may not be reliable. ... Edubuntu is a branch of the Ubuntu Linux project designed for classroom use. ... Gobuntu is an upcoming official derivative of the Ubuntu operating system, aiming to provide a distribution consisting entirely of free software. ... The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ...


Ubuntu releases new versions every six months, and supports those releases for 18 months with daily security fixes and patches to critical bugs. There are also Long Term Support (LTS) releases, which have three years support for the desktop version and five years for the server version. The most recent LTS version, Ubuntu 6.06 (Dapper Drake), was released on June 1, 2006 (updated to Ubuntu 6.06.1 on August 10 2006); the next LTS version will be 8.04 (Hardy Heron), scheduled for release in April 2008. is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

History and development process

Ubuntu's first release was on October 20, 2004, which began by making a temporary fork of the Debian GNU/Linux project.[9] This was done so that a new version of Ubuntu could be released every six months[10], resulting in a more frequently updated system. Ubuntu releases always include the most recent GNOME release, and are scheduled to be released about a month after GNOME.[11] In contrast with previous general-purpose forks of Debian—such as MEPIS, Xandros, Linspire, Progeny and Libranet, many of which relied on proprietary and closed source add-ons as part of their business model—Ubuntu has stayed closer to Debian's philosophy and uses free (libre) software most of the time.[12] is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In software engineering, a project fork or branch happens when a developer (or a group of them) takes a copy of source code from one software package and starts to independently develop a new package. ... Debian, created by the Debian Project, is a widely used distribution of free software developed through the collaboration of volunteers from around the world. ... This article is about the mythical creature. ... MEPIS refers to a set of Linux distributions distributed as LiveCDs which can be installed onto a hard disk. ... Xandros is both the name of a line of Linux distributions and Xandros Corporation, the company which creates them. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Progeny 3. ... In computing, Libranet is a Linux distribution that is based on Debian GNU/Linux. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... The text below is generated by a template, which has been proposed for deletion. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... Gratis versus Libre is the distinction between zero price and freedom. ...


The Ubuntu logo and typography has remained the same since that first release. The hand-drawn[13], lower case OpenType font used is called Ubuntu-Title and was created by Andy Fitzsimon.[14] The font is distributed under the Lesser General Public License and use with logos derived from the Ubuntu logo is encouraged.[14] The font is available as a package for Ubuntu.[14] OpenType is a scalable computer font format initially developed by Microsoft, later joined by Adobe Systems. ... Ubuntu-Title font Ubuntu-Title is a hand-drawn[1], lower case OpenType font created by Andy Fitzsimon for use with the Ubuntu operating system and its derivatives. ... GNU logo The GNU Lesser General Public License (formerly the GNU Library General Public License) is an FSF approved Free Software license designed as a compromise between the GNU General Public License and simple permissive licenses such as the BSD license and the MIT License. ...


Ubuntu packages have generally been based on packages from Debian's unstable branch: both distributions use Debian's deb package format and APT/Synaptic to manage installed packages. Ubuntu cooperates with Debian - to some extent pushing changes back to Debian,[9] although there has been criticism that this is not happening enough[15] and Debian and Ubuntu packages are not necessarily 'binary compatible' with each other.[16] Many Ubuntu developers are also maintainers of key packages within Debian itself. However, Ian Murdock, the founder of Debian, criticized Ubuntu for incompatibilities between its packages and those of Debian, saying that Ubuntu had diverged too far from Debian Sarge to remain compatible.[15] Debian is a free operating system. ... Debian is a free operating system. ... deb is the extension of the Debian software package format and the most often used name for such binary packages. ... A software package is a bundle of one or several files that either are necessary for the execution of a computer program, or add features for a program already installed on the computer or network of computers. ... Advanced Packaging Tool, or APT, is a package management system used by Debian and its derivatives. ... The word synaptic refers to the synapse in neuroanatomy. ... Ian Murdock is the founder of the Debian project and the commercial Progeny Debian distribution. ... Sarge is the codename for the Debian GNU/Linux 3. ...


There are plans for a branch codenamed Grumpy Groundhog. It will be a permanently unstable development and testing branch, pulling the source directly out of the revision control of the various programs and applications that are shipped as part of Ubuntu. This will allow power users and upstream developers to test up-to-the-minute versions of individual programs as they would appear if packaged for the distribution today, without needing to build packages themselves; it will be able to provide early warning of build failures on various architectures.[17] It is intended that Grumpy Groundhog should merge with Debian Unstable every six months.[18] Grumpy Groundhog has not been made available to the public yet. Revision control (also known as version control (system) (VCS), source control or (source) code management (SCM)) is the management of multiple revisions of the same unit of information. ...


Ubuntu is currently funded by Canonical Ltd. On July 8, 2005, Mark Shuttleworth and Canonical Ltd announced the creation of the Ubuntu Foundation and provided an initial funding of US$10 million. The purpose of the foundation is to ensure the support and development for all future versions of Ubuntu, but as of 2006, the foundation remains dormant. Mark Shuttleworth describes the foundation as an emergency fund in case Canonical's involvement ends.[19] Canonical Ltd is a private company founded (and funded) by South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth for the promotion of Free Software projects. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mark Richard Shuttleworth (born 18 September 1973) is a South African entrepreneur who was the second self-funded space tourist and first African national in space. ...


On 1 May 2007, Dell announced they would sell desktops and laptops with Ubuntu installed and on 24 May 2007 these computers went on sale in the United States.[20] They also stated that customers would be able to buy support for Ubuntu through Dell, with the support coming from Canonical. On 8 August 2007 these computers went on sale in the UK, France and Germany as well.[21] In October, Tesco followed in Dell's footsteps and started to sell desktop computers with Ubuntu 6.06 LTS pre-installed on them [22] [23]. However unlike Dell, they do not offer Canonical's support program. is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This article is about the corporation Dell, Inc. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... , For other uses, see Tesco (disambiguation). ...


During July 2007 at Ubuntu Live 2007, Mark Shuttleworth announced that Ubuntu 8.04 (out April 2008) would be the next LTS (Long Term Support) release. He also added that Canonical is committed to releasing a new LTS version every two years.


Features

A screenshot of Ubuntu 6.06 LTS, showing the Dawn of Ubuntu wallpaper, one from the selections available.
A screenshot of Ubuntu 6.06 LTS, showing the Dawn of Ubuntu wallpaper, one from the selections available.

Ubuntu focuses on usability,[24] including the widespread use of the sudo tool for administrative tasks.[25] The Ubiquity installer[26] allows installing Ubuntu to the hard disk from within the Live CD environment without the need for restarting the computer prior to installation. Ubuntu furthermore emphasises accessibility and internationalization, to reach as many people as possible. As of version 5.04, UTF-8 is the default character encoding. The default appearance of the user interface in the current version is called Human and is characterised by shades of brown and orange. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x1024, 1189 KB) Summary A screenshot of Ubuntu Linux desktop, v6. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x1024, 1189 KB) Summary A screenshot of Ubuntu Linux desktop, v6. ... Usability is a term used to denote the ease with which people can employ a particular tool or other human-made object in order to achieve a particular goal. ... This article is about the Unix command line program. ... It has been suggested that Easy Access be merged into this article or section. ... Internationalization and localization are means of adapting products such as publications or software for non-native environments, especially other nations and cultures. ... UTF-8 (8-bit UCS/Unicode Transformation Format) is a variable-length character encoding for Unicode. ... A character encoding or character set (sometimes referred to as code page) consists of a code that pairs a sequence of characters from a given set with something else, such as a sequence of natural numbers, octets or electrical pulses, in order to facilitate the storage of text in computers...


Besides standard system tools and other small applications, Ubuntu comes installed with the software: OpenOffice.org, the Internet browser Firefox, the instant messenger Pidgin (formerly known as Gaim), and the raster graphics editor GIMP. Several lightweight card and puzzle games are pre-installed, including Sudoku and Chess. Ubuntu has all ports closed by default adding to security, although some people choose to run a firewall in order to keep tabs of incoming and outgoing connections. OpenOffice. ... Firefox may refer to: Firefox (novel), written by Craig Thomas, published in 1978 Firefox (film), the 1982 movie starring Clint Eastwood, based on the novel Firefox (arcade game), the laserdisc arcade game based on the movie Mozilla Firefox, a web browser The Red Fox or the Red Panda, based on... Pidgin (formerly named Gaim) is a multi-platform instant messaging client that supports many commonly used instant messaging protocols. ... A screenshot from the KDE raster graphics editor KolourPaint A screenshot from the GIMP raster graphics editor A raster graphics editor is a computer program that allows users to paint and edit pictures interactively on the computer screen and save them in one of many popular bitmap or raster formats... For other uses, see Gimp (disambiguation). ... For the game on The Price Is Right, see Card Game (pricing game). ... Minesweeper, a popular computer puzzle game found on many machines. ... This article is about the logic puzzle. ... This article is about the Western board game. ... Firewall may refer to: Firewall (construction), a physical barrier inside a building or vehicle, designed to limit the spread of fire, heat and structural collapse Firewall (networking), a logical barrier designed to prevent unauthorized or unwanted communications between sections of a computer network Firewall (film), a 2006 action film written...


Ubuntu offers a fully featured set of applications that work straight from the standard install, but nonetheless fits on a single CD. The live CD allows users to see whether their hardware is compatible before installation to the hard disk. The live CD is then used to install Ubuntu.[27] CDs are mailed free to anyone who requests them, and CD images are available for download. The Ubuntu live CD requires 256 megabytes of RAM, and once installed on the hard disk, Ubuntu needs four gigabytes of hard-disk space.[28] An alternate install disc using the standard debian-installer in text mode is available for download only, and is aimed at people with lower system specifications, computer dealers selling systems already installed with Ubuntu, and for complex partitioning including the use of LVM.[29] Gnoppix 0. ... Debian-Installer is the official installer for Debian GNU/Linux and Ubuntu GNU/Linux. ... In computer operating systems, disk partitioning is the creation of logical divisions upon a hard disk that allows one to apply operating system-specific logical formatting. ... LVM is an implementation of a logical volume manager for the Linux kernel. ...


With the release of Ubuntu 7.04 in April 2007, the Ubuntu installation process changed slightly. It now supports migration from Windows.[30] The new migration tool imports Windows users' bookmarks, desktop background (wallpaper), and settings for immediate use in the Ubuntu installation.


For Ubuntu there are tools available to create a specific installation CD/DVD. With Wubi, it is possible to install Ubuntu on a Windows partition. It also makes use of the migration tool which imports Windows users' configurations. Wubi is an unofficial Windows-based free software installer for Ubuntu, licensed under the GNU General Public License. ...


Multilingual

Since Ubuntu uses GNOME, the language of the GUI can set up in different languages.


Package classification and support

Ubuntu 7.10 CDs

Ubuntu divides all software into four components,[31] to reflect differences in licensing and level of support available. Packages are assigned to components as follows: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 733 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,916 × 1,568 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 733 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,916 × 1,568 pixels, file size: 1. ...

free software non-free software
supported Main Restricted
unsupported Universe Multiverse

"Free" software here includes only that which meets the Ubuntu license requirements,[32] which correspond roughly to the Debian Free Software Guidelines. There is one caveat for Main however; it "also may contain binary firmware and selected fonts (which are used by free components of Main) that cannot be modified without permission from their authors" so long as their "redistribution is unencumbered." Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... The Debian Free Software Guidelines (DFSG) are a set of guidelines that the Debian Project uses to determine whether a software license is free software license, which in turn is used to determine whether a piece of software can be included in the main, free software distribution of Debian. ... A microcontroller, like this PIC18F8720 is controlled by firmware stored inside on FLASH memory In computing, firmware is a computer program that is embedded in a hardware device, for example a microcontroller. ... In typography, a typeface is a co-ordinated set of character designs, which usually comprises an alphabet of letters, a set of numerals and a set of punctuation marks. ...


Non-free software is usually unsupported (Multiverse), but some exceptions (Restricted) are made for very important non-free software, such as non-free device drivers, without which users might be prevented from running Ubuntu on their system, particularly binary-only graphics card drivers. The level of support is more limited than for main, since the developers may not have access to the source code. A graphics/video/display card/board/adapter is a computer component designed to convert the logical representation of visual information into a signal that can be used as input for a display medium. ... A device driver, or software driver is a computer program allowing higher-level computer programs to interact with a computer hardware device. ... Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ...


It is intended that Main and Restricted should contain all software needed for a general-use Linux system. Alternative programs for the same tasks and programs for specialised applications are placed in Universe and Multiverse.


Beyond the official repositories is Ubuntu Backports,[33] which is an officially recognised project to backport newer versions of certain software that are available only in unstable versions of Ubuntu. The repository is not comprehensive; it mostly consists of user-requested packages, which are approved if they meet quality guidelines. Backporting is the action of taking a certain software modification (patch) and applying it to an older version of the software than it was initially created for. ...


Availability of proprietary software

Further information: Linux distribution#Proprietary software

Ubuntu has a certification system for third party software.[34] Ubuntu-certified proprietary software should work well in Ubuntu. However, many programs familiar to users of non-free operating systems, such as Microsoft Windows, are incompatible and are not Ubuntu-certified. Some proprietary software that does not limit distribution is included in Ubuntu's multiverse component. A Linux distribution, often simply distribution or distro, is a member of the Linux family of Unix-like operating systems comprising the Linux kernel, the non-kernel parts of the GNU operating system, and assorted other software. ... Windows redirects here. ...


Some examples of software not distributed by Ubuntu include:

  • Software that enables the playback of region-locked video DVDs, due to the questionable legal status of the Libdvdcss open-source DVD-decoding library in some parts of the world. (Note: the library is needed even when watching a DVD in the target region.)
  • Some popular proprietary web-browser plugins, such as Adobe's (formerly Macromedia's) Shockwave (there is no Linux version) and Flash. (One workaround to the specific prohibition against redistribution in the Flash EULA is the multiverse package "flashplugin-nonfree" which automatically downloads the Linux Flash plugin directly from Adobe's site and then installs it.)

Regional lockout is the programming practice, code, chip, or physical barrier used to prevent the playing of media designed for a device from the country where it is marketed on the version of the same device marketed in another country. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... libdvdcss is a free, highly portable library for accessing and unscrambling DVDs encrypted with the Content Scramble System. ... Adobe Systems (pronounced a-DOE-bee IPA: ) (NASDAQ: ADBE) (LSE: ABS) is an American computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California, USA. Adobe was founded in December 1982[1] by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who established the company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell... Macromedia was an American graphics and web development software house headquartered in San Francisco, California producing such products as Macromedia Flash. ... Adobe Shockwave (formerly Macromedia Shockwave) was Macromedias first and most successful multimedia player prior to the introduction of Macromedia Flash (now Adobe Flash). ... Adobe Flash, or simply Flash, refers to both the Adobe Flash Player, and to the Adobe Flash Professional multimedia authoring program. ... A workaround is a bypass of a recognized problem in a system. ... A software license is a type of proprietary or gratiuitious license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software — sometimes called an End User License Agreement (EULA) — that specifies the perimeters of the permission granted by the owner to the...

Releases


Each release has both a code name and a version number. The version number is based on the year and month of release. For example, the very first release of Ubuntu 4.10 was released on October 20, 2004.[35] Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Version Code name Testing name Release date Supported until Features and Changes
4.10 Warty Warthog Sounder 2004-10-20[36] 2006-04-30[37] ShipIt
5.04 Hoary Hedgehog Array 2005-04-08[38] 2006-10-31[39] Update Manager; Upgrade Notifier; readahead; grepmap; laptop suspend, hibernate and standby; dynamic frequency scaling; Ubuntu hardware database; Kickstart; installation from USB devices; UTF-8 by default; APT authentication
5.10 Breezy Badger Colony 2005-10-13[40][41] 2007-04-13[42] Usplash (graphical boot sequence); "Add/Remove..." application tool; language selector; logical volume management support; Hewlett-Packard printer support; OEM installer support; Launchpad integration
6.06 LTS Dapper Drake Flight 2006-06-01[43][44] 2009-06 (desktops) Long Term Support (LTS) release. LiveCD and Install CD merged onto one disc; Ubiquity graphical installer on LiveCD; Usplash on shutdowns; Network Manager for easy switching of multiple wired and wireless connections; 'Humanlooks' theme implemented using Tango guidelines, based on Clearlooks and featuring orange colours instead of brown; LAMP installation option; installation to USB devices; GDebi graphical installer for package files
2011-06 (servers)
6.10 Edgy Eft Knot 2006-10-26[45][46] 2008-04 Ubuntu 'Human' theme heavily modified; Upstart; automated crash reports (Apport); Tomboy notetaking application; F-spot photo manager
7.04 Feisty Fawn Herd 2007-04-19[47] 2008-10 Migration assistant; Kernel-based Virtual Machine support; easy codec and restricted drivers installation; Compiz desktop effects; Wi-Fi Protected Access support; PowerPC support dropped; Sudoku and chess games added; 'baobab' disk usage analyzer added; GNOME Control Center; Zeroconf for many devices
7.10 Gutsy Gibbon Tribe 2007-10-18[48][49] 2009-04 Compiz Fusion by default;[50] AppArmor security framework;[51] fast desktop search;[52] fast user switching;[52] improvements in plug-in handling for Mozilla Firefox (Ubufox);[53] graphical configuration tool for X.org;[53] a revamped printing system with PDF printing by default[53]
8.04 LTS Hardy Heron[54] Alpha 2008-04-24[55] 2011-04 (desktops) Long Term Support (LTS) release;[56][57] Planned features include: revamped theme and artwork, better Tango compliance[58]; robustness; compiz usability improvements; tracker integration[59]
2013-04 (servers)
Ubuntu 7.04 CDs
Ubuntu 7.04 CDs

Releases are timed to be approximately one month after GNOME releases, which are in turn about one month after releases of X.org. Consequently, every Ubuntu release comes with a newer version of both GNOME and X. Binomial name (Pallas, 1766) This article is about the animal. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Genera Atelerix Erinaceus Hemiechinus Mesechinus Paraechinus A hedgehog is any of the small spiny mammals of the subfamily Erinaceinae and the order Erinaceomorpha. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hibernate (also known ambiguously as sleep mode) is a feature seen in many operating systems where the contents of RAM is written to non-volatile storage, such as the hard disk (as either a file or on a separate partition) before powering off the system. ... Stand by is a feature of computer operating system that allows to switch computer to ACPI G1 Sleeping S3 state. ... For the computer architecture technique to increase processor performance by increasing clock frequency, see frequency scaling. ... UTF-8 (8-bit UCS/Unicode Transformation Format) is a variable-length character encoding for Unicode. ... Look up APT on Wiktionary, the free dictionary APT or Apt may mean: Advanced Portfolio Technologies Arbitrage pricing theory, in finance and financial economics Alabama Public Television, network of PBS TV stations run by the U.S. state of Alabama American Public Television, a television program provider in the U... Genera  Arctonyx  Melogale  Meles  Mellivora  Taxidea For other uses, see Badger (disambiguation). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // This project was started to replace the starting text scroll screens with a graphical one. ... In computer storage, logical volume management or LVM is a method of allocating space on mass storage devices that is more flexible than conventional partitioning schemes. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... Original equipment manufacturer, or OEM, is a term that refers to containment-based re-branding, namely where one company uses a component of another company within its product, or sells the product of another company under its own brand. ... Launchpad is a web application and web site supporting software development, particularly that of free software. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see June (disambiguation). ... Gnoppix 0. ... // This project was started to replace the starting text scroll screens with a graphical one. ... The Tango Desktop Project is a project which aims to create a consistent user experience for free and Open Source software with graphical user interfaces. ... Clearlooks Theme on Ubuntu Linux Clearlooks is a theme engine for GTK+, the main widget toolkit used by the GNOME desktop environment. ... The acronym LAMP refers to a solution stack of software, usually free software / open-source software, used to run dynamic Web sites or servers. ... Note: USB may also mean upper sideband in radio. ... deb is the extension of the Debian software package format and the most often used name for such binary packages. ... 2011 (MMXI) will be a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see June (disambiguation). ... “Eft” redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... In Unix computing, Upstart is an event-based replacement for the init daemon written by Scott James Remnant, an employee of Canonical Ltd. ... Tomboy is an open-source desktop notetaking application for Unix-like systems written in C# using Gtk#. It uses a Wiki-like linking system to connect notes together. ... F-Spot is a photograph management application, designed to provide personal photo management for the GNOME desktop. ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see October (disambiguation). ... KVM (for Kernel-based Virtual Machine) is a full virtualization solution for Linux on x86 hardware. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Compiz fusion. ... Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA and WPA2) is a class of systems to secure wireless (Wi-Fi) computer networks. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... This article is about the logic puzzle. ... This article is about the Western board game. ... Zeroconf or Zero Configuration Networking is a set of techniques that automatically create a usable IP network without configuration or special servers. ... Genera Hylobates Hoolock Nomascus Symphalangus Gibbons are the small apes that are grouped in the family Hylobatidae. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... AppArmor (Application Armor) is security software for Linux, released under the GNU General Public License. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Fast user switching is a feature on some modern multi-user operating systems such as Windows XP, Windows Vista, Mac OS X, OpenSUSE (linux), Ubuntu (linux) and Fedora (linux)[1]. It allows users to switch between user accounts on a single PC without quitting applications and logging out. ... The X.Org logo The X.Org Foundation is the consortium holding the stewardship for the development of the X Window System. ... For other uses, see Heron (disambiguation). ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2011 (MMXI) will be a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... 2013 (MMXIII) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources to improve its verifiability. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 669 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1835 × 1644 pixel, file size: 198 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 669 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1835 × 1644 pixel, file size: 198 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...


Release 6.06—and recently 8.04—have been labeled as a Long Term Support (LTS), to indicate that it will be supported with updates for three years on the desktop and five years on the server, with paid technical support available from Canonical Ltd.[60] Canonical Ltd. ...


ShipIt

Canonical offers a free installation CD shipping service called ShipIt, allowing users to request Ubuntu installation CDs over the Internet, which will then be sent to the user's postal address in the mail.[61] ShipIt is available worldwide free of charge, however delivery may take up to ten weeks and the most recent releases of Ubuntu have in the past not always been available via ShipIt. As of October 2007, the most recent release 7.10 is available for order via ShipIt. For other uses, see October (disambiguation). ...


Variants

Xubuntu 7.04 default desktop.
Further information: List of Ubuntu-based distributions.

There are several variants besides Ubuntu, both official and unofficial. Of the official variants, Kubuntu[62] and Edubuntu[63] are also available free of charge via mail order through Ubuntu's ShipIt service, but Xubuntu is not.[64] These Ubuntu variants simply install a set of packages different from the original Ubuntu, but since they draw additional packages and updates from the same repositories as Ubuntu, all of the same software is available for each of them. These different versions correspond to development efforts run by largely separate groups of people who try to bring different functionalities to the distribution. The official sister distributions are:[65] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 1024 pixel, file size: 512 KB, MIME type: image/png) Screenshot of Xubuntu 7. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 750 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 1024 pixel, file size: 512 KB, MIME type: image/png) Screenshot of Xubuntu 7. ... Xubuntu is an official derivative of the Ubuntu open source operating system, using the Xfce desktop environment. ... List of Ubuntu-based Linux distributions. ... Kubuntu is an official derivative of the Ubuntu Linux distribution using the KDE environment instead of GNOME. It is part of the Ubuntu project and uses the same underlying system. ... Edubuntu is a branch of the Ubuntu Linux project designed for classroom use. ... A repository is a central place where data is stored and maintained. ...

Unofficial variants and derivatives are not controlled or guided by Canonical and are generally forks with different goals in mind. Edubuntu is a branch of the Ubuntu Linux project designed for classroom use. ... This article is about the mythical creature. ... Gobuntu is an upcoming official derivative of the Ubuntu operating system, aiming to provide a distribution consisting entirely of free software. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... Kubuntu is an official derivative of the Ubuntu Linux distribution using the KDE environment instead of GNOME. It is part of the Ubuntu project and uses the same underlying system. ... For the NYSE stock ticker symbol KDE, see 4Kids Entertainment. ... This article is about the mythical creature. ... Xubuntu is an official derivative of the Ubuntu open source operating system, using the Xfce desktop environment. ... Xfce ([1]) is a free software desktop environment for Unix and other Unix-like platforms, such as Linux, Solaris and BSD. Its configuration is entirely mouse-driven and the configuration files are hidden from the casual user. ... This article is about the mythical creature. ... JeOS is the abbreviation (pronounced juice) for the concept of Just Enough Operating System as it applies to a software appliance. ... A virtual appliance is a minimalist virtual machine image designed to run under VMware, Xen, Microsoft Virtual PC, QEMU, Usermode Linux, CoLinux or other PC virtualization technology, providing network applications like firewalls or webservers. ... In software engineering, a project fork or branch happens when a developer (or a group of them) takes a copy of source code from one software package and starts to independently develop a new package. ...


System requirements

The most recent stable version of Ubuntu is officially supported for the Intel x86 and AMD64 architectures in the Desktop release and for the Intel x86, AMD64 and SPARC architectures in the Server release.[67][68] x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... Sun UltraSPARC II Microprocessor Sun UltraSPARC T1 (Niagara 8 Core) SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture) is a RISC microprocessor instruction set architecture originally designed in 1985 by Sun Microsystems. ...


There are also unsupported ports for the PowerPC (note however that prior to version 7.04, Ubuntu officially supported the PowerPC architecture),[69]IA-64 (Itanium) and the PlayStation 3.[70] PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... In computing, IA-64 (short for Intel Architecture-64) is a 64-bit processor architecture developed cooperatively by Intel Corporation and Hewlett-Packard (HP), and implemented in the Itanium and Itanium 2 processors. ... The PlayStation 3 , trademarked PLAYSTATION®3,[3] commonly abbreviated PS3) is the third home video game console produced by Sony Computer Entertainment; successor to the PlayStation 2. ...


For older computers which do not meet the system requirements listed below, there is also Xubuntu, based on Xfce, which requires roughly half of the RAM and disk space. Xubuntu is an official derivative of the Ubuntu open source operating system, using the Xfce desktop environment. ... Xfce ([1]) is a free software desktop environment for Unix and other Unix-like platforms, such as Linux, Solaris and BSD. Its configuration is entirely mouse-driven and the configuration files are hidden from the casual user. ... Look up RAM, Ram, ram in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A hard disk drive (HDD), commonly referred to as a hard drive, hard disk or fixed disk drive,[1] is a non-volatile storage device which stores digitally encoded data on rapidly rotating platters with magnetic surfaces. ...


Server Edition

While it is possible to install the Server release on a "legacy machine" (e.g. a 75 MHz Pentium with 32 MB of RAM),[71] the "minimum requirements"[72] for good performance are: This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

  • 300 MHz x86 processor
  • 64 MB of system memory (RAM)
  • At least 2 GB of disk space (for full installation and swap space)
  • VGA graphics card capable of 640x480 resolution
  • CD-ROM drive

Desktop Edition

For the Desktop release, the "recommended minimum requirements"[72] for good performance are:

  • 500 MHz x86 processor
  • 192 MB of system memory (RAM)
  • 8 GB of disk space (although only 4 GB is required)[73]
  • Graphics card capable of 1024x768 resolution
  • Sound card (optional)
  • A network or Internet connection

Install and Live CDs

For the Desktop release, there are two different types of install CD offered:[74]

"The desktop CD allows you to try Ubuntu without changing your computer at all, and at your option to install it permanently later. This type of CD is what most people will want to use. You will need at least 320MB of RAM to install from this CD." Gnoppix 0. ...

  • Alternate Install CD

"The alternate install CD allows you to perform certain specialist installations of Ubuntu. It provides for the following situations: creating pre-configured OEM systems; setting up automated deployments; upgrading from older installations without network access; LVM and/or RAID partitioning; installs on systems with less than about 320MB of RAM (although note that low-memory systems may not be able to run a full desktop environment reasonably)."

  • Server CD

"The server install CD allows you to install Ubuntu permanently on a computer for use as a server. It will not install a graphical user interface."


Response

Ubuntu's popularity has climbed steadily since its 2004 release. It is currently the second most popular desktop distribution of Linux, with the Ubuntu page at Distrowatch.com, being the most accessed on the site in 2005[75] and 2006.[76] This popularity is borne out by a rise in Google searches for "Ubuntu" since 2004 as compared to a shrinking or plateauing number for terms related to other major desktop Linux distributions such as "Fedora", "Debian" or "SUSE" over the same period[77]. In a 2007 survey of 38500 DesktopLinux.com users Ubuntu was the most used distribution, with 30.3 percent of respondents using it.[2] Fedora (previously called Fedora Core) is an RPM-based, general purpose Linux distribution, developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and sponsored by Red Hat. ... Debian is a free operating system. ... SUSE (pronounced IPA: , properly (in German), ZOO-za, loosely SOO-sa [1] in English) is a major retail Linux distribution, produced in Germany and owned by Novell, Inc. ...


Ubuntu was awarded the Reader Award for best Linux distribution at the 2005 LinuxWorld Conference and Expo in London.[78] It has been favourably reviewed in online and print publications.[79][80] Ubuntu won InfoWorld's 2007 Bossie Award for Best Open Source Client OS.[3] The 2006 LinuxWorld trade show at the Boston Convention and Exposition Center. ... InfoWorld is an information technology online media and events business operating under the umbrella of InfoWorld Media Group, a division of IDG (International Data Group). ...


Mark Shuttleworth indicates that there were at least 8 million Ubuntu users at the end of 2006.[81]


See also

Free software Portal

Image File history File links Free_Software_Portal_Logo. ... List of Ubuntu-based Linux distributions. ... This page provides general information about notable Linux distributions in the form of a categorized list. ... Technical variations include support for different hardware devices and systems or software package configurations. ... system76 is a computer hardware manufacturer. ...

Notes

  1. ^ PowerPC is no longer officially supported as of v7.04 (Feisty).[1] Unofficial v7.10 PowerPC release can be found here.
  2. ^ Playstation 3 Installation instructions
  3. ^ The CD images for Intel Itanium and Itanium 2 computers can be found here.
  4. ^ The UltraSPARC and UltraSPARC T1 platforms are only supported by the Server Edition.
  5. ^ http://www.ubuntu.com/aboutus/faq
  6. ^ Ubuntu's African Roots. Retrieved on 2007-06-06.
  7. ^ Edubuntu - Frequently asked questions. Retrieved on 2006-07-15.
  8. ^ Gobuntu - What is Gobuntu. Retrieved on 2007-10-26.
  9. ^ a b ubuntu/history "The Ubuntu Story". Retrieved on 2007-10-21.
  10. ^ https://wiki.ubuntu.com/TimeBasedReleases
  11. ^ https://wiki.ubuntu.com/Releases
  12. ^ ubuntu/philosophy. Retrieved on 2006-04-25.
  13. ^ http://ubuntuforums.org/archive/index.php/t-23773.html
  14. ^ a b c https://wiki.ubuntu.com/UbuntuTitle
  15. ^ a b Ubuntu vs. Debian, reprise. Retrieved on 2007-10-21.
  16. ^ Mark Shuttleworth on binary compatibility. Retrieved on 2006-04-25.
  17. ^ GrumpyGroundhog specification. Retrieved on 2006-06-29.
  18. ^ MarkShuttleworth - Ubuntu Wiki. Retrieved on 2006-07-13.
  19. ^ Announcing Launch of ($10m) Ubuntu Foundation (2005-07-08). Retrieved on 2007-04-21.
  20. ^ Ubuntu Customers. Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  21. ^ Dell's Blog. Retrieved on 2007-08-30.
  22. ^ Tesco Shipping Desktops with Ubuntu - eSys.
  23. ^ Tesco Shipping Desktops with Ubuntu - eSys ePC.
  24. ^ About Ubuntu. Retrieved on 2006-04-25.
  25. ^ RootSudo - Ubuntu Wiki. Retrieved on 2006-04-25.
  26. ^ Screenshots of Ubiquity's KDE frontend. Retrieved on 2006-05-03.
  27. ^ Installing Ubuntu from the Live CD. Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  28. ^ Ubuntu 6.06 Release Notes: Hardware Requirements. Retrieved on 2006-07-08.
  29. ^ Ubuntu 6.06 LTS: Download. Retrieved on 2006-07-30.
  30. ^ Ubuntu 7.04 Adds a Migration Tool. Retrieved on 2006-06-27.
  31. ^ ubuntu/components. Retrieved on 2006-03-16.
  32. ^ ubuntu/licensing. Retrieved on 2006-06-29.
  33. ^ UbuntuBackports. Retrieved on 2006-03-16.
  34. ^ partners/certification/software. Retrieved on 2006-03-16.
  35. ^ Shuttleworth, Mark (2004-10-20). Ubuntu 4.10 announcement. ubuntu-announce mailing list. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  36. ^ Ubuntu 4.10 announcement. Retrieved on 2007-04-13.
  37. ^ Zimmerman, Matt (2006-03-28). Ubuntu 4.10 reaches end of life on 30 April 2006. ubuntu-announce mailing list. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  38. ^ 5.04 Release Notes (2005-04-08). Retrieved on 2007-04-14.
  39. ^ Armstrong, Christina (2006-10-23). Ubuntu 5.04 reaches end-of-life on 31 October 2006. ubuntu-security-announce mailing list. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  40. ^ Ubuntu 5.10 announcement. Retrieved on 2006-10-11.
  41. ^ Ubuntu 5.10 release notes. Retrieved on 2006-12-21.
  42. ^ Heen, Tollef Fog (2007-03-14). Ubuntu 5.10 reaches end-of-life on April 13th 2007. ubuntu-security-announce mailing list. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  43. ^ Ubuntu 6.06 LTS announcement. Retrieved on 2006-12-21.
  44. ^ Ubuntu 6.06 LTS release notes. Retrieved on 2006-12-21.
  45. ^ Ubuntu 6.10 announcement. Retrieved on 2006-10-26.
  46. ^ Ubuntu 6.10 release notes. Retrieved on 2006-12-21.
  47. ^ Ubuntu 7.04 announcement. Retrieved on 2007-02-06.
  48. ^ GutsyReleaseSchedule - Ubuntu Wiki. Retrieved on 2007-04-12.
  49. ^ Introducing the Gutsy Gibbon (2007-04-12). Retrieved on 2007-05-06.
  50. ^ http://www.ubuntu.com/testing/tribe2
  51. ^ http://www.ubuntu.com/testing/tribe3
  52. ^ a b http://www.ubuntu.com/testing/tribe4
  53. ^ a b c http://www.ubuntu.com/testing/tribe5
  54. ^ HardyReleaseSchedule. Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
  55. ^ Introducing the Hardy Heron. Retrieved on 2007-08-29.Milestone ubuntu-8.04 for Ubuntu due 2008-04-24. Retrieved on 2007-10-23.
  56. ^ Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter: Issue 36
  57. ^ Ubuntu's new Linux sports debugging tool
  58. ^ Hardy Heron Artwork. Ubuntu Wiki. Retrieved on 2007-10-19.
  59. ^ Ubuntu developer summit Boston.
  60. ^ Announcing Beta release of Ubuntu 6.06 LTS. Retrieved on 2006-04-26.
  61. ^ Shipit - free shipment of Ubuntu CDs. Retrieved on 2006-04-26.
  62. ^ Shipit - free shipment of Kubuntu CDs. Retrieved on 2006-06-21.
  63. ^ Shipit - free shipment of Edubuntu CDs. Retrieved on 2006-06-21.
  64. ^ https://bugs.launchpad.net/shipit/+bug/62318
  65. ^ Other Ubuntus. Retrieved on 2007-06-07.
  66. ^ https://lists.ubuntu.com/archives/ubuntu-announce/2007-November/000106.html
  67. ^ http://releases.ubuntu.com/7.04/
  68. ^ http://www.eweek.com/article2/0,1759,1969424,00.asp
  69. ^ Technical Board Decision - February 2007.
  70. ^ http://cdimage.ubuntu.com/ports/releases/7.04/release/
  71. ^ https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Installation/LowMemorySystems
  72. ^ a b https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Installation/SystemRequirements
  73. ^ http://www.ubuntu.com/products/whatisubuntu/desktopedition
  74. ^ http://releases.ubuntu.com/7.10/
  75. ^ http://distrowatch.com/index.php?dataspan=2005
  76. ^ http://distrowatch.com/index.php?dataspan=2006
  77. ^ Google Trends, comparing Fedora|RHEL|Red Hat, Debian, Ubuntu, SUSE|OpenSUSE, Mandrake|Mandriva
  78. ^ LinuxWorld Expo UK 2005 (PDF). Retrieved on 2006-05-09.
  79. ^ Ubuntu - A New Approach to Desktop Linux. Retrieved on 2006-05-09.
  80. ^ Linux in Government: Linux Desktop Reviews, Part 6 - Ubuntu. Retrieved on 2006-05-09.
  81. ^ http://www.redherring.com/Home/20497

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mark Richard Shuttleworth (born 18 September 1973) is a South African entrepreneur who was the second self-funded space tourist and first African national in space. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Google Trends is a tool from Google Labs that shows the most popularly searched terms from the beginning of 2004 to now. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Official
Other

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... A Linux distribution, often simply distribution or distro, is a member of the Linux family of Unix-like operating systems comprising the Linux kernel, the non-kernel parts of the GNU operating system, and assorted other software. ... CentOS is a freely available Linux distribution which is based on Red Hats commercial Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) product. ... Debian is a free operating system. ... Fedora (previously called Fedora Core) is an RPM-based, general purpose Linux distribution, developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and sponsored by Red Hat. ... The Gentoo Linux operating system (pronounced ) is a Linux distribution named after the Gentoo penguin. ... Knoppix, or KNOPPIX, is a complete Linux distribution on a CD. This includes a working computer operating system and a powerful suite of graphical user software which can be used as a live CD. It is a Debian-based Linux distribution, developed by Linux consultant Klaus Knopper. ... Mandriva Linux (formerly Mandrakelinux or Mandrake Linux) is a Linux distribution created by Mandriva (formerly Mandrakesoft). ... openSUSE is a community project, sponsored by Novell, to develop and maintain a general purpose Linux distribution. ... Red Hat Enterprise Linux (often abbreviated to RHEL) is a Linux distribution produced by Red Hat and targeted toward the commercial market, including mainframes. ... Slackware was one of the earliest Linux distributions, and is the oldest, and most UNIX-like, distribution still being maintained[1]. It was created by Patrick Volkerding of Slackware Linux, Inc. ... This page provides general information about notable Linux distributions in the form of a categorized list. ... A Linux distribution, often simply distribution or distro, is a member of the Linux family of Unix-like operating systems comprising the Linux kernel, the non-kernel parts of the GNU operating system, and assorted other software. ... Edubuntu is a branch of the Ubuntu Linux project designed for classroom use. ... Gobuntu is an upcoming official derivative of the Ubuntu operating system, aiming to provide a distribution consisting entirely of free software. ... Kubuntu is an official derivative of the Ubuntu Linux distribution using the KDE environment instead of GNOME. It is part of the Ubuntu project and uses the same underlying system. ... Ubuntu Studio is an unofficial derivative of the Ubuntu GNU/Linux distribution, based on Ubuntu, which is explicitly geared to general multimedia production. ... Xubuntu is an official derivative of the Ubuntu open source operating system, using the Xfce desktop environment. ... Fluxbuntu is a Linux distribution based on Ubuntu that uses Fluxbox rather than the GNOME desktop environment. ... Freespire is a community-driven Linux distribution which is composed entirely of free/open source software, while providing users the choice of including proprietary software including multimedia codecs, device drivers and application software as they see fit. ... gNewSense (originally called Gnusiance) is a GNU/Linux distribution based on Ubuntu aiming to provide a distribution consisting entirely of free software. ... Gnoppix is an Ubuntu-based LiveCD. It is a complete Linux distribution running on a CD or DVD drive without using a hard drive. ... Guadalinex is a Debian based LiveCD linux distribution promoted by the government of Andalusia (Spain). ... Impi Linux is a South African Linux distribution. ... MintMenu, the slab-like menu in Linux Mint. ... Linux TLE is an Thai Linux distribution based on Red Hat Linux. ... Molinux is a Linux distribution based on Ubuntu sponsored by the autonomous community of Castilla-La Mancha and the Fundación Ínsula Barataria. ... Mythbuntu is a specialized Linux distribution based on Ubuntu and MythTV 0. ... Nexenta OS is a port of Debian to the OpenSolaris kernel. ... . The initial letter is shown capitalized due to technical restrictions. ... Symphony OS, or Symphony Linux, started out as a Knoppix-based LiveCD Linux distribution, created by Ryan Quinn and Jason Spisak. ... gOS is a Linux distribution created by gOS LLC, a Los Angeles-based corporation[1]. The company advertises it as An alternative OS with Google Apps and other Web 2. ... List of Ubuntu-based Linux distributions. ...


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m