FACTOID # 13: New York has America's lowest percentage of residents who are veterans.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "USSR" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > USSR
Союз Советских Социалистических Республик
Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik

other languages
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
USSR flag Soviet coat of arms
(In Detail) (In Detail)
State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь!
(Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes'!)
(Translated: Workers of the world, unite!)
Capital Moscow
Official language None; Russian (de facto)
Government Federation of Soviet republics
Area
 - Total
 - % water
1st before collapse
22,402,200 km²
Approx. 0.5
Population
 - Total
 - Density
3rd before collapse
293,047,571 (July 1991)
13.08/km² (July 1991)
Establishment
 - Declared
 - Recognized

December 30, 1922
February 1, 1924
Dissolution December 26, 1991
Currency Soviet ruble
Time zone UTC +2 to +13
National anthems
The Internationale (1922−1944)
Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) listen
Internet TLD .su
edit

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (abbreviated USSR) (Russian: Союз Советских Социалистических Республик (СССР) listen ; tr.: Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik [SSSR]), more commonly known as the Soviet Union (Russian: Советский Союз; tr.: Sovetskiy Soyuz) was a socialist state that existed from 1922 to 1991. From 1945 until its dissolution in 1991, it was, along with the United States, one of the world's two superpowers. The official names of the USSR in the languages of the Soviet Republics and other languages of the USSR where as follows (presented in the constitutional order). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Soviet Flag: 1:4 ratio July 1923-November 13, 1923 The first official flag of the Soviet Union was adopted in December of 1922 at the First Congress of Soviets of the USSR. It was agreed that the red banner was transformed from the symbol of the Party to the... The state coat of arms of the Soviet Union, from 1958-1991 The state coat of arms of the Soviet Union (Russian: ) was adopted in 1924 and was used until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. ... The USSR State motto is a quotation from Karl Marxs and Friedrich Engels Communist Manifesto, meaning Workers of the world, unite!. It appeared in the language of the Soviet Republics in the USSR Coat of arms, by the reverse order they were mentioned on the Constitution of the USSR... There exist many possible systems for transliterating the Cyrillic alphabet of the Russian language to English or the Latin alphabet. ... The political slogan Workers of the world, unite!, one of the most famous rallying cries of socialism, comes from Karl Marx and Friedrich Engelss Communist Manifesto. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1427x628, 28 KB) Summary Location map for the Soviet Union User:Clevelander modified Image:BlankMap-World. ... In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... A map displaying todays federations. ... Evolution of the Soviet Republics from 1922 to 1958. ... Area is a physical quantity expressing the size of a part of a surface. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per unit of volume. ... December 30 is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 1 day remaining. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The rise of Gorbachev Although reform stalled between 1964–1982, the generational shift gave new momentum for reform. ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1998 Russian Federation one rouble coin. ... A time zone is a region of the Earth that has adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a high-precision atomic time standard which approximately tracks Universal Time (UT). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognzed either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... The Internationale (LInternationale in French) is the most famous socialist (and anarchist and Communist) song and one of the most widely recognized songs in the world. ... Hymn of the Soviet Union (Гимн Советского Союза, Gimn Sovetskogo Soyuza) was the national anthem of the Soviet Union. ... Image File history File links Hymne Soviétique. ... A top-level domain (TLD) is the last part of an Internet domain name; that is, the letters which follow the final dot of any domain name. ... .su was assigned as the country code top-level domain for the Soviet Union in 1990. ... It has been suggested that Apocopation be merged into this article or section. ... Image File history File links Ru-CCCP.ogg Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in Russian. ... There exist many possible systems for transliterating the Cyrillic alphabet of the Russian language to English or the Latin alphabet. ... There exist many possible systems for transliterating the Cyrillic alphabet of the Russian language to English or the Latin alphabet. ... Socialist state is the term used in official documents of some countries to describe their political system. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... A superpower is a state with the ability to influence events or project power on a wide scale. ...


The USSR was created and expanded as a union of Soviet republics formed within the territory of the Russian Empire abolished by the Russian Revolution of 1917 followed by the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920. The geographic boundaries of the Soviet Union varied with time, but from 1945 until dissolution they approximately corresponded to those of late Imperial Russia, with the notable exclusions of Poland and Finland. Soviet Republic may refer to one of the following states. ... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1925) Area Approx. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, which, after the elimination of the Russian autocracy system, and the Provisional Government (Duma), resulted in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ... The Russian Civil War was fought from 1918 to 1922. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


The Soviet Union became the primary model for future Communist states during the Cold War; the government and the political organization of the country were defined by the only permitted political party, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. This article is about one-party states governed by Communist parties. ... The Cold War was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between the global superpowers of the Soviet Union and the United States, supported by their military alliance partners. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the All...


Established by four Soviet Socialist Republics, the USSR grew and from 1956 to 1991 politically contained 15 constituent or union republics — Armenian SSR, Azerbaijan SSR, Byelorussian SSR, Estonian SSR, Georgian SSR, Kazakh SSR, Kirghiz SSR, Latvian SSR, Lithuanian SSR, Moldavian SSR, Russian SFSR, Tajik SSR, Turkmen SSR, Ukrainian SSR, and Uzbek SSR — joined in a strongly centralized federal union. After the USSR's collapse, all 15 SSRs became independent countries. State motto: ÕŠÖ€Õ¸Õ¬Õ¥Õ¿Õ¡Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€ Õ¢Õ¸Õ¬Õ¸Ö€ Õ¥Ö€Õ¯Ö€Õ¶Õ¥Ö€Õ«, միացեք! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... State motto: Бүтүн өлкәләрин пролетарлары, бирләшин! Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... State motto: Пралетарыі ўсіх краін, яднайцеся! Belarusian: Workers of the world, unite! Official language None. ... State motto: Kõigi maade proletaarlased, ühinege (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language Estonian, Russian (de facto) Capital Tallinn Chairman of the Supreme Council Arnold Rüütel (at the time of regaining independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until July 21, 1940 August 6, 1940 August 20, 1991... State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 Capital Tbilisi Chairman of the Supreme Council Zviad Gamsakhurdia (at independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until February 25, 1921 December 30, 1922 April 9, 1991 Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 10th in former Soviet Union 69,700 km² -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked... State motto: Барлық елдердің пролетарлары, бірігіңдер! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ... State motto: Бардык өлкөлордүн пролетарлары, бириккиле! Official language None. ... State motto: Visu zemju proletārieÅ¡i, savienojieties! Official language Latvian, Russian (de facto). ... State motto: Visų Å¡alių proletarai, vienykitÄ—s! (Workers of all countries, unite) Official language Lithuanian, Russian (de facto). ... State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Socialist republics/ Communist state Last Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0. ... State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. ... State motto: Әхли юртларың пролетарлары, бирлешиң! Official language None. ... State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ... State motto: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! (transliteration: Butun dunyo proletarlari, birlashingiz! (Uzbek: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None. ...


The Soviet Union was dissolved in 1991, and the successor states are a collection of 15 countries commonly dubbed "the former Soviet Union." Eleven of these states are aligned through a loose confederation known as the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The three Baltic States (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) did not join this Commonwealth; instead, they joined the European Union in 2004. Turkmenistan, originally a full member of the CIS, is now an associate member. Russia and Belarus also belong to the Union of Russia and Belarus. A confederation is an association of sovereign states, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Member states 11 member states 1 associate member Working language Russian Executive Secretary Vladimir Rushailo Formation December 21, 1991 Official website http://cis. ... Baltic states and the Baltic Sea The Baltic states or the Baltic countries is a term which nowadays refers to three countries in Northern Europe: Estonia Latvia Lithuania Prior to World War II, Finland was sometimes considered, particularly by the Soviet Union, a fourth Baltic state. ... The Union of Russia and Belarus (Russian: Союз России и Беларуси, also called the Belarusian-Russian Union State) is a supranational entity comprising Russia and Belarus that was initiated by the latters president, Alexander Lukashenko. ...

Contents


History

Main article: History of the Soviet Union

The Soviet Union is traditionally considered to be the successor of the Russian Empire. The last Russian tsar, Nicholas II, ruled until March 1917 and was eventually executed. The Soviet Union was established in December 1922 as the union of the Russian (colloquially known as Bolshevist Russia), Ukrainian, Belarusian, and Transcaucasian Soviet republics ruled by Bolshevik parties. The History of the Soviet Union begins with the Russian Revolution of 1917 in an effort to implement socialism, eventually leading to communism by Vladimir Lenin on a large scale, until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 when its central government was dissolved. ... The succession of states theory asserts that all possessions and territory held by a state are automatically transferred to the successor state, the state which succeeds it. ... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1925) Area Approx. ... Nicholas II can refer to: Pope Nicholas II Tsar Nicholas II of Russia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Red side in the Russian government between the Bolsheviks October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ... The Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was a short-lived (1922-1936) Soviet republic, consisting of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, which were traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics in the Soviet Union. ... Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ...


Modern revolutionary activity in the Russian Empire began with the Decembrist Revolt of 1825, and although serfdom was abolished in 1861, its abolition was achieved on terms unfavorable to the peasants and served to encourage revolutionaries. A parliament, the State Duma, was established in 1906, after the 1905 Revolution but political and social unrest continued and was aggravated during World War I by military defeat and food shortages in major cities. Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1925) Area Approx. ... Decembrists at the Senate Square The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (Russian: ) was attempted in Imperial Russia by army officers who led about 3,000 Russian soldiers on December 14 (December 26 New Style), 1825. ... 1825 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The origins of serfdom in Russia are traced to Kievan Rus in the 11th century. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Emblem commemorating the 100 year anniversary of Russia Dumas Boris Gryzlov, speaker of the Russian State Duma since December 2003 The State Duma (Russian: Государственная дума (Gosudarstvennaya Duma), common abbreviation: Госдума (Gosduma)) in the Russian Federation is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia (legislature), the upper house being the Federation... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Russian Revolution of 1905 was an empire-wide spasm of both anti-government and undirected violence. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Military dead: 4 million The First World War, also known as The Great War, The War to End All Wars, and World War I (abbreviated WWI) was...

The Soviet Union was a largely agricultural society at birth. Zinaida Serebryakova. Harvest. 1915
The Soviet Union was a largely agricultural society at birth. Zinaida Serebryakova. Harvest. 1915

A spontaneous popular uprising in Petrograd, in response to the wartime decay of Russia's economy and morale, culminated in the toppling of the imperial government in March 1917 (see February Revolution). The tsarist autocracy was replaced by the Provisional Government, whose leaders intended to establish liberal democracy in Russia and to continue participating on the side of the Allies in World War I. At the same time, to ensure the rights of the working class, workers' councils, known as soviets, sprang up across the country. The Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, agitated for socialist revolution in the soviets and on the streets. They seized power from the Provisional Government in November 1917 (see October Revolution). Only after the long and bloody Russian Civil War of 1918-1921, which included foreign intervention in several parts of Russia, was the new Communist regime secure. In a related conflict with Poland, the "Peace of Riga" in early 1921 split disputed territories in Belarus and Ukraine between Poland and Soviet powers. Image File history File links Zinaida Serebryakova. ... Image File history File links Zinaida Serebryakova. ... At the Dressing-Table, 1909 Zinaida Yevgenyevna Serebryakova (Russian: ) (December 10, 1884–September 19, 1967) was the first Russian woman-painter of distinction. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of... See Revolutions of 1848 in France for the February 1848 French revolution. ... The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd after the deterioration of the Russian Empire and the abdication of the Tsars. ... Combatants Allied Powers: British Empire France Italy Russia United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary Bulgaria Germany Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead: 5 million Military dead: 4 million The First World War, also known as The Great War, The War to End All Wars, and World War I (abbreviated WWI) was... A soviet (Russian: сове́т) originally was a workers local council in late Imperial Russia. ... Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) (April 22 (April 10 (O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution or November Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ... The Russian Civil War was fought from 1918 to 1922. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Second Polish Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Joseph Stalin Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 including reserves 5 million 360,000 including reserves 738,000 Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 100,000 - 150,000 Unknown, dead estimated at... Central and Eastern Europe after the Treaty of Riga See also Riga Peace Treaty for other treaties concluded in Riga. ...


From its first years, government in the Soviet Union was based on the one-party rule of the Communist Party (Bolsheviks). After the extraordinary economic policy of war communism during the Civil War the Soviet government permitted some private enterprise to coexist with nationalized industry in the 1920s and total food requisition in the countryside was replaced by a food tax (see New Economic Policy). Debate over the future of the economy provided the background for Soviet leaders to contend for power in the years after Lenin's death in 1924. By gradually consolidating his influence and isolating his rivals within the party, notably Lenin's more obvious heir Leon Trotsky, Joseph Stalin became the sole leader of the Soviet Union by the end of the 1920s. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the All... War communism or wartime communism (1917-1921) was the harsh economic policy adopted by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War with an aim to keep towns and the Red Army supplied with weapons and food in the conditions when all normal economical mechanisms and relations were being destroyed by... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Social issues of the 1920s. ... The New Economic Policy (NEP; in Russian Новая экономическая политика - Novaya Ekonomicheskaiya Politika or НЭП) was officially decided in the course of the 10th Congress of the Russian Communist Party. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... (Russian: Ио́сиф Виссарио́нович Ста́лин, Iosif Vissarionovich Stalin; December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), also spelled Josef Stalin, was the leader (Premier) of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s to his death in 1953 and General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet...


In 1928 Stalin introduced the First Five-Year Plan for building a socialist economy, now, unlike the internationalism expressed by Lenin and Trotsky throughout the course of the Revolution, "in one country." In industry the state assumed control over all existing enterprises and undertook an intensive program of industrialization; in agriculture collective farms were established all over the country (see Collectivisation in the USSR). The Soviet Union became a major districal power; but the plan's implementation produced widespread misery for segments of the population. Collectivization met widespread resistance from peasants, resulting in a bitter struggle helping the authorities in many areas, famine, and estimated millions of deaths. Social upheaval continued in the mid-1930s. Stalin's purge of the party (see Great Purges) eliminated many "Old Bolsheviks", who had participated in the Revolution with Lenin. Meanwhile, countless Soviets were jailed and sent to Gulags (Chief Administration for Corrective Labor Camps), a vast network of forced-labor camps, or executed. Yet despite the turmoil of the mid- to late 1930s, the Soviet Union developed a powerful industrial economy in the years before World War II. 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... Five-Year Plans for the National Economy of the USSR or Piatiletkas (пятилетка) were a series of nation-wide centralized exercises in rapid economic development in the Soviet Union. ... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... In the Soviet Union, collectivisation was a policy introduced in the late 1920s, of consolidation of individual land and labour into co-operatives called collective farms (Russian: колхоз, kolkhoz) and state farms (sovkhozes). ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The Great Purge (Russian: ) is the name given to campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s. ... An Old Bolshevik (старый большевик) was a member of the Bolsheviks before the Russian Revolution. ... Gulag (from the Russian ГУЛАГ: Главное Управление Исправительно— Трудовых Лагерей, Glavnoye Upravleniye Ispravitelno-trudovykh Lagerey, The Chief Directorate [or Administration] of Corrective Labour Camps) was the branch of the Soviet internal police and security service that operated the penal system of forced labour camps and associated detention and transit camps... Combatants Allies: Poland, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, France/Free France, United States, China, Canada, India, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Greece,Norway and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, Bulgaria, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Burma, Slovakia Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead...

Red Army soldiers on the Reichstag, Berlin, raising the "Victory Banner" after the fall of Nazi Germany (picture by Evgueni Khaldey)
Red Army soldiers on the Reichstag, Berlin, raising the "Victory Banner" after the fall of Nazi Germany (picture by Evgueni Khaldey)

The 1930s saw closer cooperation between Western countries and the USSR. In 1933 diplomatic relations between the USA and the USSR were established. Four years later the USSR actively supported the Second Spanish Republic in the Spanish Civil War against Italian and German fascists. However, after Great Britain and France concluded the Munich Agreement with Nazi Germany, the USSR dealt with the latter as well, both economically and militarily, by concluding the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact, which involved the engagement of Red Army into Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and the invasion of Poland in 1939. In late November 1939, unable to gain control of the strategic port of Petsamo by diplomatic means, Stalin ordered the invasion of Finland. Although it has been debated whether the Soviet Union had the intention of invading Germany once it was strong enough, Germany itself broke the treaty and invaded the Soviet Union in 1941. The Red Army stopped the Nazi offensive in the Battle of Stalingrad, lasting from late 1942 to early 1943, being the major turning point, and drove through Eastern Europe to Berlin before Germany surrendered in 1945 (see Great Patriotic War). Although ravaged by the war, the Soviet Union emerged from the conflict as an acknowledged superpower. ImageMetadata File history File links Reichstag_flag. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Reichstag_flag. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... The Reichstag building. ... This article is about Germanys largest city. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... History of Spain series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain -Visigoths -Al-Andalus -Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History Flag of the... Combatants Second Spanish Republic Foreign volunteers Soviet Union CNT militia UGT militia POUM militia Nationalist Spain Fascist Italy Nazi Germany Foreign volunteers Falangists Carlists Commanders Manuel Azaña Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Francisco Franco The Spanish Civil War, which lasted from July 18, 1936 to April 1, 1939... Chamberlain holds the paper containing the resolution to commit to peaceful methods signed by both Hitler and himself on his return from Germany in September 1938. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Molotov (left), Ribbentrop (in black) and Stalin The Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, also known as the Hitler-Stalin pact or Nazi-Soviet pact, was a non-aggression treaty between Germany and Russia, or more precisely between the Soviet Union and the Third Reich. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Combatants Poland Germany Soviet Union Slovakia Commanders Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Fedor von Bock (Army Group North) Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South) Ferdinand ÄŒatloÅ¡ (Field Army Bernolak) Strength 39 divisions 16 brigades 4,300 guns 880 tanks 400 aircraft Total: 1,000,000[1] 56 German divisions, 33+ Soviet... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The area of Petsamo (Pechenga in Russian) in northern Lapland, indigenously inhabited by Samis, came to Finland in 1920 and to the Soviet Union in 1944. ... Combatants Finland Soviet Union Commanders Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim Kliment Voroshilov, later Semyon Timoshenko Strength 200,000 men, 32 tanks, 119 aircraft (In the beginning), 250,000 men, 30 tanks, 130 aircraft (At the end) 460,000 men, 1,500 tanks, 1,000 aircraft (In the beginning), 1,000,000... For the movie, see 1941 (film) 1941 (MCMXLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1941 calendar). ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Axis Powers Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Friedrich Paulus Hermann Hoth Georgy Zhukov Vasily Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army Romanian Fourth Army Hungarian Second Army Italian Eighth Army 500,000 Germans Unknown number Reinforcements Unknown number Axis-allies Stalingrad... The definition of continental subregions in use by the United Nations. ... This article is about Germanys largest city. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... The Eastern Front was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... A superpower is a state with the first rank in the international system and the ability to influence events and project power on a worldwide scale; it is considered a higher level of power than a major power. ...


During the immediate postwar period, the Soviet Union first rebuilt and then expanded its economy, while maintaining its strictly centralized control. The Soviet Union aided postwar reconstruction in Eastern Europe while turning them into Soviet satellite states, set up the Warsaw Pact and Comecon, supplied aid to the eventually victorious Communists in the People's Republic of China, and saw its influence grow elsewhere in the world. Meanwhile, the rising tension of the Cold War turned the Soviet Union's wartime allies, the United Kingdom and the United States, into foes. A planned economy is an economic system in which decisions about the production, allocation and consumption of goods and services are planned ahead of time, usually in a centralized fashion, though some proposed systems favour decentralized planning. ... A satellite is any object that orbits another object (which is known as its primary). ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement among airlines about financial liability. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... The Cold War was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between the global superpowers of the Soviet Union and the United States, supported by their military alliance partners. ...

Yuri Gagarin, the first human in space.
Yuri Gagarin, the first human in space.

Joseph Stalin died on March 5, 1953. In the absence of an acceptable successor, the highest Communist Party officials opted to rule the Soviet Union jointly, although a struggle for power took place behind the facade of collective leadership. Nikita Khrushchev, who won the power struggle by the mid-1950s, denounced Stalin's use of repression and eased repressive controls over party and society (see de-Stalinization). During this period the Soviet Union continued to realize scientific and technological pioneering exploits, in extenso, to launch the first artificial satellite Sputnik 1, living being Laika, and later, the first human being Yuri Gagarin into Earth's orbit. Khrushchev's reforms in agriculture and administration, however, were generally unproductive, and foreign policy towards China and the United States suffered reverses. Khrushchev's colleagues in the leadership removed him from power in 1964. Image File history File linksMetadata Juri_Gagarin_3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Juri_Gagarin_3. ... Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (Russian: Юрий Алексеевич Гагарин; March 9, 1934 – March 27, 1968), was a Soviet cosmonaut who in 1961 became the first human to survive space flight and the first human to orbit the Earth. ... March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (65th in leap years). ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1953 calendar). ... (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Hruščëv; surname commonly romanized as Khrushchev, IPA: ; April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... De-Stalinization and the Khrushchev era For further details, see Nikita Khrushchev After Stalin had died in March 1953, he was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev as First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and Georgi Malenkov as Premier of the Soviet Union. ... // De-Stalinization and the Khrushchev era For further details, see Nikita Khrushchev After Stalin had died in March 1953, he was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev as First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and Georgi Malenkov as Premier of the Soviet Union. ... Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite 1) was the first artificial satellite to be put into orbit, on October 4, 1957. ... Laika, shown here in a harness, died from stress and overheating several hours after being launched into space. ... Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (Russian: Юрий Алексеевич Гагарин; March 9, 1934 – March 27, 1968), was a Soviet cosmonaut who in 1961 became the first human to survive space flight and the first human to orbit the Earth. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ...


Following the ousting of Khrushchev, another period of rule by collective leadership ensued, lasting until Leonid Brezhnev established himself in the early 1970s as the preeminent figure in Soviet political life. Brezhnev presided over a period of Détente with the West while at the same time building up Soviet military strength; the arms buildup contributed to the demise of Détente in the late 1970s. Another contributing factor was the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979. Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (Russian: , Leonid Ilič Brežnev; December 19 [O.S. January 1 1907] 1906 – November 10, 1982) was the effective ruler of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, though at first in partnership with others. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Détente is a French term meaning relaxation, which has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... A Soviet soldier on guard in Afghanistan in 1988. ... This page refers to the year 1979. ...


After some experimentation with economic reforms in the mid-1960s, the Soviet leadership reverted to established means of economic management. Industry showed slow but steady gains during the 1970s, while agricultural development continued to lag. Throughout the period the Soviet Union maintained parity with the United States in the areas of military technology but this expansion ultimately crippled the economy. In contrast to the revolutionary spirit that accompanied the birth of the Soviet Union, the prevailing mood of the Soviet leadership at the time of Brezhnev's death in 1982 was one of aversion to change. The outrageously crowded Woodstock festival epitomized the popular antiwar movement of the 60s. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Two developments dominated the decade that followed: the increasingly apparent crumbling of the Soviet Union's economic and political structures, and the patchwork attempts at reforms to reverse that process. After the rapid succession of Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko, transitional figures with deep roots in Brezhnevite tradition, Mikhail Gorbachev made significant changes in the economy (see Perestroika) and the party leadership. His policy of glasnost freed public access to information after decades of government regulations. Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Russian: Ю́рий Влади́мирович Андро́пов; 15 June [O.S. 2 June] 1914 – February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU from November 12, 1982 until his death just sixteen months later. ... Konstantin Ustinovich Chernenko (Russian: ; September 24, 1911 – March 10, 1985) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU who led the Soviet Union from February 13, 1984 until his death just thirteen months later. ... (Russian: , Mihail Sergeevič Gorbačëv, IPA: , commonly anglicized as Gorbachev; born March 2, 1931) was leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991. ... Poster showing Mikhail Gorbachev Perestroika ( , Russian: ) is the Russian word (which passed into English) for the economic reforms introduced in June 1987 by the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In the late 1980s constituent republics of the Soviet Union started declaring sovereignty over their territories or even independence, citing Article 72 of the USSR Constitution, which stated that any constituent republic was free to secede. Many republics proceeded to produce legislation contradicting the Union laws in what was known as "The War of Laws." In 1989 Russian SFSR, which was then the largest constituent republic (with about 2/3 of population and territory) convened a Congress of Deputies. Boris Yeltsin was elected the chairman of the Congress. On June 12, 1990 the Congress declared Russia's sovereignty over its territory and proceeded to pass laws that attempted to supersede some of the USSR's laws. The period of legal uncertainty continued for the next three years as constituent republics slowly became de-facto independent. Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None (Russian in practice) Capital Moscow Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0,5% Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked 1st in the former... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... This article is about the year. ...


A referendum for the preservation of the USSR was held on March 17, 1991, with the population voting for preservation of the Union in most republics. The referendum gave Gorbachev a minor boost, and in the summer of 1991 a new Union Treaty was designed and agreed upon by most republics which would have turned the Soviet Union into a much looser federation. The signing of the treaty, however, was interrupted by the August Coup - an attempted coup d'état against Mikhail Gorbachev by conservative members of the Communist Party, referred to as "Hardliners" by the Western media. After the coup collapsed, Yeltsin came out as a hero while Gorbachev's power was effectively ended. The balance of power tipped significantly towards the republics. Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania immediately asserted their independence, while the other 12 republics continued discussing new, increasingly looser, models of the Union. On December 8, 1991 Presidents of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus signed Belavezha Accords which declared the Union dissolved and established the Commonwealth of Independent States - CIS, in its place. While doubts remained over the authority of the Belavezha Accords to dissolve the Union, on December 21, 1991, the representatives of all soviet republics but Georgia, including those republics that had signed the Belavezha Accords, signed the Alma-Ata Protocol, which confirmed the dismemberment and consequential extinction of the USSR and restated the establishment of the CIS. The summit of Alma-Ata also agreed on several other practical measures consequential to the extinction of the Union. On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev, yielded to the inevitable and resigned as the president of the USSR, declaring the office extinct. He turned the powers that until then were vested in the presidency over to Boris Yeltsin, president of Russia. The following day, the Supreme Soviet, the highest governmental body of the Soviet Union, recognized the collapse of the Soviet Union and dissolved itself. This is generally recognized as the official, final dissolution of the Soviet Union as a functioning nation. Many organizations such as the Red Army and Militia forces continued to remain in place in the early months of 1992, but were slowly phased out or absorbed by the newly independent nations. The Soviet Coup of 1991 or the August Coup crushed the hopes of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev that he could at least hold the union together in a decentralized form. ... A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment that mostly replaces just the top power figures. ... December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Belavezha Accords is the agreement signed at the state dacha in the BiaÅ‚owieża Forest (a. ... Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Member states 11 member states 1 associate member Working language Russian Executive Secretary Vladimir Rushailo Formation December 21, 1991 Official website http://cis. ... The Belavezha Accords is the agreement signed at the state dacha in the BiaÅ‚owieża Forest (a. ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ...


Politics

Leaders of the Bolshevik Revolution from left to right: Trotsky, Lenin, and Kamenev
Leaders of the Bolshevik Revolution from left to right: Trotsky, Lenin, and Kamenev

The government of the Soviet Union administered the country's economy and society. It implemented decisions made by the leading political institution in the country, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). For most of the history of the Soviet Union, its political system was characterized by divergence between the formal system as expressed in the Constitution of the Soviet Union and actual practice. ... L to R: Trotsky, Lenin, Kamenev in 1919 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the All...


In the late 1980s, the government appeared to have many characteristics in common with liberal democratic political systems. For instance, a constitution established all organizations of government and granted to citizens a series of political and civic rights. A legislative body, the Congress of People's Deputies, and its standing legislature, the Supreme Soviet, represented the principle of popular sovereignty. The Supreme Soviet, which had an elected chairman who functioned as head of state, oversaw the Council of Ministers, which acted as the executive branch of the government. The chairman of the Council of Ministers, whose selection was approved by the legislative branch, functioned as head of government. A constitutionally based judicial branch of government included a court system, headed by the Supreme Court, that was responsible for overseeing the observance of Soviet law by government bodies. According to the 1977 Soviet Constitution, the government had a federal structure, permitting the republics some authority over policy implementation and offering the national minorities the appearance of participation in the management of their own affairs. The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the RSFSR and the USSR in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1991. ... The Supreme Soviet (Russian: , Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... This article or section should be merged with Peoples Commissar Sovnarkom (Russian language СовНарКом, the abbreviation of the phrase Совет Народных Комиссаров, Sovet Narodnykh Komissarov, the Council of Peoples Commissars, sometimes Russian СНК, the SNK), was the administrative arm of the Soviet government. ... At the Seventh (Special) Session of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Ninth Convocation on October 7, 1977, the fourth and last Soviet Constitution, also known as the Brezhnev Constitution, was unanimously adopted. ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub- group that forms less than half of the population, and — as a rule — is outnumbered by at least one other sub-group. ...

In practice, however, the government differed markedly from Western systems. In the late 1980s, the CPSU performed many functions that governments of other countries usually perform. For example, the party decided on the policy alternatives that the government ultimately implemented. The government merely ratified the party's decisions to lend them an aura of legitimacy. The CPSU used a variety of mechanisms to ensure that the government adhered to its policies. The party, using its nomenklatura authority, placed its loyalists in leadership positions throughout the government, where they were subject to the norms of democratic centralism. Party bodies closely monitored the actions of government ministries, agencies, and legislative organs. Image File history File links Ussr_cpsu_congress. ... Image File history File links Ussr_cpsu_congress. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Congress of the CPSU was the gathering of the delegates of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and its predecessors. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the All... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties, and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist policy inside a political party. ...


The content of the Soviet Constitution differed in many ways from typical Western constitutions. It generally described existing political relationships, as determined by the CPSU, rather than prescribing an ideal set of political relationships. The Constitution was long and detailed, giving technical specifications for individual organs of government. The Constitution included political statements, such as foreign policy goals, and provided a theoretical definition of the state within the ideological framework of Marxism-Leninism. The CPSU leadership could radically change the constitution or remake it completely, as it did several times throughout its history. Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ...


The Council of Ministers acted as the executive body of the government. Its most important duties lay in the administration of the economy. The council was thoroughly under the control of the CPSU, and its chairman - the Soviet prime minister - was always a member of the Politburo. The council, which in 1989 included more than 100 members, was too large and unwieldy to act as a unified executive body. The council's Presidium, made up of the leading economic administrators and led by the chairman, exercised dominant power within the Council of Ministers. Premier of the Soviet Union is the commonly used English term for the offices of Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars of the USSR (Председатель Совета Народных Комиссаров СССР) (1923-1946) and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (Председатель Совета Министров СССР) (1946-1991), who... The Politburo (in Russian: Политбюро), known as the Presidium from 1952 to 1966, functioned as the central policymaking and governing body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. ... The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (Президиум Верховного Совета СССР in Russian, or Prezidium Verkhovnogo Soveta) was a Soviet governmental body. ...


According to the Constitution, as amended in 1988, the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union was the Congress of People's Deputies, which convened for the first time in May 1989. The main tasks of the congress were the election of the standing legislature, the Supreme Soviet, and the election of the chairman of the Supreme Soviet, who acted as head of state. Theoretically, the Congress of People's Deputies and the Supreme Soviet wielded enormous legislative power. In practice, however, the Congress of People's Deputies met infrequently and only to approve decisions made by the party, the Council of Ministers, and its own Supreme Soviet. The Supreme Soviet, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, the chairman of the Supreme Soviet, and the Council of Ministers had substantial authority to enact laws, decrees, resolutions, and orders binding on the population. The Congress of People's Deputies had the authority to ratify these decisions.


The judiciary was not independent. The Supreme Court supervised the lower courts and applied the law as established by the Constitution or as interpreted by the Supreme Soviet. The Constitutional Oversight Committee reviewed the constitutionality of laws and acts. The Soviet Union lacked an adversarial court procedure known to common law jurisdictions. Rather, Soviet law utilised the system derived from Roman law, where judge, procurator and defense attorney worked collaboratively to establish the truth. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... This article concerns the common-law legal system, as contrasted with the civil law legal system; for other meanings of the term, within the field of law, see common law (disambiguation). ... An inquisitorial system is a legal system where the court or a part of the court is actively involved in determining the facts of the case, as opposed to an adversarial system where the role of the court is solely that of an impartial referee between parties. ...


The Soviet Union was a federal state made up of fifteen republics joined together in a theoretically voluntary union. In turn, a series of territorial units made up the republics. The republics also contained jurisdictions intended to protect the interests of national minorities. The republics had their own constitutions, which, along with the all-union Constitution, provide the theoretical division of power in the Soviet Union. In 1989, however, the CPSU and the central government retained all significant authority, setting policies that were executed by republic, provincial, oblast, and district governments. A federal state is one that brings together a number of different political communities with a common government for common purposes, and separate state or provincial or cantonal governments for the particular purposes of each community. ...

For more details on this topic, see Soviet law.

The Law of the Soviet Union—also known as Soviet Law, or Socialist Law—was the law that developed in the Soviet Union following the Russian Revolution of October 1917; modified versions of it were adopted by many Communist states (see below) following the Second World War. ...

Leaders of the Soviet Union

The de facto leader of the Soviet Union was the First/General Secretary of the CPSU. The head of government was considered the Premier, and the head of state was considered the President. The Soviet leader could also have one (or both) of these positions, along with the position of General-Secretary of the party. An approximately chronological listing of Soviet leaders (heads of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and President of the Soviet Union). ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when...

List of Soviet Premiers
(Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR (1923-1946); Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (1946-1990); Prime Minister of the USSR (1991))
List of Soviet Presidents
(Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets (1917-1922); Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR (1922-1938); Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (1938-1989); Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (1989-1990); President of the Soviet Union (1990-1991))

Premier of the Soviet Union is the commonly used English term for the offices of Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars of the USSR (Председатель Совета Народных Комиссаров СССР) (1923-1946) and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (Председатель Совета Министров СССР) (1946-1991), who... The President of the Soviet Union was the Head of State of the USSR from March 15, 1990 to December 25, 1991. ...

Foreign relations

Main article: Foreign relations of the Soviet Union
Map of Warsaw Pact member states.
Map of Warsaw Pact member states.

Once denied diplomatic recognition by the capitalist world, the Soviet Union had official relations with the majority of the nations of the world by the late 1980s. The Soviet Union also had progressed from being an outsider in international organizations and negotiations to being one of the arbiters of Europe's fate after World War II. A member of the United Nations at its foundation in 1945, the Soviet Union became one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council which gave it the right to veto any of its resolutions (see Soviet Union and the United Nations). Once a pariah denied diplomatic recognition by most countries, the Soviet Union had official relations with the majority of the nations of the world by the late 1980s. ... Map of nations that signed the Warsaw Pact. ... Map of nations that signed the Warsaw Pact. ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement among airlines about financial liability. ... United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... The word veto comes from Latin and literally means I forbid. ... The Soviet Union took an active role in the United Nations and other major international and regional organizations. ...


The Soviet Union emerged from World War II as one of the two major world powers, a position maintained for four decades through its hegemony in Eastern Europe (see Eastern Bloc), military strength, aid to developing countries, and scientific research, especially into space technology and weaponry. The Soviet Union's growing influence abroad in the postwar years helped lead to a Communist system of states in Eastern Europe united by military and economic agreements. It overtook the British Empire as a global superpower, both in a military sense and its ability to expand its influence beyond its borders. Established in 1949 as an economic bloc of Communist countries led by Moscow, the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) served as a framework for cooperation among the planned economies of the Soviet Union, and, later, for trade and economic cooperation with the Third World. The military counterpart to the Comecon was the Warsaw Pact. The Soviet economy was also of major importance to Eastern Europe because of imports of vital natural resources from the USSR, such as natural gas. Combatants Allies: Poland, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, France/Free France, United States, China, Canada, India, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Greece,Norway and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, Bulgaria, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Burma, Slovakia Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead... A map of the Eastern Bloc. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... A Soviet propaganda poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organisation of communist states and a kind of Eastern European equivalent to the European Economic Community. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... Unofficial Seal of the Warsaw Pact Distinguish from the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement among airlines about financial liability. ...


Moscow considered Eastern Europe to be a buffer zone for the forward defense of its western borders and ensured its control of the region by transforming the East European countries into stable allies. Soviet troops intervened in the 1956 Hungarian Revolution and cited the Brezhnev Doctrine, the Soviet counterpart to the U.S. Johnson Doctrine and later Nixon Doctrine, and helped oust the Czechoslovak government in 1968, sometimes referred to as the Prague Spring. Combatants Soviet Union AVH Hungarian government, various nationalist militias Commanders Yuri Andropov Pál Maléter, Gergely Pongrátz, József Dudás Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks 100,000+ demonstrators (some later armed), unknown number of soldiers Casualties 720 KIA 2502 The 1956 Hungarian Revolution, also known... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it... The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... Czechoslovakia (Czech: Československo, Slovak: Česko-Slovensko/before 1990 Československo) was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1918 until early 1993 (with government-in-exile during the World War II period). ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the...


In the late 1950s, a confrontation with China regarding the USSR's approchement with the West and what Mao perceived as Khrushchev's revisionism led to the Sino-Soviet split. This resulted in a break throughout the global Communist movement and Communist regimes in Albania and Cambodia choosing to ally with China in place of the USSR. For a time, war between the former allies appeared to be a possibility; while relations would cool during the 1970s, they would not return to normalcy until the Gorbachev era. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The term Western world or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... Mao could refer to: Mao Zedong, (Mao Tse-Tung in Wade-Giles) leader of the Communist Party of China from 1935 to 1976. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ; Pronunciation: mih-kha-ILL ser-GHE-ye-vich gor-bah-CHOFF) (born March 2, 1931), was leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991. ...


During the same period, a tense confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States over the Soviet deployment of nuclear missiles in Cuba sparked the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. U.S.A.F. spy photo of one of the suspected launch sites The Cuban Missile Crisis was a confrontation during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States regarding the Soviet deployment of nuclear missiles in Cuba in retaliation to the United States placing deployable nuclear...


The KGB (Committee for State Security), served in a fashion as the Soviet counterpart to both the FBI and the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) in the U.S. It ran a massive network of informants throughout the Soviet Union, which was used to monitor violations in law. The foreign wing of the KGB was used to gather intelligence in countries around the globe. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, it was replaced in Russia by the SVR (Foreign Intelligence Service) and the FSB (Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation). The KGB emblem and motto: The sword and the shield KGB (transliteration of КГБ) is the Russian-language abbreviation for State Security Committee, (Russian: ; Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti). ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a Federal police force which is the principal investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... SVR stands for Sluzhba Vneshney Razvedki (Служба внешней разведки), and is Russian for, Foreign Intelligence Service. The SVR is the Russian intelligence agency, which evolved from the KGB after the collapse of the Soviet Union. ... The Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (Федера́льная слу́жба безопа́сности Росси́йской Федера́ции or ФСБ, Federalnaya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti Rossiyskoy Federatsii, FSB) is a state security organisation in Russia, the successor to the KGB by way of the FSK (Federalnaya Sluzhba Kontrrazvedki (Федера́льная Слу́жба Контрразве́дки), Federal Counterintelligence Service). ...


The KGB was not without substantial oversight. The GRU (Main Intelligence Directorate), not publicized by Russia until the end of the Soviet era during perestroika, was created by Lenin in 1918 and served both as a centralized handler of military intelligence and as an institutional check-and-balance for the otherwise relatively unrestricted power of the KGB. Effectively, it served to spy on the spies, and, not surprisingly, the KGB served a similar function with the GRU. As with the KGB, the GRU operated in nations around the world, particularly in Soviet bloc and client states. The GRU continues to operate in Russia today, with resources estimated by some to exceed those of the SVR [1] [2]. Emblem of GRU spetsnaz GRU is the English transliteration of the Russian acronym ГРУ, which stands for Гла́вное Разве́дывательное Управле́ние (Glavnoe Razvedyvatelnoe Upravlenie), meaning Main Intelligence Directorate. ... Poster showing Mikhail Gorbachev Perestroika ( , Russian: ) is the Russian word (which passed into English) for the economic reforms introduced in June 1987 by the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ...


In the 1970s, the Soviet Union achieved rough nuclear parity with the United States. It perceived its own involvement as essential to the solution of any major international problem. Meanwhile, the Cold War gave way to Détente and a more complicated pattern of international relations in which the world was no longer clearly split into two clearly opposed blocs. Less powerful countries had more room to assert their independence, and the two superpowers were partially able to recognize their common interest in trying to check the further spread and proliferation of nuclear weapons (see SALT I, SALT II, Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty). The Cold War was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between the global superpowers of the Soviet Union and the United States, supported by their military alliance partners. ... Détente is a French term meaning relaxation, which has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... SALT I is the common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. ... nSALT II was a second round of the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks from 1972-1979 between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which sought to curtail the manufacture of strategic nuclear weapons. ... The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM treaty or ABMT) was a treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against missile-delivered nuclear weapons. ...


By this time, the Soviet Union had concluded friendship and cooperation treaties with a number of states in the non-Communist world, especially among Third World and Non-Aligned Movement states like India and Egypt. Notwithstanding some ideological obstacles, Moscow advanced state interests by gaining military footholds in strategically important areas throughout the Third World. Furthermore, the Soviet Union continued to provide military aid for revolutionary movements in the Third World. For all these reasons, Soviet foreign policy was of major importance to the non-Communist world and helped determine the tenor of international relations. Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005) The Non-Aligned Movement, or NAM, is an international organization of over 100 states which consider themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. ...

Gorbachev and Reagan in 1987.
Gorbachev and Reagan in 1987.

Although myriad bureaucracies were involved in the formation and execution of Soviet foreign policy, the major policy guidelines were determined by the Politburo of the Communist Party. The foremost objectives of Soviet foreign policy had been the maintenance and enhancement of national security and the maintenance of hegemony over Eastern Europe. Relations with the United States and Western Europe were also of major concern to Soviet foreign policy makers, and relations with individual Third World states were at least partly determined by the proximity of each state to the Soviet border and to Soviet estimates of its strategic significance. Image File history File links Reagan_and_Gorbachev_signing. ... Image File history File links Reagan_and_Gorbachev_signing. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ; Pronunciation: mih-kha-ILL ser-GHE-ye-vich gor-bah-CHOFF) (born March 2, 1931), was leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991. ... Famous people with the family name Reagan include: Ronald Reagan, the 40th President of the United States Nancy Reagan, the wife of Ronald Reagan and influential First Lady Ron Reagan, President Reagans son and liberal journalist Michael Reagan, President Reagans son and conservative talk show host John Henninger...


When Mikhail Gorbachev succeeded Konstantin Chernenko as General Secretary of the CPSU in 1985, he introduced many changes in Soviet foreign policy and in economy of Soviet Union. Gorbachev pursued conciliatory policies towards the West instead of maintaining the Cold War status quo. The Soviet Union ended its occupation of Afghanistan, signed strategic arms reduction treaties with the United States, and allowed its allies in Eastern Europe to determine their own affairs. (Russian: , Mihail Sergeevič Gorbačëv, IPA: , commonly anglicized as Gorbachev; born March 2, 1931) was leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991. ... Konstantin Ustinovich Chernenko (Russian: ; September 24, 1911 – March 10, 1985) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU who led the Soviet Union from February 13, 1984 until his death just thirteen months later. ...


After the dissolution of the Soviet Union on December 25, 1991, the Russian Federation claimed to be the legal successor to the Soviet state on the international stage. Russian foreign policy repudiated Marxism-Leninism as a guide to action, soliciting Western support for capitalist reforms in post-Soviet Russia.

For more details on this topic, see Military history of the Soviet Union.

Currently the economy of the Russian federation is growing rapidly. The fulfillment of the capitalist reforms started in the USSR under Gorbachev can be seen from the fact that in 2005 the Russian Federation became the third country by number of billionaires, who were able to benefit from their former connections in the Communist Party during the post-USSR sale of state property into private hands. The poverty rate, meanwhile, has increased substantially during that time. [3] Joseph Stalin and Kliment Voroshilov salute a military parade in Red Square above the message Long Live the Worker-Peasant Red Army—Loyal Sentinel of the Soviet Borders! The military history of the Soviet Union began in the days following the 1917 October Revolution that brought the Bolsheviks to power. ...


Republics

Soviet Union administrative divisions, 1989
Soviet Union administrative divisions, 1989

The Soviet Union was a federation of Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR). The first Republics were established shortly after the October Revolution of 1917. At that time, republics were technically independent from one another but their governments acted in closely coordinated confederation, as directed by the CPSU leadership. In 1922, four Republics (Russian SFSR, Ukrainian SSR, Belarusian SSR, and Transcaucasian SFSR) joined into the Soviet Union. Between 1922 and 1940, the number of Republics grew to sixteen. Some of the new Republics were formed from territories acquired, or reacquired by the Soviet Union, others by splitting existing Republics into several parts. The criteria for establishing new republics were as follows: Evolution of the Soviet Republics from 1922 to 1958. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1887x1313, 412 KB)Soviet Union administrative divisions (republics) and sub-divisions (oblasts, autonomous republics, autonomous districs, etc. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1887x1313, 412 KB)Soviet Union administrative divisions (republics) and sub-divisions (oblasts, autonomous republics, autonomous districs, etc. ... The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution or November Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Socialist republics/ Communist state Last Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0. ... State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ... language None. ... The Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was a short-lived (1922-1936) Soviet republic, consisting of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, which were traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics in the Soviet Union. ... 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ...

  1. to be located on the periphery of the Soviet Union so as to be able to exercise their alleged right to secession;
  2. be economically strong enough to survive on their own upon secession; and
  3. be named after the dominant ethnic group which should consist of at least one million people.

The system remained almost unchanged after 1940. No new Republics were established. One republic, Karelo-Finnish SSR, was disbanded in 1956, and the territory formally became the Karelian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (ASSR) within the Russian SFSR. The remaining 15 republics lasted until 1991. Even though Soviet Constitutions established the right for a republic to secede, it remained theoretical and very unlikely, given Soviet centralism, until the 1991 collapse of the Union. At that time, the republics became independent countries, with some still loosely organized under the heading Commonwealth of Independent States. Some republics had common history and geographical regions, and were referred by group names. These were Baltic Republics, Transcaucasian Republics, and Central Asian Republics. In its final state, the Soviet Union consisted of the following republics. State motto: Kaikkien maiden proletaarit, liittykää yhteen! (Workers of all countries, unite) Image:SovietUnionKarelia. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Soviet Union was governed by four versions of its Constitution: 1918 Soviet Constitution 1924 Soviet Constitution 1936 Soviet Constitution 1977 Soviet Constitution The political theory underlying the Soviet Constitution differed from the political theory underlying constitutions in the West. ... Headquarters Minsk, Belarus Member states 11 member states 1 associate member Working language Russian Executive Secretary Vladimir Rushailo Formation December 21, 1991 Official website http://cis. ... The Baltic Sea The term Baltic Republics referred to the three Soviet Republics of Estonian SSR, Latvian SSR, and Lithuanian SSR. The sovereign nations of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, who had gained sovereignty in 1918, were occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940. ... The Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was a short-lived (1922-1936) Soviet republic, consisting of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, which were traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics in the Soviet Union. ... The Central Asian Republics are five countries located in Central Asia that were former Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan The Central Asian Republics are sometimes referred to as Central Asia, although others prefer this term to be reserved for a larger geographic region within Asia rather than a designation given...


Economy

The DneproGES, one of many hydroelectric power stations in the Soviet Union
The DneproGES, one of many hydroelectric power stations in the Soviet Union

Prior to its collapse, the Soviet Union had the largest centrally directed economy in the world. The government established its economic priorities through central planning, a system under which administrative decisions rather than the market determined resource allocation and prices. The economy of the Soviet Union was based on a system of state ownership and administrative planning. ... Image File history File links DneproGES_1947. ... Image File history File links DneproGES_1947. ... The Dnieper Hydroelectric Station (DneproGES) is the largest hydroelectric power station in the Ukraine and one of the largest in Europe. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... A planned economy is an economic system in which decisions about the production, allocation and consumption of goods and services are planned ahead of time, usually in a centralized fashion, though some proposed systems favour decentralized planning. ...


Since the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, the country grew from a largely underdeveloped peasant society with minimal industry to become the second largest industrial power in the world. According to Soviet statistics, the country's share in world industrial production grew from 5.5% to 20% between 1913 and 1980. Although some Western analysts considered these claims to be inflated, the Soviet achievement remained remarkable. Recovering from the calamitous events of World War II, the country's economy had maintained a continuous though uneven rate of growth. Living standards, although still modest for most inhabitants by Western standards, had improved. 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ...


Although these past achievements were impressive, in the mid-1980s Soviet leaders faced many problems. Production in the consumer and agricultural sectors was often inadequate (see Agriculture of the Soviet Union and shortage economy). Crises in the agricultural sector reaped catastrophic consequences in the 1930s, when collectivization met widespread resistance from the kulaks, resulting in a bitter struggle of many peasants against the authorities, famine, particularly in Ukraine, but also in the Volga River area and Kazakhstan. In the consumer and service sectors, a lack of investment resulted in black markets in some areas. Soviet industry was usually divided into two major categories. ... Agriculture in the Soviet Union was organized into a system of state and collective farms, known as sovkhozes and kolkhozes, respectively. ... Polish meat shop in the 1980s. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Collective farming is an organizational unit in agriculture in which peasants are not paid wages, but rather receive a share of the farms net output. ... Kulaks (from the Russian кулак (kulak, fist)) is a pejorative term extensively used in Soviet political language, originally referring to relatively wealthy peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labor, as a result of the Stolypin reform introduced since 1906. ... The black market or underground market is the part of economic activity involving illegal dealings, typically the buying and selling of merchandise or services (for example sexual services in many countries) illegally. ...

Soviet space station Mir was the world's most advanced space station until ISS.
Soviet space station Mir was the world's most advanced space station until ISS.

In addition, since the 1970s, the growth rate had slowed substantially. Extensive economic development, based on vast inputs of materials and labor, was no longer possible; yet the productivity of Soviet assets remained low compared with other major industrialized countries. Product quality needed improvement. Soviet leaders faced a fundamental dilemma: the strong central controls of the increasingly conservative bureaucracy that had traditionally guided economic development had failed to respond to the complex demands of industry of a highly developed, modern economy. From http://antwrp. ... From http://antwrp. ... Meanings of MIR: Mail-in rebate Medical Inspection Room - the place for sick parade in most British and Commonwealth militaries and many NGOs. ... International Space Station insignia ISS Statistics Crew: 3 As of July 6, 2006 Perigee: 352. ...


Conceding the weaknesses of their past approaches in solving new problems, the leaders of the late 1980s were seeking to mold a program of economic reform to galvanize the economy. The leadership, headed by Mikhail Gorbachev, was experimenting with solutions to economic problems with an openness (glasnost) never before seen in the history of the economy. One method for improving productivity appeared to be a strengthening of the role of market forces. Yet reforms in which market forces assumed a greater role would signify a lessening of authority and control by the planning hierarchy, as well as a significant diminuition of social services traditionally provided by the state, such as housing and education. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Assessing developments in the economy was difficult for Western observers. The country contained enormous economic and regional disparities. Yet analyzing statistical data broken down by region was a cumbersome process. Furthermore, Soviet statistics themselves might have been of limited use to Western analysts because they are not directly comparable with those used in Western countries. The differing statistical concepts, valuations, and procedures used by Communist and non-Communist economists made even the most basic data, such as the relative productivity of various sectors, difficult to assess.


Geography

The Soviet Union occupied the eastern portion of the European continent and the northern portion of the Asian continent. Most of the country was north of 50° north latitude and covered a total area of approximately 22,402,200 square kilometres. Due to the sheer size of the state, the climate varied greatly from subtropical and continental to subarctic and polar. 11% of the land was arable, 16% was meadows and pasture, 41% was forest and woodland, and 32% was declared "other" (including tundra). Modern day Russia occupies most of the territory of the Soviet Union. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ... A continental climate is the climate typical of the middle-latitude interiors of the large continents of the Northern Hemisphere in the zone of westerly winds; similar climates exist along the east coasts (but not the west coasts) of the same continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other... Regions having a subarctic climate (also called boreal climate) are characterized by very cold winters, and brief, warm summers. ... Regions with a polar climate are characterized by a lack of warm summers (specifically, no month having an average temperature of 10 °C or higher). ... Modern arable agriculture typically uses large fields like this one in Dorset, England. ... A meadow is a tract of grassland, either in its natural state or used as pasture or for growing hay. ... Pastureland Pasture is land with lush herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of ungulates as part of a farm or ranch. ... A forest is an area with a high density of trees (or, historically, a wooded function as carbon dioxide sinks, animal habitats, hydrologic flow modulators, and soil conservers, constituting one of the most important aspects of the Earths biosphere. ... Limber Pine woodland, Toiyabe Range, central Nevada Biologically, a woodland is differentiated from a forest. ... In physical geography, tundra is an area where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. ...


The Soviet Union measured some 10,000 kilometres from Kaliningrad on the Gulf of Gdańsk in the west to Ratmanova Island (Big Diomede Island) in the Bering Strait, or roughly equivalent to the distance from Edinburgh, Scotland, east to Nome, Alaska. From the tip of the Taymyr Peninsula on the Arctic Ocean to the Central Asian town of Kushka near the Afghan border extended almost 5,000 kilometeres of mostly rugged, inhospitable terrain. The east-west expanse of the continental United States would easily fit between the northern and southern borders of the Soviet Union at their extremities. Government Russia District Subdivision Russia Northwestern Federal District Kaliningrad Oblast Mayor Yuri Savenko (2005) Geographical characteristics Area  - City 215. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait, with the Diomede Islands at center. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait Nautical chart of the Bering Strait The Bering Strait is a sea strait between Cape Dezhnev, the eastmost point of the Asian continent and Cape Prince of Wales, the westernmost point of the American continent, approximately 85 km (58 mi) in width, with a... Edinburgh viewed from Arthurs Seat. ... Nome is a city located on the southern Seward Peninsula coast of Norton Sound in the Nome Census Area, Alaska. ... Taimyr or Taymyr (Russian: Таймы́р) may mean: a peninsula in Siberia that forms the most northern part of mainland Asia, see Taimyr Peninsula a river in the Taimyr Peninsula, see Taimyr River a lake from which the Taimyr River flows, see Lake Taimyr This is a disambiguation page — a navigational... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, commonly used to define the Arctic region border The Arctic is the area around the Earths North Pole. ... Kushka (Кушка in Russian) is a small town in the Mary Province in Turkmenistan, located in the valley of the Kushka River. ...


Population and society

This map shows the 1974 geographic location of various ethnic groups within the Soviet Union.
This map shows the 1974 geographic location of various ethnic groups within the Soviet Union.

The Soviet Union was one of the world's most ethnically diverse countries, with more than 150 distinct ethnic groups within its borders. The total population was estimated at 293 million in 1991. In the last years of the Soviet Union, the majority of the population were Russians (50.78%), followed by Ukrainians (15.45%) and Uzbeks (5.84%). Other ethnic groups included the Georgians, Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians, Azerbaijanis, Armenians, Tajiks, Chechens, and others. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1342x941, 282 KB)Map displaying the locations of the various ethnic groups comprising the Soviet Union in 1974. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1342x941, 282 KB)Map displaying the locations of the various ethnic groups comprising the Soviet Union in 1974. ... This articles details the demographics of the Soviet Union. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Tajiks (Persian: تاجيک) are one of the principal ethnic groups of Central Asia, and are primarily found in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, Pakistan, and the Xinjiang province of China. ... This article covers the Chechen people as an ethnic group, not Chechen meaning citizens of Chechnya. ...


Nationalities

The extensive multinational empire that the Bolsheviks inherited after their revolution was created by Tsarist expansion over some four centuries. Some nationality groups came into the empire voluntarily, others were brought in by force. Generally, the Russians and most of the non-Russian subjects of the empire shared little in common—culturally, religiously, or linguistically. More often than not, two or more diverse nationalities were collocated on the same territory. Therefore, national antagonisms built up over the years not only against the Russians but often between some of the subject nations as well. The word culture, from the Latin colo, -ere, with its root meaning to cultivate, generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Fishers of Men, oil on panel by Adriaen van de Venne (1614) Various religious symbols Religion is a human phenomenon that defies easy definition. ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ...


For seventy years, Soviet leaders had maintained that frictions between the many nationalities of the Soviet Union had been eliminated and that the Soviet Union consisted of a family of nations living harmoniously together. In the 1920s and early 1930s, the government conducted a policy of korenizatsiya (indigenization) of local governments in an effort to recruit non-Russians into the new Soviet political institutions. One area in which the Soviet leaders made concessions perhaps more out of necessity than out of conviction, was language policy. To increase literacy and mass education, the government encouraged the development and publication in many of the "national languages" of the minority groups. While Russian became a required subject of study in all Soviet schools in 1938, in the mainly non-Russian areas the chief language of instruction was the local language or languages. This practice led to widespread bilingualism in the educated population, though among smaller nationalities and among elements of the population that were heavily affected by the immigration of Russians, linguistic assimilation also was common, in which the members of a given non-Russian nationality lost facility in the historic language of their group.[1] Korenizatsiya (коренизация), meaning nativization or indigenization, was the early Soviet ethnicity policy. ...


The concessions granted national cultures and the limited autonomy tolerated in the union republics in the 1920s led to the development of national elites and a heightened sense of national identity. Subsequent repression and Russianization fostered resentment against domination by Moscow and promoted further growth of national consciousness. National feelings were also exacerbated in the Soviet multinational state by increased competition for resources, services, and jobs, and by the policy of the leaders in Moscow to move workers -- mainly Russians -- to the peripheral areas of the country, the homelands of non-Russian nationalities.


By the end of the 1980s, encouraged in part by Gorbachev's policy of glasnost, unofficial groups formed around a great many social, cultural, and political issues. In some non-Russian regions ostensible green movements or ecological movements were thinly disguised national movements in support of the protection of natural resources and the national patrimony generally from control by ministries in Moscow. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Green movement encompasses the Green parties of various countries, and relies on the ideals of the larger ecology movement, peace movement, conservation movement, environmental movement and general trend towards environmentalism. ...


Religious groups

Ascension church in Perm, Russia
Ascension church in Perm, Russia

Although the Soviet Union was officially atheist and suppressed religion, according to various Soviet and Western sources, over one-third of the people in the Soviet Union professed religious belief. Christianity and Islam had the most believers. The state was separated from church by the Decree of Council of People's Comissars on January 23, 1918. Two-thirds of the Soviet population, however, had no religious beliefs. About half the people, including members of the CPSU and high-level government officials, professed atheism. For the majority of Soviet citizens, therefore, religion seemed irrelevant. Official figures on the number of religious believers in the Soviet Union were not available in 1989. The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow was demolished as part of the Soviet struggle with religion. ... Image File history File links Perm_ascension_church. ... Image File history File links Perm_ascension_church. ... City of Perm, Church of Ascension Perm (Russian: ) is a city in and administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia. ... For information about the band, see Atheist (band). ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recounted in the Gospels. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... The separation of church and state is a political doctrine which states that the institutions of the state or national government should be kept separate from those of religious institutions. ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Christians belonged to various churches: Orthodox, which had the largest number of followers; Catholic; and Baptist and various other Protestant sects, the Baptists (Protestants) suffering the most government persecution with children being forbidden to attend home services and church leaders frequently imprisoned. This was in accordance with a Soviet-run "Living Church" program that attempted to use the guise of protecting Orthodoxy in order to prevent Christianity from spreading in the forms of new church bodies. Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... A Baptist is a member of a Baptist church. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


Government persecution of Christianity continued unabated until the fall of the Communist government, with Stalin's reign the most repressive. Stalin is quoted as saying that "The Party cannot be neutral towards religion. It conducts an anti-religious struggle against any and all religious prejudices." In 1914 before the revolution, there were over 54,000 churches, while during the early years of Stalin's reign that number was counted in the hundreds. By 1988 the number had increased to roughly 7,000. Immediately following the fall of the Soviet government, churches were re-opening at a recorded rate of over thirty a week. Today there are nearly 20,000.


Although there were many ethnic Jews in the Soviet Union, actual practice of Judaism was rare in Communist times. In 1928, Stalin created the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in the far east of what is now Russia to try to create a "Soviet Zion" for a proletarian Jewish culture to develop. This article describes the Jewish religion; for a consideration of ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity refer to the article Jew. ... Capital Birobidzhan Area - total - % water Ranked 64th - 36,000 km² - no data Population - Total - Density Ranked 80th - est. ...


The overwhelming majority of the Islamic faithful were Sunni. The Azerbaijanis, who were Shiite, were one major exception. Because Islamic religious tenets and social values of Muslims are closely interrelated, religion appeared to have a greater influence on Muslims than on either Christians or other believers. The largest groups of Muslims in the Soviet Union resided in the Central Asian republics (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan) and Kazakhstan, though substantial numbers also resided in Central Russia (principally in Bashkiria and Tatarstan), in the North Caucasian part of Russia (Chechnya, Dagestan, and other autonomous republics) and in Transcaucasia (principally in Azerbaijan but also certain regions of Georgia). Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ...


Other religions, which were practiced by a relatively small number of believers, included Buddhism, Lamaism, and shamanism, a religion based on spiritualism. The role of religion in the daily lives of Soviet citizens thus varied greatly. Buddhism is a religion, philosophy, and arguably a psychology, focusing on the teachings of the Buddha Śākyamuni (Siddhārtha Gautama). ... Tibetan Buddhism, (formerly also called Lamaism after their religious gurus known as lamas), is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and the Himalayan region. ... A shaman doctor of Kyzyl. ...


Culture

A young Soviet Pioneer
A young Soviet Pioneer

All forms of media in the Soviet Union were controlled by the state including television and radio broadcasting, newspaper, magazine and book publishing. Official statistics about the state, economy, and society were rigorously controlled and censored by the First Department of the Central Statistics Administration (later the State Statistics Committee). The mass media, arts, books, and journals were censored by glavlit within the Ministry of Culture and by other agencies. Censorship extended to the fine arts including the theatre, opera and ballet. Art and Music was controlled by ownership of distribution and performance venues. Censorship was made in cases where performances did not meet with the favour of the Soviet leadership with newspaper campaigns against offending material and sanctions applied through party controlled professional organizations and courts. These controls did not completely prevent the existence of underground or clandestine art, books, and other publications. Especially after the death of Stalin, a samizdat literature was copied and traded from hand-to-hand. While state control of mass media, printing presses, and other means of large-scale distribution of information was strong, this samizdat was sometimes tolerated to a degree, though prominent dissidents were subject to state persecution and suppression. In the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, the Brezhnev era, a distinctive Soviet culture developed characterized by conformist public life and intense focus on personal life. ... Download high resolution version (500x678, 62 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (500x678, 62 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A Young Pioneer camp in the Soviet Union A pioneer movement is an organization for children operated by a communist party. ... A collection of magazines A magazine is a periodical publication containing a variety of articles, generally financed by advertising and/or purchase by readers. ... The First Department (Первый отдел, Pervyj Otdel) was in charge of secrecy and political security of the workplace of every enterprise or institution of the Soviet Union that dealt with any kind of technical or scientific information (plants, R&D institutions, etc. ... Main Administration for Safeguarding State Secrets in the Press of the USSR Council of Ministers (Russian: ) was the official censorship and state secret protection organ in the Soviet Union. ... The Cornfield is an oil on canvas painting by John Constable in 1826 Fine art refers to arts that are concerned with beauty or which appealed to taste (SOED 1991). ... It has been suggested that Drama (art form) be merged into this article or section. ... Sydney Opera House: one of the worlds most recognisable opera houses and landmarks. ... The Waltz of the Snowflakes from Tchaikovskys The Nutcracker. ... The Rhodesia Herald of September 21, 1966. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when... Samizdat, book published by Pathfinder Press containing a collection of forbidden Trotskyist Samizdat texts. ... A dissident is a person who actively opposes the established order. ...

The term Soviet art refers to visual art produced in the former Soviet Union. ... The Soviet education was organized in a highly centralized government-run system, designed to fulfill political and military purposes foremost. ... Soviet Cinema should not be used as a synonym for Russian Cinema. Although Russian language films predominated, several of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union contributed films reflecting elements of their pre-Soviet culture, language and history, although sometimes censored by the Central Government. ... Philosophical research in the Soviet Union was officially confined to Marxist-Leninist thinking, which theoretically was the basis of objective and ultimate philosophical truth. ... Television in the Soviet Union was controlled very tightly by the state, and programs were designed to reinforce typical Communist values such as proletarian unity and loyalty to the Communist Party. ... Broadcasting in the Soviet Union was owned by the state and was under its tight control and censorship. ... Flag of the USSR NOC symbol of the USSR The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (IOC country code:URS) participated in the Summer Olympics nine times (1952-1988 except 1984). ... Flag of the USSR NOC symbol of the USSR USSR (IOC country code:URS) participated at the Winter Olympics eight times. ... Winner list: 1991 (58th,Moscow) Minasian, Artashes 1990 (57th,Leningrad) Beliavsky, Alexander / Yudasin, Leonid / Bareev, Evgeny / Vyzmanavin, Alexey ex aequo 1989 (56th,Odessa) Vaganian, Rafael 1988 (55th,Moscow) Karpov, Anatoly / Kasparov, Garry ex aequo 1987 (54th,Minsk) Beliavsky, Alexander 1986 (53rd,Kiev) Tseshkovsky, Vitaly 1985 (52nd,Riga) Gavrikov, Viktor / Gurevich... Palace of Culture was the name for major club-houses in the former Soviet Union. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Competitions in Ballroom dancing in the former Soviet Union were held in three dance categories: Standard dances, Latin dances, and Soviet dances. ... A diploma awarded in the Republic Student Olympiads, in the Kazakh SSR, 1989 Soviet Student Olympiad was an annual set of contests for students in USSR. There were two separate multi-round competitions every year: for higher education (universities) and general education (starting from 7th to 10th/11th grade). ... Title page of the 3rd ed. ... Censorship in the Soviet Union was pervasive and strictly enforced. ... Main Administration for Safeguarding State Secrets in the Press of the USSR Council of Ministers (Russian: ) was the official censorship and state secret protection organ in the Soviet Union. ... Samizdat, book published by Pathfinder Press containing a collection of forbidden Trotskyist Samizdat texts. ...

Holidays

Date English Name Local Name Remarks
January 1 New Year's Day Новый год Arguably the largest celebration of the year. Most of the traditions that were originally associated with Christmas in Russia (Father Frost, a decorated fir-tree) moved to New Year's Eve after the Revolution and are associated with New Year's Eve to this day.
February 23 Red Army Day День Советской Армии и Военно-морского флота ("Day of the Soviet Army and Navy") Formation of the Red Army in February 1918.

Is currently called День защитника отечества ("Day of the Defender of the Fatherland") in Russia January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... For information on the movie, New Years Day, see New Years Day (film). ... Ded Moroz is the name of the person who plays the role of Santa Claus for Eastern Slavs. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

March 8 International Women's Day Международный женский день An official holiday marking women's liberation movement, popularly celebrated as a cross between American Mother's Day and Valentine's Day.
April 12 Cosmonautics Day День космонавтики ("Day of Cosmonautics") The Day Yuri Gagarin became the first man in Space, in 1961.
May 1 International Labor Day (May Day) Первое Мая - День международной солидарности трудящихся ("International Day of Worker's Solidarity") Celebrated on May 1 and May 2. Now called Праздник весны и труда ("Celebration of Spring and Labor").
May 9 Victory Day День Победы End of Great Patriotic War, marked by capitulation of Nazi Germany, 1945
October 7 USSR Constitution Day День Конституции СССР 1977 Constitution of the USSR accepted - December 5 previously
November 7 Great October Socialist Revolution Годовщина Великой Октябрьской социалистической революции or Седьмое ноября Celebrating October Revolution of 1917, one of the most important holidays in Soviet times. It has now been replaced with День примирения и согласия ("Day of Reconciliation and Agreement"), celebrated on a Nov. 7 (at least officially) before amendments in Labour Codex (adopted in December 2004, new holiday, which celebrates at November 4 is the People Unity Day ("День народного единства)" in Russia.

March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (68th in Leap years). ... International Womens Day 2006 logo. ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... Cosmonautics Day is a holiday celebrated (mainly in Russia) every April 12 to commemorate the manned earth orbit. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... May Day refers to any of several holidays celebrated on May 1 or in the beginning of May. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (130th in leap years). ... Victory Day is the name of a public holiday in various countries to commemorate the victory in an important battle or war in the countrys history. ... The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ... Surrender is when soldiers give up fighting and become prisoners of war, either as individuals or when ordered to by their officers. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years). ... At the Seventh (Special) Session of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Ninth Convocation on October 7, 1977, the fourth and last Soviet Constitution, also known as the Brezhnev Constitution, was unanimously adopted. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ... The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution or November Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution of 1917, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Below is the list of official public holidays recognized by the Russian Government. ...

Audio

Vladimir Lenin: What Is Soviet Power? (Text of the speech) Image File history File links Lenin_-_What_Is_Soviet_Power. ...


National Anthem of the Soviet Union The National Anthem of the Soviet Union (or Hymn, Russian Гимн Советского Союза, Gimn Sovetskogo Soyuza) replaced the Internationale as the national anthem on March 15, 1944. ...


See also

Main article: List of Soviet Union-related topics

This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to Soviet Union. ... The USSR was established on December 30, 1922 and existed until December 26, 1991. ... The Post-Soviet states, also commonly known as former Soviet republics, are the independent nations which split off from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991. ... Prometheism (Polish: Prometeizm) was a political project initiated by Polands Józef PiÅ‚sudski. ... An approximately chronological listing of Soviet leaders (heads of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and President of the Soviet Union). ... Constitutional order The order they were mentioned in the Constitution of the USSR; also the order in which the motto appeared in the USSR Coat of Arms. ... Premier of the Soviet Union is the commonly used English term for the offices of Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars of the USSR (Председатель Совета Народных Комиссаров СССР) (1923-1946) and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR (Председатель Совета Министров СССР) (1946-1991), who... The President of the Soviet Union was the Head of State of the USSR from March 15, 1990 to December 25, 1991. ... This article is about the political term. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ...

Further reading

  • Brown, Archie, et al, eds.: The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Russia and the Soviet Union (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1982).
  • Gilbert, Martin: The Routledge Atlas of Russian History (London: Routledge, 2002).
  • Goldman, Minton: The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe (Connecticut: Global Studies, Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc., 1986).
  • Howe, G. Melvyn: The Soviet Union: A Geographical Survey 2nd. edn. (Estover, UK: MacDonald and Evans, 1983).
  • Katz, Zev, ed.: Handbook of Major Soviet Nationalities (New York: Free Press, 1975).
  • Rizzi, Bruno: "The bureaucratization of the world : the first English ed. of the underground Marxist classic that analyzed class exploitation in the USSR" , New York, NY : Free Press, 1985

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Союз Советских Социалистических Республик

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

References

  1. ^ Barbara A. Anderson and Brian D. Silver. 1984. "Equality, Efficiency, and Politics in Soviet Bilingual Education Policy, 1934-1980," American Political Science Review 78 (December): 1019-1039.
Autonomous republics of the Soviet Union Flag of the Soviet Union

Bashkir ASSR - Buryat ASSR - Chechen-Ingush ASSR (1936-1944), (1957-1990) - Chuvash ASSR - Dagestan ASSR - Kabardin ASSR - Kabardino-Balkar ASSR - Kalmyk ASSR - Karelian ASSR (1923-1940), (1956-1991)
Komi ASSR - Mari ASSR - Mordovian ASSR - North Ossetian ASSR (1936-1990) - Tatar ASSR - Tuva ASSR (1961-1992) - Udmurt ASSR - Yakut ASSR
Abkhaz ASSR - Adjar ASSR - Nakhichevan ASSR - Karakalpak ASSR - Crimean ASSR (1921-1945) - Kazakh ASSR (1925-1936) - Kirghiz ASSR (1926-1936) - Turkestan ASSR (1918-1924)
Volga German ASSR (1918-1941) - Moldavian ASSR (1924-1941) In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... The Bashkir Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the former Soviet Union. ... The Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the former Soviet Union. ... Chechen-Ingush Aautonomous Soviet Socialist Rrepublic, or Chechen-Ingush ASSR (Russian: ) was an autonomous republic within Russian SFSR. Its capital was Grozny. ... The Chuvash Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the former Soviet Union. ... Kabardin Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Kabardin ASSR) was the name given to Kabardino-Balkar ASSR after deportation of the Balkars. ... The Kabardino-Balkar ASSR was an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union. ... The Karelian ASSR was an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union. ... Mari Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Mari ASSR) was the successor of Mari Autonomous Oblast. ... Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (TASSR) was part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. ... The Tuva Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Tuva ASSR) was an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union. ... The Yakut Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Yakut ASSR) was an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union. ... The Nakhichevan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Nakhichevan ASSR) was an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union. ... The Karakalpak ASSR was an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union. ... Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Крымская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика) (October 18, 1921—June 30, 1945) was created as part of RSFSR within the Crimean Peninsula, its capital being Simferopol. ... The Kazakh ASSR was an autonomous republic of the Soviet Union. ... Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Kirghiz ASSR) was the name of two different national entities within Russian SFSR, in the territories of modern Kazakhstan and Kyrghyzstan. ... Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (April 30, 1918 – October 27, 1924) was created from the Turkestan Krai of Imperial Russia. ... 1937 flag of the Volga German ASSR The Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (German: Autonome Sozialistische Sowjet-Republik der Wolga-Deutschen, Russian: Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика Немцев Поволжья) was an autonomy established in the Soviet Union, with its capital at the Volga port of Engels (until 1931 known as... Moldavian ASSR (Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Republic; Romanian: Republica Autonomă Socialistă Sovietică Moldovenească) was an autonomous region of the Ukrainian SSR between 12 October 1924 and 2 August 1940, encompassing Transnistria (now in Moldova) and parts which are now in Ukraine. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Soviet Union - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6690 words)
The USSR was created and expanded as a union of Soviet republics formed within the territory of the Russian Empire abolished by the Russian Revolution of 1917 followed by the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920.
A referendum for the preservation of the USSR was held on March 17, 1991, with the population voting for preservation of the Union in most republics.
On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev, yielded to the inevitable and resigned as the president of the USSR, declaring the office extinct.
CONSTITUTION OF THE USSR (1977) (10174 words)
Citizens of the USSR are obliged to observe the Constitution of the USSR and Soviet laws, comply with the standards of socialist conduct, and uphold the honour and dignity of Soviet citizenship.
The Council of Minister of the USSR shall be responsible and accountable to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and, between sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
The Procurator-General of the USSR is appointed by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and is responsible and accountable to it and, between sessions of the Supreme Soviet, to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m