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Encyclopedia > USS Liberty incident
Help arrives after the Israeli attack on USS Liberty.
Help arrives after the Israeli attack on USS Liberty.

The USS Liberty incident was an attack on a U.S. Navy technical research ship, USS Liberty, in international waters north of the northern Sinai Peninsula coast, about 25.5 nautical miles northwest of the minaret at El Arish[1](p.26), by Israeli fighter planes and torpedo boats on June 8, 1967, during the Six-Day War. The attack, which killed 34 U.S. servicemen and wounded at least 173, was the second deadliest against a U.S. Naval vessel since the end of World War II, surpassed only by the Iraqi Exocet missile attack on the USS Stark on May 17, 1987, and marked the single greatest loss of life by the U.S. intelligence community. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... In military science, an attack is the aggressive attempt to conquer enemy territory, installations, personnel, or equipment or to deny the enemy the use of territory, installations, personnel, or equipment, for example by destroying the equipment. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... USS Belmont AGTR-4 Technical research ships were used by the U.S. Navy during the 1960s to gather intelligence by monitoring the electronic communications of nations in various parts of the world. ... USS Liberty (AGTR-5) was a Belmont-class technical research ship. ... The terms international waters or trans-boundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basins) transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems, enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries, rivers, lakes, groundwater systems (aquifers), and wetlands [1]. Oceans and seas, waters... Look up North in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses, see Sinai (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Coast (disambiguation). ... A nautical mile or sea mile is a unit of length. ... Look up Northwest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... El Arish (alternate spelling Al Arish) is an Egyptian city on the Mediterranean coast of the Sinai peninsula. ... A torpedo boat is a relatively small and fast naval ship designed to launch torpedoes at larger surface ships. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Exocet is a French-built anti-ship missile whose various versions can be launched from surface vessels, submarines, and airplanes. ... Stark listing following 2 hits by Exocet missiles USS Stark (FFG-31), twenty-third ship of the Oliver Hazard Perry class of guided-missile frigates, was named for Admiral Harold Rainsford Stark (1880–1972). ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... Logo used on the Intelligence Community web site. ...


Shortly after the attack ended, Israel informed the U.S. that its forces had attacked the Liberty in error. An Israeli Board of Inquiry determined that the attack was caused by a chain of "misunderstandings and errors" by Israel Defense Force (IDF) personnel "during the course of hostilities." [2](p.20) The IDF says it asked the United States to inform them of any U.S. ships in the area but was not told of the Liberty's presence.[2](p.22) The IDF air and naval forces, respectively, misidentified the Liberty as an unknown destroyer and the Egyptian cargo ship El Quseir.[2](p.15) Supporters of Israel's explanation say that no credible motive existed for Israel to initiate a surprise attack against an important ally and the possibility of such mistakes were inherent in the tense atmosphere of the Six-Day War. The United States government was concerned about such dangers and ordered the Liberty further away from shore but the order was not received in time due to a series of communication failures.[3](p.21ff) The IDF report points out that "though the attack on the armed forces of a friendly nation is a most regrettable and painful occurrence, incidents of this kind do occur in war-time."[2] (p.38). See friendly fire incident. Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... For other uses, see Friendly Fire (disambiguation). ...


Others claim that the attack was premeditated and deliberate. They note that the Liberty was more than twice as large as the El Quseir, and was clearly designated with Latin rather than Arabic letters, and clearly displaying the American flag. Proponents include the surviving Liberty crewmen, [4] and some former U.S. government officials, including then-CIA director Richard Helms and then-Secretary of State Dean Rusk as well as Admiral Thomas Hinman Moorer, former Chief of Naval Operations and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. CIA redirects here. ... Richard Helms, Director of Central Intelligence, 1966-1973 Richard McGarrah Helms (March 30, 1913 – October 23, 2002) was the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) from 1966 to 1973. ... The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... David Dean Rusk (February 9, 1909 – December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. ... Thomas Hinman Moorer (February 9, 1912 – February 5, 2004) was a U.S. admiral who served as both Chief of Naval Operations and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. ... The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is the senior military officer in the United States Navy. ...


Both the Israeli and American governments conducted multiple inquiries into the incident, and issued reports concluding that the attack was a tragic mistake, caused by confusion about the identity of the USS Liberty. On December 17, 1987, the issue was officially closed by the two governments through an exchange of diplomatic notes. Israel eventually paid nearly US$13 million in humanitarian reparations to the United States and in compensation to the families of the victims.[5] The conclusions reached in these reports remain controversial, and some veterans and intelligence officials who were involved in the incident continue to dispute the official story.[6] December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... USD redirects here. ...

Contents

The attack on the Liberty

USS Liberty was originally the 7,725-ton (light) civilian cargo vessel Simmons Victory (a mass-produced, standard-design Victory Ship, the follow-on series to the famous Liberty Ships which supplied the United Kingdom and Allied troops with cargo). She was acquired by the United States Navy, converted to an Auxiliary Technical Research Ship (AGTR), and began her first deployment in 1965, to waters off the west coast of Africa. She carried out several more operations during the next two years. The Victory ship was a type of cargo ship produced in large numbers by North American shipyards during World War II to replace losses caused by German submarines. ... The Liberty ships were cargo ships built in the United States during World War II. They were cheap and quick to build, and came to symbolize U.S. wartime industrial output. ... USN redirects here. ... USS Belmont AGTR-4 Technical research ships were used by the U.S. Navy during the 1960s to gather intelligence by monitoring the electronic communications of nations in various parts of the world. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Events leading up to the attack

During the Six-Day War between Israel and the Arab nations, Liberty was sent to collect electronic intelligence in the eastern Mediterranean. Due to concerns about her safety, several messages were sent to Liberty to change her allowable closest point of approach (CPA) to Egypt's and Israel's coasts from 12.5 nautical miles (23 km) and 6.5 nautical miles (12 km), respectively, to 20 nautical miles (37 km) and 15 nautical miles (17 km), and then later to 100 nautical miles (185 km) for both countries. Unfortunately, due to message handling and routing mistakes, the CPA change messages were not received until after the attack. Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... ELINT stands for ELectronic INTelligence, and refers to intelligence-gathering by use of electronic sensors. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ...


On June 5, at the start of the war, General Yitzhak Rabin (then IDF Chief of Staff) informed Commander Ernest Carl Castle, the American Naval Attaché in Tel Aviv, that Israel would defend its coast with every means at its disposal, including sinking unidentified ships. He asked the U.S. to keep it ships away from the shore or at least inform Israel of their exact position.[2] (p.22) [7] Despite this, the United States did not give Israel any information about the Liberty, which was by now in the eastern Mediterranean. (ibid). As war broke out Captain William L. McGonagle of the Liberty immediately asked Vice Admiral William I. Martin at the U.S. 6th Fleet headquarters to send a destroyer to accompany the Liberty and serve as its armed escort and as an auxiliary communications center. is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... Insignia of the Rav Aluf The Ramatkal (Hebrew: רמטכל, abbr. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... For the Scottish poet see William McGonagall William Loren McGonagle (November 19, 1925 -- March 3, 1999) was a United States Naval officer in command of the USS Liberty when he was attacked by the Israel Defense Force. ... The Sixth Fleet is a US Navy operational unit, headquartered on the command ship Mount Whitney (LCC-20) with its homeport in Gaeta, Italy and operating in the Mediterranean Sea. ...


The following day, June 6, Admiral Martin replied: “Liberty is a clearly marked United States ship in international waters, not a participant in the conflict and not a reasonable subject for attack by any nation. Request denied.” He promised, however, that in the unlikely event of an inadvertent attack, jet fighters from the Sixth Fleet could be overhead in ten minutes. Meanwhile, at the United Nations, United States Ambassador Goldberg announced, in response to Arab complaints that the U.S. and British were supporting Israel in the conflict, that the U.S. forces were hundreds of miles from the conflict.[8](p.21) At the time the statement was made, this was the case, since the Liberty was just entering the Mediterranean Sea [8] but would ultimately steam to within a few miles of the Sinai Peninsula. is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... UN redirects here. ...


On the night of June 7 Washington time, early morning on June 8, 0110Z or 3:10 AM local time, the Pentagon issued an order to Sixth Fleet headquarters to tell the Liberty to come no closer than 100 nautical miles (185 km) to Israel, Syria, or the Sinai coast (Oren, p. 263). [1](pages 5 and Exhibit N, page 58). UTC redirects here. ...


According to the Naval Court of Inquiry [2] (page 23 ff, p. 111 ff) and National Security Agency official history [8] (pp. 21-23), the order to withdraw was not broadcast on the frequencies that the Liberty crew was monitoring for orders until 1525 Zulu, hours after the attack, due to a long series of administrative and communications problems. The Navy said a large volume of unrelated high-precedence traffic, including intelligence intercepts related to the conflict, was being handled at the time and it also faulted a shortage of qualified radio men as a contributing factor to the failure to send the withdrawal message to Liberty in time.[3] (p.111 ff) UTC redirects here. ...


During the morning of the attack, early June 8, the ship was overflown by several Israeli Air Force (IAF) aircraft including a Nord Noratlas "flying boxcar" and Mirage III jet fighters. [2](p.7)[8](p.25) At least some of those flybys were from a close range. At 6:03 a.m. Sinai time (GMT +2) that morning, the Nord identified the ship as a U.S. supply ship. After the Nord landed and its naval observer was debriefed, the ship was further identified the USS Liberty based its "GTR-5" markings. Many Liberty crewmen gave testimony that one of the aircraft flew so close to Liberty that its propellers rattled the deck plating of the ship, and the pilots waved to the crew of Liberty, and the crewmen waved back. The ship was marked as a neutral vessel on Israel's Central Coastal Command plot board, but at 11 am the ship was removed from the plot because information on its position was stale. is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Israeli Air Force (IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האויר והחלל, Zroa HaAvir VeHaḤalal, Air and Space Division, commonly known as חיל האוויר Hel HaAvir) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ... The Nord Noratlas was a French military transport plane built by Nord Aviation in the 1950s. ... Former South African Air Force Mirage IIICZ The Dassault Mirage III is a supersonic fighter aircraft designed in France during the 1950s, and manufactured both in France and a number of other countries. ... For alternate meanings of GMT, see GMT (disambiguation). ...


At this time, the ship was readying to turn south towards the coast of the Sinai Peninsula from its previous eastern direction. According to author James Bamford, it would then turn east and patrol at 5 knots (9 km/h) in international waters, 13 nautical miles (23 km) off the Sinai Peninsula near El-Arish, just outside Egypt's territorial waters. [4] This course took the Liberty approximately 45 kilometers from its last sighting by IAF pilots by 2 p.m. Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses, see Sinai (disambiguation). ... Map of Sealand and the United Kingdom, with territorial water claims of 3nm and 12nm shown. ...


At 11:24, the Central Coastal Command received the first of several reports that El Arish, on the Sinai coast near the Liberty's position, was being shelled from the sea, and half an hour later sent three torpedo boats to investigate. At 1341, the boats detected a target on radar. Two boats independently calculated its speed as 28 and 30 knots, suggesting a combat ship, though, in fact, the Liberty was not capable of anywhere near that speed. [2] (p.8 ff) At 13:48 an air attack was ordered.[2](p.12)


The air and sea attacks

Beginning about 2 p.m. the Liberty was attacked by several IAF aircraft, initially by two Mirage IIIs, firing cannon and rockets[8] (p.26), followed by two Dassault Mysteres carrying napalm. One napalm bomb hit the ship.[2](p.13) The leader of the Mirage formation identified the ship as a destroyer, mistaking an antenna on its bow for a gun. After a series of passes by aircraft, one Israeli pilot, Rabin, who wondered why the Liberty had not returned fire, made a close pass and noted that the ship had Western, not Arabic, lettering. Rabin immediately feared that the ship was Soviet and ordered the planes and a three torpedo boat squadron which had been ordered into the area, to withhold fire pending positive identification of the ship, and sent in two helicopters to search for survivors. These radio communications were recorded by Israel. However, although the order was recorded in the ship's log, the commander of the torpedo boat squadron claimed never to have received it.[9] After the success of the Ouragan, Dassault was working on a more advanced machine based on it, which would take to the air in early 1951 as the MD 452 Mystere (Mystery) I. The first prototype Mystere I was essentially an Ouragan with a 30-degree swept wing and modified... For other uses, see Napalm (disambiguation). ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ...


However, when the commander of torpedo boats could see the Liberty, he immediately realized the ship was not a destroyer and ordered the attack stopped pending better identification "although this was difficult due to the billowing clouds of smoke which enveloped the vessel; only her bow, part of her bridge and the tip of her mast could be discerned." The commander attempted to signal the ship but got a reply asking him to identify himself. He also observed gun fire from the ship. He consulted an Israeli identification guide to Arab fleets and concluded the ship was the Egyptian supply ship El Quseir. Another of his boat captains reached the same conclusion. [2](p.16) Based on that identification, the gun fire and what he considered an evasive response to his signal, the commander ordered the attack to proceed.(ibid. p.17)

Liberty turns to evade Israeli torpedo boats.
Liberty turns to evade Israeli torpedo boats.

According to Captain McGonagle, commander of the Liberty, about twenty minutes after the aircraft attack, three torpedo boats approached bearing Israeli flags and identification signs. Initially, McGonagle, who perceived that the torpedo boats "were approaching the ship in a torpedo launch attitude,"[5] ordered a machine gun to fire on the boats. After recognizing the Israeli standard and seeing apparent Morse code signalling attempts by one of the boats (but being unable to see what was being sent, due to the smoke of the fire started by the earlier aircraft attack), McGonagle gave the order to cease fire. This order was apparently misunderstood in the confusion, and two heavy machine guns on the USS Liberty again opened fire. One gun was fired accidentally due to exploding ammunition (Oren, 267). Subsequently, the Israeli boats responded with gun fire and launched five torpedoes at Liberty [2](p.17). One hit Liberty on the starboard side forward of the superstructure, creating a 36 X 24-foot (7.3 m) hole in what had been a former cargo hold converted to the ships research spaces and killing 25 servicemen. That torpedo hit a main brace which absorbed much of the energy, crew members reported that if the torpedo had missed the brace the Liberty would have split in two. Russian linguist and Staff Sergeant Marine Bryce Lockwood later was to comment "I would never deny that it was God that kept the LIBERTY afloat!".[6] Most of the U.S. deaths and injuries in the incident were caused by the torpedo attack after the USS Liberty fired on the Israeli ships. According to some witnesses the torpedo boats then approached Liberty and strafed crewmen (including damage control parties and sailors preparing life rafts for launch) on deck. (See disputed details below.) Image File history File links USS Liberty turns to evade Israeli torpedo boats attacks on 8 June 1967. ... Image File history File links USS Liberty turns to evade Israeli torpedo boats attacks on 8 June 1967. ... 1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals Morse code is a method for transmitting telegraphic information, using standardized sequences of short and long elements to represent the letters, numerals, punctuation and special characters of a message. ... A view of the Starboard side of the Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyer USS Ross Starboard is the nautical term that refers to the right side of a vessel as perceived by a person on board the ship and facing the bow (front). ... Warfare Strafing (adaptation of German strafen - to punish) is the practice of shooting a machine gun, from an airplane in flight, at objects or people on the ground. ...


Aftermath of the attack

When the ship was confirmed to have been American, the torpedo boats returned to offer help; it was refused by the American ship. At about 4 pm, two hours after the attack began, Israel informed the U.S. embassy in Tel Aviv about the incident and later provided a helicopter to fly a U.S. naval attaché to the ship.[8](pp.32,34) Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ...


Though Liberty was severely damaged, with a 50-foot (15 m) hole and a twisted keel, her crew kept her afloat, and she was able to leave the area under her own power. She was escorted to Malta by units of the U.S. 6th Fleet and was there given interim repairs. After these were completed in July 1967, Liberty returned to the United States. She was decommissioned in June 1968 and struck from the Naval Vessel Register. Liberty was transferred to United States Maritime Administration (MARAD) in December 1970 and sold for scrap in 1973. The Naval Vessel Register (NVR), official inventory of ships and service craft in custody or titled by the United States Navy, traces its origin back to the 1880s. ... Seal of the US Maritime Administration MARAD, or the U.S. Maritime Administration, maintains the National Defense Reserve Fleet (NDRF) as a ready source of ships for use during national emergencies and assists in fulfilling its traditional role as the nations fourth arm of defense in logistically supporting the...


McGonagle received the Medal of Honor, the highest U.S. medal, for his actions. It was awarded at the Washington Navy Yard by the Secretary of the Navy.[10][11] The Medal of Honor is generally presented by the President of the United States in the White House. This was not to be the case for the USS Liberty recipient.[12] For other uses, see Medal of Honor (disambiguation). ... Flag of the United States Secretary of the Navy. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ...


Investigations of the attack

Several official US and Israeli investigations maintained the initially published conclusion that the event was a tragic mistake through misidentification. The scope of the Israeli investigations was to decide whether or not anyone in the Israeli Defense Forces should be tried on crimes (no criminal wrongdoing was found), accepting as a premise that the attack was a mistake. The scope and performance of U.S. congressional investigations and four other U.S. investigations subsequent to the U.S. Navy Court of Inquiry did not satisfy some parties. The majority of those subsequent U.S. reports were issues such as communications failures rather than culpability. [6]. The Naval Court of Inquiry conclusions continue to be disputed (see below). According to Raymond Garthoff, nonetheless, US military and intelligence agencies are unanimous in finding that the Israeli attack was “deliberate and unprovoked.” [13]


Israeli investigations

Three subsequent Israeli inquiries concluded the attack was conducted because Liberty was confused with an Egyptian vessel and because of failures of communications between Israel and the U.S. The three Israeli commissions were:

  • Preliminary Inquiry by Colonel Ram Ron ("Ram Ron Report" - June 1967)[7]
  • Inquiry by Examining Judge Y. Yerushalmi ("Yerushalmi Report" -July 1967).[8]
  • "The Liberty Incident" - IDF History Department Report (1982) [2]
Torpedo damage to Liberty's research compartment (Starboard side).
Torpedo damage to Liberty's research compartment (Starboard side).

The Israeli military court of inquiry later acknowledged that their naval headquarters knew at least three hours before the attack that the ship was "an electromagnetic audio-surveillance ship of the U.S. Navy" but concluded that that information had simply "gotten lost, never passed along to the ground controllers who directed the air attack nor to the crews of the three Israeli torpedo boats". Sgan-Aluf Y. Yerushalmi (?-?) is a former Israeli judge. ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... US Navy photo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... US Navy photo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A view of the Starboard side of the Arleigh Burke-class guided missile destroyer USS Ross Starboard is the nautical term that refers to the right side of a vessel as perceived by a person on board the ship and facing the bow (front). ...


The Israeli government said three crucial errors were made: the refreshing of the status board (removing the ship's classification as American, so that the later shift did not see it identified), the erroneous identification of the ship as an Egyptian vessel, and the lack of notification from the returning aircraft informing Israeli headquarters of markings on the front of the hull (markings that would not be found on an Egyptian ship). As the general root of these problems, Israel blamed the combination of alarm and fatigue experienced by the Israeli forces at that point of the war when pilots were severely over-worked.


American investigations

Ten official American investigations are claimed regarding the Liberty incident, including:

Critics -- including an active group of survivors from the ship -- assert that five U.S. congressional investigations and four other U.S. investigations were not investigations into the attack at all, but rather reports using evidence only from the U.S. Navy Court of Inquiry, or investigations unrelated to the culpability of the attack but rather discussing issues such as communications. In their view, the U.S. Navy Court of Inquiry is the only investigation on the incident to date. They claim it was hastily conducted, in only 10 days, even though the court’s president, Rear Admiral Isaac Kidd, said that it would take 6 months to conduct properly. The inquiry's terms of reference were limited to whether any shortcomings on the part of the Liberty's crew had contributed to the injuries and deaths that resulted from the attack. Because of time constraints, only 14 survivors of the attack and no Israeli personnel involved were questioned. Isaac Campbell Kidd, Jr. ... A Terms Of Reference is a document which describes the purpose and structure of a project. ...


The National Archives in College Park, Md., includes in its files on casualties from the Liberty copies of the original telegrams the Navy sent out to family members. The telegrams called the attack accidental. The telegrams were sent out June 9, the day before the Navy court of inquiry convened. [9]


Ongoing controversy and unresolved questions

Many intelligence and military officials dispute Israel's explanation:

  • "...the board of inquiry (concluded) that the Israelis knew exactly what they were doing in attacking the Liberty."- Former CIA Director Richard Helms[14][dubious ]
  • "I was never satisfied with the Israeli explanation. . . . Through diplomatic channels we refused to accept their explanations. I didn't believe them then, and I don't believe them to this day. The attack was outrageous "- Former US Secretary of State Dean Rusk[15]

Some of the survivors claim that this incident stands as the only peacetime attack on a U.S. naval vessel not investigated by Congress, and want a full Congressional hearing[10]. They claim that a proper investigation has never taken place and that all previous reports, including the ones by the U.S. Congress, are incomplete, mention the incident in passing, and either that they are intended to exonerate Israel or that they do not even question the culpability of the attack (instead, they hold, it focuses on other topics, such as American communication problems). In 2002 Captain Ward Boston, JAGC, U.S. Navy, ended his own silence on the work of the court of inquiry, saying its findings were intended to cover up what was a deliberate attack by Israel on a ship it knew to be American. He has prepared and signed an affidavit (pdf) in which he claimed that Admiral Kidd had told him that the government ordered Kidd to falsely report that the attack was a mistake, and that he and Kidd both believed the attack was deliberate. He wrote, in part: The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Richard Helms, Director of Central Intelligence, 1966-1973 Richard McGarrah Helms (March 30, 1913 – October 23, 2002) was the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) from 1966 to 1973. ... David Dean Rusk (February 9, 1909 – December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. ... Congress in Joint Session. ...

The evidence was clear. Both Admiral Kidd and I believed with certainty that this attack, which killed 34 American sailors and injured 172 others, was a deliberate effort to sink an American ship and murder its entire crew. Each evening, after hearing testimony all day, we often spoke our private thoughts concerning what we had seen and heard. I recall Admiral Kidd repeatedly referring to the Israeli forces responsible for the attack as 'murderous bastards.' It was our shared belief, based on the documentary evidence and testimony we received first hand, that the Israeli attack was planned and deliberate, and could not possibly have been an accident.

Still, there is no record of Kidd ever publicly expressing such opinions.[16]


Critics of Boston believe that he is not telling the truth in regard to Kidd's views and any pressure from the government.[11]. In particular, A. Jay Cristol, who also served as an officer of the Judge Advocate General in the U.S. military, suggests that Boston was responsible in part for the original conclusions of the Court of Inquiry, and that by later declaring that they were false he has admitted to "lying under oath." Critics also note that Boston's claims about pressure on Kidd were hearsay, and that Kidd was not alive to confirm or deny them. They also note that Boston did not maintain prior to his affadavit and comments related to it that Kidd spoke of such instructions to him or to others. Supporters of the intentional-attack theory believe that Boston's statement invalidates the conclusions of the Court, and that Boston would not have made such an accusation if he did not know it to be true.


Israel stated that the attack was not deliberate using the following arguments:

  • The previous day, Israel's warplanes had erroneously attacked an Israeli armored column, demonstrating unintentional mistakes, where the IAF had even attacked Israel's own forces.
  • The incident took place during the Six Day War when Israel was engaged in battles with three Arab countries, creating an environment where mistakes and confusion were prevalent. For example, at 11:45, a few hours before the attack, there was a large explosion on the shores of El-Arish followed by black smoke, probably caused by the destruction of an ammunition dump by retreating Egyptian forces. The Israeli army thought the area was being bombarded, and that an unidentified ship offshore was responsible. (According to U.S. sources, Liberty was 14 nautical miles (26 km) from those shores at the time of the attack.)
  • Had Israel intended to attack the USS Liberty, IAF aircraft would have been sent out with bombs, not light machine gun ammunition, sinking the Liberty within the first few minutes of the incident.
  • The attacking aircraft used napalm rockets and machine guns, and napalm is an ineffective armament for doing real damage to a steel-hulled ship—other than starting fires in combustibles. Machine guns, though, are often used to keep a ship's company under cover, thus keeping the company from manning weather deck stations and doing damage control topside.
  • Liberty opened fire first on the gunboats. This, though, was after the aerial attacks.
  • No adequate benefit has been put forward that the Israelis would derive from the attack on an American ship, especially considering the high cost of the predictable complications that must inevitably follow such an attack on a powerful ally, and the fact that Israel immediately notified the American embassy after the attack.
Aircraft shot up the superstructure with machine-gun and rocket fire.
Aircraft shot up the superstructure with machine-gun and rocket fire.

Some survivors of Liberty, U.S. government officials and U.S. military officers have asserted that the attack was premeditated. (All sides agree that the IAF intended to attack a ship, and in that sense the attack was premeditated. The survivors argue, however, that when IAF jets and IDF boats attacked, they knew the ship was not Egyptian but American.) The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ... For other uses, see Napalm (disambiguation). ... US Smarties (by Ce De Candy) US Smarties (by Ce De Candy) In the United States, Smarties are a type of artificially fruit-flavored candy produced by Ce De Candy. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... Damaged USS Liberty / US Navy photo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Damaged USS Liberty / US Navy photo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


James Ennes, a junior officer (and off-going Officer of the Deck) on Liberty's bridge at the time of the attack, has published a book titled Assault on the Liberty. James Ennes is a retired naval officer who wrote the book, Assault on the Liberty, (Random House, 1980; Ballantine Books 1986; Reintree Press 2004) about the attack by Israel on USS Liberty (AGTR-5) during the Six Day War in June, 1967. ...


Ennes and Joe Meadors, another survivor of the attack, run a website that was built "with support and encouragement from the USS Liberty Veterans Association." Meadors states that the classification of the attack as deliberate is the official policy of the association, to which all known survivors belong. Other survivors run several additional websites.


Several books and the BBC documentary USS Liberty: Dead in the Water argued that Liberty was attacked in order to prevent the U.S. from knowing about the forthcoming attack in the Golan Heights, which apparently would violate a cease-fire to which Israel's government had agreed.[12] Such a motive remains only speculation, however, and in fact the USS Liberty had no Hebrew translators on board, but was manned to monitor Arabic and Soviet radio traffic, although Israel may not have known this. The Golan Heights (‎ Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-ūlān) or Golan is a mountainous area in northeastern Israel[1] on the border of Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan. ...


Critics claim many of the books and documentaries include incorrect assumptions.[citation needed] For example, critics note that a document declassified in 1997 indicated that the U.S. Ambassador at the time had reported on the day of the Liberty attack that he "would not be surprised" by an Israeli attack on Syria, and that the IDF Intelligence chief had told a White House aide then in Israel that "there still remained the Syria problem and perhaps it would be necessary to give Syria a blow,"[17] which, the critics argue, indicate that Israel was not trying to conceal the planned invasion of Syria from the U.S.


The 1981 book Weapons by Russell Warren Howe asserts that Liberty was accompanied by the Polaris armed Lafayette class submarine USS Andrew Jackson, which filmed the entire episode through its periscope but was unable to provide assistance. According to Howe: "Two hundred feet below the ship, on a parallel course, was its 'shadow'- the Polaris strategic submarine Andrew Jackson, whose job was to take out all the Israeli long-range missile sites in the Negev if Tel Aviv decided to attack Cairo, Damascus or Baghdad. This was in order that Moscow would not have to perform this task itself and thus trigger World War Three." Polaris A-3 on launch pad in Cape Canaveral The Polaris missile was a submarine-launched, two-stage solid-fuel nuclear-armed ballistic missile (SLBM) built during the Cold War by Lockheed for the United States Navy. ... The Lafayette class of submarine was an evolutionary development from the Ethan Allen class of fleet ballistic missile submarine, slightly larger and generally improved. ... USS Andrew Jackson (SSBN-619), a Lafayette-class nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for Andrew Jackson (1767–1845), the seventh President of the United States. ...


In 2003, journalist Peter Hounam wrote Operation Cyanide: How the Bombing of the USS Liberty Nearly Caused World War III, which proposes a completely different theory regarding the incident. In an attempt to explain why there was no support by U.S. forces as backup, Hounam claims that Israel and U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson had secretly agreed on day four of the Six Day War that Liberty would be sunk with complete loss of life. The attack would be blamed on Egypt, allowing the U.S. in turn to attack Egypt, thus helping out Israel. However, according to Hounam's theory, because the Liberty did not sink after two hours, the plan was quickly reversed, Israel apologized for the case of mistaken identity, and a cover-up put into place. Likewise the BBC documentary (2002) claims that the Liberty incident provoked the launch of nuclear-armed planes targeted against Cairo from a US aircraft carrier in the Mediterranean. It is claimed in the theory that they were recalled only just in time, when it was clear the Liberty had not sunk with all hands, and that Israel was responsible [13]. Peter Hounam (born 1944) is a British journalist who has worked for Sunday Times, The Mirror, the London Evening Standard, and BBC Television, as well as having published several books: Secret Cult, with Andrew Hogg, about the School of Economic Science in London, ISBN: 0856488372 The Mini-Nuke Conspiracy: How... LBJ redirects here. ... The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ...


From the early 1950s up to shortly before the 1967 Six-Day War, Israel's primary military ally was France. The United States, with a few exceptions, consistently refused requests for sales of offensive weapons to Israel until 1968. The height of French-Israeli cooperation was in the 1956 Suez war, when France, Israel and the United Kingdom participated in a combined ground, sea and air offensive against Egypt, despite stringent opposition from the United States and threats from the Soviet Union. Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Belligerents Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties and losses 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 1650...


The Johnson administration did not publicly dispute Israel's claim that the attack had been nothing more than a disastrous mistake. But internal White House documents obtained from the Lyndon B. Johnson Presidential Library show that the Israelis' explanation of how the mistake had occurred was not believed[14].


NSA tapes and recent developments

On July 2, 2003, the National Security Agency released copies of the recordings made by an EC-121 aircraft that flew near the attacks from 2:30 p.m. to 3:27 p.m., Sinai time (1230 to 1337 Z), and the resultant translations and summaries.[15] These revelations were elicited as part of a Freedom of Information Act lawsuit by Florida bankruptcy judge and retired naval aviator Jay Cristol. Two linguists who were aboard the EC-121 when the recordings were made, however, have claimed separately that at least two additional tapes were made that have been excluded from the NSA releases up to and including a June 8, 2007 release.[6] is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lockheed EC-121 Warning Star was a US Air Force/US Navy airborne early warning radar surveillance aircraft. ... UTC redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with freedom of information legislation. ...


English transcripts of the tapes -- recorded by U.S. warplanes -- indicate that Israel still believed it had hit an Egyptian supply ship even after the attack had stopped. [16] [17] After the attack, the rescue helicopters are heard relaying several urgent requests that the rescuers ask the first survivor pulled out of the water what his nationality is, and discussing whether the survivors from the attacked ship will speak Arabic. [18]


The NSA reported that there had been no radio intercepts related to the attack made by the USS Liberty itself, nor there had been any radio intercepts made by the U.S. submarine Amberjack. USS Amberjack (SS-522), a Tench-class submarine, was the second submarine of the United States Navy named for the amberjack, a vigorous sport fish found in the western Atlantic from New England to Brazil. ...


Within an hour of learning that the Liberty had been torpedoed the Director, NSA, LTG Marshall S. Carter, USA, sent a message to all intercept sites requesting a special search of all communications that might reflect the attack or reaction. No communications were available. However, one of the airborne platforms, a U.S. Navy EC-121, had collected voice conversations between two Israeli helicopter pilots and the control tower at Hazor Airfield following the attack on the Liberty.[19]


The NSA-translated tapes show that the helicopters were first dispatched to rescue Egyptians (control tower to helicopter 815 at 1234Z: "The ship has now been identified as an Egyptian ship"), and that they demonstrate confusion as to the identification of the target ship. (e.g. control tower to helicopter 815 at 1310Z "The first thing is for you to clarify what nationality they are. Notify me immediately.") Cristol adds: "The tapes confirm that the helicopter pilot observed the flag at 3:12 p.m." (1312Z) which would coincide with the audio tapes the Israel Air Force released to Cristol of the radio transmissions before, during and after the attack. The English translations of the Israeli Air Force tapes are published in Appendix 2 of Cristol's book The Liberty Incident. The Israeli Air Force (IAF) (Hebrew: חיל האוויר Heyl haAvir) is the Air branch of the Israel Defense Force. ...


On October 10, 2003, The Jerusalem Post ran an interview with Yiftah Spector, one of the pilots who participated in the attack [20], and thought to be the lead pilot of the first wave of planes. Spector said the ship was assumed to be Egyptian. The interview also contains the transcripts of the Israeli communications about the Liberty. is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The May 16, 1948 Palestine Post headline announcing the creation of the state of Israel The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli daily English language broadsheet newspaper, originally founded on December 1, 1932, by American journalist-turned-newspaper-editor Gershon Agron as the The Palestine Post. ...


As of 2006, the National Security Agency (NSA) has yet to declassify "boxes and boxes" of Liberty documents. Numerous requests under both declassification directives and the Freedom of Information Act are pending in various agencies including the NSA, Central Intelligence Agency, and Defense Intelligence Agency. 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... NSA redirects here. ... CIA redirects here. ... The Defense Intelligence Agency, or DIA, is a major producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense. ...


"... On June 8, 2007, the National Security Agency released hundreds of additional declassified documents on the Israeli attack on the USS Liberty, a communications interception vessel, on June 8, 1967." [21]


On June 8, 2005, the USS Liberty Veterans Association filed a "Report of War Crimes Committed Against the U.S. Military, June 8, 1967" with the Department of Defense (DoD). They say Department of Defense Directive 2311.01E requires the Department of Defense to conduct a thorough investigation of the allegations contained in their report. DoD has responded that a new investigation will not be conducted since a Navy Court of Inquiry already investigated the facts and circumstances surrounding the attack. is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Most recently, on October 2, 2007, The Chicago Tribune published a lengthy special report into the attack. The newspaper's article pointed out that the USS Liberty survivors' "anger has been stoked by the declassification of government documents and the recollections of former military personnel, including some quoted in this article for the first time, which strengthen doubts about the U.S. National Security Agency's position that it never intercepted the communications of the attacking Israeli pilots - communications, according to those who remember seeing them, that showed the Israelis knew they were attacking an American naval vessel. The documents also suggest that the U.S. government, anxious to spare Israel's reputation and preserve its alliance with the U.S., closed the case with what even some of its participants now say was a hasty and seriously flawed investigation."[6] is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // The Chicago Tribune is a major daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois and owned by the Tribune Company. ...


The Tribune's report is based on the declassified NSA documents as well as interviews with people with first-hand experience of the Israeli attack, ranging from Liberty survivors, to NSA analysts to US and Israeli journalists and politicians. The Tribune article's author, John Crewdson, mentions the Liberty survivors' disbelief that "Israeli pilots [could have] confused the U.S. Navy's most distinctive ship with an Egyptian horse-cavalry transport that was half its size and had a dissimilar profile."


Frequently cited by those making the case for mistaken identity is Yiftah Spector, the first Israeli pilot to attack the Liberty. In an interview with the Jerusalem Post in 2003, Spector states that, "I circled it twice and it did not fire on me. My assumption was that it was likely to open fire at me and nevertheless I slowed down [emphasis added] and I looked and there was positively no flag [emphasis added]."


Spector's assertion about the absence of a US flag on Liberty is contradicted by every single one of the Liberty's survivors. This fact is confirmed by one of the declassified NSA documents which concludes that, "Every official interview of numerous Liberty crewmen gave consistent evidence that indeed the Liberty was flying an American flag - and, further, the weather conditions were ideal to ensure its easy observance and identification."


The Tribune investigation also makes mention of a Jerusalem Post article from 2004 which carried a transcription of the Israeli Air Force tapes of the actual attack. The journalist who transcribed the tapes for that article, Arieh O'Sullivan, later confirmed that "the Israeli Air Force tapes he listened to contained blank spaces." The Chicago Tribune article also notes that, "The transcript published by the Jerusalem Post bore scant resemblance to the one that in 1967 rolled off the teletype machine behind the sealed vault door at Offutt Air Force Base in Omaha, where Steve Forslund worked as an intelligence analyst for the 544th Air Reconnaissance Technical Wing, then the highest-level strategic planning office in the Air Force." The paper goes on to quote Forslund as remembering that: "The [Israeli] ground control station stated that the target was American and for the aircraft to confirm it. The aircraft did confirm the identity of the target as American, by the American flag... The ground control station ordered the aircraft to attack and sink the target and ensure they left no survivors."


Forslund's recollections are confirmed by, amongst others, James Gotcher, then with the Air Force Security Service's 6924th Security Squadron, an adjunct of the NSA, and USAF Captain Richard Block, then commanding an intelligence wing of more than 100 analysts and cryptologists monitoring Middle Eastern communications. Oliver Kirby, the NSA's deputy director for operations at the time of the Liberty attack, confirmed the existence of NSA transcripts of the actual attack - not just the aftermath - to The Chicago Tribune. When the newspaper asked whether Kirby had personally read such transcripts, Kirby replied, "I sure did. I certainly did. They said, 'We've got him in the zero,' whatever that meant - I guess the sights or something. And then one of them said, 'Can you see the flag?' They said 'Yes, it's U.S, it's U.S.' They said it several times, so there wasn't any doubt in anybody's mind that they knew it."


The Tribune also interviewed Michael Prostinak, a Hebrew linguist aboard a U.S. Navy EC-121 that was monitoring communications in the area at the time of the attack. Like Kirby, Prostinak confirms that recordings were made during the attack which had not been released by the NSA, and that those recordings mention an American flag during the attack. The linguist further noted that the numbering sequence of the tapes released by the NSA clearly indicate that at least two tapes that had once existed were not included in the NSA release.


Even in the immediate aftermath of the attack, the widely-held view of US intelligence and military personnel was expressed succinctly by the then deputy director of the NSA, Louis W. Tordella, in response to the IDF Preliminary Inquiry into the attack: Tordella called it "a nice whitewash."[18]


Details in dispute

Many of the events surrounding the attack are the subject of controversy:

  • US Crewmen's Perceptions of Israeli Intent: Perhaps more than any other detail, this issue remains in dispute because the surviving crew of the Liberty report their subjective perception that Israel's attack on the ship was "deliberate" and in full knowledge that the vessel was American. Yet, Israel agrees that the attack was deliberate -- but against the wrong ship. Israel agrees that its jets acted as if they intended to deliberately attack a ship. Israel responds that its attack was directed at its Egyptian enemies, and not at the United States, its most important ally.
  • Distinctiveness of USS Liberty's Appearance: One major dispute is whether the Liberty would have been immediately recognized as a different ship from the Egyptian ship El Quseir. Critics of the Israeli attack argue that the Liberty was distinctive, and "bristling with antennae." Admiral Tom Moorer stated that the LIBERTY was the most identifiable ship in the US Navy. Israel says the identification as the El Quseir was made by the torpedo boats while the Liberty was enveloped in smoke and was based on a guide to Arab fleets that did not include U.S. vessels. Those who believe the attack was intended against a different ship point out that the Liberty was a mass-produced Victory Ship of standardized design, built as a cargo ship -- the Egyptian ship El Quseir was a cargo vessel. (Web site with images of both ships)
  • Visibility of ensign: The most vehemently debated point is the visibility of the American flags that the ship was flying; Americans claimed the flags were clearly visible in the wind. The survivors uniformly agree that the Liberty was flying the Stars and Stripes before, during and after the attack, except for a brief period in which one flag that had been shot down was replaced with another, larger flag that measured 13 feet (4.0 m) long. The Israeli pilots claimed they did not see any flag. The Court of Inquiry found that the Liberty was cruising at 5 knots (9 km/hour) on a calm day, [22] so that the flag would have been furled or fouled, and could not be seen. NSA documents declassified on June 8 2007 state "Every official interview of numerous Liberty crewmen gave consistent evidence that indeed the Liberty was flying an American flag and, further, the weather conditions were ideal to ensure its easy observance and identification."
  • USS Liberty bore an eight-foot-high "5" and a four-foot-high "GTR" along either bow, clearly indicating her hull (or "pendant") number (AGTR-5), and had 18-inch-high letters spelling the vessel's name across the stern. These markings were not cursive Arabic script but in the Latin alphabet (used in European or English languages). Israeli pilots claim initially they were primarily concerned with making sure the ship was a warship not Israeli and that they called off the attack when they noticed the Latin alphabet markings.[23]
  • Israeli Jets Not Armed for Attacking a Ship: Advocates question why Israeli jets flew out to the Liberty armed only with machine guns and napalm-- instead of bombs -- as these weapons were incapable of sinking a US warship. Israel says the aircraft involved were diverted from ground support roles.
  • Israeli Terminates Attack: Critics of Israel maintain that Israel intended to attack and sink the USS Liberty. Those arguing that Israel attacked the wrong ship point out that Israel did not in fact sink the Liberty, but terminated the attack... leaving witnesses and survivors. It remains unknown why Israel would begin to attack a US ship but then leave the Liberty afloat with witnesses aboard.
  • A James Bamford book, published in 2001, claimed that secret NSA intercepts recorded by an American reconnaissance aircraft indicate that Israeli pilots had full knowledge they were attacking a U.S. vessel.[19][24]. This 2001 proposition has played a significant role in the on-going controversies about the incident, and continues to be widely cited. However, the tapes were later released by the National Security Agency in 2003 as a result of a Freedom of Information Act lawsuit brought by Judge and author A. Jay Cristol. These tapes record communications after the attack was over with Israeli helicopter pilots who were not involved in the attack and who were sent to provide assistance. These pilots noticed an American flag flying from the ship.[25] and informed their control tower. See other sources for a link to the NSA website with complete transcripts. The NSA Website denies that there were any U.S. recordings of the attack itself although this is disputed by several intelligence specialists who claim to have read the original transcripts.
  • Israeli aircraft markings: Some American survivors of the attack assert that the Israeli aircraft were unmarked. However, aircraft markings are not required by the laws of war and two of the attacking aircraft were highly distinctive Dassault Mirage III aircraft, flown only by Israel in that region.
  • Jamming: Both Liberty and USS Saratoga radio operators reported hearing the distinctive buzzing sound usually indicative of radio frequency jamming. However, the Navy Court of Inquiry found that the Saratoga in fact received radio reports from the Liberty and successfully relayed these to the Sixth Fleet. [26] (see page 28). According to a book by Russell Warren Howe (see below), Captain McGonagle testified that the jamming of his transmissions had been on American, not Egyptian, frequencies, suggesting that someone was aware of the nationality of the ship. However changing frequency is a standard technique to avoid radio jamming and jamming equipment is often designed to find the actual frequencies in use.
  • Probability of identification: Americans claim the thirteen closer flybys of the previous two days should have been sufficient for identification. Israel acknowledged the ship had been identified as American and neutral that morning; however, it claims that at 11 a.m., the ship was removed from the command status board. Later that morning, when explosions were heard in El-Arish, Israel claims to have reacquired the ship without being aware that it was the same one that was flown over earlier in the day.
  • Effort for identification: The American crew claims the attacking aircraft did not make identification runs over Liberty, but rather began to strafe immediately. Israel claims several identification passes were made.
  • Speed of the vessel: According to Israeli accounts, the torpedo boat made (admittedly erroneous) measurements that indicated the ship was steaming at 30 knots (56 km/h). Israeli naval doctrine at the time required that a ship traveling at that speed must be presumed to be a warship. A second boat calculated Liberty's speed to be 28 knots (52 km/h) The maximum sustained speed of Liberty was only 17.5 knots (32 km/h), 21 knots (39 km/h) being attainable by overriding the engine governors. According to Body of Secrets, by James Bamford, and Liberty crewmen (including the Officer-of-the-Deck), the ship was steaming at 5 knots (9 km/h) at the time of the attack.
  • Visual communications: Joe Meadors, the signalman on bridge, states that "Immediately prior to the torpedo attack, he was on the Signal Bridge repeatedly sending 'USS Liberty U.S. Navy Ship' by flashing light to the torpedo boats." The Israeli boats claim to have read only the signal "AA", which was exactly the signal dispatched by the Egyptian destroyer Ibrahim Al-Awal when it was engaged by the Israeli Navy eleven years earlier. Meadors claims he never sent "AA" (which would require him to identify himself as well); this disagreement may be settled by considering the fact that Liberty was unable to read signals sent from the boats due to smoke.
Commander W.L. McGonagle in his damaged cabin after the attack.
Commander W.L. McGonagle in his damaged cabin after the attack.
  • Israeli ships' actions after the torpedo hit: Some of the crewmembers claim that after the Liberty had been torpedoed, Israeli boats circled the ship firing machine guns at descended (unmanned) life rafts and sailors on board the ship. Israelis claim they recognized the ship as American immediately after it was hit and ceased fire. Two survivors Lloyd Painter and Glenn Oliphant claim to have seen the life rafts being fired upon, but the ship's captain and others on deck made no mention of this. Oliphant said the life rafts were about 150 yards (140 m) behind the ship, Painter said the life raft he saw getting shot “had been cut loose and was floating in the water”. Captain Ward Boston, senior counsel to the U.S. Navy Court of Inquiry, supports Painter’s claim that his testimony about the life rafts being shot at was removed from the court’s report. [27]
There are conflicting accounts as to whether the Liberty was flying its flag during parts of the attack
There are conflicting accounts as to whether the Liberty was flying its flag during parts of the attack
  • Israeli offers of help: Reports differ regarding whether the Israeli boats offered help. Some crew members claim the torpedo boats simply withdrew, while the captain and the Israeli crew report that help was offered; the captain testified before the court of inquiry that he had asked the Israeli boats to stay away by the means of signal flags-. Ennes acknowledges the Israelis offered help but claims they only did so at 4:30
  • U.S. rescue attempts: At least two rescue attempts were launched from U.S. aircraft carriers nearby but were recalled, according to David Lewis, officer of the deck (OOD) during the attack. Lewis wrote and made an audio recording about a meeting 6th Fleet Rear Admiral Lawrence Geis requested in his cabins: "He told me that since I was the senior Liberty survivor on board he wanted to tell me in confidence what had actually transpired. He told me that upon receipt of our SOS, aircraft were launched to come to our assistance and then Washington was notified. He said that the Secretary of Defense (Robert McNamara) had ordered that the aircraft be returned to the carrier which was done. RADM Geis then said that he speculated that Washington may have suspected that the aircraft carried nuclear weapons so he put together another flight of conventional aircraft that had no capability of carrying nuclear weapons. These he launched to assist us and again notified Washington of his actions. Again McNamara ordered the aircraft recalled. He requested confirmation of the order being unable to believe that Washington would let us sink. This time President Johnson ordered the recall with the comment that he did not care if every man drowned and the ship sank, but that he would not embarrass his allies. This is, to the best of my ability, what I recall transpiring 30 years ago."

The Victory ship was a type of cargo ship produced in large numbers by North American shipyards during World War II to replace losses caused by German submarines. ... {{dablink|For other meanings, see Stern (disambiguation). ... The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... James Bamford is a bestselling author and journalist who writes about the world of United States intelligence agencies. ... Help arrives after the Israeli attack on USS Liberty. ... NSA can stand for: National Security Agency of the USA The British Librarys National Sound Archive This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ... The Dassault Mirage III is a supersonic fighter aircraft designed in France by Dassault Aviation during the 1950s, and manufactured both in France and a number of other countries. ... Radio jamming is the (usually deliberate) transmission of radio signals that disrupt communications by decreasing the signal to noise ratio. ... The Israel Defense Forces (IDF) (Hebrew: צבא ההגנה לישראל Tsva Ha-Haganah Le-Yisrael ([Army] Force [for] the Defense of Israel), often abbreviated צהל Tsahal, alternative English spelling Tzahal, is the name of Israels armed forces (army, air force and navy). ... Commander sits in damaged cabin / US Navy photo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Commander sits in damaged cabin / US Navy photo File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault ship USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft, acting as a sea-going airbase. ... Officer of the Deck (OOD) is a position in the United States Navy that confers certain authority and responsibility. ... For other uses, see SOS (disambiguation). ... The United States Secretary of Defense (SECDEF) is the head of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), concerned with the armed services and military matters. ... For the figure skater, see Robert McNamara (figure skater). ...

Names of fatalities

  • Cryptologic Tech 3rd Class William B. Allenbaugh, USN
  • Lt Cmdr. Philip M. Armstrong Jr., USN
  • Seaman Gary R. Blanchard, USN
  • Cryptologic Technician 2nd Class Allen M. Blue, NSA
  • Quartermaster 3rd Class Francis Brown, USN
  • Cryptologic Tech 2nd Class Ronnie J. Campbell, USN
  • Cryptologic Tech 2nd Class Jerry L. Converse, USN
  • Cryptologic Tech 2nd Class Robert B. Eisenberg, USN
  • Cryptologic Tech 2nd Class Jerry L. Goss, USN
  • Cryptologic Tech 1st Class Curtis L. Graves, USN
  • Cryptologic Tech Lawrence P. Hayden, USN
  • Cryptologic Tech 1st Class Warren Hersey, USN
  • Cryptologic Tech 3rd Class Alan Higgins, USN
  • Seaman Carl L. Hoar, USN
  • Cryptologic Tech 2nd Class Richard W. Keene, USN
  • Cryptologic Tech James L. Lenau, USN
  • Chief Cryptologic Tech Raymond E. Linn, USN
  • Cryptologic Tech 1st Class James M. Lupton, USN
  • Cryptologic Tech 3rd Class Duane R. Marggraf, USN
  • Cryptologic Tech David W. Marlborough, USN
  • Cryptologic Tech 2nd Class Anthony P. Mendle, USN
  • Cryptologic Tech Carl C. Nygren, USN
  • Lt. James C. Pierce, USN
  • Sgt. Jack Raper, U.S.M.C.
  • Cpl. Edward Rehmayer II, U.S.M.C.
  • Interior Comms Electrician David N. Skolak, USN
  • Cryptologic Tech 1st Class John C. Smith Jr, USN
  • Chief Cryptologic Tech Melvin D. Smith, USN
  • Postal Clerk 2nd Class John C. Spicher, USN
  • Gunner's Mate 3rd Class Alexander N. Thompson, USN
  • Cryptologic Tech 3rd Class Thomas R. Thornton, USN
  • Cryptologic Tech 3rd Class Phillipe C. Tiedtke, USN
  • Lt. Stephen S. Toth, USN
  • Cryptologic Tech 1st Class Frederick J. Walton, USN

Note: The rating "cryptologic technician" reflects current usage. In 1967, the rating was called "communications technician."[28]


See also

For other ships of the same name, see USS Maine. ... USS Panay underway during the standardization trial off Woosung, China on August 30, 1928. ... Five ships of the French Navy have borne the name Surcouf, in honour of the 18th century Saint-Malo corsair Robert Surcouf: see French ship Surcouf for the list. ... Bombings of Switzerland in World War II consisted of initially sporadic bombing events that became more frequent during the later stage of World War II.[1] Switzerland was a neutral country during World War II but adjacent to and at times completely surrounded by Axis countries. ... Chart showing the U.S. Navys interpretation of the events of the first part of the Gulf of Tonkin incident The Gulf of Tonkin Incident was an alleged pair of attacks by naval forces of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (commonly referred to as North Vietnam) against two American... USS Pueblo (AGER-2) is a Banner-class technical research ship which was boarded and captured by the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea on 23 January 1968 in what is known as the Pueblo incident or alternatively as the Pueblo crisis. ... Combatants United States of America Democratic Kampuchea Commanders Lt. ... The tree that was the object of the 1976 Axe Murder Incident (Photo 1984). ... Combatants Libya United States Strength 2 Sukhoi Su-22 aircraft 2 F-14A Tomcats Casualties 2 aircraft destroyed; pilots recovered alive none The first Gulf of Sidra incident, August 19, 1981, was an incident in which two Libyan Sukhoi Su-22 Fitter fighter jets engaged and were shot down by... Gulf of Sidra incident (1989) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Iran Air Flight 655 (IR655) was a commercial flight operated by Iran Air that flew from Bandar Abbas, Iran to Dubai, UAE. On Sunday July 3, 1988, towards the end of the Iran Iraq War, the aircraft flying IR655 was shot down by the U.S. Navy guided missile cruiser... For the 1976 accident, see Cavalese cable-car disaster (1976). ... Combatants China United States Strength 2 J-8IIM aircraft 1 F-14A Tomcats Casualties 1 J-8 destroyed, pilot killed 1 EP-3 damaged and unflyable, later recovered, crew survived The Hainan Island incident was the April 1, 2001 collision between a United States Navy EP-3E signals reconnaissance aircraft...

References

  1. ^ http://www.nsa.gov/liberty/liber00010.pdf
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l http://thelibertyincident.com/docs/israeli/IDF-history-report-en.pdf IDF History Report
  3. ^ http://www.nsa.gov/liberty/liber00010.pdf
  4. ^ "The surviving Liberty crewmen . . . believed the attack was deliberate." *Mission Memorial: Remembering the USS Liberty from the Veterans of Foreign Wars Magazine, June/July 2005.
  5. ^ Bard, Mitchell. The USS Liberty, Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved January 29, 2008.
  6. ^ a b c d Crewdson, John. "New revelations in attack on American spy ship". Chicago Tribune, October 2, 2007.
  7. ^ "The failure of the Israeli navy's attacks on Egyptian and Syrian ports early in the war did little to assuage Israel's fears. Consequently, the IDF Chief of Staff, Gen. Yitzhak Rabin, informed the U.S. Naval Attaché in Tel Aviv, Cmdr. Ernest Carl Castle, that Israel would defend its coast with every means at its disposal. Unidentified vessels would be sunk, Rabin advised; the United States should either acknowledge its ships in the area or remove them. Nonetheless, the Americans provided Israel with no information on the Liberty. The United States had also rejected Israel's request for a formal naval liaison. On May 31, Avraham Harman, Israel's ambassador to Washington, had warned Under Secretary of State Eugene V. Rostow that if war breaks out, we would have no telephone number to call, no code for plane recognition, and no way to get in touch with the U.S. Sixth Fleet.'" Oren, Michael B. The USS Liberty: Case Closed, Azure, Spring 5760 / 2000, No. 9.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Attack on a SIGINT Collector, the USS Liberty by William D. Gerhard and Henry W. Millington, National Security Agency, 1981. Originally Top Secret Umbra, partially declassified 1999, 2003.
  9. ^ "While Egyptian naval ships were known to disguise their identities with Western markings, they usually displayed Arabic letters and numbers only. The fact that the ship had Western markings led Rabin to fear that it was Soviet, and he immediately called off the jets. Two IAF Hornet helicopters were sent to look for survivors - Spector had reported seeing men overboard - while the torpedo boat squadron was ordered to hold its fire pending further attempts at identification. Though that order was recorded in the torpedo boat's log, Oren claimed he never received it." Oren, Michael B. The USS Liberty: Case Closed, Azure, Spring 5760 / 2000, No. 9.
  10. ^ Even as USS Liberty's Heroic Captain Receives New Honor, Coverup of Israeli Attack on His Ship Continues, Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, March 1998 Issue, Pages 26, 88
  11. ^ Navy Medal of Honor: Vietnam War (era) 1964-1975, citation for Captain William L. McGonagle, U.S. Navy, accessed May 15, 2006
  12. ^ Congressional Medal of Honor Society, accessed June 20, 2007
  13. ^ Raymond Garthoff, A Journey Through the Cold War Washington, DC: 2001 p. 214.
  14. ^ Richard Helms. Over My Shoulder. New York: Random House, 2003. ISBN 037550012X
  15. ^ Dean Rusk. As I Saw It. New York: W.W. Norton, 1990. ISBN 0140153918
  16. ^ "However, according to his own account, Boston's evidence of a cover-up derives not from his own part in the investigation but solely on alleged conversations with Admiral Kidd, who purportedly told him he was forced to find that the attack was unintentional. Kidd died in 1999 and there is no way to verify Boston's allegations. However, Cristol argues that the 'documentary record' strongly indicated that Kidd 'supported the validity of the findings of the Court of Inquiry to his dying day.'" The USS Liberty Attack, Anti-Defamation League, June 9, 2004.
  17. ^ LBJ, National Security File, Box 104/107, Middle East Crisis: Jerusalem to the Secretary of State, June 8, 1967; Barbour to Department, June 8, 1967; Joint Embassy Memorandum, June 8, 1967.
  18. ^ William D. Gerhard and Henry W. Millington, National Security Agency, Attack on a SIGINT Collector, the USS Liberty, 1981. Top Secret Umbra. See page 41 of the report, page 49 of the pdf; see also footnote 4 on same page.
  19. ^ CNN report by David Ensor, CNN, April 23, 2001. Report cites material from: Body of Secrets, by James Bamford, Doubleday, 2001 (ISBN 0-09-942774-5)

The Veterans of Foreign Wars, or VFW, is an American organization whose members are current or former members of the U.S. armed forces. ... The Jewish Virtual Library is an online encyclopedia published by the American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE), notable for its strong pro-Israel views. ... Michael Oren (born in 1955) is an Israeli historian and writer. ... Michael Oren (born in 1955) is an Israeli historian and writer. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an interest group founded in 1913 by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ...

Books

  • A History of Israel by Ahron Bregman contains extracts from the tapes. (ISBN 0-333-67631-9)
  • Cristol, A. Jay (2002). The Liberty Incident: The 1967 Israeli Attack on the U.S. Navy Spy Ship. Dulles, Virginia: Brassey's. ISBN 1-57488-414-X. 
  • Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East, by Michael B. Oren, Oxford University Press (ISBN 0-19-515174-7)
  • Assault on the Liberty: The True Story of the Israeli Attack on an American Intelligence Ship, by James M. Ennes, Jr. (ISBN 0-9723116-0-2) Currently in its 9th printing.
  • The Puzzle Palace, by James Bamford, Penguin Books, 1982, has a detailed description of the Israeli attack on the SIGINT ship USS Liberty, and the events leading up to it, on pages 279-293.
  • Body of Secrets, by James Bamford, devotes a detailed chapter to the incident, and concludes it was deliberate. Doubleday, 2001 (ISBN 0-09-942774-5)
  • Peter Hounam, Operation Cyanide: Why the Bombing of the USS Liberty Nearly Caused World War III, Vision Paperbacks. 2003, ISBN 1-904132-19-7,
  • Anthony Pearson, Conspiracy of Silence: The Attack on the USS Liberty, 1979 ISBN 0-7043-2164-5
  • John Borne, The USS Liberty, Dissenting History vs. Official History
  • Thomas, Baylis (1999). How Israel Was Won: A Concise History of the Arab-Israeli Conflict. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-0064-5.  In Chapter 15 on "The Six Day War and Its Consequences", dissects the sequence of events and concurrent attacks on Arab towns and explores the possibility that the attack on this U.S. spy ship was an intentional act to prevent U.S. monitoring of Israeli military actions, and that the intent was to kill all US personnel on board before any kind of communications could be sent out.

Ahron Bregman is a writer and journalist, specialising on the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... Peter Hounam (born 1944) is a British journalist who has worked for Sunday Times, The Mirror, the London Evening Standard, and BBC Television, as well as having published several books: Secret Cult, with Andrew Hogg, about the School of Economic Science in London, ISBN: 0856488372 The Mini-Nuke Conspiracy: How...

External links

U.S. government sites

  • Attack on a Sigint Collector, the U.S.S. Liberty, by William D. Gerhard and Henry W. Millington, U.S. Cryptologic History series, National Security Agency, 1981, partially declassified 1999, 2003.
  • Additional information released by the National Security Agency on July 2003, including audio recordings (mostly in Hebrew) of conversations between two Israeli helicopter pilots and their control tower following the attack, transcripts of the recordings (in English), and follow-up reports.
  • Naval Historical Center, featuring photographs of the ship and crew, and the aftermath of the attack.
  • National Security Agency's Memorial Wall, including list of names inscribed on the wall.

Other sources

The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ...

Sources claiming attack was a mistake

  • USS 'Liberty' hit was unintentional, says CIA

Michael Oren (born in 1955) is an Israeli historian and writer. ... Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East is a 2002 non-fiction book by American-Israeli historian Michael Oren, chronicling the events of the Six-Day War fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors. ... Haaretz (Hebrew: (help· info), The Land) is an Israeli newspaper, founded in 1919. ... Honest Reporting (also HonestReporting or honestreporting. ... The Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America (CAMERA) is a Boston-based, non-profit, pro-Israel[2] media watch organization[3] which was founded in 1982 to respond to perceived anti-Israel bias in The Washington Post. ... The Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America (CAMERA) is a Boston-based, non-profit, pro-Israel[2] media watch organization[3] which was founded in 1982 to respond to perceived anti-Israel bias in The Washington Post. ... The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an interest group founded in 1913 by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... Jewish Council for Public Affairs, JCPA, is self described as the representative voice of the organized American Jewish community. It attempts to formulate a cohesive policy that all major Jewish organizations can accept. ...

Sources claiming attack was deliberate

Survivors of the attack

  • The website of the Veterans of USS Liberty, run by survivors Jim Ennes and Joe Meadors. This site includes a wide variety of documents, photographs, and responses to authors who argue that the attack was a mistake.
  • The USS Liberty Inquiry website, run by USS Liberty survivors Jim Ennes, Joe Meadors and John Hrankowski and maintained by researcher Andrew Nacin. This contains hundreds of documents and evidence on the attack, as well as a public forum..
  • USS Liberty, by John Gidusko, Communications Officer aboard the USS Liberty
  • Assault on Liberty Still Covered Up After 26 Years by Jim Ennes at Washington-Report
  • Loss of Liberty Film, featuring multiple survivors who claim they were set-up
  • Dead in the Water BBC documentary (2002).
  • Eric S. Margolis article on the Lew Rockwell page: America's Most Shameful Secret

Other sources

  • Captain Ward Boston (USN, Ret.), chief counsel to the Navy's Board of Inquiry interviewed on Electric Politics June 29, 2007
  • A Juridical Examination of the Israeli Attack on the USS Liberty by Lieutenant Commander Walter L. Jacobsen, JAGC, USN
  • USS LIBERTY: Public History vs. Dissenting History, by John Borne
  • Possible strategic and political backgrounds by Eric Margolis, foreign correspondent for the Toronto Sun.
  • Former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff: Israel Deliberately Attacked US Ship, Daily Star, January 21, 2004.
  • Naval Institute Proceedings: Friendless Fire? by David Walsh
  • San Diego Union-Tribune: Lifting the "fog of war" by David Walsh
  • BBC Documentary Dead In The Water
  • U.S. Navy and Marine Casualties in Wars, Conflicts, Terrorist Acts, and other Hostile Acts
  • Telegrams Cast Doubt on Liberty Report, Navy Times, June 4, 2007 by Bryant Jordan
  • Conflicting comments rekindle Liberty dispute, Marine Corps Times, June 26, 2002, by Bryant Jordan
  • Alison Wier article from Counterpunch June 22, 2007
Eric Margolis is a journalist born in New York City and holding degrees from Georgetown and New York Universities. ... The Toronto Sun is an English language daily newspaper published in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... The Daily Star is an English language newspaper based in Lebanon. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... David Walsh can refer to different people: David Ignatius Walsh, a governor of Massachusetts and U.S. Senator. ... David Walsh can refer to different people: David Ignatius Walsh, a governor of Massachusetts and U.S. Senator. ... For other uses, see Conspiracy theory (disambiguation). ... Look up conspiracy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This is a list of conspiracy theories; theories involving conspiracies, which are not recognized as true by most mainstream sources. ... Particularly since the 1960s, conspiracy theory has been a popular subject of fiction. ... The conspiracy thriller (or paranoid thriller) is a subgenre of the thriller which flourished in the 1970s in the US (and was echoed in other parts of the world) in the wake of a number of high-profile scandals and controversies (most notably Vietnam, the assassination of President Kennedy, Chappaquiddick... One World Government redirects here. ... The front cover of the allegedly privately circulated report of the 1980 Bilderberg conference in Bad Aachen, Germany. ... Bohemian Grove is an 11 km² (2700 acre) campground located at 20601 Bohemian Avenue, in Monte Rio, California,[1] belonging to a private San Francisco-based mens art club known as the Bohemian Club. ... For the pirate flag, see Jolly Roger. ... The Trilateral Commission is a private organization, founded in July 1973, at the initiative of David Rockefeller; who was Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations at that time and the Commission is widely seen as a counterpart to the Council on Foreign Relations. ... American Square & Compasses Freemasonry is a worldwide fraternal organization. ... Illuminata redirects here. ... Black helicopters are part of a conspiracy theory, prevalent among the American militia, that claims that special silent running black helicopters are used by secret agents of the New World Order, United Nations troops preparing to invade the United States of America, and/or the Men in Black. ... The ODESSA, which stands for the German phrase Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, which phrase in turn translates as “Organization of Former Members of the SS,” is the name commonly given to an international Nazi network alleged to have been set up towards the end of World War II... Eurabia is a neologism that denotes a scenario where Europe allies itself to and eventually merges with the Arab world. ... False colors redirects here. ... RMS Lusitania was a British luxury ocean liner owned by the Cunard Steamship Company and built by John Brown and Company of Clydebank, Scotland. ... The Reichstag fire was a pivotal event in the establishment of Nazi Germany. ... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... Help arrives after the Israeli attack on USS Liberty. ... The verdict of the Scottish judges who convicted one Libyan agent, Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed Al Megrahi, on 270 counts of murder at the end of the Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial failed to convince many observers – including relatives of the 270 victims – that justice had been done. ... The Russian apartment bombings were a series of bombings in Russia that killed nearly 300 people and led the country into the Second Chechen War. ... The Oklahoma City bombing was a domestic terrorist attack on April 19, 1995 aimed at the U.S. government in which the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building was bombed in an office complex in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ... For the 1894 massacre in Lüshunkou, see Port Arthur massacre (China). ... Trans World Airlines (TWA) Flight 800, a Boeing 747-131, N93119, crashed on July 17, 1996, about 20:31 EDT (00:31, July 18 UTC), in the Atlantic Ocean near East Moriches, New York. ... A variety of conspiracy theories question the mainstream account of the September 11, 2001 attacks against the United States. ... Main article: 2004 Madrid train bombings. ... Many questions, rumors and theories about the July 2005 London bombings have been raised. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... Eric V Klipping (1249-1286) was King of Denmark (1259-1286) and son of Christopher I. Until 1264 he ruled under the auspices of his mother, the competent Queen Dowager Margaret Sambiria. ... Assassination of Abraham Lincoln From left to right: Major Henry Rathbone, Clara Harris, Mary Todd Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln, and John Wilkes Booth. ... A new plaque commemorating the exact location of the Sarajevo Assassination On June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife, Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot to death in Sarajevo, capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, by Gavrilo Princip, one of a... For the computer software, see: Phar Lap (company). ... Marilyn Monroe was found naked, dead in the bedroom of her Brentwood, California home by her live-in housekeeper Eunice Murray on August 5, 1962. ... President Kennedy, Jackie Kennedy, Nellie Connally and Governor John Connally, shortly before the assassination. ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... Image:Pope JPIs Tomb and Fr Johan. ... Yitzhak Rabin assassination conspiracy theories arose almost immediately following the assassination of Yitzhak Rabin, the Israeli Prime Minister, on November 4, 1995. ... The Pont de lAlma tunnel, where Diana was fatally injured. ... A UFO conspiracy theory is any one of many often overlapping conspiracy theories which argue that evidence of the reality of unidentified flying objects is being suppressed. ... The Abduction Phenomenon is as umbrella term used to describe a number of kidnap individuals--sometimes called abductees--usually for medical testing or for sexual reproduction procedures. ... Roswell Daily Record, July 8, 1947, announcing the capture of a flying saucer. ... The Mantell UFO Incident was among the most publicized early UFO reports. ... This article is about the U.S. Air Force installation in Nevada. ... Lost Cosmonauts or Phantom Cosmonauts are cosmonauts that allegedly entered outer space and records of their voyages were kept confidential or destroyed altogether. ... Paul McCartney Dead: The Great Hoax, a magazine reporting on the rumours concerning McCartney. ... Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ... There are a number of theories about AIDS that make claims about the origin and/or nature of HIV and AIDS that differ radically from mainstream beliefs. ... Electron micrograph of the human immunodeficiency virus. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... New Coke was the unofficial name of the sweeter formulation introduced in 1985 by The Coca-Cola Company to replace its flagship soft drink, Coca-Cola or Coke. ... Combatants ATF, FBI, U.S. Army Branch Davidians Commanders Assault: Phil Chojnacki Siege: Many David Koresh† Strength Assault: 75 ATF agents Siege: Hundreds of federal agents and soldiers 50+ men, 75+ women and children Casualties 4 dead, 21 wounded in assault 6 dead and 3+ wounded in assault, 79 dead... The SARS conspiracy theory began to emerge during the SARS outbreak in China in the spring of 2003, when Sergei Kolesnikov, a Russian scientist and a member of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, first publicized his claim that the SARS virus is a synthesis of measles and mumps. ... Global warming conspiracy[1] and global warming conspiracy theory[2] are terms used to refer to the claim that the theory that global warming is caused by humans is a conscious fraud, perpetuated for financial or ideological reasons. ... The Dreyfus Affair was a political scandal with anti-Semitic overtones which divided France from the 1890s to the early 1900s. ... Gliwice Radio Tower. ... Watergate redirects here. ... MKULTRA redirects here. ... Operation Mockingbird is a Central Intelligence Agency operation to influence domestic and foreign media, whose activities were made public during the Church Committee investigation in 1975 (published 1976). ... Operation Northwoods memoranda (March 13, 1962). ... The Iran-Contra affair was a political scandal which was revealed in 1986 as a result of earlier events during the Reagan administration. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
USS Liberty incident - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5553 words)
The USS Liberty incident was an attack on a U.S. Navy intelligence ship, USS Liberty, in international waters about 12.5 nautical miles (23 km) from the coast of the Sinai Peninsula, north of El Arish, by Israeli fighter planes and torpedo boats on June 8, 1967.
One hit Liberty on the starboard side forward of the superstructure, creating a large hole in what had been a former cargo hold converted to the ships research spaces, causing the majority of the casualties in the incident.
One point is beyond dispute: USS Liberty bore an eight-foot-high "5" and a four-foot-high "GTR" along either bow, clearly indicating her hull (or "pendant") number (AGTR-5), and had 18-inch-high letters spelling the vessel's name across the stern.
Remember > History Of Sacrifice > USS Liberty Incident (371 words)
Thirty-four years ago, June 8, 1967, a lightly armed United States Navy Ship, the USS Liberty, was assaulted by a combined effort of the Israeli Defense Forces, whose Air Force and Naval units conducted an hour-long attack that resulted in the deaths of 34 U.S. crewmen and the wounding of an additional 173.
The USS Liberty was ordered by the Joint Chiefs of Staff to stream a position off the coast of the Sinai Peninsula because war in the Middle East was inevitable.
Liberty was 1,000 miles away from the theater of operation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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