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Encyclopedia > USRepublican
Republican Party
"Republican Party Elephant" logo
Party Chairman Ken Mehlman
Senate Leader Bill Frist
House Leader Dennis Hastert
Roy Blunt
Founded February 28, 1854
Headquarters 310 First Street SE
Washington, D.C.
20003
Political ideology Conservatism, Neolibertarianism
International affiliation International Democrat Union
Color(s) Red1, white and blue .
Website http://www.gop.com
1Red is commonly used on U.S. media election result maps

The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for "Grand Old Party"), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Democratic Party. The party was first established in 1854 by Northerners who were opposed to the spread of slavery, and held a Hamiltonian vision for modernizing the nation. In the modern political era, the GOP is usually considered the more socially conservative and economically neoliberal of the two major parties. Clean up of Image:Republicanlogo. ... Kenneth B. Mehlman (born 1967 in Baltimore, Maryland) is the chair of the Republican National Committee. ... William Harrison Frist, M.D. (born February 22, 1952 in Nashville, Tennessee) is a Republican U.S. Senator from Tennessee and a cardiac surgeon. ... Dennis Hastert John Dennis Hastert (born January 2, 1942), American politician, has been Speaker of the United States House of Representatives since 1999. ... U.S. Representative Roy Blunt This article is about the Congressman. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1854 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Map showing Washington, D.C.s location in relation to the surrounding states of Maryland and Virginia Washington, D.C. is the capital city of the United States of America. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Neolibertarianism is a subset of libertarian thought that embraces incrementalism and pragmatism domestically and a generally interventionist foreign policy. ... The International Democrat Union is an international grouping of conservative and, in some cases, Christian democratic parties. ... Red is a color at the lowest frequencies of light discernible by the human eye. ... White is a color (more accurately it contains all the colors of the visible spectrum and is sometimes described as an achromatic color—black is the absence of color) that has high brightness but zero hue. ... For other uses, see Blue (disambiguation) Blue is one of the three primary additive colors; blue light has the shortest wavelength range (about 420–490 nanometers) of the three additive primary colors. ... Red is a color at the lowest frequencies of light discernible by the human eye. ... A political party is a political organization that subscribes to a certain ideology and seeks to attain political power within a government. ... The Democratic Party, founded in 1792, is one of the two longest-standing political parties in the world (the other is the British Conservative Party, which is older if you consider its origins in the older Tory Party, which was founded in about 1680). ... 1854 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... A portrait of Alexander Hamilton by John Trumbull, 1792. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The term neoliberalism is used to describe a political-economic philosophy that had major implications for government policies beginning in the 1970s – and increasingly prominent since 1980 – that de-emphasizes or rejects positive government intervention in the economy, focusing instead on achieving progress and even social justice by encouraging free...


The current President, George W. Bush, is the party leader. Since 2002 the Republican Party has held a majority in both the Senate and the House of Representatives. It also controls a majority of governorships, and a majority of state legislatures. George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States. ... Seal of the Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... The United States House of Representatives is one of the two houses of the Congress of the United States. ... State legislatures are the lawmaking bodies of the 50 states in the United States of America. ...


The official symbol of the Republican Party is the elephant. A political cartoon by Thomas Nast, published in Harper's Weekly on November 7, 1874, is considered the first important use of the symbol [1]. In the early 20th century, the traditional symbol of the Republican Party in Midwestern states such as Indiana and Ohio was the eagle, as opposed to the Democratic rooster. This symbol still appears on Indiana ballots. Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Elephas recki † Stegodon † Mammuthus † Elephantidae (the elephants) is a family of animals, and the only remaining family in the order Proboscidea. ... This early political cartoon by Ben Franklin was originally written for the French and Indian War, but was later recycled during the Revolutionary War An editorial cartoon, also known as a political cartoon, is an illustration or comic strip containing a political or social message. ... Thomas Nast (September 27, 1840–December 7, 1902) was a famous caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning. ... An issue of Harpers Magazine from 1905 Another issue, from November 2004 Harpers Magazine (or simply Harpers) is a monthly general-interest magazine covering literature, politics, culture, and the arts. ... November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... 1874 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... State nickname: The Hoosier State Official languages English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Governor Mitch Daniels (R) Senators Richard Lugar (R) Evan Bayh (D) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 38th 94,321 km² 1. ... State nickname: The Buckeye State Official languages None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Governor Bob Taft (R) Senators Mike DeWine (R) George V. Voinovich (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 34th 116,096 km² 8. ... Genera Several, see below. ... Rooster in grass, demonstrating the alert stance before sounding an alarm A cock or rooster is a male chicken, the female being a hen. ...

Contents


Ideological Base

The party tends to hold both conservative and libertarian stances on social and economic issues respectively. Major policies that the party has recently supported include a neoconservative foreign policy, including War on Terror, invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq, strong support for democracy especially in the Middle East, and distrust of the United Nations. It has demanded radical reforms in the UN and opposes the Kyoto Agreements. It generally supports free trade, especially NAFTA. It boasts that a series of across-the-board tax cuts since 2001 has bolstered the economy and reduced the punitive aspect of the income tax. It has sought business deregulation, reduction of environmental restrictions, and other policies that are pro-capitalism. It supports gun ownership rights, and enterprise zones. Its national and state candidates usually favor the death penalty, call for stronger regulations on access to abortion, oppose the legalization of same-sex marriage, favor faith-based initiatives, support school choice and homeschooling, and social welfare benefit reform. The party has been hostile to labor unions, especially teacher unions, and calls for much stronger accountability in the public schools. Although it has supported higher spending for scientific research, many members openly oppose the teaching of evolution in the schools. The party is split on the issue of stem cell research, with the religious right seeing it as a moral issue. Historically Republicans have had a strong belief in individualism, limited government, and business entrepreneurship. Before 1964 the party was considered a strong supporter of civil rights for African Americans. Since then it has been cool toward affirmative action programs for both Blacks and women. In 2005-2006 the party appears to be split on issues of illegal immigration. Social conservatism is a belief in traditional morality and social mores and the desire to preserve these in present day society, often through civil law or regulation. ... See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ... Neoconservatism describes several distinct political ideologies which are considered new forms of conservatism. ... Main articles: League of Nations & History of the United Nations The term United Nations was coined by Franklin D. Roosevelt during World War II, to refer to the Allies. ... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... The North American Free Trade Agreement, known usually as NAFTA, is a comprehensive trade agreement linking Canada, the United States, and Mexico in a free trade sphere. ... A tax cut is a reduction in the rate of tax charged by a government, for example on personal or corporate income. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Capitalism The page is about the economic system. ... The phrase Gun politics refers to the views of different people within a particular country as to what degree of control (increased gun rights vs. ... Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a punishment for a serious crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ... Same-sex marriage is marriage between individuals who are of the same legal or biological sex. ... School choice is the slogan of a U.S. movement to give parents more say in which primary and secondary schools their children attend. ... Thomas Jefferson, pictured here with his books, could be considered to have been homeschooled. ...


Voter Base

Republicans have strong support from business at all levels, including "Main Street" (locally owned business) and "big business" (national corporations). Historically they were strong among middle managers and professionals (such as physicians and teachers). Lately they have slipped among professionals and college educated voters. Since 1980 a "gender gap" has made the Republicans stronger among men, and Democrats stronger among women. They are weakly represented among ethnic minorities. Historically, the Republican Party usually garnered and represented the interests of Americans who belonged at the upper end of American society, while the Democratic Party represented the interests of the lower and working classes with the middle classes evenly split among both parties. In recent years there have been weak differences along income lines; the richest 10% are still Republicans, and the poorest 10% Democrats, with about even balance in the 10-90 range. The Republicans and Democrats are about equally strong in different age groups with Democrats doing better among younger Americans while the Republicans do best among older Americans. Also, those who consider themselves "religious" also identify more with the Republican Party while so-called "secular" Americans identify more with their Democratic Party counterparts. Since 1976 geographically the Republican "base", or the "red states", is strongest in the South and weakest in the Northeast. In the 1930s and 1940s the South was solidly Democratic, and the West leaned Democratic. That has reversed. Meanwhile the Democrats dominate in the Northeast, where the Republicans were dominant before 1932. The Midwest has always been evenly balanced. Democratic Party may refer to one of many political parties of diverse political orientation: Democratic Parties United States—Democratic Party (United States) Albania—Democratic Alliance Party, Democratic Party (Albania), and Democratic Party of Albania Andorra—Democratic Party (Andorra) Australia—Australian Democrats Benin—Democratic Party (Benin) Bosnia and Herzegovina—Croatian Democratic...


The Republican coalition is quite diverse, and numerous factions compete to frame platforms and select candidates. The "conservatives" are strongest in the South, where they draw support from religious conservatives. The so-called "moderates" tend to dominate the party in New England, and used to be well represented in all states. From the 1940s to the 1970s under such leaders as Thomas Dewey, Dwight Eisenhower, Nelson Rockefeller and Richard Nixon they usually dominated the presidential wing of the party. Since the 1970s they have been less powerful, though they are always represented in the cabinets of all Republican presidents. As of late 2005, the very early polls of voters evaluating 2008 candidates show three moderates are dominant: Rudy Giuliani, Condoleezza Rice and John McCain, chiefly because they do much better among independents than do conservatives like Bill Frist. [2] The Republican Party of the United States is composed of various different groups or factions. ... In politics and religion, a moderate is an individual who holds an intermediate position between two extreme or radical viewpoints. ... // Events and trends World War II was a truly global conflict with many facets: immense human suffering, fierce indoctrination, and the use of new, extremely devastating weapons such as the atomic bomb. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1955) and the Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in two elections (1944 and 1948), losing both times. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979), an American politician, was Governor of New York from 1959 to 1973 and the 41st Vice President of the United States of America from December 19, 1974 to January 20, 1977. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Presidential electoral votes by state The U.S. presidential election of 2008 is scheduled to occur on November 4, 2008. ... Rudy Giuliani Rudolph William Louis Rudy Giuliani III KBE (born May 28, 1944) served as the Mayor of New York City from January 1, 1994 through December 31, 2001. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th and current United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush. ... John Sidney McCain III (born August 29, 1936) is an American politician. ... William Harrison Frist, M.D. (born February 22, 1952 in Nashville, Tennessee) is a Republican U.S. Senator from Tennessee and a cardiac surgeon. ...


History and trends

Birth: 1854-1860

The new party was created in 1854 as an act of defiance against what activists said was the Slave Power--the powerful class of Southern slaveholders who were conspiring to control the federal government and to spread slavery nationwide. They adopted the name "Republican" to indicate it was the carrier of "republican" beliefs about civic virtue, and opposition to aristocracy and corruption. The leaders sought to draw on the tradition of the National Republican Party of Adams and Clay, as well as Jefferson's Republican Party. Ripon, Wisconsin and Jackson, Michigan, claim the birthplace honors, but many other cities had similar meetings at about the same time. Delegates in Jackson, Michigan on July 6, 1854 declared their new party opposed to the expansion of slavery into new territories, as permitted by the proposed Kansas-Nebraska Act. They selected a state-wide slate of candidates. Besides opposition to slavery, the new party put forward a vision of modernization--emphasizing higher education, banking, railroads, industry and cities, while promising free homesteads to farmers. The Republicans absorbed the previous traditions of its members, most of whom had been Whigs, and some of whom had been Democrats or members of third parties especially the Free Soil Party and American Party. Many Democrats who joined up were rewarded with governorhips: (Nathaniel P. Banks of Massachusetts, Kinsley Bingham of Michigan, William H. Bissell of Illinois, Salmon P. Chase of Ohio, Hannibal Hamlin of Maine, Samuel J. Kirkwood of Iowa, Ralph Metcalf of New Hampshire, Lot Morrill of Maine, and Alexander Randall of Wisconsin) or seats in the US Senate (Bingham and Hamlin, as well as James R. Doolittle of Wisconsin, John P. Hale of New Hampshire, Preston King of New York, Lyman Trumbull of Illinois, and David Wilmot of Pennsylvania.) Since its inception, its chief opposition has been the Democratic Party, but the amount of flow back and forth of prominent politicians between the two parties was quite high from 1854 to 1896. The Slave Power was the term used in the Northern United States in the period 1840-1865 to describe the political power of the slaveholding class in the South. ... The National Republican Party was a United States political party that existed in the first half of the 19th century. ... The Democratic-Republican party was a United States political party, which evolved early in the history of the United States. ... Ripon is a city located in Fond du Lac County, Wisconsin. ... Jackson is a city located in the south central area of the U.S. state of Michigan. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... The Kansas–Nebraska Act was an Act of Congress in 1854 organizing a territorial government for the lands that later became the states of Kansas and Nebraska. ... Whig Party banner from 1848 with candidates Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore. ... The Free Soil Party was a short-lived political party in the United States organized in 1848 that petered out by about 1852. ... The Know-Nothing movement was a nativist American political movement of the 1850s. ... // History Predecessors The Democratic Partys origins lie in the original Republican Party founded by Thomas Jefferson in 1792. ... Nathaniel Prentiss Banks (January 30, 1816–September 1, 1894), American politician and soldier, was born at Waltham, Massachusetts. ... Salmon Portland Chase (January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era who served as Chief Justice of the United States and previously as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln. ... Photographic portrait of Hannibal Hamlin Hannibal Hamlin (August 27, 1809 – July 4, 1891) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Maine. ... Samuel Jordan Kirkwood (December 20, 1813 - September 1, 1894), twice represented Iowa as a United States Senator; first, from 1866 to 1867 and again from 1877 to 1881. ... John Parker Hale (March 31, 1806 - November 19, 1873) was an American politician. ... Preston King (October 14, 1806-November 12, 1865) was a Representative and a Senator from New York; born in Ogdensburg, New York on October 14, 1806. ... Lyman Trumbull was the United States Senator from Illinois during the American Civil War Categories: American politician stubs ... David Wilmot (January 20, 1814–March 16, 1868) was a U.S. abolitionist and political figure. ... // History Predecessors The Democratic Partys origins lie in the original Republican Party founded by Thomas Jefferson in 1792. ...

Abraham Lincoln, the 1st Republican to be elected President of the United States (1861–1865).
Abraham Lincoln, the 1st Republican to be elected President of the United States (18611865).

John C. Frémont ran as the first Republican nominee for President in 1856, using the political slogan: "Free soil, free labor, free speech, free men, Frémont." Although Frémont's bid was unsuccessful, the party showed a strong base. It dominated in New England, New York and the northern Midwest, and had a strong presence in the rest of the North. It had almost no support in the South, where it was roundly denounced in 1856-60 as a divisive force that threatened civil war. The election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860 ended the domination of the fragile coalition of pro-slavery southern Democrats and conciliatory northern Democrats which had existed since the days of Andrew Jackson. Instead, a new era of Republican dominance based in the industrial and agricultural north ensued. Republicans still often refer to their party as the "party of Lincoln" in honor of the first Republican President. Portrait of Abraham Lincoln. ... Portrait of Abraham Lincoln. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1865 is a common year starting on Sunday. ... John C. Frémont John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813–July 13, 1890), born John Charles Fremon, was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the United States Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first Presidential candidate of a major... The President of the United States (fully, President of the United States of America; unofficially abbreviated POTUS) is the American head of state and the chief executive of the federal government. ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... A political slogan is a slogan used in a political context. ... The Free Soil Party was a short-lived political party in the United States organized in 1848 that petered out by about 1852. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845), eponym of the era of Jacksonian democracy and a founder of the Democratic Party, was the seventh President of the United States, serving from 1829 to 1837. ...


1860-1896

Lincoln proved brilliantly successful in uniting all the factions of his party to fight for the Union. However he usually fought the Radical Republicans who demanded harsher measures. Most Democrats at first were War Democrats, and supportive until the fall of 1862. When Lincoln added the abolition of slavery as a war goal, many war Democrats became "peace Democrats.". All the state Republican parties accepted the antislavery goal except Kentucky. In Congress the party passed major legislation to promote rapid modernization, including a national banking system, high tariffs, an income tax, many excise taxes, paper money issued without backing ("greenbacks"), a huge national debt, homestead laws, and aid to education and agriculture. The Republicans denounced the peace-oriented Democrats as Copperheads and won enough War Democrats to maintain their majority in 1862, and reelect Lincoln easily in 1864. Radical Republicans were certain Republicans in Congress and other federal and state leaders during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras in U.S. history. ... War Democrats were those who broke with the majority of the Democratic Party and supported the military policies of President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War of 1861-1865. ... The Copperheads were a group of Northern Democrats who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. ... War Democrats were those who broke with the majority of the Democratic Party and supported the military policies of President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War of 1861-1865. ...


In Reconstruction how to deal with the ex-Confederates aand the freed slaves or Freedmen were the major issues. By 1864 Radical Republicans controlled Congress and demanded more aggressive action against slavery, and more vengeance toward the Confederates. Lincoln held them off just barely. Republicans at first welcomed president Andrew Johnson; the Radicals thought he was one of them and would take a hard line in punishing the South. Johnson however broke with them and formed a loose alliance with moderate Republicans and some Democrats. The showdown came in the Congressional elections of 1866, in which the Radicals won a sweeping victory and took full control of Reconstruction, passing key laws over the veto. Johnson was impeached by the House, but acquitted by the Senate. With the election of Ulysses S. Grant in 1868 the radicals had control of Congress, the party and the Army, and attempted to build a solid Republican base in the South using the votes of Freedmen, Scalawags and Carpetbaggers, supported directly by U.S. Army detachments. In the history of the United States, reconstruction was the period after the American Civil War when the states of the breakaway Confederacy were reintegrated into the United States of America. ... A freedman is a former slave who has been manumitted or emancipated. ... Radical Republicans were certain Republicans in Congress and other federal and state leaders during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras in U.S. history. ... Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875) was the sixteenth Vice President (1865) and the seventeenth President of the United States (1865–1869), succeeding to the presidency upon the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. ... Ulysses S. Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... A freedman is a former slave who has been manumitted or emancipated. ... The term scalawag or scallywag traces its origin to the post-Civil War era in the South of the United States. ... American usage In the United States, the negative term carpetbagger was used to refer to a Northerner who traveled to the South after the American Civil War, through the late 1860s and the 1870s, during Reconstruction. ...


Grant supported radical reconstruction programs in the South, the 14th Amendment, equal civil and voting rights for the freedmen; most of all he was the hero of the war veterans, who marched to his tune. The party had become so large that factionalism was inevitable; it was hastened by Grant's tolerance of high levels of corruption. The "Liberal Republicans" split off in 1872 on the grounds that it was time to declare the war finished and bring the troops home. Many of the founders of the GOP joined the movement, as did many powerful newspaper editors. They nominated Horace Greeley, who gained unofficial Democratic support, but was defeated in a landslide. The depression of 1873 energized the Democrats. They won control of the House, and formed "Redeemer" coalitions which recaptured control of each southern state, in some cases using threats and violence. Horace Greeley (1811-1872) Photographic portrait of Greeley Horace Greeley (February 3, 1811–November 29, 1872) was an American newspaper editor and politician. ... Redeemers, a loose political coalition in the post-Civil War U.S. South, consisted of prewar Democrats, Union Whigs, Confederate army veterans, and individuals interested in industrial development. ...


Reconstruction came to an end when the contested election of 1876 was handed to Republican Rutherford B. Hayes who promised, through the unofficial Compromise of 1877 to withdraw federal troops from control of the last three southern states. The region then became the Solid South, giving overwhelming majorities of its electoral votes and Congressional seats to the Democrats until 1964. The GOP, as it was now nicknamed, split into "Stalwart" and "Half-Breed" factions; they fought over patronage and civil service reform, but other policy differences were slight. In 1884, "Mugwump" reformers rejected James G. Blaine as corrupt and helped elect Democrat Grover Cleveland. Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was the 19th President of the United States (1877 – 1881). ... In United States politics, the Compromise of 1877 was an informal, unwritten deal that settled the disputed Election of 1876 by awarding the White House to the Republican Rutherford Hayes on the implicit understanding he would remove the federal troops that were propping up Republican state governments in South Carolina... The phrase Solid South describes the reliable electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for almost a century after the Reconstruction era. ... For Australian ships of the name Stalwart, see HMAS Stalwart For the military vehicle, see Alvis Stalwart (FV620) The Stalwarts were a faction of the United States Republican Party, towards the end of the nineteenth century. ... Mugwumps were Republicans who supported Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland in the 1884 United States presidential election. ... James G. Blaine James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830–January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908) was the 22nd (1885–1889) and 24th (1893–1897) President of the United States, and the only President to serve two non-consecutive terms. ...


As the Northern post-bellum economy boomed with heavy and light industry, railroads, mines, and fast-growing cities, as well as prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to keep the fast growth going. They supported big business generally, hard money (i.e. the gold standard), high tariffs, and high pensions for Union veterans. By 1890, however, the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Anti-Trust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers. 1922 U.S. gold certificate The gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of gold and currency issuers guarantee, under specified rules, to redeem notes in that amount of gold. ... A tariff is a tax on imported goods. ... The Sherman Antitrust Act was the first government action to limit trusts (A combination of firms or corporations who agree not to lower prices below a certain rate for the purpose of reducing competition and controlling prices throughout a business or an industry). ... The Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC; 1887 - 1995) was a government regulatory body in the United States created by the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, which was signed into law by President Grover Cleveland. ...


From 1860 to 1912 the Republicans took advantage of the association of the Democrats with "Rum, Romanism and Rebellion". Rum stood for the liquor interests and the tavernkeepers, in contrast to the GOP, which had a strong dry element. "Romanism" meant the Catholics, especially the Irish, who staffed the Democratic party in every big city, and whom the Republicans denounced for political corruption. "Rebellion" stood for the Confederates who tried to break the Union in 1861, and the Copperheads in the North who sympathized with them. The Copperheads were a group of Northern Democrats who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. ...


Demographic trends aided the Democrats, as the German and Irish Catholic immigrants were Democrats, and outnumbered the English and Scandinavian Republicans. During the 1880s and 1890s, the Republicans struggled against the Democrats' efforts, winning several close elections and losing two to Grover Cleveland (in 1884 and 1892). Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...

 Theodore Roosevelt represented the progressive faction of the Republican Party.
Theodore Roosevelt represented the progressive faction of the Republican Party.

Portrait of Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919). ... Portrait of Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919). ... Theodore Roosevelt (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was the 26th (1901–09) President of the United States. ... Progressivism in the United States // Overview Progressivism refers to two political phenomena: Populist Political Progressivism Historically, this represents distrust of concentrations of power in the hands ofpoliticians and corporations, as represented by the candidacies of Henry George and the Single Tax movement, Theodore Roosevelt and the Bull-Moose Republicans, the...

Early twentieth century

The election of William McKinley in 1896 is widely seen as a resurgence of Republican dominance and is sometimes cited as a realigning election. He relied heavily on industry for his support and cemented the Republicans as the party of business; his campaign manager, Ohio's Marcus Hanna, developed a detailed plan for getting contributions from the business world, and McKinley outspent his rival William Jennings Bryan by a large margin. This emphasis on business was in part mitigated by Theodore Roosevelt, McKinley's successor after assassination, who engaged in trust-busting. The name Mckinley redirects here. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Realigning election or critical election or realignment are terms from political history and political science. ... In United States and other democracies, political campaigns larger than a few individuals generally include a campaign manager whose role is to coordinate the campaigns operations. ... Marcus Alonzo Hanna (September 24, 1837 - February 15, 1904) was an American industrialist and politician from Cleveland, Ohio. ... William Jennings Bryan, 1907 William Jennings Bryan, (March 19, 1860–July 26, 1925) born in Salem, Illinois, was a gifted orator and three-time United States Democratic nominee for President. ... Theodore Roosevelt (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was the 26th (1901–09) President of the United States. ... Trust-busting refers to government activities designed to break up trusts or monopolies. ...


Roosevelt did not seek another term in 1908, instead endorsing Secretary of War William Howard Taft as his successor, but the widening division between progressive and conservative forces in the party resulted in a third-party candidacy for Roosevelt on the Progressive, or "Bull Moose" ticket in the election of 1912. He finished ahead of Taft, but the split in the Republican vote resulted in a decisive victory for Democrat Woodrow Wilson, temporarily interrupting the Republican era. Major party conventions The 1908 Republican Convention was held in Chicago from 16 June to 19 June. ... William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was an American politician, the 27th President of the United States, and the 10th Chief Justice of the United States. ... Progressivism is a political philosophy whose adherents promote public policies that they believe would lead to positive social change. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The United States Progressive Party refers to three distinct political parties in 20th-century United States politics. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was the 28th President of the United States (1913–1921). ...


The party controlled the presidency throughout the 1920s, running on a platform of opposition to the League of Nations, high tariffs, and promotion of business interests. Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover were resoundingly elected in 1920, 1924, and 1928 respectively, but the Great Depression cost Hoover the presidency with the landslide election of Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932. Roosevelt's New Deal coalition controlled American politics for most of the next three decades, excepting the two-term presidency of Republican Dwight Eisenhower. Sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or primarily in North America and in Australia as the Roaring Twenties . In Europe it is sometimes refered to as the Golden Twenties. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, serving from 1921 to 1923, when he became the sixth president to die in office. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) the 31st President of the United States (1929-1933). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Introduction Incumbent President Coolidge was relatively popular, and the economy was booming. ... The campaign The Republican Convention was held in Kansas City, Missouri from 12 June to 15 June, where Hoover became the partys candidate on the first ballot. ... The Great Depression was a massive global economic recession (or depression) that ran from 1929 to approximately 1939. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), 32nd President of the United States (1933-1945), is best known for his leading the U.S. through the Great Depression via his New Deal, his building a powerful political coalition, the New Deal Coalition, that dominated American politics for decades... 1932 (MCMXXXII) is a leap year starting on Friday. ... The New Deal coalition was the poop alignment of interest groups and voting blocs who supported the New Deal and voted for United States Democratic Party presidential candidates from 1932 until approximately 1966, and which made the Democratic Party the majority party during that time. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ...


Second half of the twentieth century

Despite his shortcomings, Richard Nixon's electoral victories are seen as forerunners to a GOP electoral realignment.
Despite his shortcomings, Richard Nixon's electoral victories are seen as forerunners to a GOP electoral realignment.

The post-war emergence of the United States as one of two superpowers and rapid social change caused the Republican Party to divide into a conservative faction (dominant in the West and Southeast) and a liberal faction (dominant in New England) – combined with a residual base of inherited progressive Republicanism active throughout the century. A Republican like U.S. Sen. Robert Taft of Ohio represented the Midwestern wing of the party that continued to oppose New Deal reforms and continued to champion isolationism. Thomas Dewey represented the Northeastern wing of the party. Dewey did not reject the New Deal programs, but demanded more efficiency, more support for economic growth, and less corruption. He was more willing than Taft to support Britain in 1939-40. After the war the isolationists wing strenuously opposed the United Nations, and was half-hearted in opposition to world Communism. Dwight Eisenhower, a NATO commander, defeated Taft in 1952 on foreign policy issues. The two men were not far apart on domestic issues. The conservatives made a comeback under the leadership of Barry Goldwater who defeated Nelson Rockefeller as the Republican candidate in the 1964 presidential convention. Goldwater was strongly opposed to the New Deal and the United Nations, but he rejected isolationism and containment, calling for an aggressive anti-Communist foreign policy. Richard Nixon Uploaded from the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs website File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Richard Nixon Uploaded from the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs website File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Realigning election or critical election or realignment are terms from political history and political science. ... Although now mostly associated with conservative political philosophy, the United States Republican Party has long had a liberal wing. ... The Flag of Plymouth Colony, also know as the First Flag of New England First Flag of New England, 1686-c. ... For the current Governor of Ohio, see Bob Taft. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: New Deal The New Deal is the name given to the series of programs used by Franklin Delano Roosevelt with the goal of stabilizing, reforming and stimulating the United States economy in the Great Depression. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1955) and the Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in two elections (1944 and 1948), losing both times. ... Main articles: League of Nations & History of the United Nations The term United Nations was coined by Franklin D. Roosevelt during World War II, to refer to the Allies. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... Barry Goldwater Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a United States politician and a founding figure in the modern conservative movement in the USA as well as being a major inspiration for many of his youthful followers to join the libertarian movement. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979), an American politician, was Governor of New York from 1959 to 1973 and the 41st Vice President of the United States of America from December 19, 1974 to January 20, 1977. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


One element of the New Deal coalition was the "Solid South", a term describing the Southern states' reliable support for Democratic presidential candidates. Goldwater's electoral success in the South, and Nixon's successful Southern strategy in 1968 and 1972, represented a significant political turnabout, as Southern whites began moving into the party. Later, the Democratic Party's support for liberal social stances such as abortion, criminal law issues such as abolition of the death penalty, and same-sex marriage drove many former Democrats into a Republican party that was embracing the conservative views on these issues. Conversely, liberal Republicans in the northeast began to join the Democratic Party. In The Emerging Republican Majority, Kevin Phillips, then a Nixon strategist, argued (based on the 1968 election results) that support from Southern whites and growth in the Sun Belt, among other factors, was driving an enduring Republican electoral realignment. Today, the South is still solid, but the reliable support is for Republican presidential candidates, and no Democratic presidential candidate who wasn't from the South has won a presidential election since 1960. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: New Deal The New Deal is the name given to the series of programs used by Franklin Delano Roosevelt with the goal of stabilizing, reforming and stimulating the United States economy in the Great Depression. ... The phrase Solid South describes the reliable electoral support of the Southern United States for Democratic Party candidates for almost a century after the Reconstruction era. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... In American politics, the Southern strategy refers to the focus of the Republican party on winning U.S. Presidential elections by securing the electoral votes of the U.S. Southern states, originally through support for states rights. ... Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a punishment for a serious crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ... Same-sex marriage is marriage between individuals who are of the same legal or biological sex. ... There are several people called Kevin Phillips: Kevin Phillips, political commentator and writer Kevin Phillips, England and Southampton football player This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Sun Belt, highlighted in red The Sun Belt is a region of the United States generally considered to stretch across the South and Southwest. ... Realigning election or critical election or realignment are terms from political history and political science. ...

Ronald Reagan launched the "Reagan Revolution" with his election to the Presidency in 1980, providing conservative influence that continues to the present day.
Ronald Reagan launched the "Reagan Revolution" with his election to the Presidency in 1980, providing conservative influence that continues to the present day.

Any enduring Republican majority, however, was put on hold when the Watergate Scandal forced Nixon to resign under threat of impeachment. Gerald Ford succeeded Nixon under the 25th Amendment and struggled to forge a political identity separate from his predecessor. The taint of Watergate and the nation's economic difficulties contributed to the election of Democrat Jimmy Carter in 1976, a Washington outsider. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (594x750, 49 KB) Official Portrait of President Reagan, 1981. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (594x750, 49 KB) Official Portrait of President Reagan, 1981. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... The Watergate Complex (now the Watergate Hotel) as depicted in Government Exhibit 1. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Moderate Republicans of 1940-80

The term Rockefeller Republican was used 1960-80 to designate to a faction of the party holding "moderate" views similar to those of the late Nelson Rockefeller, governor of New York from 1959 to 1974 and vice president under President Gerald Ford in 1974-77. Before Rockefeller, Tom Dewey, governor of New York 1942-54 and GOP presidential nominee in 1944 and 1948 was the leader. Dwight D. Eisenhower and Richard Nixon reflected many of their views. An important leader in the 1950s was Connecticut Republican Senator Prescott Bush, father and grandfather of presidents. After Rockefeller left the national stage in 1976, this faction of the party was more often called "moderate Republicans," in contrast to the conservatives who rallied to Ronald Reagan. Historically Rockefeller Republicans were moderate or liberal on domestic and social policies. They favored New Deal programs, including regulation and welfare. They were very strong supporters of civil rights. They were strongly supported by big business on Wall Street (New York City). In fiscal policy they favored balanced budgets and relatively high tax levels to keep the budget balanced. They sought long-term economic growth through entrepreneurships, not tax cuts. In state politics, they were strong supporters of state colleges and universities, low tuition, and large research budgets. The favored infrastructure improvements, such as highway projects. In foreign policy they were internationalists, and anti-Communists. They felt the best way to counter Communism was sponsoring economic growth (through foreign aid), maintatining a strong military, and keeping close ties to NATO. Geographically their base was the Northeast, from Pennsylvania to Maine. Barry Goldwater crusaded against the Rockefeller Republicans, beating Rockefeller narrowly in the California primary of 1964. That set the stage for a conservative resurgence, based in the South and West, in opposition to the Northeast. Ronald Reagan continued in the same theme, but George H. W. Bush was more closely associated with the moderates. Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979), an American politician, was Governor of New York from 1959 to 1973 and the 41st Vice President of the United States of America from December 19, 1974 to January 20, 1977. ... This is a list of the Governors of New York. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1955) and the Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in two elections (1944 and 1948), losing both times. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American soldier and politician. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Prescott Sheldon Bush (born May 15, 1895 in Columbus, Ohio — died October 8, 1972 in New York City, New York,) was a United States Senator from Connecticut and a Wall Street executive banker with Brown Brothers Harriman. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... The NATO flag NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, D.C., on April 4... Barry Goldwater Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a United States politician and a founding figure in the modern conservative movement in the USA as well as being a major inspiration for many of his youthful followers to join the libertarian movement. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born in Milton, Massachusetts, June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States (1989–1993). ...


There are still, however, many Rockefeller Republicans in power in the Northeast, such as U.S. Sen. Olympia Snowe. To be sure, the term "Rockefeller Republican" today sounds somewhat dated, and even pejorative at a time when liberalism is unpopular, and such Republicans are probably more apt to call themselves "moderate Republicans." The recent usage of the term South Park Republicans would seem to be a contemporary version of the term Rockefellar Republican. Seal of the Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... Olympia Jean Bouchles Snowe (born February 21, 1947 in Augusta, Maine) is a Republican politician and the senior United States senator from Maine. ... South Park Republican is a term that was circulated in a few articles and weblogs on the Internet circa 2001 and 2002, to describe what was claimed by the authors as a new wave of young adults and teenagers who hold conservative and libertarian political beliefs. ...


Reagan Era, 1980-1992

The trends Phillips described, however, could be seen in the 1980 and 1984 elections of Ronald Reagan - the latter being a landslide in which Reagan won nearly 59% of the popular vote and carried 49 of the 50 states (a statistic that illustrates the even distribution of Democrat and Republican voters during that era). Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ...


The Reagan Democrats were Democrats before the Reagan years, and afterwards, but who voted for Ronald Reagan in 1980 and 1984 (and for George H. W. Bush in 1988), producing their landslide victories. They were mostly white ethnics in the Northeast who were attracted to Reagan's social conservatism on issues such as abortion, and to his strong foreign policy. They did not continue to vote Republican in 1992 or 1996, so the term fell into disuse except as a reference to the 1980s. The term is not used to describe southern whites who became permanent Republicans in presidential elections. Stanley Greenberg, a Democratic pollster analyzed white ethnic voters, largely unionized auto workers, in suburban Macomb County, Michigan, just north of Detroit. The county voted 63 percent for Kennedy in 1960 and 66 percent for Reagan in 1984. He concluded that Reagan Democrats no longer saw Democrats as champions of their middle class aspirations, but instead saw it as being a party working primarily for the benefit of others, especially African Americans and the very poor. Bill Clinton targeted the Reagan Democrats with considerable success in 1992 and 1996. Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born in Milton, Massachusetts, June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States (1989–1993). ...


Capture the House 1994

House Republican Minority Whip Newt Gingrich-led "Republican Revolution" of 1994 and its Contract With America. It was the first time since 1952 that the Republicans secured control of both houses of U.S. Congress, which, with the exception of the Senate during 2001-2002, has been retained through the present time. This capture and subsequent holding of congress represented a major legislative turnaround, as Democrats controlled both houses of congress for the forty years preceeding 1994, with the exception of the 1981-1987 congresses (in which Republicans controlled the Senate). The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The Contract with America was a document released during the 1994 United States Congressional election campaign by the Republican Party. ... Congress in Joint Session. ...


In 1994, Republican Congressional candidates on a platform of major reforms of government with measures, such as a balanced budget amendment and welfare reform. These measures and others formed the famous Contract with America, which represented the first effort to have a party platform in an off-year election. The Republicans passed some of their proposals, but failed on others such as term limits. Democratic President Bill Clinton opposed some of the social agenda initiatives but he co-opted the proposals for welfare reform and a balanced federal budget. The result was a major change in the welfare system, which conservatives hailed and liberals bemoaned. The Republican-controlled House of Representatives also failed to muster the two-thirds majority required to pass a Constitutional amendment to impose term limits on members of Congress. In 1995, a budget battle with Clinton led to the brief shutdown of the federal government, an event which contributed to Clinton's victory in the 1996 election. That year the Republicans nominated Bob Dole, who was unable to transfer his success in Senate leadership to a viable presidential campaign. Ross Perot ran again as an independent, draining away some of Dole's support. The Contract with America was a document released during the 1994 United States Congressional election campaign by the Republican Party. ... A term limit is a provision of a constitution, statute, or bylaw which limits the number of terms a person may serve in a particular elected office. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe, III on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Welfare reform is the name for a political movement in countries with a state-administered social welfare system to institute changes in that system, generally in a more conservative direction. ... Welfare has four main meanings. ... A term limit is a provision of a constitution, statute or bylaw which limits the number of terms a person may serve in a particular elected office. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) is best known as a former Republican United States Senate Majority Leader and Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996. ... Henry Ross Perot (born June 27, 1930), is a billionaire American businessman from Texas best known as a candidate for President of the United States (in 1992 and 1996). ...


2000 to Present

President George W. Bush, is the current de facto leader of the Republican party.
Enlarge
President George W. Bush, is the current de facto leader of the Republican party.

With the controversial victory of George W. Bush in the closely contested 2000 election, the Republican party gained control of the Presidency and both houses of Congress for the first time since 1952, only to lose control of the Senate by one vote when Vermont Senator James Jeffords left the Republican party to become an independent in 2001 and chose to vote with the Democratic caucus. In the wake of the 2001 September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States, however, Bush's popularity rose as he pursued a "War on Terrorism" that included the invasion of Afghanistan and the USA PATRIOT Act. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2267x3000, 1890 KB) US president George W Bush Current picture of George W. Bush, from http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2267x3000, 1890 KB) US president George W Bush Current picture of George W. Bush, from http://www. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... State nickname: The Green Mountain State Official languages None Capital Montpelier Largest city Burlington Governor Jim Douglas (R) Senators Patrick Leahy (D) Jim Jeffords (I) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 43th 24,923 km² 3. ... James Merrill Jim Jeffords (born May 11, 1934) is currently the junior U.S. Senator from Vermont and the only Independent in the United States Senate. ... A caucus is most generally defined as being a meeting of supporters or members of a political party or movement. ... The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ... The War on Terrorism (TWOT) or War on Terror (in U.S. foreign policy circles, the global war on terrorism or GWOT ) is a campaign by the United States government and some of its allies with the stated goal of ending worldwide terrorism by stopping terrorist groups and ending state... Combatants Al-Qaida, Taliban United States, United Kingdom, Northern AllianceFranceNATO forces, Commanders Osama bin Laden, Mohammed Omar General Richard Myers Strength Casualties The United States invasion of Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom) occurred in October 2001, in the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks on the U.S., marking... President George W. Bush signing the Patriot Act in the White Houses East Room on October 26, 2001. ...


The Republican Party fared well in the 2002 midterm elections, solidifying its hold on the House and regaining control of the Senate, in the run-up to the war in Iraq. This marked just the third time since the Civil War that the party in control of the White House gained seats in both houses of Congress in a midterm election (others were 1902 and 1934). Bush was renominated without opposition for the 2004 election and titled his political platform "A Safer World and a More Hopeful America". It expressed Bush’s commitment to winning the War on Terror, ushering in an Ownership Era, and building an innovative economy to compete in the world. Bush won the election with 62.0 million popular votes to 59.0 million for Senator John F. Kerry. The Senate voted 71-1 to dismiss Green Party complaints about alleged voting irregularies. Bush received 51% of the popular vote, the first popular majority since his father was elected in 1988. Republicans gained additional seats in both houses of Congress. 2002 (MMII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States, United Kingdom, Australia, other nations Iraq Commanders Tommy Franks Saddam Hussein Strength Casualties The 2003 Invasion of Iraq began on March 20, consisting primarily of United States and United Kingdom forces; 98% of the forces came from these two countries, although numerous other nations also participated. ... Presidential election results map. ... The war on terrorism or war on terror (abbreviated in U.S. policy circles as GWOT for Global War on Terror) is an effort by the governments of the United States and its principal allies to destroy groups deemed to be terrorist (primarily radical Islamist organizations such as al-Qaeda... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts. ... This article is about the green parties around the world. ... After the November 2, 2004 election in the United States, concerns were raised regarding various aspects of the voting process, including whether voting had been made accessible to all — and only — those entitled to vote, and whether the votes cast had been correctly counted. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Bush told reporters "I earned capital in the campaign, political capital, and now I intend to spend it. It is my style." He announced his agenda in January 2005, but as his popularity in the polls waned, his troubles mounted. His campaign to add personal savings accounts in the Social Security system failed, and major revisions of the tax code were postponed. He succeeded in selecting conservatives to head four of most important agencies, Condoleezza Rice as Secretary of State, Alberto Gonzales as Attorney General, John Roberts as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and Ben Bernanke as chairman of the Federal Reserve. He failed to win conservative approval for Harriet Miers to the Supreme Court, replacing her with Samuel Alito, who faces Senate confirmation in early 2006. He secured additional tax cuts and blocked moves to raise taxes. His administration’s response to the Hurricane Katrina disaster was not well received. As 2005 ended Bush strongly defended his policy in Iraq, saying the Coalition was winning, and pushed for the renewal of the Patriot Act, stating that it is no mistake there has not been another terrorist attack on American soil since September 11, 2001. For specific national programs, see Social Security (United States), National insurance (UK), Social Security (Sweden) Social security mainly refers to a field of social welfare concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized needs, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment, families with children and others. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th and current United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush. ... Alberto R. Gonzales (born August 4, 1955 in San Antonio, Texas, USA) is the current Attorney General of the United States, becoming the first Hispanic to serve in the position. ... For other uses, see John Roberts (disambiguation). ... The supreme court in some countries, provinces, and states, is the highest court in that jurisdiction and functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be appealed. ... Ben Bernanke Ben Shalom Bernanke (born December 13, 1953) (pronounced ber-NAN-kee or bÉ™r-nan-kÄ“), American macroeconomist, is the Chairman of the U.S. Presidents Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) and the nominee to succeed Alan Greenspan as Chairman of the Board of Governors of the... The Federal Reserve System is headquartered in the Eccles Building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. The Federal Reserve System (also the Federal Reserve; informally The Fed) is the central banking system of the United States. ... Harriet Miers Harriet Ellan Miers (born August 10, 1945) is an American lawyer, currently serving as White House Counsel. ... See Samuel Alito Supreme Court nomination for details on his nomination. ... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005; for other storms with this name, see Hurricane Katrina (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with multinational force in Iraq. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


In Congress, 2005 was a year of troubles for the GOP, though another large tax cut was passed. In the Senate the Democrats held only 44 seats to the GOP’s 55, their weakest position in 80 years. The new minority leader, Harry Reid of Nevada, threatened to filibuster Bush’s conservative nominees to the court of appeals. Majority leader Bill Frist threatened the “nuclear option” of changing the rules to prevent filibusters on judicial nominees. The Democrats threatened in that case to shut down the Senate and allow no business of any sort to go forward. Senator John McCain found a compromise, whereby 7 Republicans and 7 Democrats agreed to stick together. In the compromise the 7 Democrats rejected the filibuster (in normal circumstances) and allowed a vote on the court nominees (they all were approved). The 7 Republicans promised the “nuclear option” would not be used. In the House, Tom DeLay held tight control of procedure and effectively used his slim 232-203 majority. However, in September, DeLay came under criminal indictment in Texas for campaign funding abuses, and was forced to step down temporarily as Majority Leader, while keeping his seat. The interim leader, Roy Blunt of Missouri, at year’s end was having trouble holding his troops in line. High profile Republican Randy "Duke" Cunningham (R-California) pleaded guilty to bribery charges in late November, resigned, and is facing a long prison term. Harry Mason Reid (born December 2, 1939) is the senior United States Senator from Nevada and a member of the Democratic Party, for which he serves as Senate Minority Leader. ... William Harrison Frist, M.D. (born February 22, 1952 in Nashville, Tennessee) is a Republican U.S. Senator from Tennessee and a cardiac surgeon. ... The nuclear option is a phrase used to refer to a change in the U.S. Senate rules to prevent the filibuster of judicial confirmations. ... John Sidney McCain III (born August 29, 1936) is an American politician. ... Thomas Dale DeLay (born April 8, 1947 in Laredo, Texas) is an American politician from Sugar Land, Texas and a prominent right-wing Republican. ... U.S. Representative Roy Blunt This article is about the Congressman. ... For the United States football player, see Randall Cunningham. ...


In the states, trouble was developing for the GOP in Ohio, where Governor Bob Taft was involved in scandals, and in New York, where Republican Governor George Pataki announced his retirement amidst considerable confusion in the state GOP. Early polls predicted landslides for the Democrats Hillary Clinton and Eliot Spitzer in New York in 2006. In November’s off year elections, Democrats retained the governorships of New Jersey and Virginia. In California, Governor Arnold Schwarznegger failed in his effort to use the initiative to enact laws the Democrats blocked in the state legislature. In New York City, Republican Mayor Michael Bloomberg won landslide reelection, the fourth straight Republican victory in what otherwise is a Democratic stronghold. Robert Alphonso Taft II (born January 8, 1942) has been the Republican governor of the U.S. state of Ohio since 1999. ... George E. Pataki George Elmer Pataki (born June 24, 1945) is the current Governor of New York State since January 1995. ... Hillary Clinton Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947), was First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, as the wife of President Bill Clinton. ... Eliot Spitzer Eliot Laurence Spitzer (born June 10, 1959 in Bronx, New York) is the current Attorney General for New York State and a candidate for the 2006 Democratic nomination for Governor of New York. ... Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger (born July 30, 1947 in Thal, Styria, Austria) is an Austrian-American actor, Republican politician, and bodybuilder, currently serving as the 38th Governor of California. ... Michael Bloomberg Michael Rubens Mike Bloomberg (born February 14, 1942) is a prominent businessman, the founder of Bloomberg L.P., and the 108th and current Mayor of the City of New York. ...


The "Republicanism" of the direction in which Bush has taken the Republican Party has been questioned by some Republicans: for example, he has presided over the largest ever expansion in the federal bureaucracy, and replaced balanced budgets with deficits, which some Republicans do not consider consistent with Republican advocacy of "small government". However much critics may grumble, they have not broken with the President; no major fissure has appeared in the Bush coalition as of early 2006.


Current structure and composition

Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American Political Parties, and [[{{{2}}}]], and [[{{{3}}}]], and [[{{{4}}}]], and [[{{{5}}}]], and [[{{{6}}}]], and [[{{{7}}}]], and [[{{{8}}}]], and [[{{{9}}}]]

The Republican National Committee (RNC) is responsible for promoting presidential goals (when the party controls the White House) or articulating Republican policies (when the Democrats have the White House). In presidential elections it supervises the national convention and, under the direction of the presidential candidate, it raises funds and coordinates campaign strategy. There are similar state committees in every state and most large cities, counties, and legislative districts, but they have far less money and influence than the national body. The chairman of the RNC (currently Ken Mehlman) is chosen by the President when the Republicans have the White House. Otherwise the chairman is chosen by the state committeemen. The federal government of the United States was established by the United States Constitution. ... Bush/Cheney, 2004 Campaign Manager Ken Mehlman is the current Chairman of the RNC. The Republican National Committee (RNC) provides national leadership for the United States Republican Party. ... Kenneth B. Mehlman (born 1967 in Baltimore, Maryland) is the chair of the Republican National Committee. ...


The Republican Party in House and Senate have powerful fundraising and strategy committees. The (National Republican Congressional Committee assists in House races, and the National Republican Senatorial Committee in Senate races. They raise over $100 million per election cycle, and play important roles in recruiting strong candidates. The Republican Governors Association is a discussion group that seldom funds state races. In each instance the Democrats have similar organizations. The National Republican Congressional Committee is the Republican Hill committee for the United States House of Representatives, working to elect Republicans to that body. ... The National Republican Senatorial Committee (NRSC) is the Republican Hill committee for the United States Senate, working to elect Republicans to that body. ... The Republican Governors Association is an association for governors in the United States who belong to the United States Republican Party. ...


Factions

Main articles: Factions in the Republican Party (United States), and [[{{{2}}}]], and [[{{{3}}}]], and [[{{{4}}}]], and [[{{{5}}}]]
The Schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin where the Republican Party was organized in 1854
The Schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin where the Republican Party was organized in 1854

As a major party the GOP comprises many informal factions, which often overlap. For example there are social conservatives, Republican In Name Only, paleoconservatives, neoconservatives, moderates, fiscal conservatives, Log Cabin Republicans, and libertarians. The Republican Party of the United States is composed of various different groups or factions. ... Download high resolution version (864x1152, 301 KB)A photograph of the Little White Schoolhouse of Ripon, WI. Taken November 4 by User:Laharl. ... Download high resolution version (864x1152, 301 KB)A photograph of the Little White Schoolhouse of Ripon, WI. Taken November 4 by User:Laharl. ... The Republican Party of the United States is composed of various different groups or factions. ... Social conservatism is a belief in traditional morality and social mores and the desire to preserve these in present day society, often through civil law or regulation. ... RINO stands for Republican In Name Only, a disparaging term for a member of the United States Republican Party whose words and actions are thought to be too fiscally or socially moderate or even liberal. ... Paleoconservatism (sometimes shortened to paleo or paleocon when the context is clear) refers to a branch of American conservative thought that is often called Old Right. ... Neoconservatism refers to the political movement, ideology, and public policy goals of new conservatives in the United States, who are mainly characterized by their relatively interventionist and hawkish views on foreign policy, and their lack of support for the small government principles and restrictions on social spending, when compared with... In politics and religion, a moderate is an individual who holds an intermediate position between two extreme or radical viewpoints. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... A Log Cabin Republican poster, with the typical use of Abraham Lincoln The Log Cabin Republicans is a political organization in the United States, consisting of gay, lesbian and bisexual supporters of the Republican Party. ... Libertarianism is a political philosophy that supports individual rights, private property rights, and free market capitalism. ...


Future trends, realignment?

Republicans have controlled the White House for 26 of the previous 38 years, and both houses of Congress since 1994 (except for over a year in the Senate). Karl Rove and other commentators have speculated about a permanent political realignment along the lines of the presidential election of 1896, in which Mark Hanna helped William McKinley construct a Republican majority that lasted for the next 36 years. Karl Rove Karl Christian Rove (born December 25, 1950) is an American political consultant, and (as of 2005) U.S. President George W. Bushs senior advisor, chief political strategist, and Deputy White House Chief of Staff in charge of policy. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Mark Hanna Marcus Alonzo Hanna (also known as Marcus A. Hanna, and Mark A. Hanna ) (September 24, 1837 – February 15, 1904) was an industrialist and Republican politician from Ohio. ... The name Mckinley redirects here. ...


Two approaches to projecting future trends give opposite results. Republicans say their geographical red map is growing faster than the Democrats' blue map. Geographically favorable indicators include the growth of suburbs, particularly in the Sun Belt where the Republicans dominate politics, and the population decline of the historically liberal Rust Belt inner cities. Bush's victory in 2004 in ninety-seven of the hundred fastest-growing counties in the country was solid evidence of Republican strength in quickly growing exurbs and in the booming metropolitan areas of the South. By 2010, the Census projections show that states that voted for Bush in 2004 will gain six Congressional seats and electoral votes, while states that voted for Kerry will lose six.[3] The Sun Belt, highlighted in red The Sun Belt is a region of the United States generally considered to stretch across the South and Southwest. ... The Rust Belt, highlighted in red The Rust Belt, formerly known as the Manufacturing Belt, is an area in the northeastern and upper midwestern United States, roughly between Chicago and New York City, whose economy was formerly based largely on heavy industry, manufacturing, and associated industries. ... The expression exurb (for extra-urban) was coined in the 1950s, by Auguste Comte Spectorsky in his book The Exurbanites, to describe the ring of prosperous rural communities beyond the suburbs that, due to availability via the new high-speed limited-access highways, were becoming dormitory communities for an urban...


Democratic commentators Ruy Teixeira and John Judis, on the other hand, say non-geographic social indicators show a trend toward Democrats. They point to the rapid increase in college graduates (who are trending Democratic), and the relative decrease in white and rural Republican bases. Whether Bush’s gains in the Hispanic vote are real, and will continue, is a matter of debate. Democrats suggest that contradictions in the views held within the Republican Party raise the possibility of a party split of the sort Ross Perot stimulated in 1992 and 1996. The question remains whether a majority party can simultaneously contain both anti-government libertarians and social conservatives, or both anti-immigration elements and a business community that wants more low-wage workers. Meanwhile Democrats have the short-run problem of being deeply split on the Iraq war, which could rip the party apart if it is still an issue in 2008. The problem with long-range predictions, of course, is that they take so long to work out, and meanwhile strategists are plotting the 2006 and 2008 elections. Henry Ross Perot (born June 27, 1930), is a billionaire American businessman from Texas best known as a candidate for President of the United States (in 1992 and 1996). ...


Presidential tickets

[1] Assassinated.
[2] Lincoln was succeeded by Democrat Andrew Johnson who ran on a Union ticket with him in 1864.
[3] Died while in office and was not replaced.
[4] Died of natural causes.
[5] Resigned.
Election year Result Nominees and office-holders President
President Vice President # Term
1856 Lost John Charles Frémont William Lewis Dayton
1860 Won Abraham Lincoln[1] Hannibal Hamlin 16th 18611865
1864 Won Andrew Johnson[2]
1868 Won Ulysses Simpson Grant Schuyler Colfax 18th 18691877
1872 Won Henry Wilson[3]
1876 Won Rutherford Birchard Hayes William Almon Wheeler 19th 18771881
1880 Won James Abram Garfield[1] Chester Alan Arthur 20th 1881
Chester Alan Arthur none 21st 18811885
1884 Lost James Gillespie Blaine John Alexander Logan
1888 Won Benjamin Harrison Levi Parsons Morton 23rd 18891893
1892 Lost Whitelaw Reid
1896 Won William McKinley[1] Garret Augustus Hobart[3] 25th 18971901
1900 Won Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt none 26th 19011909
1904 Won Charles Warren Fairbanks
1908 Won William Howard Taft James Schoolcraft Sherman[3] 27th 19091913
1912 Lost Nicholas Murray Butler
1916 Lost Charles Evans Hughes Charles Warren Fairbanks
1920 Won Warren Gamaliel Harding[4] John Calvin Coolidge 29th 19211923
John Calvin Coolidge none 30th 19231929
1924 Won Charles Gates Dawes
1928 Won Herbert Clark Hoover Charles Curtis 31st 19291933
1932 Lost
1936 Lost Alfred Mossman Landon William Franklin Knox
1940 Lost Wendell Lewis Willkie Charles Linza McNary
1944 Lost Thomas Edmund Dewey John William Bricker
1948 Lost Earl Warren
1952 Won Dwight David Eisenhower Richard Milhous Nixon 34th 19531961
1956 Won
1960 Lost Richard Milhous Nixon Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
1964 Lost Barry Morris Goldwater William Edward Miller
1968 Won Richard Milhous Nixon[5] Spiro Theodore Agnew[5] 37th 19691974
1972 Won
Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. Nelson A. Rockefeller 38th 19741977
1976 Lost Robert Joseph Dole
1980 Won Ronald Wilson Reagan George Herbert Walker Bush 40th 19811989
1984 Won
1988 Won George Herbert Walker Bush James Danforth Quayle III 41st 19891993
1992 Lost
1996 Lost Robert Joseph Dole Jack French Kemp
2000 Won George Walker Bush Richard Bruce Cheney 43rd 2001–present
2004 Won
2008 Potential nominees

For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875) was the sixteenth Vice President (1865) and the seventeenth President of the United States (1865–1869), succeeding to the presidency upon the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... John C. Frémont John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813–July 13, 1890), born John Charles Fremon, was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the United States Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first Presidential candidate of a major... William Lewis Dayton (February 17, 1807 – December 1, 1864) was an American lawyer from Freehold Borough, New Jersey. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... Photographic portrait of Hannibal Hamlin Hannibal Hamlin (August 27, 1809 – July 4, 1891) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Maine. ... 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 1865 is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 – July 31, 1875) was the sixteenth Vice President (1865) and the seventeenth President of the United States (1865–1869), succeeding to the presidency upon the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Ulysses S. Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was the 18th President of the United States (1869–1877). ... Schuyler Colfax (March 23, 1823–January 13, 1885) was a Representative from Indiana and the 17th Vice President of the United States. ... 1869 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1877 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Henry Wilson Henry Wilson (February 16, 1812–November 22, 1875) was a Senator from Massachusetts and the eighteenth Vice President of the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Rutherford Birchard Hayes (October 4, 1822 – January 17, 1893) was the 19th President of the United States (1877 – 1881). ... William Almon Wheeler (June 30, 1819–June 4, 1887) was a Representative from New York and the nineteenth Vice President of the United States. ... 1877 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1881 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Summary Keeping a promise made during the 1876 campaign, incumbent President Rutherford Hayes did not seek re-election. ... James Abram Garfield (November 19, 1831 - September 19, 1881) was the 20th (1881) President of the United States, the first left-handed President, and the second U.S. President to be assassinated. ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as 21st President of the United States. ... 1881 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Chester Alan Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as 21st President of the United States. ... 1881 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1885 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... James G. Blaine James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830–January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... John Alexander Logan (February 8, 1826 – December 26, 1886), American soldier and political leader, was born in what is now Murphysboro, Jackson County, Illinois. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Benjamin Harrison (August 20, 1833 – March 13, 1901) was the 23rd President of the United States (1889-1893). ... Levi Parsons Morton. ... 1889 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1893 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Whitelaw Reid (October 27, 1837 - December 15, 1912) was a U.S. politician and newspaper editor. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The name Mckinley redirects here. ... Garret Augustus Hobart (June 3, 1844–November 21, 1899) was the twenty-fourth Vice President of the United States. ... 1897 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Summary The election was held on November 6, 1900. ... Theodore Roosevelt (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was the 26th (1901–09) President of the United States. ... Theodore Roosevelt (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was the 26th (1901–09) President of the United States. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Summary The election was held on November 8, 1904. ... Charles Warren Fairbanks (May 11, 1852 – June 4, 1918) was a Senator from Indiana and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States. ... Major party conventions The 1908 Republican Convention was held in Chicago from 16 June to 19 June. ... William Howard Taft (September 15, 1857 – March 8, 1930) was an American politician, the 27th President of the United States, and the 10th Chief Justice of the United States. ... James Schoolcraft Sherman (October 24, 1855 – October 30, 1912) was a Representative from New York and the 27th Vice President of the United States. ... 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1913 (MCMXIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Nicholas M. Butler Nicholas Murray Butler (April 2, 1862 – December 7, 1947) was the co-winner with Jane Addams of the 1931 Nobel Peace Prize. ... Electoral College results In 1916, Europe was embroiled in World War I. American sentiment leaned towards the Allied Powers due to the occupation of parts of France and Belgium by the German Empire, but most American voters wanted to avoid involvement in the war, and preferred a policy of strict... Charles Evans Hughes (April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was Governor of New York, United States Secretary of State, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... Charles Warren Fairbanks (May 11, 1852 – June 4, 1918) was a Senator from Indiana and the twenty-sixth Vice President of the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the 29th President of the United States, serving from 1921 to 1923, when he became the sixth president to die in office. ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... John Calvin Coolidge, Jr. ... 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... -1... Introduction Incumbent President Coolidge was relatively popular, and the economy was booming. ... Charles Gates Dawes (August 27, 1865 – April 23, 1951) was the 30th Vice President of the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) the 31st President of the United States (1929-1933). ... Charles Curtis Charles Curtis (January 25, 1860 – February 8, 1936) was a Representative and a Senator from Kansas as well as the 31st Vice President of the United States. ... -1... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Alfred M. Landon Alfred Mossman Alf Landon (September 9, 1887 – October 12, 1987) was an American Republican politician from Kansas, notable nationally for his 1936 nomination as the Republican opponent of Franklin D. Roosevelt. ... Frank Knox William Franklin Frank Knox (January 1, 1874–April 28, 1944) was the Secretary of the Navy under Franklin D. Roosevelt during most of World War II. He was also the Republican vice presidential candidate in 1936. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Wendell L. Willkie Wendell Lewis Willkie (February 18, 1892 – October 8, 1944) was a lawyer, born in Elwood, Indiana, the only native of Indiana to be nominated as the presidential candidate for a national party, having never held any sort of high elected office. ... Charles L. McNary Charles Linza McNary ( June 12, 1874 - February 25, 1944) was a U.S. Republican politician from Oregon, best known for serving as Minority Leader of the United States Senate from 1933 to 1944. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Thomas Edmund Dewey (March 24, 1902 – March 16, 1971) was the Governor of New York (1943-1955) and the Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in two elections (1944 and 1948), losing both times. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Earl Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891–July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American soldier and politician. ... Order: 37th President Vice President: Spiro Agnew (1969–1973), Gerald R. Ford (1973–1974) Term of office: January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974 Preceded by: Lyndon B. Johnson Succeeded by: Gerald R. Ford Date of birth: January 9, 1913 Place of birth: Yorba Linda, California Date of death: April 22... 1953 (MCMLIII) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Order: 37th President Vice President: Spiro Agnew (1969–1973), Gerald R. Ford (1973–1974) Term of office: January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974 Preceded by: Lyndon B. Johnson Succeeded by: Gerald R. Ford Date of birth: January 9, 1913 Place of birth: Yorba Linda, California Date of death: April 22... Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Barry Goldwater Barry Morris Goldwater (January 1, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was a United States politician and a founding figure in the modern conservative movement in the USA as well as being a major inspiration for many of his youthful followers to join the libertarian movement. ... William Edward Miller (March 22, 1914 – June 24, 1983), was an American politician. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Order: 37th President Vice President: Spiro Agnew (1969–1973), Gerald R. Ford (1973–1974) Term of office: January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974 Preceded by: Lyndon B. Johnson Succeeded by: Gerald R. Ford Date of birth: January 9, 1913 Place of birth: Yorba Linda, California Date of death: April 22... Spiro Theodore Agnew, born Spiros Anagnostopoulos (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) in Towson, Maryland, was the thirty-ninth Vice President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1973 under President Richard M. Nixon. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday For other uses, see Number 1969. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Gerald Rudolph Ford, Jr. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979), an American politician, was Governor of New York from 1959 to 1973 and the 41st Vice President of the United States of America from December 19, 1974 to January 20, 1977. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) is best known as a former Republican United States Senate Majority Leader and Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born in Milton, Massachusetts, June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States (1989–1993). ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The election was held on November 8, 1988. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born in Milton, Massachusetts, June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States (1989–1993). ... James Danforth Quayle (born February 4, 1947) was the 44th Vice President of the United States under George H. W. Bush (1989-1993). ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) is best known as a former Republican United States Senate Majority Leader and Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996. ... Jack French Kemp, Jr. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States. ... Richard Bruce Cheney (born January 30, 1941), widely known as Dick Cheney is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States under President George W. Bush. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Presidential election results map. ... Presidential electoral votes by state The U.S. presidential election of 2008 is scheduled to occur on November 4, 2008. ... Presidential electoral votes by state The U.S. presidential election of 2008 is scheduled to occur on November 4, 2008. ...

Other noted Republicans

Present-day: active

George Felix Allen (born March 8, 1952) is a Republican U.S. Senator from Virginia. ... State nickname: Old Dominion Official languages English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Governor Mark R. Warner (D) Tim Kaine (D-Governor Elect) Senators John Warner (R) George Allen (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 35th 110,862 km² 7. ... Haley Reeves Barbour (born October 22, 1947) is the current governor of Mississippi, and a Republican. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Bush/Cheney, 2004 Campaign Manager Ken Mehlman is the current Chairman of the RNC. The Republican National Committee (RNC) provides national leadership for the United States Republican Party. ... Michael Bloomberg Michael Rubens Mike Bloomberg (born February 14, 1942) is a prominent businessman, the founder of Bloomberg L.P., and the 108th and current Mayor of the City of New York. ... The construction of the Empire State Building, 1930. ... RINO stands for Republican In Name Only, a disparaging term for a member of the United States Republican Party whose words and actions are thought to be too fiscally or socially moderate or liberal. ... John Ellis Jeb Bush (born February 11, 1953), a Republican, is the forty-third and current Governor of Florida. ... List of Governors of Florida: Florida Governors Military Government Territorial Government Statehood Categories: Lists of United States governors | Governors of Florida | Government of Florida ... Clarence Saxby Chambliss (born November 10, 1943) is the senior United States Senator from Georgia. ... Norman Bertram Norm Coleman Jr. ... State nickname: North Star State, The Land of 10,000 Lakes, The Gopher State Official languages None Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Governor Tim Pawlenty (R) Senators Mark Dayton (D) Norm Coleman (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 12th 225,365 km² 8. ... Thomas Dale DeLay (born April 8, 1947 in Laredo, Texas) is an American politician from Sugar Land, Texas and a prominent right-wing Republican. ... The Majority Leader of the United States House of Representatives acts as the leader of the party that has a majority control of the seats in the house (at least 218 of the 435 seats). ... ... Elizabeth Hanford Liddy Dole (born July 29, 1936) was elected to the United States Senate in 2002 to represent North Carolina for a term ending in 2009. ... State nickname: Tar Heel State; Old North State Official languages English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Governor Michael Easley (D) Senators Elizabeth Dole (R) Richard Burr (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 28th 139,509 km² 9. ... The United States Secretary of Labor is the head of the United States Department of Labor. ... The United States Secretary of Transportation is the head of the United States Department of Transportation. ... John Engler John Mathias Engler (born October 12, 1948) is an American politician. ... Michigan Governors Territorial Governors State Governors From statehood until the election of 1966, governors were elected to two-year terms. ... The National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), one of industrys most powerful lobbies, was founded in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1895. ... William Harrison Frist, M.D. (born February 22, 1952 in Nashville, Tennessee) is a Republican U.S. Senator from Tennessee and a cardiac surgeon. ... The Senate Majority Leader is a member of the United States Senate who is elected by his or her party conference to serve as the chief Senate spokesman for his or her party and to manage and schedule the legislative and executive business of the Senate. ... State nickname: Volunteer State Official languages English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Governor Phil Bredesen (D) Senators Bill Frist (R) Lamar Alexander (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 36th 109,247 km² 2. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The term Speaker is usually the title given to the presiding officer of a countrys lower house of parliament or congress (ie: the House of Commons or House of Representatives). ... Rudy Giuliani Rudolph William Louis Rudy Giuliani III KBE (born May 28, 1944) served as the Mayor of New York City from January 1, 1994 through December 31, 2001. ... For a list of the Dutch Director-Generals who governed New Amsterdam (as New York City was called when it was a Dutch-run settlement) between 1624 and 1664, see: Director-General of New Netherland. ... RINO stands for Republican In Name Only, a disparaging term for a member of the United States Republican Party whose words and actions are thought to be too fiscally or socially moderate or liberal. ... Dennis Hastert John Dennis Hastert (born January 2, 1942), American politician, has been Speaker of the United States House of Representatives since 1999. ... State nickname: Land of Lincoln, The Prairie State Official languages English Capital Springfield Largest city Chicago Governor Rod Blagojevich (D) Senators Richard Durbin (D) Barack Obama (D) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 25th 149,998 km² 4. ... Michael Huckabee (born August 24, 1955 in Hope, Arkansas) is the current Republican Governor of the state of Arkansas, having served since 1996. ... This is a list of governors of Arkansas. ... Thomas Kean Thomas Howard Kean (born April 21, 1935) was the Republican Governor of New Jersey from 1982 to 1990. ... State nickname: The Garden State Official languages None defined, English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Governor Richard Codey (D) Acting, Outgoing Jon Corzine (D) (Governor-Elect) Senators Jon Corzine (D) (Outgoing) Bob Menendez (D) (named as Corzines replacement) Frank Lautenberg (D) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 47th 22... Chester Trent Lott Jr. ... John Sidney McCain III (born August 29, 1936) is an American politician. ... State nickname: The Grand Canyon State, The Copper State Official languages English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Governor Janet Napolitano (D) Senators John McCain (R) Jon Kyl (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 6th 295,254 km² 0. ... George E. Pataki George Elmer Pataki (born June 24, 1945) is the current Governor of New York State since January 1995. ... This is a list of the Governors of New York. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The Governor of Minnesota is the chief executive of the U.S. state of Minnesota. ... Tom Ridge Thomas Joseph Ridge (born August 26, 1946) is a U.S. political figure who served as a member of the United States House of Representatives (1983–1995), Governor of Pennsylvania (1995–2001), Assistant to the President for Homeland Security (2001–2003), and the first United States Secretary of... The United States Secretary of Homeland Security is the head of the United States Department of Homeland Security, the body concerned with protecting the American homeland and the safety of American citizens. ... State nickname: The Keystone State Official languages None Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Governor Ed Rendell (D) Senators Arlen Specter (R) Rick Santorum (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 33rd 119,283 km² 2. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th and current United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush. ... Karl Rove Karl Christian Rove (born December 25, 1950) is an American political consultant, and (as of 2005) U.S. President George W. Bushs senior advisor, chief political strategist, and Deputy White House Chief of Staff in charge of policy. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is an American politician and businessman who has served as the 21st Secretary of Defense of the United States since January 20, 2001, under President George W. Bush. ... Seal of the United States Department of Defense The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is appointed by the President with the approval of the Senate, and is a member of the Cabinet. ... Marshall Clement Mark Sanford, Jr. ... A list of South Carolina Governors. ... Richard John Santorum (born May 10, 1958), commonly known as Rick Santorum, is an American politician from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. ... The Senate Republican Conference is the formal organization of the (currently) 51 Republican Senators in the United States Senate. ... Arlen Specter (born February 12, 1930) is a United States Senator from Pennsylvania. ... â–¶ (help· info) (born July 30, 1947) is an Austrian-American actor, Republican politician, and bodybuilder, currently serving as the 38th Governor of California. ... Governors Arnold Schwarzenegger and Gray Davis with President George W. Bush (2003) Seal of the Governor of California (without the Roman numerals designating the governors sequence) See also: List of pre-statehood governors of California, List of Governors of California The Governor of California is the highest executive authority... Theodore Fulton Ted Stevens (born November 18, 1923) is an American politician from Alaska. ... A President Pro Tempore is a constitutionally recognized officer of the United States Senate who presides over the chamber in the absence of the President of the Senate. ...

Active in 1970-2000; alive but less active in politics today

Sen. ... William Philip Phil Gramm (born July 8, 1942 in Fort Benning, Georgia) served as a Democratic Congressman (1978-1983), a Republican Congressman (1983-1984) and a Republican Senator from Texas (1985-2002). ... Alexander Haig For other people named Alexander Haig, see Alexander Haig (disambiguation). ... Jesse Helms Jesse Alexander Helms (born October 18, 1921) is a former five-term Republican U.S. Senator from North Carolina and a former Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. ... State nickname: Tar Heel State; Old North State Official languages English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Governor Michael Easley (D) Senators Elizabeth Dole (R) Richard Burr (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 28th 139,509 km² 9. ... Colin Luther Powell, (born April 5, 1937) was the 65th United States Secretary of State, serving from January 20, 2001 to January 23, 2005 under President George W. Bush. ... The Seal of the United States Department of State The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... James Danforth Quayle (born February 4, 1947) was the 44th Vice President of the United States under George H. W. Bush (1989-1993). ... Shultz in his official D.O.L. portrait. ... Caspar Weinberger Caspar Willard Weinberger (born August 18, 1917) is best known as United States Secretary of Defense under President Ronald Reagan from 1981 through 1987, and for his related roles in the Strategic Defense Initiative program (popularly known as Star Wars), and in the Iran-Contra Affair. ... Christine Todd Whitman Christine Todd Christie Whitman (born September 26, 1946) is an American Republican politician, the former Governor of New Jersey, and the former administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency in the administration of President George W. Bush. ... This is a list of governors of New Jersey. ... EPA redirects here. ... Peter Barton Wilson (born August 23, 1933) is an American Republican politician from California. ...

Historical

James G. Blaine James Gillespie Blaine (January 31, 1830–January 27, 1893) was a U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator from Maine and a two-time United States Secretary of State. ... State nickname: The Pine Tree State Official languages None Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Governor John Baldacci (D) Senators Olympia Snowe (R) Susan Collins (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 39th 86,542 km² 13. ... Joseph Cannon at the 1904 Republican Convention Joseph Gurney Cannon (May 7, 1836 – November 12, 1926) was a United States politician and is widely regarded as the most powerful Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, serving from 1903 through 1911. ... Charles Curtis Charles Curtis (January 25, 1860 – February 8, 1936) was a Representative and a Senator from Kansas as well as the 31st Vice President of the United States. ... -1... Charles Gates Dawes (August 27, 1865 – April 23, 1951) was the 30th Vice President of the United States. ... George Frisbie Hoar George Frisbie Hoar (29 August 1826–30 September 1904) was a prominent United States politician. ... Charles Evans Hughes (April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was Governor of New York, United States Secretary of State, and Chief Justice of the United States. ... The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch of the government of the United States, and presides over the Supreme Court of the United States. ... Colonel Robert Green Ingersoll (August 11, 1833 – July 21, 1899) was an American political leader and orator, noted for his broad range of culture and his defense of agnosticism. ... Henry Cabot Lodge Henry Cabot Lodge (May 12, 1850 – November 9, 1924), was a Republican statesman and noted historian. ... Joseph Raymond McCarthy Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14, 1908 – May 2, 1957) was a Republican Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 to 1957. ... Anti-communism is opposition to communist ideology, organization, or government, on either a theoretical or practical level. ... Thomas Brackett Reed (October 18, 1839 - December 7, 1902) was a U.S. Representative from Maine, and Speaker of the House from 1889-1891 and from 1895-1899. ... Nelson Aldrich Rockefeller (July 8, 1908 – January 26, 1979), an American politician, was Governor of New York from 1959 to 1973 and the 41st Vice President of the United States of America from December 19, 1974 to January 20, 1977. ... This is a list of the Governors of New York. ... Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 - October 20, 1950) was an American politician. ... Robert Alphonso Taft I (September 8, 1889 - July 31, 1953), of the Taft family political dynasty of Ohio, was a United States Senator and Presidential candidate in the United States Republican Party. ... James Strom Thurmond (December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) represented South Carolina in the United States Senate from 1954 to April 1956 and November 1956 to 1964 as a Democrat and from 1964 to 2003 as a Republican. ... State nickname: Palmetto State Official languages English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Governor Mark Sanford (R) Senators Lindsey Graham (R) Jim DeMint (R) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 40th 82,965 km² 6 Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 26th 4,012,012 51. ... Arthur Hendrick Vandenberg (March 22, 1884–April 18, 1951) was a Republican Senator from the state of Michigan who participated in the creation of the United Nations. ... Earl Warren Earl Warren (March 19, 1891–July 9, 1974) was a California district attorney, the 30th Governor of California, and the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (from 1953 to 1969). ... Governors Arnold Schwarzenegger and Gray Davis with President George W. Bush (2003) Seal of the Governor of California (without the Roman numerals designating the governors sequence) See also: List of pre-statehood governors of California, List of Governors of California The Governor of California is the highest executive authority... The Chief Justice of the United States is the head of the judicial branch of the government of the United States, and presides over the Supreme Court of the United States. ...

Lists

The following is an alphabetically ordered list of famous African American Republicans . ... List of Republican parties of U.S. state: Alabama Republican Party Republican Party of Alaska Arizona Republican Party Republican Party of Arkansas California Republican Party Colorado Republican Party Connecticut Republican Party Republican State Committee of Delaware Republican Party of Florida Georgia Republican Party Hawaii Republican Party Idaho Republican Party Illinois... This is a list of United States Republican Party presidential nominating conventions. ... Although now mostly associated with conservative political philosophy, the United States Republican Party has long had a liberal wing. ... This article needs cleanup. ...

See also

The Republican National Convention, the presidential nominating convention of the United States Republican Party, is held every four years to determine the partys candidate for the coming Presidential election and the partys platform. ... The College Republicans, collectively, are an arm of the United States Republican Party for college and university students. ... See also Republican Party List of Presidents of the United States List of Democratic Party Presidential nominees ... Republicans for Choice, an organization based in the Washington, DC area (Headquarters: 2760 Eisenhower Ave, Suite #260, Alexandria, Virginia 22314) is a political action commitee (PAC) composed of members of the Republican Party who support abortion rights for women. ... The Republican Liberty Caucus is a political organization dedicated to electing and supporting what they call liberty-minded, limited-government individuals within the Republican Party. ... A Log Cabin Republican poster, with the typical use of Abraham Lincoln The Log Cabin Republicans is a political organization in the United States, consisting of gay, lesbian and bisexual supporters of the Republican Party. ... The Ripon Society is a centrist Republican think tank, founded in 1964. ... South Park Republican is a term that was circulated in a few articles and weblogs on the Internet circa 2001 and 2002, to describe what was claimed by the authors as a new wave of young adults and teenagers who hold conservative and libertarian political beliefs. ... In the United States, the term Rockefeller Republican refers to those members of the Republican party who hold moderate views similar to those of the late Nelson Rockefeller, governor of New York from 1959 to 1973 and vice president of the United States under President Gerald Ford in the mid... The Radical Republicans were an influential group of American politicians in the Republican party (GOP) during the American Civil War and Reconstruction eras. ... The International Democrat Union is an international grouping of conservative and, in some cases, Christian democratic parties. ... Teenage Republicans or TARS are members of the organization National Teenage Republicans. ...

References

Primary Sources

  • Cantril, Hadley and Mildred Strunk, eds. Public Opinion, 1935-1946 (1951), massive compilation of many public opinion polls from USA and elsewhere.
  • Schlesinger, Arthur Meier, Jr. ed. History of American Presidential Elections, 1789-2000 (various multivolume editions, latest is 2001). For each election includes brief scholarly history and selection of primary document.

Scholarly Secondary Sources

  • American National Biography (20 volumes, 1999) covers all politicians no longer alive; online at many academic libraries.
  • Barone, Michael, and Grant Ujifusa, The Almanac of American Politics 2006: The Senators, the Representatives and the Governors: Their Records and Election Results, Their States and Districts (2005) covers all the live politicians with amazing detail.
  • Black, Earl and Merle Black. The Rise of Southern Republicans (2002)
  • Brennan, Mary C. Turning Right in the Sixties: The Conservative Capture of the GOP (1995)
  • Ehrman, John, The Eighties: America in the Age of Reagan (2005)
  • Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War (1970) highly influential history of ideas and ideology
  • Frank, Thomas. What's the Matter with Kansas? How Conservatives Won the Heart of America (2005), an insightful but unflattering appraisal by a liberal Democrat.
  • Frum, David. What's Right: The New Conservative Majority and the Remaking of America (1996)
  • Gienapp, William E. The Origins of the Republican Party, 1852-1856 (1987). dense scholarly study
  • Gienapp, William E. "Nativism and the Creation of a Republican Majority in the North Before the Civil War", Journal of American History 72 (Dec. 1985): 529-59, in JSTOR
  • Gould, Lewis. Grand Old Party: A History of the Republicans (2003), the best overview.
  • Jensen, Richard. Grass Roots Politics: Parties, Issues, and Voters, 1854-1983 (1983)
  • Jensen, Richard. The Winning of the Midwest: Social and Political Conflict, 1888-1896 (1971)
  • Jensen, Richard. "The Last Party System, 1932-1980," in Paul Kleppner, ed. Evolution of American Electoral Systems (1981)
  • Judis, John B. and Ruy Teixeira. The Emerging Democratic Majority (2004) two Democrats project social trends
    • "Movement Interruptus: September 11 Slowed the Democratic Trend That We Predicted, but the Coalition We Foresaw Is Still Taking Shape" The American Prospect Vol 16. Issue: 1. January 2005. pp 23+
  • Kleppner, Paul. The Third Electoral System 1853-1892: Parties, Voters, and Political Cultures (1979) in-depth analysis of voting behavior, with emphasis on region, ethnicity, religion and class.
  • Ladd Jr., Everett Carll with Charles D. Hadley. Transformations of the American Party System: Political Coalitions from the New Deal to the 1970s 2d ed. (1978).
  • Lamis, Alexander P. ed. Southern Politics in the 1990s (1999)
  • MacNeil, Neil. Forge of Democracy: The House of Representatives (1963)
  • Mayer, George H. The Republican Party, 1854-1966. 2d ed. (1967), older, well-balanced narrative.
  • Parmet, Herbert S. Eisenhower and the American Crusades (1972) good biography of post 1945 years
  • Patterson, James T. Mr. Republican: A Biography of Robert A. Taft (1972)
  • Patterson, James. Congressional Conservatism and the New Deal: The Growth of the Conservative Coalition in Congress, 1933-39 (1967)
  • Perlstein, Rick. Before the Storm: Barry Goldwater and the Unmaking of the American Consensus (2002) well written, broad account of 1964
  • Richardson, Heather Cox. The Greatest Nation of the Earth: Republican Economic Policies during the Civil War (1997)
  • Reinhard, David W. The Republican Right since 1945 (1983)
  • Rutland, Robert Allen. The Republicans: From Lincoln to Bush (1996), popular history
  • Sabato, Larry J. Divided States of America: The Slash and Burn Politics of the 2004 Presidential Election (2005), scholarly.
  • Sabato, Larry J. and Bruce Larson. The Party's Just Begun: Shaping Political Parties for America's Future (2001) scholarly textbook.
  • Schlesinger, Arthur Meier, Jr. ed. History of American Presidential Elections, 1789-2000 (various multivolume editions, latest is 2001). For each election includes good scholarly history and selection of primary document. Essays on the most important election are reprinted in Schlesinger, The Coming to Power: Critical presidential elections in American history (1972)
  • Shelley II, Mack C. The Permanent Majority: The Conservative Coalition in the United States Congress (1983)
  • Silbey, Joel H. The American Political Nation, 1838-1893 (1991)
  • Sundquist, James L. Dynamics of the Party System: Alignment and Realignment of Political Parties in the United States (1983)
  • Van Deusen, Glyndon G. Horace Greeley, Nineteenth-Century Crusader (1953)
  • Wooldridge, Adrian and John Micklethwait. The Right Nation: Conservative Power in America sophisticated study by two British journalists (2004).

External links

Political Parties of the United States
Major Parties  Democratic    Republican
Third Parties  Constitution     Green     Libertarian     Reform
Smaller Parties* Peace and Freedom    Socialist    Socialist Workers
*Parties with at least 10,000 votes in a recent presidential election
See List of political parties in the United States for a complete list.

Thomas Frank (born 1965) is an American author who writes about what he calls cultural politics. He is the founder and editor of The Baffler and the author of several books, most recently Whats the Matter with Kansas?. Other writings include essays for Harpers Magazine, Le Monde diplomatique... The New Statesman is a left-of-centre political weekly published in London. ... August 30 is the 242nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (243rd in leap years), with 123 days remaining. ... Image File history File links Dplogo. ... The Democratic Party, founded in 1792, is one of the two longest-standing political parties in the world (the other is the British Conservative Party, which is older if you consider its origins in the older Tory Party, which was founded in about 1680). ... Image File history File links Rplogo. ... Image File history File links Cpnatlogo. ... Image File history File links Gplogo. ... In United States politics, the Green Party has been active as a third party since the 1980s. ... Image File history File links Lplogo. ... The Libertarian Party is a United States political party created in 1971. ... Image File history File links Logo for the Reform Party of the United States of America. ... The Reform Party of the United States of America (abbreviated Reform Party USA or RPUSA) is a political party in the United States, founded by Ross Perot in 1995 who said Americans were disillusioned with the state of politics--as being corrupt and unable to deal with vital issues--and... United States Peace and Freedom Party logo The Peace and Freedom Party (PFP) is a United States political party founded in 1967 as a leftist organization opposed to the Vietnam War. ... The Socialist Party of the United States of America (SPUSA) is one of the heirs to the Socialist Party of America of Eugene V. Debs and Norman Thomas. ... The Socialist Workers Party is a small communist political party in the United States. ... Political parties in the United States lists political parties in the United States. ...

GOP

The Republican party is known as the GOP. According to the Oxford English Dictionary the first known reference to the Republican party as the "grand old party" came in 1876. The first use of the abbreviation G.O.P. is dated 1884. This is a bit of a misnomer since the Democratic party is actually much older. At one point Richard Nixon even referred to it as "Get Out the vote Party", though that meaning is not used anymore. The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a comprehensive dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP). ...


 
 

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