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Encyclopedia > UNESCO
  United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization
 
Org type Specialized Agency
Acronyms UNESCO
Head Director General of UNESCO
Koïchiro Matsuura
Flag of Japan Japan
Status Active
Established 1945
Website www.unesco.org
Wikimedia
Commons
Commons:Category:UNESCO UNESCO
Portal Portal:United Nations United Nations Portal

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established on November 16, 1945. Its stated purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through education, science, and culture in order to further universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and the human rights and fundamental freedoms proclaimed in the UN Charter.[1] It is the heir of the League of Nations' International Commission on Intellectual Cooperation. Image File history File links Unesco. ... [[Image:Koïchiro_ ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... UN redirects here. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Gari Melchers, Mural of Peace, 1896. ... For other uses, see Security (disambiguation). ... For wartime collaboration, see Collaborationism. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Respect It also could be applied to taking care of oneself, others or the environment. ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      The rule of law, in its most basic form, is the principle that no one is above the law. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... For other uses, see Freedom. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... The International Commission on Intellectual Cooperation (in French, Commission internationale de coopération intellectuelle, CICI) was a body of the League of Nations created in September 1921 on a French proposal. ...


UNESCO has 193 Member States and 6 Associate Members. The organization is based in Paris, with over 50 field offices and many specialized institutes and centres throughout the world. Most of the field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries; there are also national and regional offices. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programmes: education, natural sciences, social and human sciences, culture, and communication and information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy, technical, and teacher-training programmes; international science programmes; the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press; regional and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity; international cooperation agreements to secure the world cultural and natural heritage (World Heritage Sites) and to preserve human rights; and attempts to bridge the world-wide digital divide. This article is about the capital of France. ... Children reading. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... For other uses, see History (disambiguation). ... There is a general consensus among mainstream anthropologists that humans first emerged in Africa about two million years ago. ... Cultural heritage (national heritage or just heritage) is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and bestowed for the benefit of future generations. ... Cultural heritage (often just termed heritage) consists of a nations historic buildings, collections, monuments, etc. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... Digital divide cartogram in which country size is proportional to Internet use. ...

Contents

Structure

The UNESCO Headquarters in Paris, France
The UNESCO Headquarters in Paris, France

Three bodies are responsible for policy-making, governance, and day-to-day administration at UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 577 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 577 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

  • The General Conference
  • The Executive Board
  • The Secretariat

The General Conference is a gathering of the organization's member states and associate members, in which each state has one vote. Meeting every two years, it sets general policies and defines programme lines for the organization.


The Executive Board's 58 members are elected by the General Conference for staggered four-year terms. The Executive Board prepares the sessions of the General Conference and ensures that its instructions are carried out. It also discharges other specific mandates assigned to it by the General Conference.


The Secretariat consists of the Director-General and his staff and is responsible for the day-to-day running of the organization. The Director-General, who serves as the public face of UNESCO, is elected for a (renewable) four-year term by the General Conference. The staff currently numbers some 2100, of whom some two-thirds are based in Paris, with the remaining third spread around the world in UNESCO's 58 field offices. The Secretariat is divided into various administrative offices and five programme sectors that reflect the organization's major areas of focus.


Controversy and reform

UNESCO has been the centre of controversy in the past, particularly in its relationships with the United States, the United Kingdom, Singapore, and the former USSR. During the 1970s and 1980s, UNESCO's support for a "New World Information and Communication Order" and its MacBride report calling for democratization of the media and a more egalitarian access to information was condemned in these countries as attempts to curb freedom of the press. UNESCO was perceived by some as a platform for communist and Third World countries to attack the West, a stark contrast to accusations made by the USSR in the late 40s and early 50s.[1] In 1984, the United States withheld its contributions and withdrew from the organization in protest, followed by the United Kingdom in 1985 and Singapore in 1986. Following a change of government in 1997, the UK rejoined. The United States rejoined in 2003, followed by Singapore on 8th October 2007. State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... The New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO or NWIO) is a term that was coined in a debate over media representations of the developing world in UNESCO in the late 1970s and early 1980s. ... Many Voices One World, known as the MacBride report was a 1980 UNESCO publication written by a commission presided by Irish nobel laureate Seán MacBride. ... Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... Occident redirects here. ...


Part of the reason for their change of stance was due to considerable reforms implemented by UNESCO over the past 10 years. These included the following measures: the number of divisions in UNESCO was cut in half, allowing a corresponding halving of the number of Directors — from 200 to under 100, out of a total staff of approximately 2,000 worldwide.[citation needed] At the same time, the number of field units was cut from a peak of 1287 in 1998 to 93 today. Parallel management structures, including 35 Cabinet-level special adviser positions, were abolished.[citation needed] Between 1998 and 2009, 245 negotiated staff departures and buy-outs took place, causing the inherited $12 million staff cost deficit to disappear.[citation needed] The staff pyramid, which was the most top-heavy in the UN system, was cut back as the number of high-level posts was halved and the “inflation” of posts was reversed through the down-grading of many positions. Open competitive recruitment, results-based appraisal of staff, training of all managers and field rotation were instituted, as well as SISTER and SAP systems for transparency in results-based programming and budgeting.[citation needed] In addition, the Internal Oversight Service (IOS) was established in 2001 to improve organizational performance by including the lessons learned from programme evaluations into the overall reform process. In reality though, IOS's main tasks involve auditing rather than programme oversight; it regularly carries out audits of UNESCO offices that essentially look into administrative and procedural compliance, but do not assess the relevance and usefulness of the activities and projects that are carried out.[citation needed]


Programming coherence and relevance remains a challenge at UNESCO. One of the main reasons for this is that activities and projects can be identified and supervised by various services within the organization.[citation needed]


Activities

UNESCO implements its activities through the 5 programme areas of Education, Natural Sciences, Social and Human Sciences, Culture, and Communication and Information.

  • Education: UNESCO is providing international leadership[citation needed] in creating learning societies with educational opportunities for all; it supports research in Comparative education; and provides expertise and fosters partnerships to strengthen national educational leadership and the capacity of countries to offer quality education for all. This includes the
    • International Institute for Educational Planning, IIEP: A centre for training and research to strengthen the capacity of countries to plan and manage their education systems.
    • Environmental Conservation Organisation
  • UNESCO also issues public 'statements' to educate the public:
    • Seville Statement on Violence: A statement adopted by UNESCO in 1989 to refute the notion that humans are biologically predisposed to organised violence.
  • Designating projects and places of cultural and scientific significance, such as:
  • Promoting events, such as:
    • International Decade for the Promotion of a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World: 2001–2010, proclaimed by the UN in 1998
    • World Press Freedom Day, 3 May each year, to promote freedom of expression and freedom of the press as a basic human right and as crucial components of any healthy, democratic and free society.
    • Criança Esperança in Brazil, in partnership with TV Globo, to raise funds for community-based projects that foster social integration and violence prevention.
    • International Literacy Day
  • Founding and funding projects, such as:

Comparative education seeks to throw light on education in one country (or group of countries) by using data and insights drawn from the practises and situation in another country, or countries. ... The Seville Statement on Violence is a statement on violence that was adopted by an international meeting of scientists, convened by the Spanish National Commission for UNESCO, in Seville, Spain, on 16 May 1986. ... The International Network of Geoparks (INoG) is a UNESCO Geoparks programme established in 1998. ... A biosphere reserve is an international conservation designation given by UNESCO under its Programme on Man and the Biosphere (MAB). ... A biosphere reserve is an international conservation designation given by UNESCO under its Programme on Man and the Biosphere (MAB). ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... An endangered language is a language with so few surviving speakers that it is in danger of falling out of use. ... Map showing the distribution of Masterpieces of Oral and Intangible Heritage by State Parties as of 2005. ... The Memory of the World International Register is a list of documentary heritage identified by an International Advisory Committee of the UNESCO since 1997. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ... Freedom of the press (or press freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public speech often through a state constitution for its citizens, and associations of individuals extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... Thomas Jefferson said that Information is the currency of democracy. ... The International Programme for the Development of Communication is a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) programme aimed at strengthening the development of media in developing countries. ... Information technology (IT) or information and communication technology (ICT) is the technology required for information processing. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Pluralism (political philosophy) This article is about pluralism in politics. ... There is a general consensus among mainstream anthropologists that humans first emerged in Africa about two million years ago. ... On 10 November 1998, the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed the first decade of the 21st century and the third millennium, the years 2001 to 2010, as the International Decade for the Promotion of a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World. ... World Press Freedom Day honours sacrifices around the world made for freedom of the press and reminds governments of their duty to respect and uphold the right to freedom of expression that is enshrined under Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ... Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... International Literacy Day 2006 UNESCO poster September 8 was proclaimed the International Literacy Day by UNESCO in November 17, 1965. ... Migration museums cover human migration in the past, present and future. ... UNESCO-CEPES was established 1972 at Bucharest, Romania as a de-centralized office for the European Centre for Higher Education. ... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km² (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... The Free Software Directory is a project of the Free Software Foundation (FSF) and United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). ... The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with minimal restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... FRESH is an acronym for Focusing Resources on Effective School Health, a world-wide UNESCO program for improving the health of school children and youths. ... School Health Services are services from medical, teaching and other professionals applied in or out of school to improve the health and well-being of children and in some cases whole families. ... OANA (Organization of Asia-Pacific News Agencies) is an association of news agencies from UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) member states in the Asia-Pacific region. ... The International Council for Science (ICSU), formerly called the International Council of Scientific Unions, was founded in 1931 as an international non-governmental organization devoted to international co-operation in the advancement of science. ... UNESCO Goodwill Ambassadors are celebrity advocates of UNESCO and utilize their talent or fame to spread the UNESCO ideals. ...

Prizes, awards and medals

UNESCO awards several prizes in science, culture and peace, such as:

The Carlos J. Finlay Prize is a biennal scientific prize awarded since 1980 by UNESCO to people or organizations for their outstanding contributions microbiology (including immunology, molecular biology, genetics, etc. ... The Félix Houphouët-Boigny Peace Prize was established in 1990 by UNESCO, to honour living individuals and active public or private bodies or institutions that have made a significant contribution to promoting, seeking, safeguarding or maintaining peace in conformity with the Charter of the United Nations and the... The International José Martí Prize serves to promote and reward an activity of outstanding merit in accordance with the ideals and spirit of Cuban independence leader, thinker, and poet José Martí. José Martí The Prize is awarded by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) every second year. ... The International Simón Bolívar Prize serves to recognise activities of outstanding merit that, in accordance with the ideals of Latin American independence hero Simón Bolívar, contribute to the freedom, independence and dignity of peoples and to the strengthening of a new international economic, social and cultural... UNESCO Jikji or Memory of the World is a UNESCO prize to further promote the objectives of the Memory of the World Programme and to commemorate the inscription of the Jikji, the oldest known book of movable metal print in the world. ... The Kalinga Prize for the Popularization of Science is an award given by UNESCO for people recognized for their efforts in presenting scientific ideas to lay people. ... The LOreal/UNESCO Awards for Women in Science aims to improve the position of women in science by recognizing, every year, outstanding women researchers who have contributed to scientific progress. ... The UNESCO/Guillermo Cano World Press Freedom Prize, created in 1997, honours a person, organization or institution that has made an outstanding contribution to the defence and/or promotion of press freedom anywhere in the world, especially when this has been achieved in the face of danger. ... The UNESCO King Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa Prize for the Use of ICT in Education was instituted in 2005. ... The UNESCO Prize for Peace Education has been awarded annually since 1981. ... The UNESCO Prize for Human Rights Education, created in 1978 to mark the 30th anniversary of the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, serves to honour the efforts of organizations or individuals that have made an exemplary contribution to the advancement of knowledge on human rights and building... The UNESCO Science Prize is a biennal prize awarded by UNESCO to a person or group of persons for an outstanding contribution they have made to the technological development of a developing member state or region through the application of scientific and technological research (particularly in the fields of education... The UNESCO/Institut Pasteur Medal is a biennal international science prize created jointly by UNESCO and the Pasteur Institute in 1995 to be awarded in recognition of outstanding research contributing to a beneficial impact on human health and to the advancement of scientific knowledge in related fields such as medicine... UNESCO Artists for Peace are international celebrity advocates for the United Nations agency UNESCO. This category of advocate is intended to heighten public awareness in addition to the categories UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador and UNESCO Scientist for Peace. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... // The Seal of Excellence for Handicrafts is a awarded to handicraft products annually by UNESCO. The programme operates separately in several Asian regions: South East Asia, Central Asia, South Asia and East Asia. ...

Postage Stamps

Various countries have issued postage stamps commemorating UNESCO. The organization's seal and its headquarters building have been common themes. In 1955 the United Nations Postal Administration (UNPA) issued its first ones honouring the organization. This 1974 stamp from Japan depicts a Class 8620 steam locomotive. ... A United Nations stamp issued to commemorate the UN headquarters in Vienna The United Nations Postal Administration (UNPA) is the postal agency of the United Nations. ...


While UNESCO has never separately issued stamps valid for postage, from 1951 to 1966 it issued a series of 41 "gift stamps" to raise money for its activities. Designed by artists in various countries, they were sold at a desk by the UNPA counter located in the United Nations Headquarters building in New York City. No longer available at the UN, most of these Cinderella stamps can be purchased at low cost from speciality stamp dealers. This article is about the physical offices of the United Nations in New York. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... A cinderella stamp is a label similar to a postage stamp which may or may not be issued by a post office. ...


Directors General

  1. Julian Huxley, Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom (1946–1948)
  2. Jaime Torres Bodet, Flag of Mexico Mexico (1948–1952)
  3. John Wilkinson Taylor, Flag of the United States United States (acting 1952–1953)
  4. Luther Evans, Flag of the United States United States (1953–1958)
  5. Vittorino Veronese, Flag of Italy Italy (1958–1961)
  6. René Maheu, Flag of France France (1961–1974; acting 1961)
  7. Amadou-Mahtar M'Bow, Flag of Senegal Senegal (1974–1987)
  8. Federico Mayor Zaragoza, Flag of Spain Spain (1987–1999)
  9. Koïchiro Matsuura, Flag of Japan Japan (1999–present)

Sir Julian Sorell Huxley, FRS (June 22, 1887 – February 14, 1975) was a English biologist, author, Humanist and internationalist, known for his popularisations of science in books and lectures. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Jaime Torres Bodet (b. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... In law, when someone is said to be acting in a position it can mean one of three things. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Vittorino Veronese (born 1910) was an Italian banker. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... In law, when someone is said to be acting in a position it can mean one of three things. ... ‹The stub template below has been proposed for deletion or renaming. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Senegal. ... Federico Mayor Zaragoza (b. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... [[Image:Koïchiro_ ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ...

Locations

UNESCO has offices in many locations across the globe; its headquarters are located in Paris, France. This article is about the capital of France. ...

Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

References

  1. ^ Grahm, S. E. (April 2006). "The (Real)politiks of Culture: U.S. Cultural Diplomacy in UNESCO, 1946–1954". Diplomatic History 30 (2): 231–251. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.2006.00548.x. 
  2. ^ Varga, Susan (2006). Edinburgh Old Town (Images of Scotland) (Images of Scotland). The History Press Ltd. ISBN 0-7524-4083-7. 

A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... UN redirects here. ... While the United Nations is an international organization, the United Nations System is the whole network of international organizations, treaties and conventions that were created by the United Nations. ... Spanish president in the General Assembly in New York Org type: Principal Organ Acronyms: GA, UNGA Head: President of the UN General Assembly As of 18 September 2007 Srgjan Kerim former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Status: Active Established: 1945 Website: www. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. ... The United Nations Secretariat is one of the principal organs of the United Nations and it is headed by the United Nations Secretary General, assisted by a staff of international civil servants worldwide. ... The United Nations Secretary-General is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal divisions of the United Nations. ... The United Nations Trusteeship Council, one of the principal organs of the United Nations, was established to help ensure that non-self-governing territories were administered in the best interests of the inhabitants and of international peace and security. ... See also International Commission of Jurists Peace Palace, seat of the ICJ. Org type Principal Organ Acronyms ICJ, CIJ Head President of the ICJ Dame Rosalyn Higgins DBE Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ... A map of UN member states and their dependent territories as recognized by the UN. Regions excluded: Antarctica (regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System), Vatican City (the Holy See is a UN observer), the Palestinian territories (Palestine, represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization, is a UN observer), and Western Sahara... In addition to the current 191 member states, the United Nations welcomes several other international agencies, entities, and one non-member state (for several years prior to their admission after a referendum in 2002, Switzerland was also an observer state). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... This article is about the physical offices of the United Nations in New York. ... This article is about the state. ... The United Nations Office at Geneva is located in the Palais des Nations, originally constructed for the League of Nations in the 1930s. ... The United Nations Office at Nairobi (UNON) is one of the four major UN office sites where several different UN agencies have a joint presence. ... UN Office at Vienna, Austria, with the Vienna International Centre in the foreground. ... FAO redirects here. ... The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. ... The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that deals with labour issues. ... IPCC is the science authority for the UNFCCC The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), to evaluate the risk of climate change brought on by humans, based mainly on... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ... United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) is an agency of the United Nations with the mission of helping countries pursue sustainable industrial development, it is a specialist in industrial affairs. ... Wanted poster for the ICTR The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) is a court under the auspices of the United Nations for the prosecution of offenses committed in Rwanda during the genocide which occurred there during April, 1994, commencing on April 6. ... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ... The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; French: Union internationale des télécommunications, Spanish: Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ... The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS, or UNAIDS, is the main advocate for accelerated, comprehensive and coordinated global action on the HIV epidemic. ... The Special Court for Sierra Leone is an independent judicial body set up to try those who bear greatest responsibility for the war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in Sierra Leone after 30 November 1996 during the Sierra Leone Civil War. ... The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body, UNCTAD is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment and development issues. ... The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) is a body of member and observer states under the auspicies of the United Nations. ... The United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP) and the United Nations Centre for International Crime Prevention (CICP) are part of the United Nations Office for Drug Control & Crime Prevention (ODCCP). ... The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ... Klaus Töpfer, former UNEP Exec. ... The United Nations Fund for International Partnerships (UNFIP) was established in March 1998 by then United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan. ... The United Nations Fund for Population Activities was started in 1969 and renamed the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in 1987. ... The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... The United Nations Human Rights Council is an international body within the United Nations System. ... is the United Nations agency for human settlements. ... UNICEF Logo Org type: Fund Acronyms: UNICEF Head: Ann Veneman Status: Active Established: 1946 Website: http://www. ... The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) is a controversial relief and human development agency, providing education, healthcare, social services and emergency aid to over four million Palestinian refugees living in the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. ... The Universal Postal Union (UPU, French: Union postale universelle) is an international organization that coordinates postal policies between member nations, and hence the world-wide postal system. ... WFP redirects here. ... WHO redirects here. ... WMO flag The World Meteorological Organization (WMO, French: , OMM) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 188 Member States and Territories. ... A United Nations resolution (or UN resolution) is a formal text adopted by a United Nations (UN) body. ... A United Nations General Assembly Resolution is voted on by all member states of the United Nations in the General Assembly and requires a simple majority (50% of all votes plus one) to pass (with the exception of important questions which require two-thirds majority). All General Assembly resolutions are... The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ... A United Nations Security Council Resolution is voted on by the fifteen members of the United Nations Security Council, the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The olive branches symbolise peace. ... New countries joined the United Nations during the twentieth century The United Nations as an international organization has its origins in World War II. Since then its aims and activities have expanded to make it the archetypal international body in the early 21st century. ... The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... The Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) is not an agency of the United Nations. ... UN refugee camp in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The United Nations Global Compact is an initiative to encourage businesses worldwide to adopt sustainable and socially responsible policies, and to report on them. ...

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In the UNESCO Thesaurus, broader terms are indicated by the prefix BT, narrower terms by the prefix NT and microthesauri by the prefix MT.
Enquiries relating to the content of the Thesaurus, and requests for permission to use Thesaurus data, should be directed to the UNESCO Library.
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