FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
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The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) .( Russian (русский язык  listen?) is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages. Russian belongs to the group of Indo-European languages, and is therefore related to Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, as well as the modern Germanic, Romance, and Celtic... Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик (СССР) To play the audio file do not click on the -image. Look for a Listen-link near this icon. Click on the back button of your browser to go back to the article and try again. File links The following pages link to this file: Alfred Nobel Adalbert of Prague... Sound listen?; There exist many possible systems for transliterating the Cyrillic alphabet of the Russian language to English or the Latin alphabet. Such transliteration is necessary for writing Russian names and other words in English text. It is also essential for the input of Russian text into computer by users who either... tr.: Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik (SSSR)), also called the Soviet Union (Сове́тский Сою́з; tr.: Sovetsky Soyuz), was a state in much of the northern region of African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the combined land mass of Europe and Asia. Eurasia is alternatively considered to be a continent, or a supercontinent composed of the continents of Europe and Asia. Due to the perceived cultural differences between Asia and Europe by Europeans, it was traditional to... Eurasia that existed from 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Events January 7 - Dáil Éireann, the extra-legal parliament of the Irish Republic, ratifies the Anglo-Irish Treaty by 64-57 votes. January 10 - Arthur Griffith is elected President of Dáil Éireann... 1922 until its dissolution in 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events January January 2 - Sharon Pratt Dixon is sworn in as mayor of Washington, DC becoming the first black woman to lead a city of that size and importance. January 4 - The United Nations Security Council votes unanimously... 1991. Its formation was the culmination of the 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). Events January-February President Woodrow Wilson of the United States announces to Congress the breaking of diplomatic relations with Germany January 2 - The Royal Bank of Canada takes over Quebec Bank. January 22 - World War I: President Woodrow... 1917 The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. It was led by Vladimir Lenin and marked the first officially communist revolution of the twentieth century, based upon the ideas... Russian Revolution, which overthrew Tsar ( Bulgarian цар, Russian царь,  listen?; often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century... Tsar Tsar Nicholas II ( 18 May 1868 – 17 July 1918)1 was the last crowned Emperor of Russia. He ruled from 1894 until his abdication in 1917. Nicholas proved unequal to the combined tasks of managing a country in political turmoil and commanding its army in the largest international war... Nicholas II. It was the world's first This article is about one-party states ruled by Communist Parties. For information regarding communism as a form of society, as an ideology advocating that form of society, or as a popular movement, see the main Communism article. In common speech in the Western World, a communist state is a... Communist state, with the political organization of the country defined by the only permitted political party, the For other usage of the initials CPSU see CPSU (disambiguation). The Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тск... Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The territory of the Soviet Union varied, and in its most recent times approximately corresponded to that of the late Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Imperial Russia, with notable exclusions of The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania... Poland and The Republic of Finland ( Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland) is a Nordic country in northeastern Europe, bordered by the Baltic Sea to the southwest, the Gulf of Finland to the southeast and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west. Finland has land frontiers with Sweden, Norway and Russia and... Finland.

Contents

History

Main article: The Russian Revolution For details see the main article Russian Revolution. During World War I, Tsarist Russia experienced famine and economic collapse. The demoralized Russian Army suffered severe military setbacks, and many soldiers deserted the front lines. Dissatisfaction with the monarchy and its policy of continuing the war grew. Tsar... History of the Soviet Union.


The USSR was roughly coterminous with the Russian Empire, whose last monarch, Tsar Nicholas II, ruled until 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). Events January-February President Woodrow Wilson of the United States announces to Congress the breaking of diplomatic relations with Germany January 2 - The Royal Bank of Canada takes over Quebec Bank. January 22 - World War I: President Woodrow... 1917. The Soviet Union was established in December 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Events January 7 - Dáil Éireann, the extra-legal parliament of the Irish Republic, ratifies the Anglo-Irish Treaty by 64-57 votes. January 10 - Arthur Griffith is elected President of Dáil Éireann... 1922 as the union of the State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None (Russian in practice) Capital Moscow Chairman of the Supreme... Russian, State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. (According to the constitution, all languages were equal. However, Russian was supposed to be the language of international... Ukrainian, State motto: Пралетарыі ўсіх краін, яднайцеся! Official language None. (According to the constitution, all languages were equal. However, Russian was supposed to be the language of... Belorussian, and The Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was a short-lived (1922-1936) Soviet republic, consisting of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, which were traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics in the Soviet Union. The republics roots date back to the dissolution of the Russian Empire in 1917, during the Russian... Transcaucasian Soviet republics ruled by Bolshevik Party Meeting. A Bolshevik (Большеви́к, derived from a Russian word loosely translated as majority) was a member of a faction of Bolsheviks of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP), the Marxist political party led by Vladimir Lenin that seized... Bolshevik parties.


Revolutionary activity in Russia began with the This article is about the failed Russian revolt. For the Portland, Oregon-based band, see The Decemberists. The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising was attempted in Imperial Russia by army officers who led about 3,000 Russian soldiers on December 14 (December 26 New Style), 1825. Because these... Decembrist Revolt, uncovered in Events January 4 - King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies dies and is succeeded by his son Francis I of the Two Sicilies. February 9 - After no presidential candidate received a majority of electoral votes, the United States House of Representatives elects John Quincy Adams President of the United States... 1825, and although Traditionally, the term for a peasant of the epoch of feudalism in Imperial Russia, krepostnoi krestyanin (крепостной крестьянин), is translated as serf. The origins of serfdom in Russia are traced to Kievan... serfdom was abolished in 1861 is a common year starting on Tuesday. Events January January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by Wilhelm I January 3 - American Civil War: Delaware votes not to secede from the United States January 9 - Mississippi... 1861, its abolition was achieved on terms unfavorable to the peasants and served to encourage revolutionaries. A parliament, the For the Sandman character, see Duma (Sandman). The Duma (Ду́ма in Russian) is the term for various representative assemblies in modern Russia and Russian history. The State Duma in the Russian Empire and Russian Federation corresponds to the lower house of the parliament. It is also... Duma, was established in 1906 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). Events January 8 - Landslide in Haverstraw, New York kills 20 January 31 - Earthquake in Ecuador (8.6 in Richter scale) February 11 - Pope Pius X publishes the encyclical Vehementer nos. February 15 - Representatives of the Labour Representation Committee... 1906, after the (Redirected from 1905 Revolution) The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a country-wide spasm of anti-government and undirected violence. It was not controlled or directed, it had no single cause and no single aim. It is usually regarded as a signpost of changes in Russia leading to the Russian... 1905 Revolution but political and social unrest continued and was aggravated during Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. Battle aftermath. Remains of the Chateau Wood World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, the War of the Nations, and the War to End All Wars, was a world conflict occurring from 1914 to... World War I by military defeat and food shortages.


A spontaneous popular uprising in Saint Petersburg  listen? ( Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–... Petrograd, in response to the wartime decay of Russia's physical well-being and morale, culminated in the toppling of the imperial government in March 1917 (see The February Revolution of 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. Its immediate result was the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II. It occurred largely as a result of dissatisfaction with the way the Tsar was running the country, in particular Russias ongoing involvement... February Revolution). The autocracy was replaced by the The Russian Provisional Government was formed in Petrograd after the deterioration of the Russian Empire and the abdication of the Tsars. When the authority of the tsars government began to fail in March 1917, two rival institutions, the Duma and the Petrograd Soviet, competed for power. As a compromise... Provisional Government, whose leaders intended to establish democracy in Russia and to continue participating on the side of the Allies in Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. Battle aftermath. Remains of the Chateau Wood World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, the War of the Nations, and the War to End All Wars, was a world conflict occurring from 1914 to... World War I. At the same time, to ensure the rights of the working class, workers' councils, known as A soviet ( Russian: сове́т) originally was a workers local council in late Imperial Russia. The first soviet (in this sense) was created in Saint Petersburg in January 1905 by workers meeting in the apartment of Voline. The councils and the term later were adopted by... soviets, sprang up across the country. The radical Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) (April 22 (April 10 (O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was... Vladimir Ilich Lenin, agitated for socialist revolution in the soviets and on the streets. They seized power from the Provisional Government in November 1917 (see The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. It was led by Vladimir Lenin and marked the first officially communist revolution of the twentieth century, based upon the ideas... October Revolution). Only after the long and bloody The Russian Civil War was fought between 1918 and 1920. Following the success of the Russian Revolution, the new Russian ( Bolshevik) government made peace with Germany at the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, ratified on March 6, 1918. This negotiated peace was the only option because the Russian army was in... Russian Civil War of ( 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). Events January-February January 8 - President Woodrow Wilson announces his Fourteen Points for the aftermath of World War I. January 24 - a decree of the Council of Peoples Commissars, introducing the Gregorian calendar in Russia since February... 1918- 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). Events January 2 - The first religious radio broadcast ( KDKA AM in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) January 2 - Spanish liner Santa Isabel sinks off Villa Garcia - 244 dead January 2 - DeYoung Museum in Golden Gate Park San Francisco opens. January 20... 1921), which included combat between government forces and foreign troops in several parts of Russia, was the new communist regime secure. In a related conflict, the " The Peace of Riga (also known as the Treaty of Riga, Polish: Traktat Ryski) signed on 18th March 1921 between Poland and Soviet Russia ended the Polish-Bolshevik War in Riga. Central and Eastern Europe after the Treaty of Riga Background Amidst the Russian Civil War the Poles were eager... Peace of Riga" in early 1921 split disputed territory in Belorussia and Ukraine between The Republic of Poland, a democratic country with a population of 38,626,349 and area of 312,685 km², is located in Central Europe, between Germany to the west, the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine and Belarus to the east, and the Baltic Sea, Lithuania... Poland and Soviet Russia.


From its first years, government in the Soviet Union was based on the one-party rule of the communists, as the Bolsheviks called themselves beginning in March 1918. After the extraordinary economic policy of War communism or wartime communism was the harsh economic policy adopted by Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War with an aim to keep towns and the Red Army supplied with weapons and food in the conditions when all normal economical mechanisms and relations were being destroyed by the war. War... war communism during the Civil War the Soviet government permitted some private enterprise to coexist with nationalized industry in the Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1870s 1880s 1890s 1900s 1910s - 1920s - 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s Years: 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 Referred to as the Roaring 20s. Events and trends Technology John Logie Baird invents the first working television system... 1920s and total food requisition in the countryside was replaced by a food tax (see The New Economic Policy, or NEP ( Russian: ) was a system of economic reforms, partly market-oriented, that Vladimir Lenin instituted in the Russian SFSR and then Soviet Union. The emergency policy of War communism, introduced during the Russian Civil War, was terminated, and the NEP replaced it in 1921 as... New Economic Policy). Debate over the future of the economy provided the background for Soviet leaders to contend for power in the years after Lenin's death in 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 7 - Great fire in London harbour January 8 - Heavy blizzards in England January 10 - British submarine L-34 sinks in the English Channel - 43 dead. January 21 - Vladimir Lenin dies and Joseph Stalin... 1924. By gradually consolidating his influence and isolating his rivals within the party, notably Lenin's more obvious heir 1915 passport photo of Trotsky Leon Davidovich Trotsky ( Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij and Trotzky ) (October 26 ( O.S.) = November 7 ( N.S.), 1879 - August 21, 1940), born... Leon Trotsky, Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin ( Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili ( Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილ... Joseph Stalin became the sole leader of the Soviet Union by the end of the 1920s.


In 1928 was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-May January 6- 7 - River Thames floods in London - 14 drowned January 17 - OGPU arrests Lev Trotsky in Moscow; he assumes a status of passive resistance and is exiled to Turkestan February - Kurume University... 1928 Stalin introduced the First Five-Year Plans or Piatiletkas (пятилетка) were a series of nation-wide centralized exercises in rapid economic development in the Soviet Union. Fulfilling the plan became the watchword of Soviet bureaucracy. (See Overview of the Soviet economic planning process) Several five-year... Five-Year Plan for building a socialist economy. In industry the state assumed control over all existing enterprises and undertook an intensive program of industrialization; in agriculture the state appropriated the peasants' property to establish collective farms (see Traditional farming In Imperial Russia, the Stolypin Reform was aimed at the development of capitalism in agriculture by giving incentives for creation of large farms. The World War I and the following Russian Revolution stopped this process in Russia. During the revolution, large holdings of agricultural land were seized by... Collectivization in the USSR). The Soviet Union became a major industrial power; but the plan's implementation produced widespread misery for the poorer segments of the population. Collectivization met widespread resistance from the Kulaks (from the Russian кулак (kulak, fist)) is a pejorative term extensively used in Soviet political language, originally referring to relatively wealthy peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labor, as a result of the Stolypin reform introduced since 1906. Among... kulaks as Stalin's army and secret police confiscated literally every last bit of grain, particularly in the Ukraine. In 1932, the Ukraine's grain quota was raised so high that there wouldn't be any left to feed the peasants; peasants were prevented from leaving by a system of passports, enforced by the NKVD. The end result was a horrific famine: several million in just the Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and... Ukraine died from starvation. Social upheaval continued in the mid- Events and trends Technology Jet engine invented Science Nuclear fission discovered by Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann Pluto, the ninth planet from the Sun, is discovered by Clyde Tombaugh British biologist Arthur Tansley coins term ecosystem War, peace and politics Socialists proclaim The death of Capitalism Rise to... 1930s, when Stalin began a purge of the party (see The Great Purge is the name given to campaigns of repression in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s which included a purge of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The term repression was officially used to denote the prosecution of people recognized as counter-revolutionaries and enemies of... Great Purges). Yet despite this turmoil, the Soviet Union developed a powerful industrial economy in the years before Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (60,000 ft) into the air. August 9, 1945 World War II was a global conflict that started in 7 July 1937 in Asia and 1 September 1939 in Europe and lasted until 1945, involving the majority of the... World War II.


Although Stalin tried to avert war with The Federal Republic of Germany ( German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. Due to its central location, Germany has more neighbours than any other European country: these are Denmark in the north, Poland and the Czech Republic in the... Germany by concluding the Molotov (left), Ribbentrop (in black) and Stalin The Molotov-Ribbentrop pact, also known as the Hitler-Stalin pact or Nazi-Soviet pact, was a non-aggression treaty between Germany and Russia, or more precisely between the Soviet Union and the Third Reich. It was signed in Moscow on August 23... Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact in 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-June January 2 - End of term for Frank Finley Merriam, 28th Governor of California. He is succeeded by Culbert Levy Olson. January 24 - Earthquake kills 30.000 in Chile – about 50.000 sq... 1939, in 1941 Germany invaded the Soviet Union. The Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krest... Red Army stopped the Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. The Third Reich is an Anglicization of the German... Nazi offensive at the Battle of Stalingrad Conflict World War II Date June 28, 1942 - February 2, 1943 Place Stalingrad, USSR Result Soviet victory The Battle of Stalingrad was a major turning point in World War II, and is considered the bloodiest battle in human history and arguably one of the greatest come-backs... Battle of Stalingrad in 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. Events January January 4 - End of term for Culbert Olson, 29th Governor of California. He is succeeded by Earl Warren. January 11 - The United States and United Kingdom give up territorial rights in China. January 11 - General Juanto dies in Argentina - Ramon... 1943 and drove through Eastern Europe is, by convention, that part of Europe from the Ural and Caucasus mountains in the East to an arbitrarily chosen boundary in the West. Usually some or all of the countries adjacent to Russias western border are included. As is also true of continents, regions are only... Eastern Europe to Berlin ( pronounced: , German ) is the capital of Germany and its largest city, with 3,387,404 inhabitants (as of September 2004); down from 4.5 million before World War II. It is also the second-largest city in the European Union after London. From 1949 to 1990 it was divided... Berlin before Germany surrendered in 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 5 - The Soviet Union recognizes the new pro-Soviet government of Poland. January 7 - British General Bernard Montgomery holds a press conference in which he claims credit for victory in the Battle of... 1945 (see The Eastern Front was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. In Russia, the war is referred to... Great Patriotic War). Although ravaged by the war, the Soviet Union emerged from the conflict as an acknowledged great power.


During the immediate postwar period, the Soviet Union first rebuilt and then expanded its economy, with control always exerted exclusively from Moscow. The Soviet Union consolidated its hold on Eastern Europe, supplied aid to the eventually victorious communists in the The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) comprises most of the cultural, historic, and geographic area known as China. Since its founding in 1949, it has been led by the Communist Party of China (CPC). It is the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.3... People's Republic of China, and sought to expand its influence elsewhere in the world. This active foreign policy helped bring about the Cold War, which turned the Soviet Union's wartime allies, the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the British Commonwealth and European Union. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, UK or, inaccurately, as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent parts. Three of these parts... United Kingdom and the The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America¹, the States, or (archaically) Columbia — is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii... United States, into foes (see The Cold War ( 1947- 1991) was the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between groups of nations practicing different ideologies and political systems. On one side was the Soviet Union and its allies, often referred to as the Eastern bloc. On the other side were the... Cold War). Within the Soviet Union, repressive measures continued in force; Stalin apparently was about to launch a new purge when he died in 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. Events January January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. January 13 - Marshal Josip Broz Tito chosen President of Yugoslavia January 20 - Change of US presidency from Harry S. Truman (1945-1953) to Dwight D... 1953.


In the absence of an acceptable successor, Stalin's closest associates opted to rule the Soviet Union jointly, although a struggle for power took place behind the facade of collective leadership. Nikita Khrushchev in 1962 Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: Ники́та Серге́евич Хрущёв) (nih-KEE-tah khroo-SHCHYOFF) (April 17, 1894 – September 11, 1971) was the leader of the Soviet Union... Nikita Khrushchev, who won the power struggle by the mid-1950s, denounced Stalin's use of terror and eased repressive controls over party and society (see De-Stalinization and the Khrushchev era For further details, see Nikita Khrushchev After Stalin had died in March 1953, he was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev as First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and Georgi Malenkov as Premier of the Soviet Union. The new leadership declared an... de-Stalinization). Khrushchev's reforms in agriculture and administration, however, were generally unproductive, and foreign policy toward China and the United States suffered reverses. Khrushchev's colleagues in the leadership removed him from power in 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 1 - Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland is dissolved. January 3 - Senator Barry Goldwater announces that he will seek the Republican nomination for President. January 5 - In the first meeting between leaders of the... 1964.


Following the ouster of Khrushchev, another period of rule by collective leadership ensued, lasting until Leonid Brezhnev Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (Russian: Леонид Ильич Брежнев) (December 19, 1906 - November 10, 1982) was effective ruler of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, though at first in partnership with others. He was... Leonid Brezhnev established himself in the early 1970s as the preeminent figure in Soviet political life. Brezhnev presided over a period of The Third World and nonalignment in the 1960s Background As colonial empires disappeared, newly independent states that gained nationhood after World War II still found themselves economically dependent on the industrialized, wealthier Western states and caught between the tensions of great-power rivalry. The conclusion of the Second World War... détente with the West while at the same time building up Soviet military strength; the arms buildup contributed to the demise of détente in the late 1970s. Another contributing factor was the The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was a 10-year war which wreaked incredible havoc and destruction on Afghanistan. The shooting war is generally held to have started December 24, 1979. Soviet troops ultimately withdrew from the area between May 15, 1988 and February 2, 1989. The Soviet Union officially announced... Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979 is a common year starting on Monday. Events January January 1 - United States and the Peoples Republic of China establish diplomatic relations January 4 - State of Ohio agrees to pay $675,000 to families of dead and injured in Kent State University shootings. January 7 - Vietnam and Vietnam... 1979.


After some experimentation with economic reforms in the mid- Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s - 1960s - 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s Years: 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 Events and trends The 1960s was a turbulent decade of change around the world. Many of the trends of... 1960s, the Soviet leadership reverted to established means of economic management. Industry showed slow but steady gains during the 1970s - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE55Fixes.css; @import /skins/monobook/IE60Fixes.css; /**/ 1970s From Wikipedia Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Events and trends Although in the United States and in many other Western societies the 1970s are often seen as a period of... 1970s, while agricultural development continued to lag. In contrast to the revolutionary spirit that accompanied the birth of the Soviet Union, the prevailing mood of the Soviet leadership at the time of Brezhnev's death in 1982 is a number and represents a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar Events January-February January 6 - William Bonin is convicted of being the freeway killer. January 8 - AT&T agrees to divest itself of twenty-two subdivisions January 11 - Mark Thatcher, son of the... 1982 was one of aversion to change.


Two developments dominated the decade that followed: the increasingly apparent crumbling of the Soviet Union's economic and political structures, and the patchwork attempts at reforms to reverse that process. After the rapid succession of Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (Ю́рий Влади́мирович Андро́пов), (June 2 (O.S.) = June 15 (N.S.), 1914 - February 9, 1984) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of... Yuri Andropov and Chernenko Konstantin Ustinovich Chernenko (Константи́н Усти́нович Черне́нко) (September 24, 1911 - March 10, 1985) was a Soviet politician and General Secretary of the CPSU... Konstantin Chernenko, transitional figures with deep roots in Brezhnevite tradition, the energetic Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov (Gorbachev)  listen? ( Russian: ; pronunciation: mih-kha-ILL ser-GHE-ye-vich gor-bah-CHYOHV) (born March 2, 1931), was leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991. His attempts at reform led to the end of the Cold War, but also inadvertently caused the end... Mikhail Gorbachev made significant changes in the economy and the party leadership. His policy of Glasnost (Russian: гла́сность,  listen?) was one of Mikhail Gorbachevs policies introduced to the Soviet Union in 1985. The term is a Russian word for publicity, openness. Gorbachevs goal in undertaking glasnost was in part to pressure conservatives within... glasnost freed public access to information after decades of government repression. But Gorbachev failed to address the fundamental flaws of the Soviet system; by 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events January January 2 - Sharon Pratt Dixon is sworn in as mayor of Washington, DC becoming the first black woman to lead a city of that size and importance. January 4 - The United Nations Security Council votes unanimously... 1991, when a plot by government insiders revealed the weakness of Gorbachev's political position, the end of the Soviet Union was in sight.


On December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. It is the 300th day counting from March 1, every year. Events 800 - Coronation of Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor, in Rome. 1066 - Coronation of William the Conqueror as... December 25, 1991, Gorbachev resigned as president of the USSR and turned the powers of his office over to Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin  listen? (Борис Николаевич Ельцин, b. February 1, 1931, Sverdlovsk [now Yekaterinburg], Russia, USSR), became the first President of Russia in 1991, and the first democratically elected leader in... Boris Yeltsin. The next day, the Soviet Union was officially dissolved and by the end of the year all official Soviet institutions had ceased operations.


Politics

Main article: For most of the history of the Soviet Union its political system was characterized by divergence between the formal system as expressed in the Constitution of the Soviet Union and actual practice. For example, elections were held, but in most cases, only one candidate was on the ballot. There was... Politics of the Soviet Union


The government of the Soviet Union administered the country's economy and society. It implemented decisions made by the leading political institution in the country, the For other usage of the initials CPSU see CPSU (disambiguation). The Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тск... Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU).


In the late Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Events and trends Technology Bulletin board system popularity Popularization of personal computers, Walkmans, VHS videocassette recorders, and compact disc (CD) players Introduction of the IBM PC Home video games become enormously popular, most notably Atari until the market crashes in 1983; the rise... 1980s, the government appeared to have many characteristics in common with Western, democratic political systems. For instance, a constitution established all organs of government and granted to citizens a series of political and civic rights. A legislative body, the The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the RSFSR and the USSR in two periods, from 1917 to 1936 and from 1989 to 1991. Congress of Soviets, 1917-1936 The initial full name was Congress of Soviets of Workers, Soldiers and Peasants Deputies. It is also known... Congress of People's Deputies, and its standing legislature, the The Supreme Soviet (Верховный Совет, Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power... Supreme Soviet, represented the principle of popular sovereignty. The Supreme Soviet, which had an elected chairman who functioned as head of state, oversaw the This article or section should be merged with Peoples Commissar Sovnarkom (Russian language СовНарКом, the abbreviation of the phrase Совет Народных Комиссаро... Council of Ministers, which acted as the executive branch of the government. The chairman of the Council of Ministers, whose selection was approved by the legislative branch, functioned as head of government. A constitutionally based judicial branch of government included a court system, headed by the Supreme Court, that was responsible for overseeing the observance of Soviet law by government bodies. According to the On October 7, 1977, the Supreme Soviet unanimously adopted the fourth and last Soviet Constitution, also known as the Brezhnev Constitution. The official name of the Constitution was Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Конститу́ци... 1977 Soviet Constitution, the government had a federal structure, permitting the republics some authority over policy implementation and offering the In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub- group that forms less than half of the population, and — as a rule — is outnumbered by at least one other sub-group. (That is, it does not form either a majority or a plurality.) This can be... national minorities the appearance of participation in the management of their own affairs


In practice, however, the government differed markedly from Western systems. In the late 1980s, the CPSU performed many functions that governments of other countries usually perform. For example, the party decided on the policy alternatives that the government ultimately implemented. The government merely ratified the party's decisions to lend them an aura of legitimacy. The CPSU used a variety of mechanisms to ensure that the government adhered to its policies. The party, using its The Russian term nomenklatura (номенклату́ра), derived from the Latin nomenclatura meaning a list of names, was originally the list of higher responsibility positions or jobs whose occupants needed to be approved by the Communist Party of the Soviet... nomenklatura authority, placed its loyalists in leadership positions throughout the government, where they were subject to the norms of Democratic centralism is a political concept referring to the governance of political parties and groups. The democratic aspect of this methodology describes the freedom of members of the political party to discuss and debate matters of policy and direction, but once the decision of the party is made by majority... democratic centralism. Party bodies closely monitored the actions of government ministries, agencies, and legislative organs.


The content of the Soviet Constitution differed in many ways from typical Western constitutions. It generally described existing political relationships, as determined by the CPSU, rather than prescribing an ideal set of political relationships. The Constitution was long and detailed, giving technical specifications for individual organs of government. The Constitution included political statements, such as foreign policy goals, and provided a theoretical definition of the state within the ideological framework of Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). Leninism was developed mainly by the Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin, and it was... Marxism-Leninism. The CPSU could radically change the constitution or remake it completely, as it has done several times in the past.


The Council of Ministers acted as the executive body of the government. Its most important duties lay in the administration of the economy. The council was thoroughly under the control of the CPSU, and its chairman - the Premier of the Soviet Union is the commonly used English term for the offices of Chairman of the Council of Peoples Commissars of the USSR (Председатель Совета Народн... Soviet prime minister--was always a member of the The Politburo (in Russian: Политбюро), known as the Presidium from 1952 to 1966, functioned as the central policymaking and governing body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The body was made up of the top members of the Central Committee... Politburo. The council, which in 1989 included more than 100 members, is too large and unwieldy to act as a unified executive body. The council's The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR (Президиум Верховного Совета СССР in Russian, or Prezidium Verkhovnogo Soveta) was a Soviet governmental body. The... Presidium, made up of the leading economic administrators and led by the chairman, exercised dominant power within the Council of Ministers.


According to the Constitution, as amended in 1988, the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union was the Congress of People's Deputies, which convened for the first time in May 1989. The main tasks of the congress were the election of the standing legislature, the Supreme Soviet, and the election of the chairman of the Supreme Soviet, who acted as head of state. Theoretically, the Congress of People's Deputies and the Supreme Soviet wielded enormous legislative power. In practice, however, the Congress of People's Deputies met only a few days in 1989 to approve decisions made by the party, the Council of Ministers, and its own Supreme Soviet. The Supreme Soviet, the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, the chairman of the Supreme Soviet, and the Council of Ministers had substantial authority to enact laws, decrees, resolutions, and orders binding on the population. The Congress of People's Deputies had the authority to ratify these decisions.


The judiciary was not independent. The Supreme Court supervised the lower courts and applied the law, as established by the Constitution or as interpreted by the Supreme Soviet. The Constitutional Oversight Committee reviewed the constitutionality of laws and acts. The Soviet Union lacked an adversary court procedure. Under Soviet law, which derived from Roman law, a procurator worked together with a judge and a defense attorney to ensure that civil and criminal trials uncovered the truth of the case, rather than having advocates for and against the accused.


The Soviet Union was a federal state made up of fifteen republics joined together in a theoretically voluntary union. In turn, a series of territorial units made up the republics. The republics also contained jurisdictions intended to protect the interests of national minorities. The republics had their own constitutions, which, along with the all-union Constitution, provide the theoretical division of power in the Soviet Union. In 1989, however, the CPSU and the central government retained all significant authority, setting policies that were executed by republic, provincial, oblast, and district governments.

  • see also: The Law of the Soviet Union—also known as Soviet Law, or Socialist Law—was the law that developed in the Soviet Union following the Russian Revolution of October 1917; modified versions of it were adopted by many Communist states (see below) following the Second World War. Soviet... Soviet law

Foreign relations

Main article: Foreign relations of the Soviet Union


Once a pariah denied diplomatic recognition by most countries, the Soviet Union had official relations with the majority of the nations of the world by the late 1980s. The Soviet Union also had progressed from being an outsider in international organizations and negotiations to being one of the arbiters of Europe's fate after World War II. A member of the The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization made up of 191 states established in 1945. With the notable exception of the Holy See/ Vatican City (which is the sole permanent observer state), all countries recognized by the CIA as first-level sovereign entities, are members. Other entities recognized... United Nations at its foundation in 1945, the Soviet Union became one of the five permanent members of the A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. It is charged with maintaining peace and security between nations. While other organs of the UN only make recommendations to member governments, the Security Council has the power... UN Security Council which gave it the right to The word veto comes from Latin and literally means I forbid. It is used to denote that a certain party has the right to unilaterally stop a certain piece of legislation. A veto thus gives unlimited power to stop changes, but not to adopt them. The veto originated with the... veto any of its resolutions (see The Soviet Union took an active role in the United Nations and other major international and regional organizations. At the behest of the United States, the Soviet Union took a role in the establishment of the UN in 1945. The Soviet Union insisted that there be veto rights in the... Soviet Union and the United Nations).


The USSR emerged as one of the two major world powers, a position maintained for four decades through its hegemony in Eastern Europe (see Map of Warsaw Pact member countries. The Warsaw Pact or Warsaw Treaty, officially named the Treaty of friendship, co-operation and mutual assistance was a military alliance of the Eastern European Soviet Bloc countries, who intended to organize against the perceived threat from the NATO alliance (which had been established... Warsaw Pact), military strength, aid to developing countries, and scientific research, especially into space technology and weaponry. The Soviet Union's effort to extend its influence or control over many states and peoples resulted in the formation of a world socialist system of states.


In the 1970s, the Soviet Union achieved rough nuclear parity with the United States, and surpassed it by the end of that decade with the deployment of the SS-18 missile. It perceived its own involvement as essential to the solution of any major international problem. Meanwhile, the Cold War gave way to The Third World and nonalignment in the 1960s Background As colonial empires disappeared, newly independent states that gained nationhood after World War II still found themselves economically dependent on the industrialized, wealthier Western states and caught between the tensions of great-power rivalry. The conclusion of the Second World War... Détente and a more complicated pattern of international relations in which the world was no longer clearly split into two clearly opposed blocs. Less powerful countries had more room to assert their independence, and the two superpowers were partially able to recognize their common interest in trying to check the further spread and proliferation of nuclear weapons (see SALT I is the common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks from 1969–1972 between the United States and the Soviet Union which resulted in a number of agreements relating to the offensive nuclear arsenals of the two nations and a reduction of the nuclear arms race. It... SALT I, SALT II was a second round of the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks from 1972-1979 between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which sought to curtail the manufacture of strategic nuclear weapons. It was a continuation of progress made during the SALT I talks. An agreement... SALT II, The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (or ABM treaty) was a treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against missile-delivered nuclear weapons. On May 26, 1972, the President of... Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty).


Since the early 1970s, the Soviet Union concluded friendship and cooperation treaties with a number of states in the noncommunist world, especially among For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). Third World is a term originally used to distinguish those nations that neither aligned with the West nor with the East during the Cold War and most were members of the Non-Aligned Movement. These countries are also known as the... Third World and The Non-Aligned Movement, or NAM is an international organization of over 100 states which consider themselves not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc. They represent 55 per cent of the planets people and nearly two-thirds of the UNs membership. Countries that have hosted... Non-Aligned Movement states. For all these reasons, Soviet foreign policy is of major importance to the noncommunist world and helped determine the tenor of international relations.


Although myriad bureaucracies were involved in the formation and execution of Soviet foreign policy, the major policy guidelines were determined by the Politburo of the Communist Party. The foremost objectives of Soviet foreign policy were the maintenance and enhancement of national security and the maintenance of hegemony over Eastern Europe. Relations with the United States and Western Europe were also of major concern to Soviet foreign policy makers, and relations with individual Third World states were at least partly determined by the proximity of each state to the Soviet border and to Soviet estimates of its strategic significance.


After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russia claimed to be the legal successor to the Soviet Union on the international stage. Russian foreign policy repudiated Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). Leninism was developed mainly by the Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin, and it was... Marxism-Leninism as a guide to action, soliciting Western support for capitalist reforms in postcommunist Russia.

  • see also: Stalin and Voroshilov salute a military parade in Red Square above the message Long Live the Workers and Peasant Red Army - Loyal Guard of the Soviet Border! The military history of the Soviet Union began in the early days following the 1917 October Revolution and the creation of the Russian... Military history of the Soviet Union

Republics

Main article: In its final decades of its existence, the Soviet Union consisted of 15 Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR), often called simply Soviet republics. All of them were socialist republics, and all of them, with the exception of Russia had their own Communist parties. They are all independent countries now; 12 of... Republics of the Soviet Union.


The Soviet Union was a federation of Soviet Socialist Republics (SSR). The first Republics were established shortly after the The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. It was led by Vladimir Lenin and marked the first officially communist revolution of the twentieth century, based upon the ideas... October Revolution of 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). Events January-February President Woodrow Wilson of the United States announces to Congress the breaking of diplomatic relations with Germany January 2 - The Royal Bank of Canada takes over Quebec Bank. January 22 - World War I: President Woodrow... 1917. At that time, republics were technically independent one from another but their governments acted in close coordination, as directed by the CPSU leadership. In 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Events January 7 - Dáil Éireann, the extra-legal parliament of the Irish Republic, ratifies the Anglo-Irish Treaty by 64-57 votes. January 10 - Arthur Griffith is elected President of Dáil Éireann... 1922, four Republics ( State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None (Russian in practice) Capital Moscow Chairman of the Supreme... Russian SFSR, State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. (According to the constitution, all languages were equal. However, Russian was supposed to be the language of international... Ukrainian SSR, language None. (According to the constitution, all languages were equal. However, Belarusian at a disadvantage.) Capital Minsk Chairman of the Supreme Council Stanislav Shushkevich (at independence) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 6th in former Soviet Union 207,600 km² -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked 5th in the... Belorussian SSR, and The Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was a short-lived (1922-1936) Soviet republic, consisting of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, which were traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics in the Soviet Union. The republics roots date back to the dissolution of the Russian Empire in 1917, during the Russian... Transcaucasian SFSR) joined into the Soviet Union. Between 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Events January 7 - Dáil Éireann, the extra-legal parliament of the Irish Republic, ratifies the Anglo-Irish Treaty by 64-57 votes. January 10 - Arthur Griffith is elected President of Dáil Éireann... 1922 and 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-February January 5 - FM radio is demonstrated to the FCC for the first time. January 6 - World War II: Mass execution of Poles, committed by Germans in the Poznan, Warthegau. January 12 - World War... 1940, the number of Republics grew to sixteen. Some of the new Republics were formed from territories acquired, or reacquired by the Soviet Union, others by splitting existing Republics into several parts. The criteria for establishing new republics were as follows:

  1. to be located on the periphery of the Soviet Union so as to be able to exercise their alleged right to secession,
  2. be economically strong enough to survive on their own upon secession and
  3. be named after the dominant ethnic group which should consist of at least one million people.

The system remained almost unchanged after 1940. No new Republics were established. One republic, The Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic (Karelo-Finnish S.S.R., Finnish Karjalais-Suomalainen sosialistinen neuvostotasavalta, Russian Карело-Финская Советская Социалистич... Karelo-Finnish SSR, was disbanded in 1956 is a leap year starting on Sunday. (see link for calendar) Events January January 1 - End of Egyptian Condominium in Sudan. January 16 - President Egypt vows to reconquer Palestine January 26 - Italy January 26 - United Kingdom bans heroin January 26 - The last Soviet troops leave the military base in... 1956. The remaining 15 republics lasted until 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events January January 2 - Sharon Pratt Dixon is sworn in as mayor of Washington, DC becoming the first black woman to lead a city of that size and importance. January 4 - The United Nations Security Council votes unanimously... 1991. Secession remained theoretical, and very unlikely, given Soviet centralism, until the 1991 collapse of the Union. At that time, the republics became independent countries, with some still loosely organized under the heading The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) (in Russian: Содружество Независимых Государств (СНГ) - Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv) is a confederation or... Commonwealth of Independent States.


Some republics had common history and geographical regions, and were referred by group names. These were The Baltic Sea The term Baltic Republics referred to the three Soviet Republics of Estonian SSR, Latvian SSR, and Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, who had gained sovereignty in 1918, were annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940. After a period of German belligerent occupation from 1941 to 1944-1945, the... Baltic Republics, The Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was a short-lived (1922-1936) Soviet republic, consisting of Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan, which were traditionally known as the Transcaucasian Republics in the Soviet Union. The republics roots date back to the dissolution of the Russian Empire in 1917, during the Russian... Transcaucasian Republics, and The Central Asian Republics are five countries located in Central Asia that were former Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan The Central Asian Republics are sometimes referred to as Central Asia, although others prefer this term to be reserved for a larger geographic region within Asia rather than a designation given... Central Asian Republics.

Soviet Republics Independent states
State motto: Պրոլետարներ բոլոր երկրների, միացեք! Official language None. De facto, Armenian and Russian. Capital Yerevan Chairman of the Supreme Council Levon Ter-Petrossian... Armenian SSR The text or formatting below is generated by a template which has been proposed for deletion. Please see its entry on Wikipedia:Templates for deletion for comments and voting. Armenia (disambiguation). Armenia ( Armenian: Հայաստան Hayastan, Hayq) is a landlocked country in southern Caucasus... Armenia
language None. De facto, Azeri and Russian. Capital Baku Chairman of the Supreme Council Heydər Əlirza oğlu Əliyev (at independence) Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 9th in former Soviet Union 86,600 km² -- Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked 6th in the... Azerbaijan SSR Azerbaijan (disambiguation). Azerbaijan ( Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan) is a country in the Caucasus, in the crossroads of Europe and Southwest Asia, with an east coast on the Caspian Sea. It borders Russia on the north, Georgia and Armenia on the west, and Iran on the south. The Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic... Azerbaijan
State motto: Пралетарыі ўсіх краін, яднайцеся! Official language None. (According to the constitution, all languages were equal. However, Russian was supposed to be the language of... Byelorussian SSR Belarus ( Belarusian: Белару́сь, Russian: Белару́сь (formerly: Белору́ссия), Polish: Białoruś) is a landlocked nation of Eastern Europe with the capital Minsk. Belarus... Belarus
State motto: Kõigi maade proletaarlased, ühinege Official language According to the constition, all languages were equal. However, Russian was supposed to be the language of international communication, thus putting Estonian at a disadvantage. Capital Tallinn Chairman of the Supreme Council Arnold Rüütel (at the time of regaining independence... Estonian SSR Estonia (disambiguation). The Republic of Estonia is a country in Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea to the west and the Gulf of Finland to the north. Estonia has land borders with its fellow Baltic state, Latvia, to the south, with Russia to the east, and maritime border with Finland... Estonia
State motto: პროლეტარ ყველა ქვეყნისა, შეერთდით! Official language Georgian since 1978 (Georgia was the only Soviet republic to have an official language) Capital Tbilisi Chairman... Georgian SSR Georgia ( Georgian: საქართველო Sakartvelo), known from 1991 to 1995 as the Republic of Georgia, is a country to the east of the Black Sea in the southern Caucasus. A former republic of the Soviet Union, it shares borders with Russia in... Georgia
State motto: Барлық елдердің пролетарлары, бірігіңдер! Official language None. De facto, Kazakh and Russian. Capital Almaty (Alma-Ata... Kazakh SSR Kazakhstan ( Kazakh: Қазақстан, Qazaqstan, IPA /qɑzɑqˈstɑn/; Russian: Казахстан, Kazakhstán, IPA /kɐzəxˈstɐn/), also spelled Kazakstan, is a... Kazakhstan
State motto: Бардык өлкөлордүн пролетарлары, бириккиле! Official language None. De facto, Kirghiz and Russian. Capital Bishkek (Frunze... Kirghiz SSR Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан) is a country in Central Asia. It borders China, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. Its capital is Bishkek (formerly Frunze.) National motto: none Official languages Kyrgyz, Russian Capital Bishkek President Askar Akayev Prime Minister Nikolay Tanayev Area  - Total... Kyrgyzstan
State motto: Visu zemju proletārieši, savienojieties! Official language According to the constitution, all languages were equal. However, Russian was supposed to be the language of international communication, thus putting Latvian at a disadvantage. Capital Riga Chairman of the Supreme Council Anatolijs Gorbunovs (at the time of... Latvian SSR The Republic of Latvia ( Latvian: Latvijas Republika), or Latvia ( Latvian: Latvija), is a country in Northern Europe. Latvia has land borders with its two fellow Baltic states — Estonia to the north and Lithuania to the south — and Russia and Belarus to the east. In the west Latvia shares... Latvia
State motto: Visų šalių proletarai, vienykitės Official language According to the constitution, all languages were equal. However, Russian was supposed to be the language of international communication, thus putting Lithuanian at a disadvantage. Capital Vilnius Chairman of the Supreme Council Vytautas Landsbergis (at the time... Lithuanian SSR The Republic of Lithuania (in Lithuanian, Lietuva) is a republic in Northeastern Europe. One of the three Baltic States along the Baltic Sea, it shares borders with fellow Baltic State Latvia to the north, Belarus to the southeast, Poland to the south, and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia to the... Lithuania
State motto: Пролетарь дин тоате цэриле, униць-вэ! Official language None. (According to the constitution, all languages were equal. However, Russian was supposed to be the... Moldavian SSR This article refers to the Republic of Moldova. For information about the adjacent Romanian region, see Moldavia; for other uses see Moldova (disambiguation) The Republic of Moldova is a landlocked country in eastern Europe, located between Romania to the west and Ukraine to the east. Its border with Romania follows... Moldova
State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None (Russian in practice) Capital Moscow Chairman of the Supreme... Russian SFSR The Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches... Russian Federation
State motto: Пролетарҳои ҳамаи мамлакатҳо, як шавед! Official language None. De facto, Tajik and Russian. Capital Dushanbe Chairman of the Supreme Council... Tadzhik SSR The Republic of Tajikistan (Тоҷикистон), formerly known as the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic, is a country in Central Asia. It has borders with Afghanistan, China, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan. National motto: none Official language Tajiki-Persian Capital Dushanbe President Emomali Rahmonov Prime... Tajikistan
State motto: Әхли юртларың пролетарлары, бирлешиң! Official language None. De facto, Turkmen and Russian. Capital Ashkhabad Chairman of the Supreme Council Saparmurat... Turkmen SSR Turkmenistan, once known as the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic is a country in Central Asia. It has borders with Afghanistan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and has a coastline on the Caspian Sea. National motto: none Official language Turkmen Capital Ashgabat President and Prime Minister Saparmurat Niyazov Area  - Total  - % water... Turkmenistan
State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. (According to the constitution, all languages were equal. However, Russian was supposed to be the language of international... Ukrainian SSR Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and... Ukraine
State motto: Бутун дунё пролетарлари, бирлашингиз! Official language None. De facto, Uzbek and Russian. Capital Tashkent Chairman of the Supreme Council Islam... Uzbek SSR The Republic of Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia (it is surrounded only by landlocked countries and, along with Liechtenstein, is one of only two such countries in the world). It shares borders with Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan. National motto: none Official language Uzbek Capital... Uzbekistan

Economy

Main article: The economy of the Soviet Union was based on a system of state ownership and administrative planning. The Soviet Union forged the modern worlds first centrally planned economy; and from a notably undeveloped position at the time of the Bolshevik Revolution, the Soviet economy developed into the most powerful... Economy of the Soviet Union


Prior to its collapse, the Soviet Union had the largest centrally directed economy in the world. The regime established its economic priorities through A planned economy is an economic system in which economic decisions are made by centralized planners who determine what sorts of goods and services to produce and how they are to be priced and allocated, and may include state ownership of the means of production. Since most known planned economies... central planning, a system under which administrative decisions rather than the market determined resource allocation and prices.


Since the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, the country grew from a largely underdeveloped peasant society with minimal industry to become the second largest industrial power in the world. According to Soviet statistics, the country's share in world industrial production grew from 4 percent to 20 percent between 1913 is a common year starting on Wednesday. (click on link for calendar) Events January-March January 30 - House of Lords rejects Irish Home Rule Bill February 1 - New York Citys Grand Central Terminal opens as the worlds largest train station. February 3 - The 16th Amendment to the... 1913 and 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. Events January-February January 1- April 1 - National steel strike in the United Kingdom January 1 - Changes to the Swedish Act of Succession creates Victoria of Sweden, Crown Princess over her younger brother January 4 - American president Jimmy Carter proclaims, with support... 1980. Although many Western analysts considered these claims to be inflated, the Soviet achievement remained remarkable. Recovering from the calamitous events of World War II, the country's economy had maintained a continuous though uneven rate of growth. Living standards, although still modest for most inhabitants by Western standards, had improved, and Soviet citizens of the late 1980s had a measure of economic security.


Although these past achievements were impressive, in the mid-1980s Soviet leaders faced many problems. Production in the Soviet industry was usually divided into two major categories. Group A was heavy industry, which included all goods that serve as an input required for the production of some other, final good. Group B was Soviet consumer goods (final goods used for consumption), including foods, clothing and shoes, housing, and... consumer and agricultural sectors was often inadequate (see Agriculture in the Soviet Union was organized into a system of state and collective farms, known as sovkhozes and kolkhozes, respectively. Organized on a large scale and highly mechanized, the Soviet Union was one of the worlds leading producers of cereals, although bad harvests (as in 1972 and 1975... Agriculture of the Soviet Union). Crises in the agricultural sector reaped catastrophic consequences in the Events and trends Technology Jet engine invented Science Nuclear fission discovered by Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann Pluto, the ninth planet from the Sun, is discovered by Clyde Tombaugh British biologist Arthur Tansley coins term ecosystem War, peace and politics Socialists proclaim The death of Capitalism Rise to... 1930s, when collectivization met widespread resistance from the Kulaks (from the Russian кулак (kulak, fist)) is a pejorative term extensively used in Soviet political language, originally referring to relatively wealthy peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labor, as a result of the Stolypin reform introduced since 1906. Among... kulaks, resulting in a bitter struggle of many peasants against the authorities, famine, and possibly millions of casualties, particularly in Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and... Ukraine. In the consumer and service sectors, a lack of investment resulted in The black market is the sector of economic activity involving illegal economic dealings, typically the buying and selling of merchandise illegally. The goods may be themselves illegal, such as the sale of prohibited weapons or the illegal drug trade; the merchandise may be stolen; or the merchandise may be otherwise... black markets in some areas.


In addition, since the 1970s, the growth rate had slowed substantially. Extensive economic development, based on vast inputs of materials and labor, was no longer possible; yet the productivity of Soviet assets remained low compared with other major industrialized countries. Product quality needed improvement. Soviet leaders faced a fundamental dilemma: the strong central controls that had traditionally guided economic development had failed to promote the creativity and productivity urgently needed in a highly developed, modern economy.


Conceding the weaknesses of their past approaches in solving new problems, the leaders of the late 1980s were seeking to mold a program of economic reform to galvanize the economy. The leadership, headed by Mikhail Gorbachev, was experimenting with solutions to economic problems with an openness (glasnost) never before seen in the history of the economy. One method for improving productivity appeared to be a strengthening of the role of market forces. Yet reforms in which market forces assumed a greater role would signify a lessening of authority and control by the planning hierarchy.


Assessing developments in the economy was difficult for Western observers. The country contained enormous economic and regional disparities. Yet analyzing statistical data broken down by region was a cumbersome process. Furthermore, Soviet statistics themselves might have been of limited use to Western analysts because they are not directly comparable with those used in Western countries. The differing statistical concepts, valuations, and procedures used by communist and noncommunist economists made even the most basic data, such as the relative productivity of various sectors, difficult to assess. Most Western analysts, and some Soviet economists, doubted the accuracy of the published statistics, recognizing that the industrial growth figures tend to be inflated.


Geography

Main article: Modern day Russia occupies most of the territory of the Soviet Union. Physical environment Any geographic description of the Soviet Union is replete with superlatives. Its inventory of land and water contained the worlds largest and deepest lakes, the most expansive plain, and Europes highest mountain and longest... Geography of the Soviet Union


The Soviet Union occupied the eastern portion of World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. It is conventionally considered a continent, which, in this case, is more of a cultural distinction than a geographic one. ( National Geographic, however, officially recognises... European continent and northern portion of World map showing location of Asia A satellite composite image of Asia Asia is the central and eastern part of the continent of Eurasia, defined by subtracting the European peninsula from Eurasia. Geologically and geographically, Asia is not a continent or a subcontinent. The exact boundaries are vaguely defined, especially... Asian continent. Most of country was north of 50° north latitude and covered a total area of 22,402,200 Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. It is one of the SI derived units. 1 km² is equal to: the area of a square measuring 1 kilometre on each side 1 000 000 m2 100 hectares 0.386 102 square miles... square kilometres. Due to the sheer size of the state the The climate (ancient Greek: κλίμα) is the weather averaged over a long period of time. A descriptive saying is that climate is what you expect, weather is what you get. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) glossary definition is: [1] Climate vs weather The exact... climate varied greatly from Subtropical climate is the form of climate found immediately poleward of the zone of tropical climate. There are various definitions of what characteristics make a climate subtropical. Climatologist John Griffiths, for example, includes all places with a mean temperature in their coldest month of 6 °C (42.8°F) or... subtropical and A continental climate is the climate typical of the interiors of the large continents of the Northern Hemisphere; similar climates exist along the east coasts (but not the west coasts) of the same continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. This climate is characterized... continental to Regions having a subarctic climate (also called boreal climate) are characterized by very cold winters, and brief, warm summers. This type of climate offers some of the most extreme seasonal temperature variations found on the planet: In winter, temperature can drop to −40°C (also −40°F) and... subarctic and Regions with a polar climate are characterized by a lack of warm summers (specifically, no month having an average temperature of 10°C or higher), resulting in the absence of trees in such places, which may also be covered with glaciers or a permanent or semi-permanent layer of ice... polar. 11 percent of land was In geography, arable land is a form of agricultural land use, meaning land that can be (and is) used for growing crops. David Ricardo incorporated the idea of arable land into economic theory. Of the earths 57 million square miles (148,000,000 km²) of land, more than... arable, 16 percent were A meadow is a tract of grassland, either in its natural state or used as pasture or for growing hay. Meadow is an open source programming project to port the popular GNU Emacs text editor for UNIX-based operating systems to Microsoft Windows with some added functions. The name comes... meadows and pasture, 41 percent was This article is about forests as a massing of trees. For other uses of the word, see Forest (disambiguation). A dense growth of softwoods (a forest) in the Sierra Nevada Range of Northern California A forest is an area with a high density of trees (or, historically, an area set... forest and Biologically, a woodland is differentiated from a forest. In these terms, a forest has a largely-closed canopy -- in other words, the branches and foliage of trees interlock overhead to provide extensive and nearly continuous shade. A woodland, however, has a largely-open canopy, with sunlight penetrating between trees. Some... woodland, and 32 percent other (including In physical geography, tundra is an area where tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons. The term tundra comes from the Sami language (through Russian), meaning treeless plain. There are three types of tundra: arctic tundra, antarctic tundra, and alpine tundra. In all of these types... tundra).


Demographics and society

Main article: This articles details the demographics of the Soviet Union. Population:  * J.A Newth2 states 167 millions, RGAE3 states 147 millions.  ** The census data from 1937 and 1939 is disputed. The censuses were classified, and estimates vary widely. The RGAE states roughly 162 millions for both censuses. Eric Hobsbawm4... Demographics of the Soviet Union


The Soviet Union was one of the world's most ethnically diverse countries, with more than 100 distinct national ethnicities living within its borders. The total population was estimated at 293 million in 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events January January 2 - Sharon Pratt Dixon is sworn in as mayor of Washington, DC becoming the first black woman to lead a city of that size and importance. January 4 - The United Nations Security Council votes unanimously... 1991. The major proportion of the population were Russians (Русские - Russkie) are an East Slavic ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries. The English term Russians is also used to refer to citizens of Russia, regardless of their ethnicity (see demographics of Russia for information on other nationalities inhabiting Russia... Russians (about 53.4 percent, 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. Events January-February January 1 - Construction begins on Arcosanti, by Paolo Soleri, in Mayer, Arizona, located 65, miles north of Phoenix, Arizona. January 1 - Unix epoch at 00:00:00 UTC. January 12 - Biafra capitulates, ending the Nigerian civil war. January 15... 1970 census), there were also The Ukrainians are a Slavic people of central-eastern Europe. They are the descendants of several peoples who inhabited the vast area extending from north of the Black Sea to the borders of Russia, Poland, Moldova, Belarus and Slovakia. Ukraine had a very turbulent history, a fact justified by its... Ukrainians (16.9 percent), Uzbeks are a Turkic ethnic group found primarily in Uzbekistan, but also in Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Xinjiang province of China and other countries in Central Asia. The Uzbeks predominatly follow Islam (mainly Sunni Islam) in a form that became weakened under the rule of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics... Uzbeks (3.8 percent) and many other nationalities. The Soviet Union was so large, in fact, that even after all associated republics gained independence, The Russian Federation ( Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches... Russia remains the largest country by area, and remains quite ethnically diverse, including, e.g., minorities of The term Tatar may refer to A member of the Tatars, Crimean Tatars Tatar language, Crimean Tatar language Native people of Crimea, Tatarstan See also: Turkic peoples, Turkic languages. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. If... Tatars, Udmurts are Finno-Ugric people that speak the Udmurt language. Through history they have been known is Russia as chuds, otezkaya, or votyaks, in Tatarstan as ar. Most Udmurt people live in Udmurtia. One of Udmurts group is Bisermän. See http://www.ugri.info Categories: Ethnic groups of... Udmurts, and many other non-Russian ethnicities.


Nationalities

The extensive multinational empire that the Bolsheviks inherited after their revolution was created by Tsarist expansion over some four centuries. Some nationality groups came into the empire voluntarily, but most were brought in by force. Generally, the Russians (Русские - Russkie) are an East Slavic ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries. The English term Russians is also used to refer to citizens of Russia, regardless of their ethnicity (see demographics of Russia for information on other nationalities inhabiting Russia... Russians and most of the non-Russian subjects of the empire shared little in common— Culture refers to the customs, arts, attitudes, institutions, and other traits that characterize a particular society or nation. Culture is a part of the social system and hierarchically equal to an economic system, political system, or legal system. Defining Culture Different definitions of culture reflect different theories for understanding, or... culturally, Religion, sometimes used interchangeably with faith, is commonly defined as belief concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine, and the practices and institutions associated with such belief. In its broadest sense some have defined it as the sum total of answers given to explain humankinds relationship with the universe. Religion... religiously, or As with any complex, emergent concept, language is somewhat resistant to definition. However, most would agree that language is a system of communication or reasoning using representation along with metaphor and some manner of logical grammar, all of which presuppose a historical and at least temporarily transcendent standard or truth... linguistically. More often than not, two or more diverse nationalities were collocated on the same territory. Therefore, national antagonisms built up over the years not only against the Russians but often between some of the subject nations as well.


For close to seventy years, Soviet leaders had maintained that frictions between the many nationalities of the Soviet Union had been eliminated and that the Soviet Union consisted of a family of nations living harmoniously together. However, the national ferment that shook almost every corner of the Soviet Union in the late 1980s proved that seventy years of communist rule had failed to obliterate national and ethnic differences and that traditional cultures and religions would reemerge given the slightest opportunity. This reality facing Gorbachev and his colleagues meant that, short of relying on the traditional use of force, they had to find alternative solutions in order to prevent the disintegration of the Soviet Union.


The concessions granted national cultures and the limited autonomy tolerated in the union republics in the 1920s led to the development of national elites and a heightened sense of national identity. Subsequent repression and Russianization fostered resentment against domination by Moscow and promoted further growth of national consciousness. National feelings were also exacerbated in the Soviet multinational state by increased competition for resources, services, and jobs.


Religious groups

Main article: The Soviet authorities struggle under Joseph Stalin with religion culminated with the explosion of the Cathedral of the Christ the Savior in Moscow, which was restored recently in the postcommunist years. Prior to its collapse in late 1991, official figures on the number of religious believers in the Soviet Union... Religion in the Soviet Union


The The separation of church and state is a concept in law whereby the structures of state or national government are kept separate from those of religious institutions. The concept has long been a topic of political debate. There are a variety of views regarding the degree of separation that should... state was separated from church by the Decree of Council of People's Comissars 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). Events January-February January 8 - President Woodrow Wilson announces his Fourteen Points for the aftermath of World War I. January 24 - a decree of the Council of Peoples Commissars, introducing the Gregorian calendar in Russia since February... 1918 January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 342 days remaining, 343 in leap years. Events 1510 - Henry VIII of England, 18, appears incognito in the lists at Richmond, and is applauded for his jousting before he reveals himself. 1533 - Anne Boleyn, mistress... January 23. Official figures on the number of religious believers in the Soviet Union were not available in 1989. But according to various Soviet and Western sources, over one-third of the people in the Soviet Union, an officially For information about the band, see Atheist (band). Atheism is the condition of being without theistic beliefs and alternatively the disbelief in the existence of deities. In antiquity, atheism was represented by Epicureanism. It disappeared from European philosophy when Christianity became dominant. During the Age of Enlightenment, atheism re-emerged... atheistic state, professed religious belief. For other uses of the term Christian, see Christian (disambiguation). Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life, teachings, death by crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament. Although Christians are monotheistic, the one God is thought, by most Christians, to exist in... Christianity and Islam ( Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen?) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. Etymology In Arabic, Islām means submission and is described as a Dīn, meaning way of life... Islam had the most believers. Christians belonged to various churches: Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. During the first millennium of Christendom, differences developed between the Christian East and West. By the 11th century, this had culminated in a Great Schism, separating the Roman Catholic Church... Orthodox, which had the largest number of followers; This article considers Catholicism in the broadest ecclesiastical sense. See Catholicism (disambiguation) for alternative meanings Catholicism has two main ecclesiastical meanings, described in Websters Dictionary as: a) the whole orthodox Christian church, or adherence thereto; and b) the doctrines or faith of the Roman Catholic church, or adherence thereto... Catholic; and Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an evangelical, protestant denomination. Baptists emphasize a believers baptism by full immersion, which is performed after a profession of faith in Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior. A congregational governance system gives autonomy to individual local Baptist churches... Baptist and various other Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. It generally refers to those that separated from the Roman Catholic Church in the Reformation of the 16th century, their offshoots, and those that share similar doctrines or ideologies. It is commonly considered one of the three major branches of Christianity... Protestant sects. There were many churches in the country (7500 The Russian Orthodox Church (Русская Православная церковь) is that body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with... Russian Orthodox churches in 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). Events January-February January 5 - Dungeons & Dragons officially released. February 3 - Prisoners Riot in Bathurst jail Riots much of jail destoyed by fire February 4 - Patricia Hearst, the 19 year old granddaughter of publisher William Randolph... 1974). The majority of the Islamic faithful were Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. Followers of the Sunni tradition are known as Sunnis or Sunnites, and sometimes refer to themselves as the Ahlus Sunnah wal-Jamaah. It is widely believed among Sunnis that the name Sunni derives from the word... Sunni. For a discussion of Jews as an ethnicity or ethnic group see the article on Jew. The Star of David, a common symbol of Jews and Judaism Judaism is the religion and culture of the Jewish people and one of the first recorded monotheistic faiths. It is also one of... Judaism also had many followers. Other religions, which were practiced by a relatively small number of believers, included Statues of Buddha such as this, the Tian Tan Buddha statue in Hong Kong, remind followers to practice right living. Buddhism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, who lived between approximately 563 and 483 BCE. Originating in India, Buddhism gradually... Buddhism, Tibetan Buddhism, (formerly also called Lamaism after their religious gurus known as lamas), is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and the Himalayan region. It is a school within Tantric Buddhism (also called Vajrayana Buddhism), which in turn is part of the great Mahayana school... Lamaism, and Shamanism is a range of traditional beliefs and practices that involve the ability to diagnose, cure, and sometimes cause human suffering because of a special relationship with, or control over, spirits. This tradition has existed all over the world since prehistoric times. Foundation and History Shamanism is based on the... shamanism, a religion based on primitive spiritualism. The role of religion in the daily lives of Soviet citizens varied greatly. Because Islamic religious tenets and social values of Muslims are closely interrelated, religion appeared to have a greater influence on Muslims than on either Christians or other believers. Two-thirds of the Soviet population, however, had no religious beliefs. About half the people, including members of the CPSU and high-level government officials, professed atheism. For the majority of Soviet citizens, therefore, religion seemed irrelevant.

  • see also: In the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, the Brezhnev era, a distinctive Soviet culture developed characterized by conformist public life and intense focus on personal life. Soviet popular culture was characterized by fascination with American popular culture as exemplied by the blue jeans craze. Control over information All media in the... Culture of the Soviet Union

Culture

  • The Soviet education was organized in a highly centralized government-run system, designed to fulfill political and military purposes foremost. Its advantages were total access for all citizens and post-education employment. Although this system was unbelievably ineffective by economic standards, it managed to raise the countrys educational level... Soviet education
  • Introduction While Russia was involved in filmmaking as early as most of the other nations in the West, it only came into prominence during the 1920s when it explored editing as the primary mode of cinematic expression. Because of the depletion of resources due to World War I, Russian film... Soviet cinema
  • Television in the Soviet Union was controlled very tightly by the state, and programs were designed to reinforce typical Communist values such as proletarian unity and loyalty to the Communist Party. Though most of these shows were of a lower production value than their Western counterparts, some are worthy of... Soviet Television
  • USSR at the Summer Olympics
  • USSR at the Winter Olympics
  • Winner list: 1991 (58th,Moscow) Minasian, Artashes 1990 (57th,Leningrad) Beliavsky, Alexander / Yudasin, Leonid / Bareev, Evgeny / Vyzmanavin, Alexey ex aequo 1989 (56th,Odessa) Vaganian, Rafael 1988 (55th,Moscow) Karpov, Anatoly / Kasparov, Garry ex aequo 1987 (54th,Minsk) Beliavsky, Alexander 1986 (53th,Kiev) Zeshkovsky, Vitaly 1985 (52th,Riga) Gavrikov, Viktor / Gurevich... USSR Chess Championship
  • Palace of Culture
  • Contents // Categories: Country Studies | Stub | Soviet science and technology ... Research in the Soviet Union
  • Competitions in Ballroom dancing in the former Soviet Union were held in three dance categories: Standard dances, Latin dances, and Soviet dances. Soviet category The latter category comprised of - Polka - Rylio - Varu-Varu - Sudarushka - Russian Lyrical With the exception of Polka, these dances were artificially created based on some folk... Soviet Ballroom dances
  • A diploma awarded in the Republic Student Olympiads, in the Kazakh SSR, 1989 Soviet Student Olympiad was an annual set of contests for students in USSR. There were two separate multi-round competitions every year: for higher education (universities) and general education (starting from 7th to 10th/11th grade). Both... Soviet Student Olympiads
  • The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (Russian: Большая Советская Энциклопедия, БСЭ, Bolshaya Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya) is the largest and most comprehensive encyclopedia in Russian. There were... Great Soviet Encyclopedia

Holidays

Date English Name Local Name Remarks
January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. Here a calendar year refers to the order in which the months are displayed, January to December. The first day of the medieval Julian year was usually a day other than January 1... January 1 This article is about January 1st in the Gregorian calendar. For all other New Year celebrations, see New Year. New Years Day is the first day of the year, in the Gregorian calendar. In modern times, it is January 1. In most countries, it is a holiday. It is... New Year's Day Новый Год  
February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 311 days remaining, 312 in leap years. Events 1455 - Traditional date for the publication of the Gutenberg Bible, the first Western book printed from movable type. 1574 - The 5th holy war against the Huguenots begins... February 23 Red Army Day День Советской Армии и Военно-Морского Флота The February Revolution of 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. Its immediate result was the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II. It occurred largely as a result of dissatisfaction with the way the Tsar was running the country, in particular Russias ongoing involvement... February Revolution, 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). Events January-February President Woodrow Wilson of the United States announces to Congress the breaking of diplomatic relations with Germany January 2 - The Royal Bank of Canada takes over Quebec Bank. January 22 - World War I: President Woodrow... 1917,
Formation of the Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krest... Red Army, 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). Events January-February January 8 - President Woodrow Wilson announces his Fourteen Points for the aftermath of World War I. January 24 - a decree of the Council of Peoples Commissars, introducing the Gregorian calendar in Russia since February... 1918

Is currently called День Защитника Отечества

March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (68th in Leap years). There are 298 days remaining. Events 1618 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but later on May 15 confirms... March 8 International Womens Day, or International Womans Day (IWD), is marked on 8 March every year. It is a major day of global celebration for the economic, political and social achievements of women. Among other relevant historic events, it commemorates the Triangle Factory Fire ( New York, 1911), where over... International Women's Day Международный Женский День  
April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). There are 263 days remaining. Events 467 - Anthemius is elevated to Emperor of the Western Roman Empire 1606 - The Union Flag is adopted as the national flag of Great Britain. 1633 - The formal... April 12 Cosmonauts Day День Космонавтики День Космонавтики - The Day Yuri Gagarin became the fist man in Space, in 1961.
May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). There are 244 days remaining. Events 300-1899 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. 1328 - Wars of Scottish Independence end: Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as... May 1 For the distress signal, see: Mayday; For the James Bond villain see May Day (James Bond) May Day is a name for various holidays celebrated on May 1 (or in the beginning of May). Labour association May Day rallies, such as this one in Mumbai, are common. The holiday is... International Labor Day (May Day) Перво&;#1077; Мая - День Солидарности Трудящихся  
May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (130th in leap years). There are 236 days remaining. Events 1300-1899 328 - Athanasius elected bishop of Alexandria. 1092 - Lincoln Cathedral is consecrated. 1429 - Joan of Arc defeats the English troops besieging Orléans. 1502 - Christopher Columbus... May 9 May 9, Soviet poster based on the famous photo of the Soviet flag being raised over the Reichstag in 1945. The caption reads: And the saved world remembers, a line from a Soviet post-war song about two young men who did not return from the war, and about how... Victory Day День Победы End of The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. The front was opened by Operation Barbarossa... Great Patriotic War, marked by Surrender is when soldiers give up fighting and become prisoners of war, either as individuals or when ordered to by their officers. Prisoners are never to be mistreated or abused. In the United States Army, surrendered persons are to be treated according to the 5 S:s until turned over... capitulation of The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). Black, white, and red were in fact the colors of the old North German Confederation flag (invented by Otto von Bismarck, based on... Nazi The Federal Republic of Germany ( German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. Due to its central location, Germany has more neighbours than any other European country: these are Denmark in the north, Poland and the Czech Republic in the... Germany, 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 5 - The Soviet Union recognizes the new pro-Soviet government of Poland. January 7 - British General Bernard Montgomery holds a press conference in which he claims credit for victory in the Battle of... 1945
October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years). There are 85 days remaining. Events 3761 BCE - The epoch (origin) of the modern Hebrew calendar. 1513 - Battle of La Motta — Spanish troops under Ramon de Cardona defeat the Venetians. 1571 - Battle of Lepanto occurs. 1582... October 7 On October 7, 1977, the Supreme Soviet unanimously adopted the fourth and last Soviet Constitution, also known as the Brezhnev Constitution. The official name of the Constitution was Constitution (Fundamental Law) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Конститу́ци... USSR Constitution Day День Конституции СССР 1977 Constitution of the USSR accepted
November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. Events 1665 - The London Gazette, the oldest surviving journal, is first published. 1783 - A man convicted of forgery is the last to be publicly hanged at Londons Tyburn... November 7 Great October Socialist Revolution Седьмое Ноября The October Revolution, also known as the Bolshevik Revolution, was the second phase of the Russian Revolution, the first having been instigated by the events around the February Revolution. It was led by Vladimir Lenin and marked the first officially communist revolution of the twentieth century, based upon the ideas... October Revolution 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). Events January-February President Woodrow Wilson of the United States announces to Congress the breaking of diplomatic relations with Germany January 2 - The Royal Bank of Canada takes over Quebec Bank. January 22 - World War I: President Woodrow... 1917; it is currently called День Примирения и Согласия;

Related articles

Main article: This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to Soviet Union. This is so that those interested in the subject can monitor changes to the pages by clicking on Related changes in the sidebar. The list is not necessarily complete or up to date--if you see... List of Soviet Union-related topics.


Further reading

  • Brown, Archie, et al, eds., The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Russia and the Soviet Union (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1982).
  • Gilbert, Martin, The Routledge Atlas of Russian History (London: Routledge, 2002).
  • Goldman, Minton, The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe (Connecticut: Global Studies, Dushkin Publishing Group, Inc., 1986).
  • Howe, G. Melvyn, The Soviet Union: A Geographical Survey 2nd. edn. (Estover, UK: MacDonald and Evans, 1983).
  • Katz, Zev, ed., Handbook of Major Soviet Nationalities (New York: Free Press, 1975).
  • Bruno Rizzi, "The bureaucratization of the world : the first English ed. of the underground marxist classic that analyzed class exploitation in the USSR" , New York, NY : Free Press, 1985

External links

References

  • This article incorporates The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. (Proprietary interest is typically represented by a copyright or patent.) Such works and inventions are considered part of... public domain text from the The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. No copyright is claimed on them; therefore, they have been dedicated to the public domain and can be copied freely. Note that not all the pictures used... Library of Congress Country Studies. - Soviet Union (http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/sutoc.html)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Soviet Union - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6690 words)
The USSR was created and expanded as a union of Soviet republics formed within the territory of the Russian Empire abolished by the Russian Revolution of 1917 followed by the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920.
A referendum for the preservation of the USSR was held on March 17, 1991, with the population voting for preservation of the Union in most republics.
On 25 December 1991, Gorbachev, yielded to the inevitable and resigned as the president of the USSR, declaring the office extinct.
CONSTITUTION OF THE USSR (1977) (10174 words)
Citizens of the USSR are obliged to observe the Constitution of the USSR and Soviet laws, comply with the standards of socialist conduct, and uphold the honour and dignity of Soviet citizenship.
The Council of Minister of the USSR shall be responsible and accountable to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and, between sessions of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
The Procurator-General of the USSR is appointed by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and is responsible and accountable to it and, between sessions of the Supreme Soviet, to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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