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Encyclopedia > U.S. presidential election, 2000
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Presidential electoral votes by state.

The U.S. presidential election of 2000 was one of the closest elections in U.S. history, decided by only 537 votes in the swing state of Florida. On election night, the media prematurely declared a winner twice based on exit polls before finally deciding that the Florida race was too close to call. It would turn out to be a month before the election was finally certified after numerous court challenges and recounts. Republican candidate George W. Bush won Florida's 25 electoral votes by a razor-thin margin of the popular vote in that state, and thereby defeated Democratic candidate Al Gore. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3697x2472, 669 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: U.S. presidential election, 2000 2000 ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3697x2472, 669 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: U.S. presidential election, 2000 2000 ... In United States presidential politics, a swing state (also, battleground state) is a state in which no candidate has overwhelming support, meaning that any of the major candidates have a reasonable chance of winning the states electoral college votes. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 22nd 170,451 km² 260 km 800 km 17. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Albert Arnold Gore Jr. ...


This election was only the fourth or fifth time in United States history that a candidate had won the Presidency while losing the nationwide popular vote. (The other times were the elections of 1824, 1876, 1888, and possibly 1960.) Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...

Contents


Introduction

Al Gore publicly conceded the election after the December 12, 2000 Supreme Court decision in Bush v. Gore. The Court voted 7-2 to end the recount on the grounds that differing standards in different counties constituted an equal protection violation, and 5-4 that no new recount with uniform standards could be conducted. The decision was extremely controversial due to the partisan split in the court's 5-4 decision and the majority's extremely irregular instruction that its judgment in Bush v. Gore should not set precedent but should be "limited to the present circumstances". Gore publicly disagreed with the court's decision, but conceded the election "for the sake of our unity as a people and the strength of our democracy". He had previously made a concession phone call to Bush the night of the election, then retracted it after learning just how close the election was. Following the election, recounts conducted by various U.S. news media organizations indicated that Bush would have won the most probable recount methods (including the one favored by Gore at the time of the Supreme Court decision) but that Gore might have won if other methods were adopted. December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... Holding Any manual recount of votes seeking to meet the December 12 “safe harbor” deadline would be unconstitutional under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. ... The Equal Protection Clause is a part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, providing that no state shall . ... Holding Any manual recount of votes seeking to meet the December 12 “safe harbor” deadline would be unconstitutional under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. ...

butterfly ballot
butterfly ballot

The Florida election has been closely scrutinized since the election, and several irregularities are thought to have favored Bush. These included the notorious Palm Beach "butterfly ballot", which produced an unexpectedly large number of votes for third-party candidate Patrick Buchanan, and a purge of some 50,000 alleged felons from the Florida voting rolls that included many voters who were eligible to vote under Florida law. Some commentators still consider such irregularities and the legal maneuvering around the recounts to cast doubt on the legitimacy of the vote, but as a matter of law the issue was settled when the U.S. Congress accepted Florida's electoral delegation. Nonetheless, embarrassment about the Florida vote uncertainties led to widespread calls for electoral reform in the United States, and ultimately to the passage of the Help America Vote Act, which authorized the United States federal government to provide funds to the states to replace their mechanical voting equipment with electronic voting equipment. However, this has led to new controversies including the lack of paper-based methods of verification, and the complexity of testing required to certify correct operation of computer-based systems. Download high resolution version (1437x917, 93 KB)no creativity added by photographer, should be public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (1437x917, 93 KB)no creativity added by photographer, should be public domain This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Palm Beach County is a county located in the state of Florida. ... Congress in Joint Session. ... The Help America Vote Act was enacted on October 29, 2002. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... Electronic voting machine used in all Brazilian elections and plebiscites. ...


Nominations

Democratic Party nomination

Under the provisions of the 22nd amendment, incumbent President Bill Clinton was not allowed to run for a third term. Because of the many scandals surrounding his administration, numerous candidates for his party's presidential nomination were discussed. Most of these discussions focused on House Minority Leader Dick Gephardt of Missouri, Senator Bob Kerrey of Nebraska, progressive Senator Paul Wellstone of Minnesota, and former Senator Bill Bradley of New Jersey. There was even some speculation in the press that Academy Award-winning actor/director/screenwriter Warren Beatty, who had previously served as an advisor to the presidential campaigns of Senators Gary Hart and George McGovern, would run for the nomination. This article is about the basketball player and politician. ... Official language(s) None defined, English de facto Capital Trenton Largest city Newark Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 47th 22,608 km² 110 km 240 km 14. ... Albert Arnold Gore Jr. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 36th 109,247 km² 195 km 710 km 2. ... The Twenty-second Amendment of the United States Constitution sets a term limit for the President of the United States, providing that No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President... The President of the United States (often abbreviated POTUS) is the head of state of the United States. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The Minority Leader of the United States House of Representatives serves as floor leader of the opposition party, and is the minority counterpart to the Majority Leader of the United States House of Representatives. ... Richard Andrew Gephardt (born January 31, 1941) is a prominent American politician who served as a U.S. Representative from Missouri from January 3, 1977, until January 3, 2005. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 21st 69,709 mi²; 180,693 km² 240 mi; 385 km 300 mi; 480 km 1. ... Senator Bob Kerrey Joseph Robert Kerrey (born August 27, 1943) was Governor of Nebraska from 1983 to 1987, and a U.S. Senator from Nebraska (1989–2001) and a Democrat. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 16th 200,520 km² 340 km 690 km 0. ... Progressivism is a political philosophy who adherents promote public policies that they believe would lead to positive social change. ... Paul David Wellstone (July 21, 1944 – October 25, 2002) was an American politician and two-term U.S. Senator from Minnesota. ... Official language(s) None Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 12th 225,365 km² 400 km 645 km 8. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... Warren Beatty Henry Warren Beaty (born March 30, 1937 in Richmond, Virginia), now known as Warren Beatty, is an American actor, producer, screenwriter, and director. ... Gary Hart Gary Warren Hart (born Gary Hartpence on November 28, 1936) is a politician and lawyer from the state of Colorado. ... George McGovern Dr. George Stanley McGovern (born July 19, 1922) was a United States Congressman, Senator, and Democratic presidential candidate, losing the 1972 presidential election to incumbent Richard Nixon. ...


By the time of the Democratic primaries, however, all of them but Bradley had decided against running. This left the field virtually wide open for Al Gore, Clinton's vice president, who immediately became the front-runner, despite Bradley's receiving the endorsements of Kerrey and Wellstone, as well as that of respected New York Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan. Official language(s) None, English de facto Capital Albany Largest city New York City Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 27th 141,205 km² 455 km 530 km 13. ... Daniel Patrick Moynihan Daniel Patrick Pat Moynihan (March 16, 1927 – March 26, 2003) was a U.S. Senator, ambassador, and academic. ...


Running an insurgency campaign, Bradley positioned himself as the liberal alternative to Gore, who was a founding member of the famously-centrist Democratic Leadership Council. While Michael Jordan campaigned for him in the early primary states, Bradley announced his intention to campaign "in a different way" by conducting a positive campaign of "big ideas." He made the spending of the record-breaking budget surplus on a variety of social welfare programs to help the poor and the middle-class one of his central issues, along with campaign finance reform and gun control. The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... In politics, centrism usually refers to the political ideal of promoting moderate policies which land in the middle ground between different political extremes. ... The Democratic Leadership Council is an influential non-profit corporation that argues that the United States Democratic Party should abandon progressive principles. ... Michael Jeffrey Jordan (born February 17, 1963) is a former American NBA player, and is considered by many to be the greatest basketball player of all time. ... A budget deficit occurs when an entity (often a government) spends more money than it takes in. ... ... Campaign finance reform is the common term for the political effort in the United States to change the involvement of money in politics, primarily in political campaigns. ... The phrase Gun politics refers to the views of different people within a particular country as to what degree of control (increased gun rights vs. ...


Despite his excellent grass-roots organization and his expenditure of over two million dollars in Iowa alone, Bradley was easily defeated by Gore in the primaries, due in large part to the support given to Gore by the Democratic Party establishment and Bradley's poor showing in the Iowa caucus, where Gore successfully painted the aloof Bradley as being indifferent to the plight of the farmer in that highly-rural state. The closest Bradley came to a victory was his 50-46 loss to Gore in the New Hampshire primary. Grassroots democracy is the political processes which are driven by groups of ordinary citizens, as opposed to larger organisations or wealthy individuals with concentrated vested interests in particular policies. ... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 26th 145,743 km² 320 km 500 km 0. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Since 1976, the Iowa caucus has been the first indication of which candidate for President of the United States would win the nomination of his or her political party at that partys national convention. ... Rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Sheep eating grass in rural Australia Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. ... The New Hampshire primary is the opening gun of the quadrennial U.S. presidential election. ...


Republican Party nomination

Following Bob Dole's loss to Bill Clinton in the 1996 election, the party's presidential nomination was left wide open, which led to a larger than usual number of candidates in the running. One potential candidate, retiring Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich, declined to run, while conservative political commentator and two-time candidate for the nomination Pat Buchanan, after an abortive campaign for the Republican nomination, decided to run on the Reform Party ticket. Andrew Lamar Alexander (born July 3, 1940) is the junior United States Senator from Tennessee and a member of the Republican Party. ... Notes 1East was Secretary of State for Tennessee from 1862-1865, appointed by Andrew Johnson, the military governor of the state under Union occupation during the American Civil War. ... The United States Secretary of Education is the head of the Department of Education. ... Gary Bauer is an American civil servant and conservative politician notable for his ties to several fundamentalist and evangelical Christian groups and campaigns. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... The Family Research Council (FRC) is an extreme far right-wing Christian non-profit lobbying organization, formed in the USA by James Dobson in 1981 and incorporated 1983. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States. ... In politics, Governor of Texas is the title given to the chief executive of the state of Texas. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States (1989–1993). ... Elizabeth Hanford Liddy Dole (born July 29, 1936) was elected to the United States Senate in 2002 to represent North Carolina for a term ending in 2009. ... The United States Secretary of Transportation is the head of the United States Department of Transportation. ... The United States Secretary of Labor is the head of the United States Department of Labor. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Robert Joseph Dole (born July 22, 1923) is best known as a former Republican United States Senate Majority Leader and Senator from Kansas from 1969-1996. ... Malcolm Stevenson Steve Forbes Jr. ... Disambiguation: For the Boston Brahmin family of John Forbes Kerry, see Forbes family. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... John Richard Kasich (born May 13, 1952, McKees Rocks, Pennsylvania) is a former American politician of Croatian descent turned television show host for FOX News Channel in the United States. ... Orrin Grant Hatch (born March 22, 1934 in Pittsburgh) is a five-term Republican United States Senator, from Utah. ... Official language(s) English Capital Salt Lake City Largest city Salt Lake City Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 13th 219,887 km² 435 km 565 km 3. ... Alan Keyes is a former American diplomat and was a Republican presidential candidate in 1996 and 2000. ... Talk radio is a radio format which features discussion of topical issues. ... An ambassador, rarely embassador, is a diplomatic official accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization, to serve as the official representative of his or her own country. ... The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) of the United Nations assists the General Assembly in promoting international economic and social cooperation and development. ... Main articles: League of Nations and History of the United Nations The term United Nations was coined by Franklin D. Roosevelt during World War II, to refer to the Allies. ... The Seal of the United States Department of State The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... An international organization (also called intergovernmental organization) is an organization of international scope or character. ... Seal of the Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... John Sidney McCain III (born August 29, 1936) is an American politician. ... Official language(s) English Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 6th 295,254 km² 500 km 645 km 0. ... James Danforth Quayle (born February 4, 1947) was the 44th Vice President of the United States under George H. W. Bush (1989-1993). ... Official language(s) English Capital Indianapolis Largest city Indianapolis Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 38th 94,321 km² 225 km 435 km 1. ... Robert C. Bob Smith (born March 30, 1941) is an American politician who has served in both the United States House of Representatives and the Senate. ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 46th 24,239 km² 110 km 305 km 3. ... The Constitution Party is a conservative third party in the United States, founded as the U.S. Taxpayers Party in 1992. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The term Speaker is usually the title given to the presiding officer of a countrys lower house of parliament or congress (ie: the House of Commons or House of Representatives). ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Pat Buchanan Patrick Joseph Buchanan (born November 2, 1938), is an American author, syndicated columnist, and television commentator. ... The Reform Party of the United States of America (abbreviated Reform Party USA or RPUSA) is a political party in the United States, founded by Ross Perot in 1995 under the belief that Americans were disillusioned with the state of politics--as being corrupt and unable to deal with vital...


Of those who did announce their candidacy, several withdrew even before the Iowa Caucus, unable to secure funding and endorsements sufficient to remain competitive with Bush. These included Alexander, Dole, Kasich and Quayle. Steve Forbes, who could self-finance, did compete in the early contests, but did not do as well as he had in 1996. That left Bush, McCain, and Keyes as the only candidates still in the race. This was somewhat surprising because Dole had initially appeared to be Bush's most prominent rival.


With Keyes, loser of both Senate campaigns he had previously engaged in, frequently espousing ideas deemed to be too extreme for the consumption of average voters, it soon became obvious that Bush and McCain were the front-runners for the nomination. Bush, the governor of the second-largest state in the Union, the son of a former president, and the favored candidate of the Christian right, was portrayed in the media as the establishment candidate, while McCain, a maverick senator with the support of many moderate Republicans and Independents, was portrayed as an insurgent. Seal of the Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... Christian Right is a term collectively referring to a spectrum of conservative Christian political and social movements and organizations characterized by their strong support of social values they deem traditional in the United States and other western countries. ...


When McCain received a blow-out victory in the New Hampshire primary and proceeded to rack-up victories in several other New England states and the open primary in Michigan, he seemed well on his way to the nomination. In the South Carolina primary, however, Bush soundly defeated McCain and began to build his own strength within the party. Some credited Bush's win to the fact that it was the first primary in which only registered Republicans could vote, which negated McCain's strong advantage among independent voters. Others, including McCain's supporters, blamed it on a campaign of dirty tricks perpetrated against McCain by his political enemies. Some directly accused Karl Rove, Bush's campaign manager, of orchestrating a smear campaign against McCain, and the two candidates would develop an icy relationship. Senator McCain would go on to endorse Bush, and gave perhaps the most memorable speech of his life at the convention. The New Hampshire primary is the opening gun of the quadrennial U.S. presidential election. ... First Flag of New England, 1686-c. ... Official language(s) English de-facto Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 11th 96,889 mi² / 250,941 km² 239 miles / 385 km 491 miles / 790 km 41. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 40th 82,965 km² 320 km 420 km 6 32°430N to 35°12N 78°030W to 83°20W Population  - Total (2000)  - Density Ranked 26th 4,012... In politics and business, dirty tricks refers to duplicitous, slanderous, and/or illegal tactics employed to destroy or diminish the effectiveness of opponents. ... Karl Rove Karl Christian Rove (born December 25, 1950) is an American political consultant, and (as of 2005) U.S. President George W. Bushs senior advisor, chief political strategist, and Deputy White House Chief of Staff in charge of policy. ... A smear campaign or smear tactics are deliberate attempts by an individual or group to malign another individual or groups reputation. ...


Whatever the real reason, McCain's loss in South Carolina stopped his momentum cold. Although McCain won a few additional primaries, Bush took the majority and, with the support of the party's superdelegates, handily won the nomination at the Republican National Convention in Philadelphia. Superdelegates are delegates to a party convention in the United States who are not bound by the decisions of party primaries or caucuses. ... The Republican National Convention, the presidential nominating convention of the United States Republican Party, is held every four years to determine the partys candidate for the coming Presidential election and the partys platform. ... Philadelphia is a village located in Jefferson County, New York. ...


Other nominations

There were five other candidates on the majority of the 51 ballots (50 states plus the District of Columbia): ...

Harry Browne Harry Browne (June 17, 1933 - ) is an American free-market Libertarian writer and investment analyst. ... The Libertarian Party is a United States political party created in 1971. ... Pat Buchanan Patrick Joseph Buchanan (born November 2, 1938), is an American author, syndicated columnist, and television commentator. ... The Reform Party of the United States of America (abbreviated Reform Party USA or RPUSA) is a political party in the United States, founded by Ross Perot in 1995 under the belief that Americans were disillusioned with the state of politics--as being corrupt and unable to deal with vital... Ralph Nader Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American activist lawyer who opposes the power of large corporations and has worked for decades on environmental, consumer rights, and pro-democracy issues. ... In United States politics, the Green Party has been active as a third party since the 1980s. ... Howard Phillips (born February 6, 1941) is an American right-wing political figure who was born in Boston, Massachusetts. ... John Hagelin (June 9, 1954 - ) is a theoretical physicist specializing in superstring theory, a practicioner and teacher of Transcendental Meditation and yogic flying, an electronic designer of high-end audio equpment and was a candidate for President of the United States three times. ... The United States Natural Law Party was a United States political party affiliated with the international Natural Law Party. ...

General election

Plurality winner of each county. Bush = red; Gore = blue.
Plurality winner of each county. Bush = red; Gore = blue.
Shows percentage of votes by county. Bush = red; Gore = blue.
Shows percentage of votes by county. Bush = red; Gore = blue.
Shows winning margins by county. Bush = red; Gore = blue.

Image File history File links 2000_election_popular_vote_county. ... Image File history File links 2000_election_popular_vote_county. ... U.S. presidential election, 2000 popular vote by county I swapped colors in the 2nd version of the file, which I release into the public domain: I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... U.S. presidential election, 2000 popular vote by county I swapped colors in the 2nd version of the file, which I release into the public domain: I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links USA_2000_presidential_winning_margin_by_county,_scaled. ... Image File history File links USA_2000_presidential_winning_margin_by_county,_scaled. ...

Campaign

In the campaign, Bush criticized the Clinton administration policy in Somalia, where 18 Americans died in 1993 trying to sort out warring factions, and in the Balkans, where U.S. peacekeeping troops perform a variety of functions. "I don't think our troops ought to be used for what's called nation-building," Bush said in the second presidential debate. [1] 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... Senator John F. Kennedy debates Vice President Richard M. Nixon in the first televised debates, 1960. ...


Nader was the most successful of third party candidates, drawing 2.74% of the popular vote. His campaign was marked by a traveling tour of "super-rallies"; large rallies held in sports arenas like Madison Square Garden, with filmmaker Michael Moore as master of ceremonies. After initially ignoring Nader, the Gore campaign made a big publicity pitch to (potential) Nader supporters in the final weeks of the campaign, downplaying Gore's differences with Nader on the issues and claiming that Gore's ideas were more similar to Nader's than Bush's were, noting that Gore had a better chance of winning than Nader. On the other side, the Republican Leadership Council ran pro-Nader ads in a few states in a likely effort to split the "left" vote.[2] In the aftermath of the campaign, many Gore supporters blamed Nader for drawing enough would-be Gore votes to push Bush over Gore, labeling Nader a "spoiler" candidate. Madison Square Garden, often abbreviated as MSG, has been the name of four arenas in New York City, United States. ... Michael Moore pictured on the cover of his book Michael Moore (born April 23, 1954) is an American film director, author, and social commentator. ... The spoiler effect is a term to describe the effect a candidate can have on a close election, in which their candidacy results in the election being won by a candidate dissimilar to them, rather than a candidate similar to them. ...


Disputes

The outcome of the November 7 election was not known for more than a month after the balloting, because of the extended process of counting and then recounting of Florida presidential ballots, which would ultimately decide the election. State results tallied on election night gave 246 electoral votes to Bush and 255 to Gore, with New Mexico (5), Oregon (7), and Florida (25) too close to call at the time. Since 270 electoral votes are required to win, Florida would put either candidate over the top, and the other two states were irrelevant. (Both New Mexico and Oregon were declared in favor of Gore over the next few days, making it 246-267.) November 7 is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 54 days remaining. ... Official language(s) English and Spanish Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 5th 315,194 km² 550 km 595 km 0. ... Official language(s) None Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 9th 255,026 km² 420 km 580 km 2. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 22nd 170,451 km² 260 km 800 km 17. ...


Bush won the election night vote count in Florida by a little over 1000 votes. Florida state law provided for an automatic recount due to the small margins. There were general concerns about the fairness and accuracy of the voting process, especially since a small change in the vote count could change the result. The final (and disputed) official Florida count gave the victory to Bush by 537 votes, making it the tightest race of the campaign (at least in percentage terms; New Mexico was decided by 363 votes but has a much smaller population, meaning those 363 votes represent a 0.061% difference while the 537 votes in Florida are just 0.009%).


The Gore campaign lodged a complaint over the state's election results, requesting that disputed ballots in four counties be counted by hand. However, the Bush campaign filed suit against the manual recounts. During the recounting process, the Bush campaign hired George H. W. Bush's former Secretary of State James Baker to oversee the legal process, and the Gore campaign hired Bill Clinton's former Secretary of State Warren Christopher. Numerous local court rulings went both ways, some ordering recounts because the vote was so close and others declaring that a selective manual recount in a few heavily-Democratic counties would be unfair. Eventually, the Gore campaign appealed to the Florida Supreme Court which ordered the recounting process to proceed. The Bush campaign subsequently appealed to the Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) which took up the case Bush v. Palm Beach County Canvassing Board on December 1. On December 4, the SCOTUS returned this matter to the Florida Supreme Court for clarification due to their "considerable uncertainty" as to the reasons for certain aspects of the decision. The Florida Supreme Court clarified their ruling on this matter while the US Supreme Court was deliberating Bush v. Gore, and the two cases were then combined, with SCOTUS approving by 6-3 the Florida court's actions in the original case based on the clarifications provided. George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States (1989–1993). ... The Seal of the United States Department of State The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... James Addison Baker III (born April 28, 1930), American politician and diplomat, was Chief of Staff in President Ronald Reagans first administration, United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988 in the second Reagan administration, and Secretary of State in the administration of President George H. W... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The Seal of the United States Department of State The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... Warren Minor Christopher (born October 27, 1925) is an American diplomat and lawyer. ... The Supreme Court of the United States is the supreme court in the United States. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Holding Any manual recount of votes seeking to meet the December 12 “safe harbor” deadline would be unconstitutional under the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment. ...


On December 8, the Florida Supreme Court, by a 4 to 3 vote, ordered a manual recount of disputed ballots in all Florida counties in which such a recount was not already complete. This count was in progess on December 9, when the U.S. Supreme Court unanimously granted Bush's emergency plea for a stay of the Florida Supreme Court recount ruling, stopping the incomplete recount. December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 9 is the 343rd day (344th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Early in the afternoon of December 12, the Republican-dominated Florida House of Representatives voted nearly on party lines to certify the state's electors for Bush. Later that afternoon, the Florida Supreme Court upheld lower court rulings authorizing recounts in several south Florida counties. December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Around 10 pm EST on December 12, the U.S. Supreme Court handed down its ruling in favor of Bush by a 5-4 vote, effectively ending the legal review of the vote count with Bush in the lead. Seven of the nine justices cited differing vote-counting standards from county to county and the lack of a single judicial officer to oversee the recount, both of which, they ruled, violated the Equal Protection Clause of the United States Constitution. The crucial 5 to 4 decision held that insufficient time remained to implement a unified standard and therefore all recounts must stop. The Eastern Standard Time Zone is a geographic region that keeps time by subtracting five hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Equal Protection Clause is a part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, providing that no state shall . ... The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America. ...


At 9pm on December 13, in a nationally televised address, Gore conceded that he had lost his bid for the presidency. He asked his supporters to support Bush, saying, "This is America, and we put country before party." During his speech, Gore's family, running mate Joe Lieberman, and Lieberman's wife Hadassah stood nearby. December 13 is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Texas Governor George W. Bush became President-elect and began forming his transition committee. Bush tried to reach across party lines and bridge a divided America, stating that "the President of the United States is the President of every single American, of every race and every background." Official language(s) None. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States. ...


On January 6, 2001, a joint session of Congress met to certify the electoral vote. Twenty members of the House of Representatives, most of them Democratic members of the Congressional Black Caucus, rose one by one to file objections to the electoral votes of Florida. However, according to an 1877 law, any such objection had to be sponsored by both a representative and a senator, and no senator would co-sponsor these objections. Therefore, Gore, who was presiding in his capacity as President of the Senate, ruled each of these objections out of order. January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Congress in Joint Session. ... The United States Electoral College is the electoral college that chooses the President and Vice President of the United States at the conclusion of each Presidential election. ... The chamber of the United States House of Representatives is located in the south wing of the Capitol building, in Washington, D.C.. The Media:United States House of Representatives is one of the two houses of the Congress of the United States. ... The Congressional Black Caucus is an organization representing African American members of the Congress of the United States. ... 1877 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Seal of the Senate The United States Senate is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government, the person who, in the words of Adlai Stevenson, is a heartbeat from the presidency. ...


Bush took the oath of office on January 20, 2001. January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ...


Results

Vice President Al Gore came in second in the electoral vote even though he received 543,816 more popular votes than Bush. Such a close national contest contributed to the controversy of the election. This was the first time since 1888 that a candidate who clearly did not receive a plurality of the popular vote received a majority of the Electoral College. (Due to the unusual ballot in Alabama in 1960, it is unclear how much of the popular vote in that state can be attributed to Kennedy and hence whether Kennedy beat Nixon in the popular vote.) A vice president is an officer in government or business who is next in rank below a president. ... Albert Arnold Gore Jr. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


Gore failed to win the popular vote in his home state of Tennessee. Had he won Tennessee, he could have won the election without Florida. Gore was the first major party presidential candidate to have lost his home state since George McGovern lost South Dakota in 1972. Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 36th 109,247 km² 195 km 710 km 2. ... George McGovern Dr. George Stanley McGovern (born July 19, 1922) was a United States Congressman, Senator, and Democratic presidential candidate, losing the 1972 presidential election to incumbent Richard Nixon. ... Official language(s) English Capital Pierre Largest city Sioux Falls Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 17th 199,905 km² 340 km 610 km 1. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...

Presidential Candidate Party Home State Popular Vote Electoral Vote Running Mate Running Mate's
Home State
Running Mate's
Electoral Vote
Count Percentage
George W. Bush Republican Texas 50,460,110 47.9% 271 Dick Cheney Wyoming 271
Al Gore Democratic Tennessee 51,003,926 48.4% 266 Joe Lieberman Connecticut 266
(abstention) (a) (n/a) (n/a) (n/a) (n/a) 1 (abstention) (a) (n/a) 1
Ralph Nader Green Connecticut 2,883,105 2.7% 0 Winona LaDuke Minnesota 0
Pat Buchanan Reform Virginia 449,225 0.4% 0 Ezola B. Foster California 0
Harry Browne Libertarian Tennessee 384,516 0.4% 0 Art Olivier California 0
Howard Phillips Constitution Virginia 98,022 0.1% 0 Curtis Frazier Missouri 0
John Hagelin Natural Law/Reform Iowa 83,702 0.1% 0 Nat Goldhaber California 0
Other(b) 54,652 0.1% 0 Other(b) 0
Total 105,417,258 100.0% 538 Total 538
Needed to win 270 Needed to win 270

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. 2000 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (August 7, 2005). George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Official language(s) None. ... Richard Bruce Cheney (born January 30, 1941), widely known as Dick Cheney, is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States under President George W. Bush. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 10th 253,554 km² 450 km 580 km 0. ... Albert Arnold Gore Jr. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 36th 109,247 km² 195 km 710 km 2. ... Joseph Isadore Lieberman, (born February 24, 1942) is a Democratic U.S. senator from Connecticut, most well-known as Al Gores running mate on the Democratic ticket in 2000. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 48th 14,371 km² 113 km 177 km 12. ... Abstention is a term in parliamentary procedure for when a participant in a vote is not absent, but does not cast a ballot. ... Ralph Nader Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American activist lawyer who opposes the power of large corporations and has worked for decades on environmental, consumer rights, and pro-democracy issues. ... In United States politics, the Green Party has been active as a third party since the 1980s. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 48th 14,371 km² 113 km 177 km 12. ... Winona LaDuke Winona LaDuke (1959 - ) is a Native American activist, environmentalist, economist, and writer. ... Official language(s) None Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 12th 225,365 km² 400 km 645 km 8. ... Pat Buchanan Patrick Joseph Buchanan (born November 2, 1938), is an American author, syndicated columnist, and television commentator. ... The Reform Party of the United States of America (abbreviated Reform Party USA or RPUSA) is a political party in the United States, founded by Ross Perot in 1995 who said Americans were disillusioned with the state of politics--as being corrupt and unable to deal with vital issues--and... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 35th 110,862 km² 320 km 690 km 7. ... Ezola Broussard Foster (born August 9, 1938) is an African American conservative political activist. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 3rd 410,000 km² 402. ... Harry Browne Harry Browne (June 17, 1933 - ) is an American free-market Libertarian writer and investment analyst. ... The Libertarian Party is a United States political party created in 1971. ... Official language(s) English Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 36th 109,247 km² 195 km 710 km 2. ... Art Olivier, formerly mayor of Bellflower, California, was the Libertarian candidate for Vice President in the United States presidential election in 2000. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 3rd 410,000 km² 402. ... Howard Phillips (born February 6, 1941) is an American right-wing political figure who was born in Boston, Massachusetts. ... Official language(s) English Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 35th 110,862 km² 320 km 690 km 7. ... Dr. J. Curtis Frazier was the vice-presidential candidate of the Constitution Party in the U.S. presidential election, 2000, as the running-mate of Howard Phillips. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 21st 69,709 mi²; 180,693 km² 240 mi; 385 km 300 mi; 480 km 1. ... John Hagelin (June 9, 1954 - ) is a theoretical physicist specializing in superstring theory, a practicioner and teacher of Transcendental Meditation and yogic flying, an electronic designer of high-end audio equpment and was a candidate for President of the United States three times. ... The United States Natural Law Party was a United States political party affiliated with the international Natural Law Party. ... The Reform Party of the United States of America (abbreviated Reform Party USA or RPUSA) is a political party in the United States, founded by Ross Perot in 1995 who said Americans were disillusioned with the state of politics--as being corrupt and unable to deal with vital issues--and... Official language(s) English Capital Des Moines Largest city Des Moines Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 26th 145,743 km² 320 km 500 km 0. ... A. Nathaniel Nat Goldhaber - An Internet entrepreneur and longtime associate the Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, was the Natural Law Party nominee for Vice President in 2000 on the ticket headed by John Hagelin. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 3rd 410,000 km² 402. ... -1... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Source (Electoral Vote): 2000 Electoral Vote Totals. Official website of the National Archives. (August 7, 2005).-1... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


(a) One elector from the District of Columbia, Barbara Lett-Simmons, abstained from voting in protest of the District's lack of a voting representative in US Congress. (D.C. did (and still does) have a non-voting delegate to Congress.) She had been expected to vote for Gore/Lieberman.
(b) Candidates receiving less than 1/2000 of the total popular vote. ... Barbara Lett-Simmons (born 1927) is an American politician. ... Demonstrators march in the street while protesting the World Bank and International Monetary Fund on April 16, 2005. ... Congress in Joint Session. ... A Delegate to Congress is a non-voting representative of a U.S. territory in the United States House of Representatives. ...


Detailed results by state are also available U.S. presidential election, 2000 detailed results. ...


Close states

  1. Florida, 0.01%
  2. New Mexico, 0.06%
  3. Wisconsin, 0.22%
  4. Iowa, 0.31%
  5. Oregon, 0.44%
  6. New Hampshire, 1.27%
  7. Minnesota, 2.40%
  8. Missouri, 3.34%
  9. Ohio, 3.51%
  10. Nevada, 3.55%
  11. Tennessee, 3.86%
  12. Pennsylvania, 4.17%
  13. Maine, 5.11%
  14. Michigan, 5.13%
  15. Arkansas, 5.44%
  16. Washington, 5.58%
  17. Arizona, 6.28%
  18. West Virginia, 6.32%
  19. Louisiana, 7.68%
  20. Virginia, 8.04%
  21. Colorado, 8.36%
  22. Vermont, 9.94%

Florida election results

On election night, it quickly became clear that Florida would be a contentious state. The national television networks, through information provided them by the Voter News Service, first called Florida for Gore in the hour after polls closed in the eastern peninsula but before they closed in the heavily Republican counties of the western panhandle. (The peninsula is on Eastern Time and the panhandle is on Central Time.) Hours later, after the polls had closed in the panhandle, the networks retracted their call for Gore (leading to questions about the influence of biased national news media in the election process), then called the state for Bush, then retracted that call as well. The Voter News Service was an organization backed and supported by television networks and the Associated Press to help determine the results of presidential elections as early as possible, through early result tallies and exit polling. The Voter News Service was an consortium whose mission was to provide results for United States Presidential elections, so that individual organizations and networks would not have to do exit polling and vote tallying in parallel. ... The westernmost 16 counties in the state. ... The North American Eastern Standard Time Zone (abbreviated EST) is a geographic region that keeps time by subtracting five hours from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) resulting in UTC-5. ... CST is UTC-6 The Central Standard Time Zone (CST) is a geographic region in the Americas that keeps time by subtracting six hours from UTC (UTC-6). ... Associated Press logo This article concerns the news service. ...


Due to the narrow margin of the original vote count, Florida law mandated a statewide recount. In addition, the Gore campaign requested that the votes in three counties be recounted by hand. Florida state law (F.S. Ch. 102.166) at the time allowed the candidate to request a manual recount by protesting the results of at least three precincts. The county canvassing board then decides whether or not to recount (F.S. Ch. 102.166 Part 4) as well as the method of the recount in those three precincts. If the board discovers an error, they are then authorized to recount the ballots (F.S. Ch. 102.166 Part 5). The canvassing board did not discover any errors in the tabulation process in the initial mandated recount. The Bush campaign sued to prevent additional recounts on the basis that no errors were found in the tabulation method until subjective measures were applied in manual recounts. This case eventually reached the United States Supreme Court, which ruled 5-4 to stop the vote recount, which allowed Florida Secretary of State Katherine Harris, a Republican, to certify the election results. This allowed Florida's electoral votes to be cast for Bush, making him the winner. Seven of the nine Justices agreed that the lack of unified standards in counting votes violated the Constitutional guarantee of equal protection, but five agreed that there was insufficient time to impose a unified standard and that the recounts should therefore be stopped. Bush lost the election. ... Chads are paper particles created when holes are made in a computer punched tape or punch card. ... Katherine Harris Katherine Harris (born April 5, 1957) is an American politician who has been a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since 2003, representing the 13th District of Florida (map). ... Amendment XIV (the Fourteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution is one of the post-Civil War amendments and includes the due process and equal protection clauses (Section 1). ...

Final certified vote for the state of Florida (25 electoral votes)
Presidential Candidate Vote Total Pct Party
George W. Bush (W) 2,912,790 48.850 Republican
Al Gore 2,912,253 48.841 Democratic
Ralph Nader 97,421 1.633 Green
Patrick J. Buchanan 17,412 0.292 Reform
Harry Browne 16,102 0.270 Libertarian
John Hagelin 2,274 0.038 Natural Law/Reform
Howard Phillips 1,378 0.023 Constitution
Other 3,027 0.051 -
Total 5,962,657 100.00
Source: CBS News State Results for Election 2000

George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Albert Arnold Gore Jr. ... The Democratic Party is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Ralph Nader Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American activist lawyer who opposes the power of large corporations and has worked for decades on environmental, consumer rights, and pro-democracy issues. ... This article specifically discusses the national committee of the Green Party in the United States. ... Patrick Buchanan Patrick Joseph Buchanan (born November 2, 1938), usually known as Pat Buchanan, is an American conservative journalist and a well known television political commentator. ... The Reform Party of the United States of America (abbreviated Reform Party USA or RPUSA) is a political party in the United States, founded by Ross Perot in 1995 under the belief that Americans were disillusioned with the state of politics--as being corrupt and unable to deal with vital... Harry Browne Harry Browne (June 17, 1933 - ) is an American free-market Libertarian writer and investment analyst. ... The Libertarian Party is a United States political party created in 1971. ... John Hagelin (June 9, 1954 - ) is a theoretical physicist specializing in superstring theory, a practicioner and teacher of Transcendental Meditation and yogic flying, an electronic designer of high-end audio equpment and was a candidate for President of the United States three times. ... The United States Natural Law Party was a United States political party affiliated with the international Natural Law Party. ... The Reform Party of the United States of America (abbreviated Reform Party USA or RPUSA) is a political party in the United States, founded by Ross Perot in 1995 under the belief that Americans were disillusioned with the state of politics--as being corrupt and unable to deal with vital... Howard Phillips (born February 6, 1941) is an American right-wing political figure who was born in Boston, Massachusetts. ...

Controversy in Florida

Following the election a number of studies have been made of the electoral process in Florida by Democrats, Republicans and other interested parties. A number of flaws and improprieties have been discovered in the process. Controversies included:

  • The television news media called the state for Al Gore around 7:48pm EST, while voters in the western panhandle (which is in the Central Time Zone) of the state were still voting, potentially suppressing the (heavily Republican) panhandle vote. The media also announced polls were closed in Florida while polls in CST were open. A survey estimate by John McLaughlin & Associates put the number of voters who did not vote due to confusion as high as 15,000. This region of the state traditionally voted mostly Republican. The McLaughlin survey estimates the media announcements of closed polls and a Gore victory cost Bush a margin of 5,000 votes. Some sources say that Bush would have won by a much larger victory margin and the controversy would have been avoided if the networks had waited to call the state. Some even say that the projection may have caused some voters in other states to not vote, believing Gore elected. But there is no known corroborative evidence of any widespread or localized disenfranchisement as speculated by these sources.
  • Jeb Bush, the brother of George W. Bush, was governor of Florida, leading some Gore advocates to make various allegations of impropriety, especially due to their joint campaigning for the Republican vote in Florida and Jeb Bush's assurances to George W. Bush that the Republicans could win Florida. However, it is typical for sitting governors to strongly campaign on behalf of the candidate with the same party affiliation. Some democracy advocates have taken offense at his request for the removal of Florida election officials explaining voting/recount law on TV.
  • The actions of the Florida Secretary of State, Katherine Harris, who was in charge of state election procedures, also came under fire, due to her status as a Bush state campaign co-chairwoman, her involvement with the "scrub list", and her behavior during the recount crisis. In particular democracy advocates have taken issue with her antagonizing of Democratic lawyers, dispatching of a lawyer to Palm Beach county to convince the voting board of voting down a manual recount (despite thousands of protesters within the county including 12,000 with affidavits), and in particular her collaboration with Republican party advisers (at one point housing them).
  • There were a number of overseas ballots missing postmarks or filled out in such a way that they were invalid under Florida law. A poll worker filled out the missing information on some hundred of these ballots. The Democrats moved to have all overseas ballots thrown out because of this. These disputes added to the mass of litigation between parties to influence the counting of ballots. The largest group of disputed overseas ballots were military ballots, which the Republicans argued to have accepted.
  • Some 179,855 ballots were not counted in the official tally. These were ballots which were mistakenly filled out, however, in some counties the voting machines (Accuvotes) would return the ballot and allow voters to try again, whereas in other counties the reject mechanisms were not enabled, thus giving voters only one chance to mark the ballot correctly. As a general trend, reject mechanisms were disabled disproportionately in counties with Democratic Party county leadership and African American and Hispanic populations.
  • 57,746 citizens were listed as felons on a "scrub list" and removed from the voting rolls, but later analysis showed that many of these potential voters were incorrectly listed. (For instance, many had names similar to actual felons, and some erroneously listed felonies were dated years in the future.[4]) These persons were disproportionately Democrats of African-American and Hispanic descent. In some cases, those on the scrub list were given several months to appeal, and many successfully reregistered and were allowed to vote. However, in most cases no effort was made to contact them before the election.
  • People like Washington County Elections Chief Carol Griffen (1 p.25), have argued that Florida was in violation of the National Voter Registration Act of 1993 by requiring those convicted of felonies in other states (and subsequently restored their rights by said states), to request clemency and a restoration of their rights, from Governor Bush, in a process which might take two years and ultimately was left to Bush's discretion. One should note Schlenther v. Florida Department of State (June 1998) which ruled that Florida could not prevent a man convicted of a felony in Connecticut, where his civil rights had not been lost, from exercising his civil rights.
  • A full cousin of George W. Bush, John Prescott Ellis, was analyzing data from the Voter News Service for Fox News and had several times contact by telephone with both George and Jeb Bush that night. It was his decision to call Florida for Bush, with Fox being the first network to do so. However, Fox had also incorrectly called the state for Gore before the polls had closed, like the other networks, and retracted around the same time they did which was at around 10pm that evening. Fox only called the state for Bush at 2:16am, shortly after the famous Volusia error was introduced. This error took 16,022 votes away from Gore and added those votes and more to Bush, producing more total votes in the precinct than there were registered voters. The other major networks announced the same totals within minutes. The error was corrected quickly and the calls retracted one by one.
  • Xavier Suarez, who was ousted as mayor of Miami in 1998 on charges of absentee voter fraud, was later elected to the Executive Committee of the Miami-Dade GOP party. Suarez helped fill out absentee ballot forms and enlist Republican absentee voters in Miami-Dade County for the 2000 presidential election. “Dade County Republicans have a very specific expertise in getting out absentee ballots,” Suarez is claimed to have remarked. “I obviously have specific experience in this myself.” [5]
  • However, the great irony in the election in Florida was that the automatic recount required by state law (perhaps the only undisputed aspect of the election) was never carried out in several counties.
The "butterfly ballot", as seen by the voter, at an oblique angle.
The "butterfly ballot", as seen by the voter, at an oblique angle.

John Ellis Jeb Bush (born February 11, 1953), a Republican, is the forty-third and current Governor of Florida. ... Katherine Harris Katherine Harris (born April 5, 1957) is an American politician who has been a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since 2003, representing the 13th District of Florida (map). ... The Florida Central Voter File is a list of legally eligible voters for the state of Florida, in the United States. ... This article is about the postal marking. ... A voting machine is a device to record and register votes to be counted as per any voting system, with or without printing a ballot for the voter to verify. ... Originally, in continental Europe, a county was the land under the jurisdiction of a count. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black), is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Hispanic, as used in the United States, is one of several terms used to categorize US citizens, permanent residents and temporary immigrants, whose background hail either from the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America or relating to a Spanish-speaking culture. ... The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, or NAACP, is one of the oldest and most influential civil rights organizations in the United States. ... The United States Voting Rights Act of 1965 outlawed requiring would-be voters to take literacy tests and provided for federal registration of African American voters in areas that had less than 50% of eligible voters registered. ... The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Amendment XIV (the Fourteenth Amendment) of the United States Constitution is one of the post-Civil War amendments and includes the due process and equal protection clauses (Section 1). ... The Florida Central Voter File is a list of legally eligible voters for the state of Florida, in the United States. ... Washington County is a county located in the state of Florida. ... The Best Democracy Money Can Buy (ISBN 0452283914, Penguin Plume USA) is a 2002 book written by left-wing investigative journalist Greg Palast. ... The National Voter Registration Act of 1993, commonly known as Motor Voter, was signed into effect by President Clinton on May 20, 1993. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 48th 14,371 km² 113 km 177 km 12. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... John Prescott Ellis is an American journalist and media consultant. ... The Voter News Service was an consortium whose mission was to provide results for United States Presidential elections, so that individual organizations and networks would not have to do exit polling and vote tallying in parallel. ... Fox News Channels slogan is We Report, You Decide The Fox News Channel is a U.S. cable and satellite news channel. ... The Volusia error is an example of the problems with electronic voting from the 2000 US Presidential election. ... Xavier Suarez was the mayor of Miami, Florida. ... This article is about the city in Florida. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... This article is about the modern United States Republican Party. ... Image File history File links Perspective view of the infamous Florida butterfly ballot, reconstructed in 3-D from reproduction in Florida newspaper, to show how hard it is to identify which hole links to which name in real life, rather than the flat, shot from above way it is usually... Image File history File links Perspective view of the infamous Florida butterfly ballot, reconstructed in 3-D from reproduction in Florida newspaper, to show how hard it is to identify which hole links to which name in real life, rather than the flat, shot from above way it is usually...

Palm Beach County's butterfly ballots

The result of the Florida U.S. Presidential race was so close that one Florida county's hard-to-use ballot may have decided the presidency. Critics argue that some voters in Palm Beach County might have accidentally voted for Reform Party candidate Pat Buchanan, when they thought they were voting for Al Gore, on a so-called "butterfly ballot". The Democrats are listed second in the left-hand column; but punching a hole in the second circle actually cast a vote for Buchanan, first listing in the right-hand column. Voters who punched this second hole would have ignored a prominent arrow on the ballot showing which hole was to be punched, because the design of the ballot neglected the effects of parallax due to the center row of holes being in a different plane from the two columns of printed names, and the ballot being viewed at an oblique angle.[6]. Palm Beach County is a county located in the state of Florida. ... Parallax (Greek: παραλλαγή (parallagé) = alteration) is the change of angular position of two stationary points relative to each other as seen by an observer, due to the motion of an observer. ...


The Palm Beach Post's review of the discarded ballots showed that 5,330 votes were cast for the presumably rare cross-party combination of Gore and Buchanan, compared with only 1,631 for the equivalent cross-party combination of Bush and Buchanan. In response, others point out that the ballot was designed by a Democrat, Theresa LePore (who stated that she was basically unaffiliated and registered as a Democrat only because the county had historically chosen Democrats for her position), and approved by representatives of both major parties. But neither of these responses go to the issue of whether the ballot may have inadvertently cost Gore the election. Theresa LePore butterfly ballot from Palm Beach, 2000 election Theresa LePore is the former elections supervisor for Palm Beach County, Florida. ...


Buchanan said on The Today Show, November 9, 2000: Today (commonly referred to as The Today Show) is a morning news and talk show airing on the NBC television network in the United States. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... This article is about the year 2000. ...

When I took one look at that ballot on Election Night ... it's very easy for me to see how someone could have voted for me in the belief they voted for Al Gore.

Although Bush spokesman Ari Fleischer said on November 9, 2000, "Palm Beach County is a Pat Buchanan stronghold and that's why Pat Buchanan received 3,407 votes there", Buchanan's Florida coordinator, Jim McConnell, responded, "That's nonsense", and Jim Cunningham, chairman of the executive committee of Palm Beach County's Reform Party, responded, "I don't think so. Not from where I'm sitting and what I'm looking at." Cunningham estimated the number of Buchanan supporters in Palm Beach County to be between 400 and 500. Asked how many votes he would guess Buchanan legitimately received in Palm Beach County, he said, "I think 1,000 would be generous. Do I believe that these people inadvertently cast their votes for Pat Buchanan? Yes, I do. We have to believe that based on the vote totals elsewhere." Ari Fleischer conducts a White House press conference Lawrence Ari Fleischer (born October 13, 1960) was the press secretary for U.S. President George W. Bush from January 2001 to July 2003. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 52 days remaining. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... James Cunningham is the name of several individuals: James Dolan Cunningham, Labour MP in the United Kingdom. ...


The Florida Ballot Project recounts

The National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago, sponsored by a consortium of major U.S. news organizations, conducted a Florida Ballot Project comprehensive review of all ballots uncounted (by machine) in the Florida 2000 presidential election, both undervotes and overvotes, with the main research aim being to report how different ballot layouts correlate with voter mistakes. Its findings were reported by the media during the week after November 12, 2001. The University of Chicago is a private research university located primarily in the Hyde Park neigborhood of Chicago, Illinois. ... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ...


Although the NORC study was not primarily intended as a determination of which candidate "really won", analysis of the results, given the hand counting of machine-uncountable ballots due to various types of voter error indicated that they would lead to differing results, reported in the newspapers which funded the recount, such as The Miami Herald (The Miami Herald Report: Democracy Held Hostage) or the Washington Post [7]. The Miami Herald is a daily newspaper owned by Knight Ridder. ... ...

Candidate Outcomes Based on Potential Recounts in Florida Presidential Election 2000
(outcome of one particular study; not representative of all studies)
Review Method Winner
Review of All Ballots Statewide (never undertaken)  
•  Standard as set by each county Canvassing Board during their survey Gore by 171
•  Fully punched chads and limited marks on optical ballots Gore by 115
•  Any dimples or optical mark Gore by 107
•  One corner of chad detached or optical mark Gore by 60
Review of Limited Sets of Ballots (initiated but not completed)  
•  Gore request for recounts of all ballots in Broward, Miami-Dade, Palm Beach and Volusia counties Bush by 225
•  Florida Supreme Court of all undervotes statewide Bush by 430
•  Florida Supreme Court as being implemented by the counties, some of whom refused and some counted overvotes as well as undervotes Bush by 493
Certified Result (official final count)  
•  Recounts included from Volusia and Broward only Bush by 537

Response to the problems

Electronic voting

Since the Presidential Election was so close and hotly contested in Florida, the U.S. Government and state governments pushed for election reform to be prepared by the 2004 U.S. Presidential Election. Many of Florida's year 2000 election night problems stemmed from voting machine issues like rejected ballots, "hanging chads", and the possibly confusing "butterfly ballot". An opportunistic solution to these problems was assumed to be the installation of modern electronic voting machines. Election reform is a process for attempting to ensure more fair elections. ... Presidential election results map. ... Electronic voting machine used in all Brazilian elections and plebiscites. ...


Electronic voting was initially touted by many as a panacea for the ills faced during the 2000 election. In years following, such machines were questioned for a lack of a redundant paper trail, less than ideal security standards, and low tolerance for software or hardware problems. The U.S. Presidential Election of 2000 spurred the debate about election and voting reform, but it did not end it. See Electronic voting: problems. The universal panacea (PAN-ah-see-ah), one of the goals sought by many alchemists, was a remedy that would cure all diseases and prolong life indefinitely. ... Electronic voting machine used in all Brazilian elections and plebiscites. ...

Exit polling and declaration of vote winners

The Voter News Service's reputation was badly tarnished by its treatment of Florida's presidential vote in 2000. Calling the state as a win for Gore 12 minutes before polls closed in Florida's central time zone may have affected the vote results, and inconsistent polling results caused the VNS to change its call twice, first from Gore to Bush, and then to "too close to call". An attempt by VNS to use computer tallying during the 2002 congressional election was a failure, and the VNS disbanded. The Voter News Service was an consortium whose mission was to provide results for United States Presidential elections, so that individual organizations and networks would not have to do exit polling and vote tallying in parallel. ...


Media post-electoral studies/recounts

After the election, USA Today, The Miami Herald, and Knight Ridder commissioned accounting firm BDO Seidman to count undervotes, that is, ballots which did not register any vote when counted by machine. BDO Seidman's results, reported in USA Today [8], show that under the strictest standard, where only a cleanly punched ballot with a fully removed chad was counted, Gore won by three votes. Under all other standards, Bush won, with Bush's margin increasing as looser standards were used. The standards considered by BDO Seidman were: USA Today is a national American newspaper published by the Gannett Corporation. ... The Miami Herald is a daily newspaper owned by Knight Ridder. ... Partial list of newspapers The following is a partial list of newspapers owned by Knight Ridder: Contra Costa Times Detroit Free Press Kansas City Star The Miami Herald Philadelphia Inquirer Saint Paul Pioneer Press San Jose Mercury News The State External link Knight Ridder corporate website Categories: Companies traded on...

  • Lenient standard. Any alteration in a chad, ranging from a dimple to a full punch, counts as a vote. By this standard, Bush won by 1,665 votes.
  • Palm Beach standard. A dimple is counted as a vote if other races on the same ballot show dimples as well. By this standard, Bush won by 884 votes.
  • Two-corner standard. A chad with two or more corners removed is counted as a vote. This is the most common standard in use. By this standard, Bush won by 363 votes.
  • Strict standard. Only a fully removed chad counts as a vote. By this standard, Gore won by 3 votes.

The study remarks that because of the possibility of mistakes, it is difficult to conclude that Gore was surely the winner under the strict standard. It also remarks that there are variations between examiners, and that election officials often did not provide the same number of undervotes as were counted on Election Day. Furthermore, the study did not consider overvotes, ballots which registered more than one vote when counted by machine.


The study also found that undervotes break down into two distinct types, those coming from punch-card using counties, and those coming from optical-scan using counties. Undervotes from punch-card using counties give new votes to candidates in roughly the same proportion as the county's official vote. Furthermore, the number of undervotes correlates with how well the punch-card machines are maintained, and not with factors such as race or socioeconomic status. Undervotes from optical-scan using counties, however, correlate with Democratic votes more than Republican votes. Optical-scan counties were the only places in the study where Gore gained more votes than Bush, 1,036 to 775.


A larger consortium of news organizations, including the USA Today, the Miami Herald, Knight Ridder, the Tampa Tribune, and five other newspapers next conducted a full recount of all ballots, including both undervotes and overvotes. According to their results, under stricter standards for vote counting, Bush won, and under looser standards, Gore won. [9] However, a Gore win was impossible without a recount of overvotes, which he did not request. The Tampa Tribune is one of two major newspapers published in the Tampa Bay area. ...


According to the study, only 3% of the 111,261 overvotes had markings that could be interpreted as a legal vote. According to Anthony Salvado, a political scientist at the University of California, Irvine, who acted as a consultant on the media recount, most of the errors were caused by ballot design, ballot wording, and efforts by voters to choose both a president and a vice-president. For example, 21,188 of the Florida overvotes, or nearly one-fifth of the total, originated from Duval County, where the presidential race was split across two pages. Voters were instructed to "vote every page". Half of the overvotes in Duval County had one presidential candidate marked on each page, making their vote illegal under Florida law. Salvado says that this error alone cost Gore the election. University of California, Irvine The University of California, Irvine is a public, coeducational university situated in suburban Irvine, California. ...


Including overvotes in the above totals for undervotes gives different margins of victory:

  • Lenient standard. Gore by 332 votes.
  • Palm Beach standard. Gore by 242 votes.
  • Two-corner standard. Bush by 407 votes.
  • Strict standard. Bush by 152 votes.

Democrats also blamed third party candidate Ralph Nader for taking the election away from Gore. Some say had Nader not run, Gore would have won both New Hampshire and Florida and won the election with 296 electoral votes. (He only needed one of the two to win) However, it is worth noting that approximately 8 million Democrats voted for Bush. Ralph Nader Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American activist lawyer who opposes the power of large corporations and has worked for decades on environmental, consumer rights, and pro-democracy issues. ... Official language(s) English Capital Concord Largest city Manchester Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 46th 24,239 km² 110 km 305 km 3. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 22nd 170,451 km² 260 km 800 km 17. ...


In 2003, US citizens living in the state of Florida were asked who they voted for in the 2000 Election as part of the Statistical Abstract Census. The results showed President Bush receiving more than 1000 votes more than former Vice President Gore. However this result was badly tarnished when it was discovered that the man responsible for this census had links to the original Bush campaign in 2000. 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 22nd 170,451 km² 260 km 800 km 17. ...

Diagrams from The New York Times supporting its claim that a full state-wide recount under every scenario would have gone to Gore.
Diagrams from The New York Times supporting its claim that a full state-wide recount under every scenario would have gone to Gore.

Image File history File links Nytimes. ... The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City by Arthur O. Sulzberger Jr. ...

See also

United States Presidential Elections

1789–1844: 1789 | 1792 | 1796 | 1800 | 1804 | 1808 | 1812 | 1816 | 1820 | 1824 | 1828 | 1832 | 1836 | 1840 | 1844
1848–1904: 1848 | 1852 | 1856 | 1860 | 1864 | 1868 | 1872 | 1876 | 1880 | 1884 | 1888 | 1892 | 1896 | 1900 | 1904
1908–1964: 1908 | 1912 | 1916 | 1920 | 1924 | 1928 | 1932 | 1936 | 1940 | 1944 | 1948 | 1952 | 1956 | 1960 | 1964
1968–2008: 1968 | 1972 | 1976 | 1980 | 1984 | 1988 | 1992 | 1996 | 2000 | 2004 | future: 2008
As with all American elections Canadians paid much attention to the 2000 presidential election; however, Canada paid less attention compared to other years. ... Republican hold in light red, Republican pickup in dark red, Democratic hold in light blue, Democratic pickup in dark blue. ... This article is about the 2000 presidential campaign of George W. Bush, now the incumbent President of the United States, winner of the 2000 presidential election and re-elected in the 2004 election. ... This article is about the 2000 campaign of Vice President Al Gore. ... // The George H. W. Bush Administration Republican President Ronald Reagans vice-president George H. W. Bush ascended to the presidency, handily defeating Democratic Massachusetts governor Michael Dukakis in the 1988 election. ... United States presidential elections determine who serves as President and Vice President of the United States for four-year terms, starting on Inauguration Day (January 20th of the year after the election). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state The U.S. presidential election of 1792 was the second presidential election in the United States, and the first in which each of the original 13 states appointed electors (in addition to newly added states Kentucky and Vermont). ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state The U.S. presidential election of 1804 was the first presidential election conducted following the ratification of the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution. ... The election of 1808 was the first of only two cases where a new President would be elected, but the Vice Presidency remained in the same hands. ... Summary Taking place in the shadow of the War of 1812, the election of 1812 featured an intriguing competition between incumbent President James Madison and the nephew of his former Vice President, DeWitt Clinton (uncle George Clinton had died in office). ... Summary As Secretary of State under James Madison, James Monroe was seen by many as pre-ordained to succeed him into the presidency. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Summary President James Polk, having achieved virtually all of his objectives in one term and suffering from declining health that would take his life less than four months after leaving office, chose not to seek re-election. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Summary Keeping a promise made during the 1876 campaign, incumbent President Rutherford Hayes did not seek re-election. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Summary The election was held on November 6, 1900. ... Summary The election was held on November 8, 1904. ... Major party conventions The 1908 Republican Convention was held in Chicago from 16 June to 19 June. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Electoral College results In 1916, Europe was embroiled in World War I. American sentiment leaned towards the Allied Powers due to the occupation of parts of France and Belgium by the German Empire, but most American voters wanted to avoid involvement in the war, and preferred a policy of strict... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Introduction Incumbent President Coolidge was relatively popular, and the economy was booming. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The election was held on November 8, 1988. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... Presidential election results map. ... Presidential electoral votes by state The U.S. presidential election of 2008 is scheduled to occur on November 4, 2008. ...

References

Books
Papers

Vincent Bugliosi (born August 18, 1934) is an attorney and author. ... The Betrayal of America is a book by Vincent Bugliosi (Thunders Mouth Press, 2001, ISBN 156025355X), arguing that the U.S. Supreme Courts December 12, 2000 5‑4 decision in Bush v. ... Alan Morton Dershowitz (born September 1, 1938) is an American political figure and criminal law professor at Harvard Law School. ... Greg Palast is a New York Times-bestselling author and a journalist for the British Broadcasting Corporation as well as the British newspaper The Observer. ... The Best Democracy Money Can Buy (ISBN 0452283914, Penguin Plume USA) is a 2002 book written by left-wing investigative journalist Greg Palast. ...

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